Thanks to the efforts of breeders, modern gardeners have a large number of different varieties of cultivated plants. This also applies to sweet cherry. For decades, experts have brought out more and more new varieties of these fruit trees.
The most difficult task in the process of selection of sweet cherries is to achieve an increase in the size of its fruits. Tyutchevka - an example of successful breeding work in this direction.
The appearance of this sort of sweet cherry is the result of the activities of the staff of the Institute of Lupine. This scientific institution was founded in the late 80s of the twentieth century. Despite the fact that the main goal of the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute is the breeding of new varieties of lupine, its employees are also engaged in the selection of berry and fruit crops.
The fruitful work of the scientific staff led to the creation of thirty-five varieties of lupine and fifty-three varieties of fruit and berry plants. Employees of the Institute are also engaged in the selection of sweet cherry. The result of their work is Tyutchev's cherry. This variety was created by the efforts of M.V. Kanshina When it was created, emphasis was placed on disease resistance, the large size of the berries and the possibility of planting in central Russia.
Kanshina Maina Vladimirovna is the best modern Russian breeder who cultivates varieties of cherries suitable for cultivation in non-traditional regions. She brought fourteen new varieties of these fruit-bearing plants.
Tyutchevka tolerates low temperatures and is suitable for cultivation in the Central region. In the State Register of the Russian Federation variety was included in 2001.
The description of this variety will help to get acquainted with the peculiarities of Tyutchevka cherry. So, the trees of this cherry grow quickly and have a rare crown. Their size is medium. Krone - spherical, can be sprawling or semi-sprawling. The tree has straight, thick brown shoots. The buds are medium in size. The vegetative buds are pointed, conical, and the generative ones are ovoid.
Tyutchevka has large, narrow, oval-shaped leaves. They have a very pointed tip and a rounded base. At the edges of the sheet there is a crenate serration. Roughness on the plate are missing. The color of the leaves is dark green.
Sweet cherry possesses four-flowered inflorescences, their petals adjoin. Cups inflorescences narrow glass. The sepals have no serrations. Inflorescences have saucer-shaped corolla.
Tyutchevka fruits, starting with the fifth year. The large size of the fruit is one of the main differences of this variety. The average weight of a sweet cherry is 5.3 grams. But under favorable conditions, fruits can reach a weight of 7.4 grams. Noteworthy are the average sizes of sweet cherries:
- height is twenty two millimeters
- thickness - twenty millimeters.
The fruits have a black and red color. Their flesh is dense, painted red. Juice of cherry red color. To separate the bone from the pulp, you need to make some effort. The average bone weight is 0.31 grams. Cherries are attached to the branches with the help of stem, having an average length. The stem of this variety is rather thick.
Sweet cherries look good, contain a large amount of juice and have a sweet taste. They can be transported over long distances due to good transportability.
Freezing of fruits with their subsequent use is also allowed. However, during high humidity cracking is possible.
The composition of one fruit:
- dry substances - 18%,
- sugar - 11%,
- acid - 0.41%.
100 grams of the product contains 13 milligrams of ascorbic acid.
Fruits ripen late (June-August). Tyutchevka capable of self-pollination, but it is not effective enough. As a result of self-pollination, no more than 6% of fruits may appear. Therefore it is recommended to use pollinators. It should be remembered that the cherry does not pollinate cherries. Such varieties of trees as Revna and Raditsa will suit, for example.
On one tree during the season you can collect up to 16 kilograms of fruit. The average yield per hectare is 97 centners. The maximum yield is much higher and reaches 275 centners per hectare. The tree bears fruit every year.
Cherry has a good resistance to low temperatures and many diseases, however, it can be affected by coccomycosis and cholesterol.
Tyutchevka was bred for the possibility of its landing in the middle lane, which provides for the resistance of the tree to lower temperatures and frost. However, planting cherries in this area has its differences. First of all, it is necessary to avoid planting in the lowlands, where cold air can accumulate, and in places that are characterized by high groundwater levels.
When planting, it is necessary to take into account the fact that acidic soils are not very suitable for sweet cherries. Therefore, it is necessary to plant trees in the soil with an acidity of six and a half to seven. Before landing it is recommended to liming. In the future, this procedure should be repeated with a certain frequency (no more than once for several years).
