First of all, it is important to plan the seats on level ground. In the future, this will affect the convenience of watering. Pits or trenches for bushes are made about 0.35 m deep and up to 0.5 m wide. They are thoroughly cleaned from rhizomes of weeds (pouch, birch, etc.). After that, prepare a special mixture, which consists of parts of the fertile layer, organic and mineral fertilizers. This method will protect the roots from the effects of humus. And importantly,Remove the remaining berries from the branches so that rot and other diseases do not develop. To make treatment from pests with biological insecticides (Fitoverm + Green soap). Remove the bottom leaves with signs of disease (various spots). To make preventive decontamination of soil and bushes with biological fungicides (Alirin B + Gamair, Fitosporin, and others). In early September, it is possible to provide trace elements in chelate form per sheet. Of course, that all this does not need to be done simultaneously, because fertilizers with microelements are not combined with bacteria in biological preparations, the latter will simply die. You can, for example, disinfect the soil and the bush at the same time, and in a week give the nutrients to the leaves, combining them with Fitoverm. Lignohumate potash combines perfectly with Fitoverm, and feed and treat pests.
The purpose of such pruning
In the fall, the root system grows well, so seedlings have time to get accustomed to frost, which means that in the spring they will grow well.
How to plant a black currant in the fall
3 Landing pattern
One or two weeks before the intended landing, it is necessary to prepare a landing pit. First, you need to dig a hole 40–45 cm deep and 45–50 cm in diameter. A humus bucket or a mixture of mineral fertilizers — 150 g of superphosphate, 35 g of potassium sulphate and 40 g of wood ash should be placed at the bottom of the depression. Fertilizers need to be mixed with a small amount of land.
Cut out sick shoots and stems growing in the ground.
Then you should make around the bush planted deepening, water them with a bucket of water, it is good to tamp and put mulch around the bush in the form of peat, compost, straw, leaves with a layer up to 10 cm. Depending on the size and type of currant, the distance between the bushes is observed from meter to one and a half.
Black currant is one of the most famous and favorite berries of most people. Possessing excellent taste, it is also extremely beneficial to the body. The level of vitamin C in the berries - one of the highest of all known products containing this vitamin. These berries are used during colds, intestinal diseases, for general prevention of the body. In addition, jams, compotes, jellies and currant jams are favorite dishes of so many people. Everyone knows about its beneficial properties, but not everyone knows when and how to plant it.
How to plant currants
Especially for the project GardenStar.ruVitaly Dekabrev and Marina Rykalina
Make the next year of the remaining kidneys give a strong increase. Powerful shoots also develop from the buried buds into the ground. If you do not comply with these conditions and plant a bush without digging and pruning, then in the end it will look like a small tree, respectively, and the harvest does not have to wait.
- Beginning of September is the time when landing pits should be prepared.
- The division of the bush.
- 4 Video
- When planting a red (as well as black) currant in a seedling, you need to straighten the roots. We recommend planting a young plant obliquely, which contributes to accelerated root formation and improvement of the root system. Then the roots are carefully covered with earth and trampled. After planting, the plant should be poured with a bucket of water and mulch.
- Sanitary pruning done during flowering, those branches that are sick with double-faced.
- Pruning stems, leaving 30-40 cm long,
- Currant loves lighted, open spaces, but partial shading does not hurt it, although this will have an impact on the harvest in the future.
- Optimal conditions for planting all types of currants - autumn.
- : For planting in the autumn, pits are prepared in two or three weeks so that the ground composition can subside.
- Despite its unpretentiousness, this plant will still grow well and fruitfully grate with proper care and good agricultural techniques. The root system of it goes into the depth of half a meter, so the top layer plays a significant role for the power of growth. To date, a variety of varieties of currants are available and avid gardeners are often happy to plant it. This raises many questions about
Black Currant Shrub Care
When we offer you well-developed 2-3 summer saplings, then often after our recommendations not to regret the already well-formed branches and cut everything, most do not listen, referring to the fact that the bush is already an adult, and you can get a harvest from it. Indeed, it is preferable to choose powerful bushes for planting, but the problem is neither in the branches, but in a large volume of the root system. The more powerful the roots, the stronger the new shoots will be, but it is provided that you shorten them.
The size of the landing hole 50H50sm. The top layer of soil selected from the pit is mixed with various fertilizers. We mix 1 bucket of humus, 1 bag (3 liters) of biohumus and 200g of ash. Our soil is sandy, therefore loosening components are not required. If you have a heavy black soil, you can add a little peat, vermiculite and coconut substrate. On acidic soils, increase the dose of ash.
The second method is considered more simple. Since for this you only need to separate from the bush shoots with roots. They need to be planted in the previously prepared land. They dig it up and fertilize it. The ideal option would be organic fertilizer. But many gardeners replace them with ammonium nitrate. Having planted shrubs, they need to be watered very well.
If you still decide to use annual seedlings, then pay attention to their root system. It must be very well developed. If desired, seedlings can be grown on their own, but for this you need to have good knowledge about the reproduction of berry bushes.
A little different should be done when transplanting red currants in the fall. Transplantation must be done exactly when all the leaves fall on the bush. However, it is recommended to transfer to a new place only young plants; old plants will not transfer well.If a black spot is seen on the cut, these are the larvae of the pests. This branch is urgently cut out to the healthy part. All branches affected by larvae are burned.
Pruning black currant bushes
Currant has a high frost resistance, but still it should be protected from late spring frosts, as the fruit buds, which have started growing, can freeze, which will affect the yield reduction.
Shrubs are planted in autumn, usually at the end of October. The main thing is to plant a bush before the onset of frost. If you plant a bush in the fall, then before the onset of spring, the soil around the bush will be compacted, and the seedling will take root well, and with the onset of the first heat it will be intensively grown.
How to plant currants–How to plant currants.
In September, refrain from making organic matter in the tree circles, because the roots are growing vigorously and nourishing the bush, and excessive doses of nitrogen can cause shoots to grow, and this will reduce the hardiness of the bushes, underexposed tops will most likely freeze, the overall yield will be lower. Organics will be refilled in October.
On light soils for deoxidation, it is better to use dolomite flour, in addition to calcium, it has magnesium, the lack of which is always on sandy loams.
Autumn is considered the most suitable time of year for planting black currants. This work must be done a few weeks before the onset of extreme cold. It is best to plant currant bushes in late October, or early November.
Planting red currants in autumn
The choice of the landing site should also be approached responsibly. This plant is moisture-loving, so it will fit wet areas, but it is well protected from drafts. Planting currants in the fall is not allowed to produce in wetlands.
Nothing bad will happen if you plant these landings in spring or autumn. And yet, preferring the autumn planting, you will create favorable conditions currant. Then the soil around the root system will squeeze and well compacted. Due to this, the bush will be able to start healthy growth already in the early spring and get accustomed perfectly. It is also advisable not to forget Pruned currant bushes can be both in spring and autumn. The most important thing is not to leave stumps, a fungus can penetrate them, which penetrates the root, which gradually weakens the bushes and can even lead to death.
In the berries of black currant there are almost no enzymes that destroy ascorbic acid, therefore there is a lot of vitamin C in processed products.
Shrubs will grow well in moist soil. It is very important to choose a windless area. Currants will not grow if you plant it on wetland soil.
How to plant a black currant: landing scheme, tips + video
Tip: Planted black currants need spring or autumn. The most suitable time of year for this is considered to be autumn. In the spring, black currants are planted in those regions where little snow falls in winter.
If your shrub is already old, it is better to cut several cuttings 15-20 cm long with 2-3 internodes with leaves from its branches early in the fall. Plant them obliquely in the open ground and water them.
It is not recommended to prune in spring, during the growing season, as the plant loses a large amount of juice through sections and along with it nutrients.
While the bush does not bear fruit, it is enough to water it, weed and spud it. In the year of fruiting, fertilizing is already required in the form of mineral fertilizers (100 g of superphosphate, 20 g of potassium sulfate and 30 g of urea) and organic fertilizers in the form of chicken manure and manure. 1 kg of manure insist three days in a bucket of water, dilute this mixture with a bucket of water and pour it under the root. All the same is done with chicken droppings, only the water consumption is increased by 2 times.Land in October-NovemberThe best option is medium and heavy loamy soil. Currants are afraid of stagnant water, so good soil drainage should be established.Thoroughly checking the rhizomes of the shrub and cutting off the dry, dead parts, lower it into the hole with a slope of 45 °. The root neck should be just 5-6 cm below the surface. Such planting will affect the development of the plant. Bottom shoots will be quite a lot, additional roots will be stronger, and hence all the currants will grow strong and powerful. The roots themselves will be protected from drying out. Direct placement will shorten the life of the bush. Continuing to follow the tips
How to plant
Black currant needs regular pruning
The distance between the bushes 1.2-1.5 meters
Shrubs with black currant should be planted at a distance of about 70 cm from each other. At the same time the distance between the rows should be about two meters. Shrubs planted under this scheme will bear fruit for many years.
Currant bushes grow very well on fertile or light loamy soils. Currant soil will grow very poorly on wetlands. This applies not only currants, but also raspberries.
Know that you will certainly get a big harvest, and in this case you should learn how to feed currants after harvesting.
Black currant planting scheme
In the event that you plan to harvest for several years, the shrubs can be planted closer to each other. This will help save space on the site. What scheme for planting currants you choose, you still need to carefully monitor the bushes. Their roots should always be wet.
Currant bushes are planted in rows. The distance between them should be about two meters. Shrubs should be planted in pre-prepared pits, the depth of which should be at least 50 cm. At the same time, the diameter of the pit should be about 40 cm. The pit may be larger. In this case, the shrubs will grow better. Planting seedlings is best carried out at a slight angle, leaving several branches underground. Next year you will receive a magnificent bush.
Growing black currants is not so difficult. To cope with this task under the power of each person. But how to plant a black currant?
Black currant in autumn | From experts | Garden Star - information portal| From experts | Garden Star - information portal
Currant is one of those plants that are best planted in the fall. Due to the fact that it begins to wake up from hibernation very early, autumn planting will contribute to the fastest growth. It is important to know how to plant currants.
Mandatory currant watered during the formation of the ovary and pouring of the fruit, in order to avoid their grinding, especially if it coincided with drought. Harvesting, watering continues. And in the dry autumn before the onset of frost, the podzimny watering is done for 3 buckets per bush.Fall asleep 1 bucket of humus,
The area allotted for currant planting is leveled, all hollows are filled up. Further, a spacious hole is dug - 40 cm deep and 60 cm in diameter. The bottom of the pit poured into a bucket of humus and add potash fertilizers of at least 100 g in the form of charcoal.
We straighten the roots in the fossa and fill them with an earthen mixture, gradually shaking the bushes. Such actions will help to consolidate the earth and remove the formed voids. Then pour into a slightly empty pit a half-bucket of water. To keep the moisture, make composting around the additives or cover with sand. With this care on the top layer will not form a crust.
In the fall: be sure to have time to spend it before the severe frosts. The most successful is the second half of September or the first week of October, when there is a strong fall of the leaves.
Currants do not like acidic soils.
The greatest yield of currant is concentrated on the annual growth of two to three summer shoots. The older the branch becomes, the higher the fruition shifts. On the tops, there is a lateral growth where the berries are laid is not so powerful and the yield drops, i.e. 5-6 summer branches lose their productivity. Such branches are annually removed, replacing them with younger ones. The gardener must create conditions that will allow young growth every year, and this is primarily a high level of agricultural technology - watering, thinning the bushes so that they are well lit, removing weak branches, regular feeding, treatment from diseases and pests.
On the site it is better to plant several varieties with different ripening terms. This will allow to have a margin of time for the collection and processing, which summer residents usually do not have.
We offer on the rollers below to get acquainted with the process of planting black currants.Many people prefer to buy saplings of black currant in nurseries. But, they need to be transported very carefully. It is necessary to monitor the condition of their root system, it should be in a humid environment. So that the roots are not damaged during transportation, they need to be wrapped in a dense fabric, previously moistened in a clay mash.
It is necessary adhering to the advice of professionals. The best option is considered 2-year-old seedlings. The length of their roots should be 15-20 cm, while ground shoots should be about 30-40 cm.
The first step is to select and mark the landing site. It is best to plant a currant in several bushes in a row, so it will be achieved better self-pollination. It is necessary to leave a distance of 1-1.5 m between bushes. If you plan to plant several rows, a distance of 2 m should be provided between them. For planting, you should choose seedlings with a well-developed root system and a stem length of at least 40 cm. There should be several plants lignified roots. All dried and damaged parts of the plant must be cut before planting. Currant is planted in the wells with a depth and width of about 40 cm. Compost, ash and mineral fertilizers and manure are placed at the bottom of the pit. After that a sapling is put into it. It is necessary to evenly distribute its roots along the bottom of the pit. Then the plant can be covered with earth, making sure that the stem is tilted at an angle of 30-45 degrees towards the south. When the currant is planted, the stem should be trimmed, leaving a small stump with two or three buds. Then it should be watered, on one bush - a bucket of water. After that, the soil around the plant needs to be mulched with humus, thanks to which it will be protected from erosion. If everything is done correctly, in the spring the currants will start to grow rapidly, but the harvest can only be expected from it in the second or third year.
Plant currants properly
Does black currant need pruning?
Для посадки берут двухлетние саженцы, с корнями 15-20 сантиметров. Побеги должны быть не меньше 30-40 сантиметров. Можно воспользоваться и саженцами-одногодками, но при этом корень у них должен быть достаточно развит.Для этого важно запомнить: смородина не любит кислую почву, засухи и для нее опасны вредители (смородиновый почковый клещ и бабочка-стеклянница). Также, если задаться целью
Although currant loves moisture, you need to avoid wetlands, where the water rises very close to the surface (closer than 1 m). An ideal place for planting will be wet lowlands. It is necessary to take into account
Ideally, an adult bush should have 15 branches.
Cut the currants correctly
Few people know that the larger the black currant berry, the lower the concentration of vitamin C in it. But this does not stop our gardeners and they are still looking for the most large-fruited varieties. For example, Vigorous - the content of vitamin C - 96 mg%, Oryol Serenade - the content of vitamin C - 177 mg%. But this difference is almost twice!