Tyutchevka must be planted with the arrival of spring. For planting use annual or biennial seedlings. If they were purchased in the fall, they should be placed in the prikop. Under the snow, they will remain until the beginning of spring, when landing is done.
When planting, consider the following:
- To plant seedlings should be at least 4 meters apart.
- Since the efficiency of self-pollination in Tyutchevka is low, it is desirable to plant another variety of sweet cherries near it.
- Damage to the root system can negatively affect the tree. Therefore, it is important to monitor purchased seedlings and try not to damage them during planting.
The landing algorithm is as follows:
- Prepare a pit. The desired diameter is from 70 to 80 cm. Depth is from 50 to 60 cm.
- The top layer of earth, extracted when cooking the pit, mixed with 15 kilograms of manure and 300 grams of wood ash. The layer of earth taken from the bottom of the pit cannot be used for its sleep.
- Sprinkle phosphate and potash fertilizers at the bottom of the planting site. In this case, it is necessary to follow the instructions that are placed on the packages from these fertilizers.
- After that, the pit should be filled with the mixture described above and wait 3-4 weeks.
- After this period, the land will have time to settle, and it will be possible to plant seedlings.
- Planted seedlings should be tied to supports and watered periodically.
Proper planting of cherries is the key to its normal growth and development. The measures described above will provide an opportunity to get a good harvest and preserve the fruitfulness of a woody plant.
Caring for this variety of sweet cherry is not too different from the care of other fruit trees. Young seedlings need to be constantly watered, to loosen the earth around them, to take preventive measures against pests and the development of diseases.
There is one feature in the introduction of nitrogen fertilizers into the soil. The first four years they need to be used only in spring. After this period, fertilizer is carried out as well as in the case of other trees. For ease of harvesting and improving fruiting, the crown of the tree must be thinned out at regular intervals. As for young plants, their growth should be shortened every year.
As mentioned earlier, Tyutchevka sweet cherry variety annually. The only exception is the presence of strong frosts. This may adversely affect the crop, significantly reducing it, or completely destroying it.
Fruiting begins in the fifth year after planting cherries. Tyutchevka reveals all her potential since the tenth year of life.
If during planting the advice given above was taken into account, and the tree was constantly taken care of, the fruiting period can last up to 20 years. This circumstance, as well as the fact that sweet cherries live longer than cherries are significant advantages of Tyutchevka sweet cherries. The following strengths of this variety should also be highlighted:
- Good transportability of fruits, the possibility of their transportation over long distances.
- Resistance to diseases.
- Self-pollination. Although recommended to plant additional varieties of cherries.
- Quite high yields.
- Large, sweet and juicy fruits.
- Resistant to low temperatures. With severe frosts, the crop may die, but the tree will retain the possibility of fruiting in the future.
This variety does not have significant drawbacks. The only significant disadvantage noted by gardeners is the possibility of cracking fruits in conditions of high humidity. However, this circumstance does not greatly affect the harvest, so they do not pay special attention to it.
Resistance to frost and disease, as well as high yields are important integral characteristics of this variety. When planting saplings of sweet cherry is recommended to adhere to certain rules. The greatest care for the tree is needed in the first few years of its growth. With almost no flaws, Tyutchevka has a large number of advantages that make this variety attractive for planting in the zone of the southern non-black earth.
Preparing the soil
When you have picked up the ideal place for growth and development of your beautiful cherry, make preparations for a comfortable soil. Of course, this is not an easy task, but nevertheless, having done such work once, you will then watch the active growth of the tree.
Ideal for the development and growth of sweet loam, a soil with a neutral acid content. The soil must be air and water permeable. Clayey soil, peat and deep sandstones are not suitable for the cultivation of sweet cherries.
Do the preparation of a landing site should be in the fall. The plot is dug up and the land is enriched with compost and manure, with minerals (sodium sulfate and superphosphate). If the soil is acidic, and it can be determined by the plantain growing well on it, then it should be neutralized. To do this, take a pound of chalk or lime per square meter plot, sprinkle the soil with these components and dig.
Sweet cherry varieties Tyutchevka: reviews
Many owners of suburban areas in the middle lane liked the variety. They write that, subject to the rules of landing, further care is simple. It is necessary to water in drought, feed and treat pests, respecting the timing. Everyone liked the taste of Tyutchevka and fruiting. Negative reviews are not available, gardeners are advised to acquire the described sweet cherry.
Characteristics of Tyutchevka fruits
Fruits grow an average weight of about 5.3 grams, the largest are 7.4 g. Description of the berries: they have a wide-round shape, an average funnel and a rounded tip. The berries themselves are of a dark red shade, on which there are hardly noticeable specks. The flesh of the fruit is also red and very dense, the juice is a light red tone. The berries are on a thick stalk. Oval bone, small, difficult to separate from the pulp.
The fruits are well detached from the branch and have excellent transportability. Tyutchevka is a medium-late variety, so the fruits can be collected for 5 years after planting.
How to plant seedlings Tyutchevki in several stages
Step-by-step description of Tyutchevka landing:
- Dig a hole with a circumference of 70–80 cm and a depth of 50–60 cm.
- Mix 15 kg of manure with 300 grams of wood ash and add to the ground, extracted from the top layer while digging the pit. Land from the bottom of the pit can not be used for its sleep.
- Sprinkle phosphate and potash fertilizers on the bottom of the pit. You must adhere to the instructions written on the packaging of these fertilizers.
- Fill the pit, the mixture of which is written in the second paragraph and leave for 3-4 weeks.
- During this time, the land will settle and it will be possible to plant seedlings.
- Seedlings should be tied to a support, and periodically watered.
Tree care activities
The description of caring for cherry is almost the same as caring for other trees. Seedlings often need to be watered, loosen the soil around them, take measures to prevent pests and diseases. When applying nitrogen fertilizers to the soil there is one small pattern. During the first four years, fertilizers are used only in spring.. After this period of time has passed, the fertilizer is carried out as with other trees. That it was convenient to harvest the crown of the tree is thinned with a certain period of time. In young trees, growths are shortened every year.
Tyutchevka fruits every yearThe only exception is the presence of strong frosts, which negatively affect the crop, reducing it, or completely destroying it. If, while planting, all the tips presented above were followed, as well as ongoing tree care, then it can please you with fruits for up to 20 years. Tyutchevka lives much longer than cherry, this is its main advantage.
Perhaps the only downside is that fruits can crack in humid conditions. This circumstance has little effect on the harvest, so gardeners do not pay enough attention to it. Responsible tree care is required only the first few years of its growth. Tyutchevka has much more advantages than disadvantages, which is why it is so attractive for planting in the southern Black Soil Region.
History of Tyutchevka
The variety was bred by the famous breeder, doctor of agricultural sciences M.V. Kanshina In the Lupine Research Institute of the city of Bryansk, they were actively engaged in the creation of frost-resistant varieties that are resistant to infection. Kanshina is the author of unique selection species such as Iput, Revna, Tyutchevka and many others. Thanks to her works, cherries have spread their distribution not only in the South of Russia, but also in more severe climatic conditions for the growth of a heat-loving culture. The variety is created by crossing species Red Dense and 3-36. All of the varieties created by scientists are characterized by positive reviews of gardeners and are successfully grown in garden plots.
External characteristic of the variety Tyutchevka
Sweet cherry varieties Tyutchevka middle term fruiting. The tree is small in height, grows up to 3-4 m. The foliage on the branches is not dense, the crown is spherical and neat. The yield is quite high. From one tree on average, you can collect up to 35-40 kg of fruit. The shape of the leaves resembles a boat, oval and elongated, with serrated ends at the edges. Leaflets - not pubescent. The branches are thick, straight, red-brown in color. The stem is short and thick, and it is difficult to separate from the fruit. Therefore, the cherry due to the preservation of the stem is well preserved for a long time.
The color of the cherry is dark red with patches on the pulp. Fruits taste sweet, sour almost not felt. The disadvantage is that at high humidity the fruits can crack, so you should not allow excessive waterlogging.