The best time to plant black and other currants is early autumn.Currant is the favorite berry of many people. It is very useful as it is saturated with a large amount of vitamins. Many people prefer to buy it on the market, or in the store. At the same time, few people know that you can grow shrubs with this wonderful berry by yourself.
The usefulness of red currant is difficult to overestimate. It is this fact, and the bright, tart-sour taste that induces the owners of summer cottages and vegetable gardens to grow this shrub in their own plot. This will allow the summer to feast on bright red delicious berries. But for the harvest the plant must be properly planted. And the landing, by the way, is best done in autumn. So, it will be about how to plant red currants in the fall.Pruning is aimed at the formation of the bush, to prevent thickening and to improve the quality of the next crop.
Shorten the roots, leaving 30 cm,
How to plant a currant without violating the terms
When planting black currant, it must be buried by 8-10 cm and placed obliquely in the planting pit.If you plant bushes in springIt is necessary to carry out the planting of black currants in early spring, as it begins to bear fruit before all other berry bushes.1. Planting black currants in spring
How to plant currants, choosing the right place
When choosing a site for planting, consider the fact that currants are light-loving plants. Therefore, it will suit the southern, western-southern areas of your garden, preferably with a slight bias. By the way, it's nice to place a currant bush near the fence, but the main thing is in a well-lit area. As for the type of soil, then for the red currant is better to pick up areas with black soil. But it grows well on gray-forest, sandy and loamy with humus soils.Black currant grows in one place for 15 years. A high-quality and proper pruning contributes to the extension of the fruiting for another few years. This pruning lies in the fact that after three years only 6-8 shoots are left on the bush, from which even more powerful stems and even larger berries will grow.Deepen the bush under the slope of 45 ° and bury,
How to plant currants in the prepared ground
Plant a bush at an angle of 45 ° to the ground level so that the stems are fan-shaped and the lower buds on them are covered with earth. At least 2 buds should remain on the surface.Prolific, it is necessary to adhere to a certain scheme of pruning branches. Cutting off the branches will help not only to increase the number of berries, but also to improve the ventilation and lighting. In addition, it must have good access of pollinating insects. Take care not to overfeed her. All these reasons can be a brake on good fertility of bushes.So that it is safe to hide from strong winds. For this fit the northern or western slopes. Depending on the variety (black or red), the type of soil (fertile, heavy loamy or light) is also taken into account. For black berries, you need to take into account the carbonate composition of the soil.
Thus, every year from the age of 5, 3 old branches can be removed annually, replacing them with new ones. Cutting of old shoots will stimulate the development of new ones that develop from dormant buds.Immediately after planting, water the bushes well, mulch and prune all the shoots, leaving no more than 2-3 buds on each.
Then they very quickly start to grow and no matter how early you plant it, the leaves still bloom faster than the roots take root. In spring, planted bushes are ill for a long time, they develop poorly, especially if the weather is hot.To carry out planting currants can be in several ways:2 Planting black currant in autumn
How to make currant harvest
Transplantation and planting of red currants should be carried out early autumn - in the first two or three weeks of September. If you do this later, the roots of the plant will not harden in the new place, and then the bush will not bear the winter cold.All branches giving a small increase and which are older than three years are subject to pruning under zero. Old shoots are easy to distinguish - they are darker in color.Make hollows around the bush
At what distance to plant currants better
This should be done to form a powerful healthy black currant bush.
Planted currants need to take into account what size the crown will be. If they turn out to be sprawling, then the intervals are up to 2 m. If the seedlings are compact, then the spans between them remain up to 1 m. Excellent results were shown and currant planting in a checkerboard pattern: easy to care for and harvest. Learn, and how to plant red currants in the garden or at the cottage. Knowledge will surely protect you from mistakes.
Preparing for planting seedlings
Blackcurrant prefers moist soils, well-protected from the wind of the place. Soak the seedlings in water for a couple of hours before planting. For planting you will need rotten humus (1 bucket), wood ash (2 cups), water (2 buckets), sand (bucket floor).
Planting time currants in the fall
The beginning of the planting of currant seedlings to a permanent place begins at the end of August, if it is dry and hot, set aside the planting for a couple of weeks. If a rainy autumn, start planting earlier. Until the end of September, you can safely engage in planting black currants. Then look at the weather, if frost is not expected, continue to plant.
In the autumn, the currant should have time to take root, in order to actively grow in early spring. Therefore, if you do not have time to plant or are late with planting, it is better to prikopat sapling horizontally in the ground (this will continue until spring), and plant in the spring.
Choosing a landing site
Currant loves sunny with wet soil areas. When planting several bushes, observe the distance between them when planting at 1.2 m. Currant bushes are able to grow up to 30 years in one place, therefore it is good determinant with a place of constant planting of seedlings. Also, the currant does not like when the groundwater is located closer than 1 m from the soil surface.
The hole for planting seedlings
Currant has surface roots, so when planting, deeply make a hole, there is no need. The optimal size is 40 x 40 cm and the floor of the spade bayonet is sufficient in depth. We pour out humus, sand and ash in each hole. All mixed with the ground and pour 1 bucket of water, leave a hole so that the water is absorbed.
How to plant a currant seedling
When planting, sow a little seedling in the ground (the root neck should be 3-4 cm below the ground level). Planting seedlings produced at an angle of 45 degrees. Sprinkle sapling with earth and pour a bucket of water.
Top soil zamulchirovat grass, hay or covering material. Planting under the slope, the plant quickly forms new shoots from the buds that are underground.
Errors when planting currants
Common mistakes when planting black currants in the fall:
Late landing. If it is not possible to plant the seedlings in time, prikopite them until spring, it will be better,
Drying the soil. Autumn is different, without rain, so make sure that the soil does not dry out under planted seedlings. Young plants need water to settle down in a new place.
Vertical landing. Worse from such a planting will not, but wait for the development of a lush bush need longer. Radical shoots will be poorly formed.
Bad landing site. Avoid planting plants in the shade, with surface groundwater and marshy lowlands.
You can save your favorite variety of currants in several ways. Go
- First method - plant a young bush with already formed roots.
- Second way slightly more intricate - in adult fruit-bearing plants, shoots are cut by a method of cutting.
Both methods are productive for the reproduction of currant bushes on the plot.
Planting dates in the fall
It is difficult to establish the moment of planting shrubs in autumn, because there are no equal dates for different types of regions. Oriented to local climatic conditions, where they will grow currants. Berry plants are planted in the northern regions of Russia at the end of August, in the southern latitudes in October. Main factor defining landing period, this is the weather. Early planting of currant bushes leads to a brisk increase in young shoots, which is impermissible in the autumn season. A late planting and freezing destroy bushes that did not have time to take root. Finish planting a month before the frost. Then the black currant bushes will take root and spring up to growth.
Choosing a bush for planting
To get the right crop, choose the right bushes for planting. It is good to learn about the survival of varieties in this area, yet not every plant goes through those or other climatic, synoptic conditions and soils. After the election of a variety, you need to make a choice: seedlings or petioles. Since the method of petioles is suitable only for warm regions and for the corresponding weather, they prefer planting seedlings.