The shape of the fruit is not wide, large, can reach 7-8 g. The density of the fruit is average, keeping quality is high. Well transported over long distances. Suitable for canning and freezing. The peel on the fruit is thin, delicate, the taste is appreciated highly. It tolerates frosts. Even with strong frostbite branches, shows the ability to recover. It is enough to make sanitary pruning of dead branches in the spring and treat the place of cuts for prevention from diseases. Fungal lesions (monoliosis) are practically impossible. Medium resistance to coccomycosis and kleasterospiosis. The variety is sterile, so pollinators are required. Well combined with Revna, Raditsoy, Iput, Bryansk Pink. Cherries this sort of sweet cherry pollinated badly.
Planting and care for Tyutchevka
For planting the seedling is best to buy a cherry in a tub. So the survival rate will be the highest. Before landing, it is required to carry out preparatory work.
It is advisable to equip a place for a tree in autumn so that it feels comfortable in the first years of life, while it takes root and grows stronger. The site needs a well-sanctified, it is recommended on the south side, where winter drafts do not walk. Places in lowlands where groundwater is close to the soil should be avoided. In such areas, the sweet cherry will weaken and eventually die. The soil should be well drained and fertilized with useful substances. Sour soil for cherries categorically do not fit. If this type of soil is on the site, then liming is required.
Tree planting rules:
- The pit for the seedling should be approximately 1 m in diameter and 0.6-0.8 m in depth.
- First, add a bucket of humus or manure, lime in accordance with the recommendations and 2-3 handfuls of wood ash.
- Before you bury the seedling, you need to dip the roots of the tree in the liquid dirt or clay mash. So the tree will not get burns from fertilizer.
- Typically, sweet cherry seedlings are strong and resistant, but if the need arises, you can dig up a wooden support in the pit. After planting, the seedling will be more stable and will not roll to the side.
The best time for planting seedlings will be early spring, until such time as the plant is not allowed to juice. Можно посадить ранней осенью, если садовый участок находится в южных широтах России. Растение вполне успеет прижиться и подготовиться к зиме.
При недостатке влаги необходим регулярный полив и рыхление. Сорную траву нужно удалять и следить за чистотой приствольного круга. При подготовке к зимнему периоду рекомендуется защитить ствол от лесных жителей. For this purpose, you can use lapnik, burlap or ruberoid. Before you take protective measures, you need to make sure that the stem of the cherry is not rot. Air circulation is necessary.
Despite the fact that the variety is late, the risk of return frost is long-term. Therefore, in order that the buds do not freeze over, it is recommended to use the plant smoke method. To do this, in the evening, bonfires are set up at a short distance or a smoke bomb is set on fire. Steady smoke protects flowering trees from freezing buds.
Council Sprinkling can be used if the tree is not high. Moisture will create a protective barrier against low air temperatures.
Top dressing of a grade Tyutchevka
The first 2-3 years after planting the tree do not need to feed. It will be enough that it was made before landing. Then for 4-5 years, you can apply additional feeding 2-3 times a year. In early spring, the tree needs nitrogenous fertilizers. Fertilize until the buds swell. In the autumn, you can use compost or rotted manure at the rate of 5 kg per 1 sq.m. The sideratny cultures planted in the near-stem circle are very effective. Bean and lupine are particularly well suited. They will feed the cherries all season. Green manure mow and bring in the soil in early autumn. It is good to use fertilizer containing beneficial bacteria. They will enrich the soil with oxygen and help the plant better absorb mineral and organic matter.
Tyutchevka prevention from diseases and pests
During the season requires constant care for the root zone. In this place the tree often lets young shoots, which is comfortable for aphids breeding. Young shoots must be eliminated.
In early spring, before the buds swell and after flowering, preventive treatment with fungicides should be done. Experienced gardeners widely use Bordeaux liquid (1% solution). After harvesting, it is impossible to leave unclean fruits and leaves fallen from the crown. Extra plant parts will be a breeding ground for fungal infections and pests. Leaves and diseased branches are best burned or taken away from the site.
Preparing for the winter young tree is needed. For coating a tree trunk, you can use a mixture of mullein, lime and clay in equal proportions. You can apply a special whitewash for garden trees.
Council If the autumn is dry and moisture is not enough, you can not leave the tree without water. Sapling must be watered with water at the rate of 2-3 buckets per 1 plant.
In order for prophylaxis to be regular, it is necessary to inspect the trunk and trees in time after the snow melt and harvest. Be sure to detect the first signs of the disease need to remove the affected areas and burn. Copper oxychloride can be used for treatment and protection (45 g per 7-8 l of water).
While the young tree is taking root, pruning can be avoided. If the seedling is strong, you can form a crown immediately after planting. To do this, the height of the trunk from the bottom up retreat 50-60 cm and cut the central trunk. Leave 3-4 pieces of skeletal branches, the rest are removed. If you do not prune in time, the tree will grow strongly up, and it will be inconvenient to care for it. In addition, branches that do not carry fruits will take power from the plant, affecting the yield. Pruning should not be done in the fall. This is harmful, because the bark in the winter can crack, the plant gets sick. After prophylactic treatment, the slices must be treated with a special compound. It is not recommended to use the shears. It flattens the branch at the cut points. Cropped branches will heal poorly.
Tyutchevka sweet cherry varieties are positively characterized not only by private gardeners, but also by large industrial farms. The main advantage of the variety is that it tolerates frost well. Elastic fruits perfectly retain their shape and are suitable for industrial cultivation. With proper care of the crop, stable fruiting will be guaranteed every year.
Cherry Tyutchevka: description of the variety
Cherry Tyutchevka bred in the Institute of Lupine - a public institution where breeding work is carried out, fruit and berry crops are studied. The variety was the result of crossing Red seedlings dense and 3-36. Author - M.V. Kanshina. In 2001, the variety Tyutchevka entered into the state register. It is recommended to grow in the Central region.
Tyutchevka variety fruits weighing from 5.3 to 7.4 g, size 22x23 mm. The shape is wide, round, the color is dark red. The pulp is thick, red. Stone oval with a pointed tip. The taste of fruit is estimated at 4.9 points. At high humidity cracking occurs.
How to choose a sapling
Saplings of a grade of Tyutchevka get in the checked centers or nurseries. For planting choose quality plants aged 1-2 years. They are evaluated visually for damage, broken shoots, mold, rot. To determine whether it is really Tyutchevka cherry, before buying in the Moscow region or in another region, it is important to know what kind of leaves it has. In this variety, the leaf plate is oval, with a round base and a sharp tip, held on a short petiole.
Timing and landing scheme
The timing of planting Tyutchevka varieties depends on the climate of the region where it is planned to grow it. In warm climates, a tree is planted after leaf fall, several weeks before the ground freezes. During this time, the sapling adapts to new conditions and will easily endure the winter. If in the region frosts come early, then the landing is postponed until spring. Plants are planted after the snow melts, when the soil warms up and the buds have not yet swelled.
Under the cherries allocate land, remote from the fruit and other trees at least 5 m. The selected location should be well lit by the sun, located on a hill or plain. The culture is planted in groups consisting of 2-4 different varieties. Between saplings leave about 3 m.
Sweet cherry prefers loose fertile soils: sandy or light loamy. In heavy clayey soil, on peatlands and sandstones, the tree develops slowly and may die. Planting work begins with the preparation of a pit with a diameter of 60 cm and a depth of 70 cm. It is filled with a mixture of fertile soil, humus, 200 g of superphosphate and 100 g of potassium sulphate.
The pit is left for 1-2 months for shrinkage, and then proceed to the landing. The remaining earth is poured to form a small hill. A tree is placed on top, its roots are straightened and covered with soil. Sapling plentifully watered, and the soil is mulched with humus. Additional tips on planting cherries are in the video below.
Top dressing and watering
Cherries begin to feed for 2 years after planting. In early spring, the near-stem circle is poured over with slurry with the addition of 1 tbsp. l complex fertilizer. When flowering and ripening of Tyutchevka fruits, 20 g of superphosphate and potassium salt are introduced into the soil. After abundant fruiting, fertilizing with phosphorus and potassium is repeated.
On average, cherries are watered 3 times per season: during the flowering period, when the first fruits ripen and in late autumn before preparing for winter. In a drought, additional moisture is allowed. Be sure to use warm distilled water.