For rooting planting material elect bushes age 1-2 years. These instances take root in the new place without problems. Annual bushes stand out because the thick roots on them are small, shoots 30 cm long, full of thin roots. A biennial seedling with developed roots has 2-3 semi-woody roots 15-20 cm long. Just such bushes are better accepted and at least a year earlier produce a crop.
Carefully examine the roots of the selected shrub; there should be no broken roots and few damaged root shoots on the seedling. It is not fitting for a sapling to be weakened or unhealthy in appearance. If transportation is expected, or the right time for planting has not come - the roots are wrapped with impermeable raw gauze or a bag, and on top - with a film. Thus, you can save currant feed and not allow the bush to dry out.
As practice shows, among fruit, berry cultures are easy to breed. As for the currant, the bushes are propagated by lignified or green cuttings, layering, grains. These methods have both advantages and disadvantages. For example, propagating currants with the help of grains, it will not be possible to achieve the inheritance of the characteristics of the maternal plant by the young.
Reproduction by cuttings
Quite extensively use the method of multiplying the number of currant bushes with green cuttings. To rooted the cuttings, greenhouses, greenhouses or film shelters will be required. Consider how to plant currant bushes in the fall cuttings.
- Stocking. One-year-old green shoots of currant bushes are used for this method. The stalk is considered ready for planting when it is still elastic, but if you bend the petiole abruptly and with effort, it breaks. Such shoots during the hot weather are harvested in the morning. If the weather is gloomy, then throughout the day. In the course of harvesting, it is taken into account that branches taken from the upper shoots are amenable to survival. Keep such petioles in wet conditions. To do this, wrap the cuttings in a moistened burlap and then place it in a film bag. The petiole is 8-12 centimeters long. They retain 3-4 leaflets. At the same time, in several lower leaves the plate is cut or cut, only the cuttings are retained. The lower cut is done on a green stalk 0.5 cm below the last bud, the top one is higher than the upper bud. Cut shears straight, without heel. Perhaps the use of a pointed knife, so as not to damage the branches of the bush.
- Rooting. In order to make the petioles better, they are joined into small bunches and placed with their lower edges in the solution of the substance that stimulates an increase. To do this, dilute 10 mg of heteroauxin in 1 liter of water. Petioles descend into the solution 2 cm deep. After 12-20 hours, the stalks are removed from the solution and covered with moistened matter. Planted twigs on the same day.
- Landing. Greenhouses and greenhouses for planting cuttings make ahead of time. Ground scrupulously dig up and level. Pure river sand is poured at the top, or sand and peat interfere, the size of this layer is 4 cm. Cut the cuttings with chains, keeping the distance between rows of 7-8 centimeters. Between the petioles in the same row there is a gap of 5 cm. Cuttings in the ground are planted directly, to a depth of 2-2.5 centimeters. Planting cuttings in the ground, plentifully watered using a sprayer.
The early rooting of cuttings depends on their care. It is necessary to maintain high dampness and temperature. For the first 15-20 days, the stalks are sprinkled twice a day, in gloomy weather and in hot one - four times a day. The temperature at night should not fall below 16 degrees, in the daytime - not to exceed 25 degrees. When cuttings already form roots, watering is reduced, and the plants themselves are fed with nitrogen-containing mineral fertilizers. Also hardened sprouts. To do this, at times ventilate the greenhouse, and later remove the shelter. Cuttings, which began, are planted on a permanent plot for the next season. Care for them, weed, loosen the soil, fight against diseases and harmful microbes.
Carry out planting currant seedlings in the fall. Planting in the spring, as a rule, is less safe, because the bushes grow prematurely, rooting becomes more complicated. Planting bushes should have branched roots, strong and fresh stem and no signs of disease. You can not take faded or too dry seedlings. They also carefully monitor the presence of insect larvae and pests on the roots of the bush. When planting, currants dig a hole 40x40 cm. The size of the planting pit depends on the volume of the roots. The roots are placed in the pit, without wringing or wrapping.
On less abundant soils well is recommended to increase. In the pit create a nutrient layer. At the bottom place a mixture of earth with compost. Also used peat or ripened manure. Additionally, wood ash and certain mineral fertilizers are added to the well. Then the pit is filled with fertile soil without fertilizers, the seedling is placed in the right position and finally the hole is filled to the top with soil mixture.
The shrub is determined to a depth of 5 cm more than the one in which the plant grew before. After planting, the sapling is plentifully watered, even if the weather is cloudy. Bottom spaces are mulched with peat, sawdust or compost. A layer of mulch is poured into a thickness of 5-8 centimeters. The plant itself is forbidden to throw. After planting, currant bush cut, retaining 7 cm tall. The plant, shortened in this way, will develop a bushy bush already next season.
Departure after landing
Care for young plants after planting:
in spring, when the earth is just beginning to warm up, young plants are cleared of the soil layer. Currant briskly grows and begins to form a crown.
Useful informationwhich will be useful for beginners and experienced gardeners:
- Currant bushes are located in one area, and not along the borders of a garden or vegetable garden - this will bring generous yields and help the plants to preserve moisture,
- cut currant bushes in spring and autumn - the creation of bushes in the spring after autumn pruning occurs more quickly and more likely
- frost currants cover with a dark film - it creates condensation, even in the winter sun,
- water the plants abundantly only in times of drought, black currant loves water.
The right choice of planting place, preparation of the soil, following the technology of planting, guarantees generous harvests from currant bushes. In this case, the berries will be large and tasty.
The best time for planting in Siberia, the Urals, Moscow region and southern regions
Plant currant bushes worth early autumn or spring. In the northern regions, in the Urals and in Siberia Currant can be planted in the summer (late August), in outskirts of Moscow - the end of September - the beginning of October, in the southern regions disembarking is made later - from 10-15 numbers of October. This allows the plant to adapt to the ground. And at the same time, and adapt to wintering. Yes, and the mother bush is easier to transfer cuttings at rest and approaching winter. But the optimal landing time is September. And for all regions.
Spring planting is carried out on heated ground. It is better to start it at the end of March.. Then the earth is warmed up, and the soil almost never freezes through. Yes, and water the plant is not necessary. But the shoots will not start to grow at high speed. This will give time to the cutting itself (young bush) to take root.
Advantages of autumn planting red and black currants
Of course, the autumn planting is fraught with many risks. But it does provide several advantages over spring sowing.:
- rooting fast
- lack of pests
- good adaptation to the ground
- friendly spring shoots
- active crown formation.
Такие результаты будут лишь тогда, когда соблюдается технология посадки растений в открытый грунт и должный уход после посадки. А главное – выбор подходящего места. Оно должно быть с ветреной стороны укрыто другими кустарниками или ограждением.
Имеется и не очень приятный нюанс при осенней посадке. Это probability of damage to young bushes of red, white and black currants during the winter frosts. But such grief can be helped by covering the plants for the winter with foil.
Choosing the right bush
By the selection of young seedlings should be approached responsibly. Which bush to choose? There are several ways to obtain the desired variety of plants:
- grafting from an old fruiting plant
- purchase of annual bush favorite variety
- independent growing shoots from grafted plants.
Of course, it is better to plant an already proven variety that has got accustomed to the plot. To do this, cut off the young plant from the old plant and plant it in a prepared place.
But if you need to buy a currant bush, then it is worth choosing according to several parameters:
- two or more shoots
- root is stiff with a little nap
- without external signs of disease
- no broken roots or cut parts.
Such a choice is guaranteed to give good yields., rapid growth of the bush, resistance to disease (at least at first).
What should be currant seedlings
Often gardeners prefer to experiment themselves. therefore graft a different variety to the main plant. And then from such a vaccination take escape to form a new young bush. This breeding method is also good. Only shoots need to be taken from those plants that are not sick, excellent fruit. You can cut the sprout after the currant begins to lose leaves. This usually starts by mid-September..
Preparing a landing site
Before making cuttings (cutting off shoots from an old bush), it is necessary to decide on the place of future planting of a young bush. For varieties of black currants, the best place would be an illuminated area that is not obscured by the sun. Not bad pick up a lowland area with good humidity. This will provide several benefits:
- fast development bush
- increased yield
- plentiful bloom without barren
- large fruit.
It is better if the soil is low acid. Yes, and looseness also plays an important role in the rooting of the bush.
Red and white currants prefer bright places, but grow well in a small shade. The main thing - the lack of acidity in the soil. And it is better if such a place is on the dais. Wherein Do not forget that loose soil helps the plant to start new shoots with sufficient speed. And that means, the harvest will not have to wait long.
We fertilize soil for young bushes
For those farmsteads where soils are low in acid, it is sufficient to fertilize with a mineral additive before planting. And after fertilizing slightly loosen. And you can plant prepared cuttings.
And there, where there is a lot of salts and acids, it is necessary to slightly improve the soil. This is done like this:
- topcoat is removed at the landing site at 40-45cm
- mixed mined soil with dolomite flour (0.5 kg per 1 sq. M.)
- falling asleep back to the landing site
- fertilizes mineral supplements.
This will help the plants to start well and actively bear fruit in the second year after planting.
Before planting currants in the ground add mineral fertilizers or compost
Fertilizers to be used should be as natural as possible. Best for all varieties of currant Gumat + 7yod for fruit bushes. True, you need to use it strictly according to the instructions, not exceeding the dose.
Many gardeners prefer to fertilize the soil for planting currants with humus or compost. This will also give excellent results for the plants themselves and their owners. But here it is necessary to fill the humus in the prepared places for a couple of weeks before planting the cuttings. Then the ground has time to settle slightly. And the compost itself is better mixed with the soil.
Sometimes places for planting currant bushes fertilized with potash mixtures. This approach takes time and additional expense. Although for loamy soils such a fertilizer fits perfectly. But on top of the mixtures it is necessary to pour a layer of soil for the calm growth of a young bush.
We plant a plant in the fall in an open ground, the step-by-step guide
First, it is necessary to dig a hole for planting. Next is to determine the type of landing.
If you plant in the traditional waythen the plant in the pit should be positioned so that above the ground it is in an inclined position at an angle of 45 degrees. At the same time, for the black currant after shrinkage of the soil, the root system should deepen by 10 cm. And for red and white - it can be a little less (5 cm). Pruning is required up to 3 buds above the ground.
Scheme of proper planting currant bush
When sprinkling the plant with soil, it is worthwhile to make the lower 3 shoots fall asleep. Then in spring young branches will grow from these buds.
For fan modewhen the plants are hanging on short trellises, the bush is set vertically. The root penetration is the same as in the previous method. But here it is worth tightly tamping a place under a bush. And then the branches should be cut to half.
Trellis way involves pre-trimming before landing. Then it is necessary to remove all pericarp buds and small shoots. Then put it vertically in the ground. But after planting, pruning such a bush is not necessary. Deepening the roots, as in the previous methods.
Proper care of a young bush after planting
Care for a young plant after it is placed in the ground need a little more:
- soil mulching peat, compost or humus (up to 10 cm in depth)
- sprinkling holes sand (so that the crust does not appear on the ground after watering)
- abundant watering warm water (if autumn is dry)
- hilling bushes before frosts (15cm).
In the spring, when the earth is just beginning to warm up, young plants should be freed from a large layer of earth spud for the winter. This will allow the currant to quickly grow and begin to form a crown.
Tips for novice gardeners
Some useful information that will be useful not only for beginners, but also for experienced gardeners:
- currant bushes better place in one placerather than around the perimeter of the plot - it will give abundant yields and help the plants retain the right amount of moisture
- currant bushes can be cut off not only in spring but also in autumn - the formation of bushes in the spring after autumn pruning will be more active and faster
- from the frost on the soil currants better cover with a dark film - it will give good condensate even from the winter sun.
- water plants it is abundantly needed only during the drought period - black currant especially loves water.
Choosing the right place, preparing the soil, adherence to planting technology guarantees abundant harvests from each bush. In this case, the berry will be large and tasty.
Terms of planting black currant in autumn
More favorable conditions for planting black currant - autumn. Planting currants in the autumn should be before the onset of frost, a few weeks. Usually this time falls on the end of September - the beginning of October. If you plant a currant in the fall, the soil by the spring around the roots of the plant is compacted to the necessary extent, and your seedling starts to take root very well, and with the onset of heat it intensively grows. So if you had doubts whether it is possible to plant currants in the fall, I hope they have disappeared from you.
How to plant currants in the fall
The rules of planting currants in the fall are not complicated. Cut before planting cracked, diseased and dried roots to places that are healthy. In the area designated for planting currants, first all the cavities and holes fall asleep. Then you need to dig the soil to the depth of the spade bayonet. The pit for seedlings needs to be prepared in advance; they make it spacious so that the roots can be placed freely: approximately 40 cm in length and 60 cm in width.
The bottom is covered with humus or a not very large layer of organic matter (10 cm) and potash fertilizers (100 g). There is one very important rule of autumn planting of black currant. Shrubs should be planted under an inclination of 45 ° to the surface of the ground, so that the shoots are fan-shaped and that the lower buds are necessarily covered with earth, and two or three buds on each shoot must remain on the surface. This is necessary to create a productive and powerful bush.
Next, you should make the holes around the planted bush, pour one bucket of water on the ground and mulch the soil around the bush with straw, peat or compost with a layer of 5-6 cm. Between the plants there should be a distance of 1-1.5 m - it all depends on the type of currant. Small, compact bushes can be planted at a distance of 1 meter, and lush, spreading - it is better to 1.5 meters.
A good option is to plant currants along the fence, but you need to plant 1 meter back from the fence. Also, black currants can be planted between fruit trees, but the distance from the bush to the tree should not be less than 2 meters.
There are some more important tips for planting black currants in the fall. It is necessary to plant currant bushes on a sufficiently illuminated, preferably open, place, since black currant does not like shade, although partial shadowing does not cause much harm to it, but it will become worse to bear fruit.
The currant has a very high winter-hardiness, however, it should be protected from late frosts, since sudden changes in temperature very often cause freezing of fruit buds, and as a result, the yield is reduced.
Prefers blackcurrant neutral or non-acidic soil and feels great in well-humid places. Moisture is very important for ripening berries. But also for the drainage of the soil you should not forget, it should be sufficient so that water stagnation does not form.
There is another way of growing, it is new and is called the fruit wall. If you decided to plant a black currant in the fall in this way, then plants should be planted at a distance of about 60-70 cm from each other, and there should be a distance of 1.5 m between the rows. The fruit wall method for plant care is very convenient and will allow good harvest from a small plot.
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Currant is a storehouse of vitamins and organic acids. Berry is especially rich in vitamin C. And the cultivation of shrubs does not take much time and effort. How to plant currants in the fall to get a rich harvest? That autumn planting for shrubs are considered the best. In the article we will consider the basic rules of planting currants, the requirements for the site. And also we will reveal a little secret of uninterrupted updating of bushes.
Site selection for planting
In the suburban areas usually cultivated black currants, red and white. The black berry loves slightly shaded places. Red and white need more sunlight. All varieties are moisture-loving, but do not like excessively moist soils. Avoid plots with
- high groundwater storage
- heavy acidic and marshy soils,
- strong winds.
Suitable light fertile loam, sufficiently lit places. For black currants - smooth and gentle, well protected from the wind.
We plant currants in autumn: soil preparation
We prepare the soil two weeks before planting. Main steps:
- we dig up the plot to the depth of the whole shovel, remove the rhizomes of weeds,
- we make manure, potash fertilizers and superphosphate (we give more manure),
- dig again and leave for two weeks.
Directly when landing:
- we make pits with a depth of 30-40 centimeters and approximately the same diameter,
- topsoil - fertile - set aside in one direction, lower - subsoil - in the other (not to be confused),
- the distance between the holes is a meter and a half,
- we mix the fertile soil layer with organic and any mineral fertilizers, we get a filling mixture,
- We fill one third of the volume of the pit with a filling mixture, on top of it is fertile soil.
This is necessary so that the seedlings are not “burned” from the abundance of fertilizers. The rhizome will fall on fertile soil, and there will be no direct contact with fertilizers.
Planting currant seedlings and bushes
Saplings here we call low "sticks" with roots. And in bushes, the aerial part is represented by two or three sprigs.
- remove all diseased roots,
- the above-ground part is shortened to twenty centimeters so, three or four buds are left,
- sick and dry roots also pruned.
- the rhizome should be lignified with several skeletal roots of at least fifteen centimeters in length,
- the above-ground part is two to three twigs-one-year-olds thirty to forty centimeters high.
- we place the seedling in the pit at an angle of 45 degrees (important!),
- unraveling the roots
- we fill them with soil, periodically compacting it, and shaking up the seedling (so that there are no voids between the roots),
- when the rhizome is covered with earth, watering (approximately half a bucket of water),
- we fall asleep the whole hole so that the root neck is buried five to six centimeters,
- make a hole near the sapling, pour another half-bucket of water into it and sprinkle it with dry earth, peat or compost (for mulch).
Planting bushes produced in the same way, just tilt them 45 degrees is not necessary.
In the second half of October, we spud about planted shrubs and warm the tree trunk with compost. After the work done with currants, you can learn how to plant strawberries. The variety of berries on the plot will benefit any gardener.
Annual update of currant bushes
For convenience, we assign only the first number to the planted currant bush. This will be the first shrub. A year has passed.
Over the summer, shoots appeared on the bush. Choose three or four of the healthiest and strongest. We cut off their tops (this procedure stimulates the awakening of sleeping buds). Extreme on the south side of the twig, the most powerful, tilt to the ground and bury so that the top with two buds remained on the surface. We do all this in the fall.
In a year, the first shrub fluffs even more. Weak shoots of the second bush (it is right there, next to the one that was prikopali a year ago) are removed, we cut off the tops of the "old" branches. We find the most powerful "young" branch. We drop it in the already known way.
A year later, having collected a good harvest from the branches of the first bush, we cut off the tops of healthy branches of the second bush. Remove the weak shoots of the third. The most powerful, extreme southern twig we drop.
A year later, having collected a good harvest from the branches of the first and second bush, we cut out the first bush under the root. Remove weak shoots and cut off the tops of the remaining bushes. Again we drift a southern branch.
A year later, we cut out a second bush under the root, and we completely dig out the rhizome of the first one. We make already familiar manipulations.
So our currant bush is constantly updated and gives a good harvest every year.
If you do not start cutting the currants in time, the bush will not give a good harvest, since the fruits are formed on the growths of the branches of the past period.
Dried, damaged and old branches should be processed and cut, which will become an obstacle to the development of new processes. If you constantly care for currants, in the future it will bring decent fruits at the dacha.
In what period of time it is more correct to cut the bushes, and how best to form them? What is the difference between pruning red currant from the black?
Features trimming black currant
The black currant bush grows sprawling and has a large number of branches. Before the gardener is the goal of proper formation of each shrub, so that the bush has 15-20 branches of different ages (from initial germination to 6 years). 6-year-old branches will not give fruit, so they are best pruned.
DATE OF CROP IN CREE IN AUTUMN AND ALL THE NUANS OF ITS CARRYING OUT
To form a bush, start pruning in the first year of currant development, in other words, immediately after planting.
Pruning seedlings during planting a bush
When planting currants pruned tops of shoots. It is necessary to leave 2-3 buds on each branch. There is no need to worry - by the end of the one-year period a young bush is able to produce from 5 to 6 fresh shoots.
Currant trimming scheme
Second year of bush growth
After the first year of the bush's life, zero (fresh) shoots should be cut off, leaving up to 5 strong and good branches. These shoots - the initial branches of the currant. It is worth getting rid of brittle, shaded shoots that prevent the rest to grow. Помимо этого, для получения побегов сбоку в нужном количестве к июлю требуется укоротить молоденькие веточки методом прищипывания их макушек на 2 почки.Such a process will allow to increase small branches (pillows) on the former branches and helps to stimulate the development of fresh shoots from the buds located underground. In this way, two needs are solved: the crop multiplies and the shrub is formed.
Third, fourth year of bush growth
We repeat the process anew: from the fresh processes we leave 3-6 of the most successfully formed ones, we delete all the rest. The main thing is to remove bad shoots and those that are underdeveloped in the center of the bush. They can shade currants and slow down the emergence of new branches. At branches of the last year of development they take off their heads. In second-year processes and branches of the third year, 2-4 buds should be left on all branches. By this period, the currant bush will take shape and grow stronger.
pruning old currant bush, photo
Fifth, sixth and next years of currant growth
At this time, old twigs form in the shrub, and the currants need to be “rejuvenated”, that is, update the pruning.
We remove branches of 5-6 years of age from the ground, along with the shoots that start from the bottom of the old branch (tops), cut off the broken, frozen and over-dried branches.
Next, perform the pruning according to the plan: shorten each branch at the branches of the second to fourth periods of life, 2-4 buds are required to be left, the tops are removed from last year's processes, leave 3-5 of the best ones from the current processes.
Detailed video trimming currant bush
When is the currant bush pruned?
Beginners are advised every year to trim the currants in such terms:
- The best period is the end of autumn, after the fallen leaves.
- In early spring, before the buds open, you can additionally trim, for example, remove all frozen tops and broken branches.
- Branches that have dried, pruned in any period.
- By the middle of the summer they are engaged in a clothespin for the tops of young shoots.
Recommendations for pruning white and red currants
These types of currants, compared with black, are recommended to be formed in early spring or in the summer period after picking berries. Cut the bush should be in the same way as the black currant, but the tops of the growth of last year do not pinch and do not shorten the shoots of the second-year and three-year branches. In the case of red currant, it is only necessary to remove the old branches of 7–8 years of age, broken, frozen and diseased branches, and extra fresh processes.
Former branches, but which can still bear fruit, shorten to the nearest obvious branching from the side. Shoots are stimulated, and the black currant bush becomes more active, the fruits become larger.
Blackcurrant planting scheme
Currants can be planted along the fence, pool, walkway. But we must bear in mind that the distance from the bushes to fruit trees should be at least 2.5 m. When planting in several rows, the distance between rows is 1.5-2 m, and the bushes are planted at a distance of 1-1.25 m (depending from the spreading of their crown).
How to prepare the soil and pits for planting black currant
The plot for currants in the fall is prepared for 20-30 days before planting. Before digging the soil, fertilizers are applied based on 1 m2: humus or compost 3-4 kg, double superphosphate 100-150 g, potassium sulphate 20-30 g. If the soil is acidic, add lime (0.3-0.5 kg per m2 ). After that, they dig up the soil to a depth of 22-25 cm and at the same time choose rhizomes of perennial malicious weeds. Also in the fall and prepare the site for spring planting.
Planting pits or a trench is dug out at a depth of 35-40 cm, width 50-60 cm. At the same time, the top fertile soil layer is poured on one side of the pit, the bottom - on the other. The fertile soil is mixed with fertilizers (humus or compost 8–10 kg, double superphosphate 150–200 g, potassium sulphate 30–40 g) and fill the pit with 2/3 of its volume with this mixture, trying to fill it with a mound.
Black currant: planting and care
This culture is amazing, unpretentious and viable so much that there is an opinion between gardeners that it is impossible to ruin it, currants have always been and are still the sweetest attribute of a Russian manor. However, in pursuit of well-defined goals for the collection of maximum yield, it is necessary to know some of the subtleties of a successful planting and the proper cultivation of this familiar and unique shrub.
Agrotechnika planting currants
Open space and bright sunlight - the best conditions for growing berries. A slight shade of the shrub is also not terrible, but it can affect the taste of the berries - they will be slightly sour. Currant soil has no requirements for soil composition, it can adapt to even the heaviest clay soils, it does not tolerate only close groundwater. Prefers slightly acidic or neutral fertile loams.
Preliminary preparation of a landing hole currants is not required. Having chosen a place for planting, it is leveled, dug up, introduced into humus. Organic is a favorite food for this culture, therefore, if it is present, other fertilizers are not needed for seedlings. If there is no organic fertilizer, soil fertility is increased by adding wood ash, superphosphate and potassium sulphate. It is possible to plant currants both in early spring and in autumn.
The best planting material among experienced gardeners are annual plants. A landing pit with a depth of 0.4 m and a width of 0.5 m is filled with two thirds of the prepared fertile soil and a seedling is laid on it at an angle of 45 °. The root neck should be necessarily covered with earth and located at a depth of 9-10 cm.
Growing buds that are near it on a seedling will germinate and form vertical shoots. In an obliquely planted seedling, all branches are pruned, leaving low peneces with several buds on them. This, barbaric in appearance, mode stimulates the intensive development of roots and branching of the bush. Next, well watered sapling.
Clean soil without weeds is very important for currants. Considering that its roots are superficial and can be damaged when weeding or loosening, the best option to protect against weeds is mulching. Gardeners are increasingly practicing the use in this capacity of a special dark film sold in stores for gardeners. A piece of film with a diameter of 1.0-1.3 m with a hole in the middle for the seedling is fixed around the perimeter, pressing it with pegs or any other material, and for 2-3 years we need no weeding and loosening.
Black Currant Planting Rules
Mulching with a film significantly reduces water consumption, but does not absolutely exclude it. It is necessary to monitor the condition of the soil. When the dry autumn is carried out an impressive podzimny irrigation of 30-50 liters per bush.
A well-fruited currant bush requires periodic annual fertilizing. In the spring, nitrogen fertilizers are needed (80 grams of ammonium nitrate per bush), in the fall potash and phosphate fertilizers (5 kg of humus, 100 grams of ash, 20 grams of superphosphate). If during the growing season the plant lacks nutrition, and this can be seen from the pale leaves, then one or two handfuls of complex fertilizer are added. Just sprinkle fertilizer under the bush irrational. In order not to damage the roots, with a pointed stake they make an inclined opening 0.4 m long under the bush, pour fertilizer into it and cover it with earth. Subsequently, this place is poured with water, and the roots are guaranteed food.
Cherenko breeding begins with the procurement of cuttings. They are cut in September or October from strong one to two-year shoots. The optimal parameters of the cuttings - length 0.2-0.25 m, diameter up to 1 cm, the presence of 5-6 buds on each. In early October, they are placed in containers with soil at an angle of 60 °, leaving a small segment of the cutting with 2 buds. It is better to store them in the winter in a cold cellar. Spring cuttings planted. Over the summer, they must settle down, develop the root system and form several first-order branches. The survival rate of the cuttings is very high and in the next season second-order shoots will appear.
Reproduction by layering
Not difficult and the procedure for propagation of culture horizontal otvodkom. In early spring or in winter, a lateral shoot, bent down to the ground, is arranged in the prepared groove, fixed with a slingshot and covered with earth. The free end of the shoot is cut off at a short distance from the ground, there must be 2-3 buds on the stumps. During the summer season, many new shoots and a root system are formed from the buried part of the branch, and in a year it is ready to be transplanted to a prepared place.
Black currant pruning
The annual pruning of currants is a necessary procedure, pursuing such goals as replacing aging branches with zero and thinning the bush. You can perform it in early spring before the plant begins to grow, or in late autumn after the foliage is dropped. To be deleted:
- dry branches and pests,
- branches bearing fruit 4-5 years. They are replaced by annual shoots
- weak and poor-quality shoots that create excessive thickening of the bush,
- the tops of the young main branches, which shorten for lateral branching,
- unproductive, drooping or external and dead branches.
To stimulate good fruiting of currants, the bush is constantly rejuvenated, cutting 3-5-year-old shoots at the very base, as close as possible to the ground, leaving no more than 15 branches along with annual replacement shoots. Regular pruning contributes to the formation of larger berries, reducing diseases and removing their pathogens.
Thus, following the rules of planting and care, it is easy to achieve good yields of black currant. Subject to the laws of the species, the berries will be great fruit for 8-10 years. Anti-aging pruning will extend this period by another 3-4 years. But the bushes over the age of 15 years is impractical to keep on the site. They are uprooted, making room for new seedlings.
When currants are planted: in autumn or spring
Traditionally, all types of shrubs involve planting at a permanent place of cultivation in the spring or autumn. However, taking into account the peculiarities of currant vegetation, experienced gardeners recommend carrying out this procedure in the autumn period. Currant buds wake up in the spring very early, when the ground in most regions has not yet thawed or has not warmed to the right temperature.
A plant with budding buds does not take root well, especially if the spring is warm and with a little rain.
Pros and cons of autumn planting
Planting currants in the fall has obvious advantages:
- The ability to more rationally plan the site and replace unproductive copies of fruit bushes.
- A wide choice of seedlings with an open root system, which makes it possible to evaluate their quality.
- Prostate care after planting. Autumnal coolness promotes good survival of plants without additional irrigation.
- Shrubs better adapt, since all the forces spend on the development of the root system, rather than on the growth of foliage. At temperatures below + 10 ° C, the roots begin to deepen, which contributes to an increase in plant immunity to adverse weather conditions.
The drawbacks of the autumn planting are the danger of freezing in conditions of a snowless winter or a cold snap and the risk of damage to young roots by rodents. Additional protective measures help to level this danger: soil mulching, shelter organization, installation of deterrent against rodents.
Landing dates by region
The procedure must be carried out 3-4 weeks before the onset of the first frost. Too early planting can cause new shoots to grow and buds to bloom. Part of the future harvest in this case will be lost. Too late planting will lead to the fact that the plant does not have time to take root and die during the cold weather. Depending on the climatic conditions of the regions, the following dates for planting currants are recommended in autumn:
- Moscow, the Moscow region and the middle zone - the beginning of October.
- Leningrad region - the last decade of September.
- Siberia and the Urals - mid-September. In this region, a long, wet spring, so you can postpone the landing.
- The southern regions are the last decade of October or the beginning of November.
Choosing a landing method
It is possible to propagate the currant with green or lignified cuttings, rooting cuttings, seeds. But this method will postpone the first harvest for several years. The choice should be stopped on a sapling at the age of 1–2 years, with no signs of wilting and infection
The best option is to buy a ready seedling, which should have:
- At least 3 succulent skeletal roots with a length of 20 cm or more. Annuals should have a fibrous root system with many small, soft roots. Two-year-old roots are well developed, rigid and elastic.
- At least two strong, semi-lignified shoots.
- Formed buds without signs of active vegetation.
The seedling should not be young shoots with green leaves. It is necessary to refuse copies with dried, damaged or broken branches. If a seedling is purchased with a closed root system, the plant is removed from the tank along with a clod of earth. The soil must be fully entangled.
Planting on one site of different varieties of currants can significantly increase the yield due to cross-pollination of flowers. But you can’t plant red and black currants nearby! The distance between them should be at least 5 m, it is additionally desirable to separate the planting bushes gooseberry.
Currant can be placed on the site in three ways:
- Kustovym. All bushes are planted in one row at the same distance from each other. In this embodiment, bushes can be pulled out along the southern boundary of the site, retreating from the outer edge or fence 2–2.5 m.
- Tape. Under planting allocate square or rectangular area and planted bushes in several rows. In this case, the row spacing is 2.5 m. Bushes are planted in a trench with an inclination in one direction at a distance of 50 cm from each other. With this method of growing in each row is obtained a continuous ribbon of bushes, for which it is convenient to take care of both sides
- Single. On a plot of 2.5 x 2.5 m, one bush is planted in the center. The bush with such planting is as much as possible illuminated by the sun, with proper pruning it grows well-branched and abundantly fruiting.
Site selection and soil preparation
On poor soils grow a luxurious shrub with thick greens, but the berries on it will be small. With a lack of sun, they will remain immature and will not acquire sweets.
To get a juicy, sweet crop, plant currants in a sunny area with a deep (at least 1 m) location of groundwater. Too wet, especially flooded areas in the spring will ruin the root system of the plant. But a currant area too open to the winds will also not work. The plant is afraid of drafts and drying of the root system.
It is impossible to plant currants on the plot with abundant thickets of wheatgrass, as well as the place of raspberry or gooseberry. The novice gardener's guide recommends: the best shrub precursors in the country - perennial legumes, cereals, vegetables and flower crops.
Currants prefer loam, light or medium. Too clayey soil will lead to over-wetting of the root system and restriction of oxygen access to it. The sandy soil is too loose, so the roots in it will dry out and lack nutrients. The plot for 2-3 weeks before planting, they dig up shovels with 2 bayonets, removing rhizomes of old plants
During digging per square meter, 8 kg of humus are introduced, 50 g of superphosphate 30 g of potassium nitrate. If the soil in the area is too acidic, lime or bone meal is added.
The way home after landing and the time before landing is the most crucial moment. Transportation of seedlings must be carried out strictly in an upright position. To avoid drying the roots, they are wrapped in a damp cloth, and then placed in a plastic bag.
If the landing time has not yet come, for storage, the roots are dipped in a clay solution and placed in sawdust, presoaked in water. For disinfection, the root system is soaked for 2-3 hours in the solution of the drug Fitosporin
Before placing the seedling in the soil, dry roots are cut, all leaves are removed.
Technology and landing scheme: step by step instructions
After the preparatory activities proceed directly to the landing of the bushes:
- Plot level, mark the place for digging landing pits. The distance between the bushes is 1.5–2 m for black currants, 2.5–3 m for red ones. The depth of the pits for annual seedlings is 30 cm, for the biennial ones - not less than 45 cm. Compost is placed at the bottom of the landing pits (1/3 of the height), 2 handfuls of wood ash. Then fill the hole to the brim with water and wait until the water is absorbed.
- The seedling is placed in a hole at an angle of 45 degrees, so the bush will grow in breadth. The roots of the seedlings are straightened so that they are located strictly vertically, not intertwining. If the roots are wrapped up, the pit is deepened. Bottom neck of black currant is deepened by 8–10 cm, red - by 5 cm.
This planting will allow the currants to take root during the winter, and in the spring to give shoots from the base of the bush.
- Sapling asleep soil slightly ramming. Вокруг куста на расстоянии 4–5 см от побегов делают углубление шириной 15 см, чтобы вода при поливе не оголила корневую шейку.
После посадки кустик обильно поливают
- После полива поверхность вокруг куста мульчируют торфом, соломой, сухой листвой. Это поможет сохранить влагу в почве.
Ямы под посадку делать заранее нельзя: почва в них осядет и утрамбуется, что негативно скажется на развитии куста.
Immediately after planting it is necessary to begin the formation of a bush. Shoots pruned, leaving 4-5 buds on each. This technique will allow the seedling to build a powerful root system.
If pruning is left in the spring, the roots will be weak, which will adversely affect the fertility of the plant.
Young bushes are regularly watered, preventing the drying of earthen coma. The amount of water for each seedling - 3 buckets. The soil should be moistened to a depth of at least 50 cm. For 2 weeks, the bushes should literally stand in the water. After this time, the amount of watering is reduced. If it rains, stop.
Before the onset of frost, young bushes spud 15 cm in height. In the spring, this layer of soil must be removed, they are not suitable as fertilizer.
Compliance with the recommendations of experienced gardeners for planting currants in the fall ensures quick adaptation of the plant and the first harvest of berries next spring.