Weeding and loosening
The soil in the hull circle loosen after watering or rain 3 to 6 times per season. As a result, the soil is saturated with oxygen, and the roots better absorb nutrients and moisture. Loosening is combined with the removal of root shoots and weeding, which take away the useful elements from the soil. If the soil is mulched with humus or peat, then loosening is carried out only in spring and autumn.
Due to trimming shtamba and shoots increases the yield and life of the tree. The treatment is carried out in spring or autumn, when the tree is at rest. Begin to form the crown in annual seedlings that have reached a height of 60 cm. At the same time, 6 strong buds are left, from which skeletal branches will grow. In the second year, 3-4 shoots are selected for the lower tier, the remaining branches are cut with a sharp knife. On the conductor emit 3-4 buds for the formation of the next tier, the rest is cut off. In an adult tree, it suffices to remove the root shoots, dry broken and improperly growing shoots.
Tyutychevka cherry pollinators
Tyutchevka has a low level of self-pollination. In the absence of pollinators, no more than 6% of the fruits are tied. To improve the yield helps planting varieties that bloom in one time with the cherry Tyutchevka.
Description of the best cherry pollinators Tyutchevka:
- Odrinka. Medium late variety, brings dark red fruits with dense sweet flesh. Winter-resistant variety, little prone to disease.
- Jealousy. Variety of high winter hardiness, partially self-bearing. Productivity is plentiful, sweet cherry has the average sizes, dense and juicy pulp.
- Annushka. Universal large-fruited variety. The tree is low growth, with willow crown. The harvest ripens for 5 year. Fruits are sweet rounded dark red color.
Diseases and pests of the cherry Tyutchevka
Variety Tyutchevka has immunity to moniliosis. Resistance to coccomycosis and klyasterosporozy average. Fungal diseases spread in cold and rainy weather. Disputes fall on the site along with the soil, poor quality seedlings, garden tools. The beginning of the lesion is evidenced by spots on the leaves, drying of the shoots, premature fall of the fruit. In order to protect the planting from diseases, agrotechnical practices are observed: pruned shoots, in the fall they dig up the soil in the near-stem circle, burn down the fallen leaves.
Sweet cherry can suffer from aphids, moths, weevils, cherry flies. Insects feed on tree sap, leaves and fruits. It is easier to identify aphid, which forms colonies and lives on the back of the leaves. The moth and weevil feed on young buds and ovaries, however, can also damage the fruits. Cherry fly larvae spoil the crop and leaves, forming numerous passages.
Processing cherry Tyutchevka
When signs of disease appear, Tyutchevka varieties are sprayed with Bordeaux mixture, copper oxychloride, HOM or Horus preparations. Insecticides are effective against insects Aktellik, Spark, Nitrafen. Prophylactic treatments are carried out in spring and autumn, when sap flow is slowed down in trees. Chemical preparations used with caution when ripe crop. An alternative is to prepare for spraying the infusion on onion peel or wood ash. So that the agent adheres better to the leaves, soap chips are added to it.
Preparing for winter cherry Tyutchevka
Improving the cold weather helps to increase the winter hardiness of the Tyutchevka variety. In late autumn, the tree is abundantly watered. Moist soil freezes through more slowly and protects the root system. Spud a tree trunk, then perform mulching with compost. Young seedlings cover with burlap and agrofibre, which are attached to the frame. Lap branches are placed on top, in the winter snow is covered with snow. To prevent rodents from damaging the sweet cherry, roofing material or a special mesh is attached to the trunk.
Tyutchev Cherry: Description
The variety was bred at the agricultural nursery of Bryansk. It is obtained by crossing the cherries Red dense and 3-36. It was entered in the register of fruit crops in the Central region in 2001. This is a mid-late species that can grow well not only in this region, but also in the entire central strip of Russia and in the southern regions.
The plant has an average height (3.5-5 m). It grows rapidly, unable to self-fertilize. Therefore it is necessary to pollinate it artificially. His crown is sprawling, shaped like a ball. The hybrid has an average foliage density. The tree begins to bear fruit for 5 years after planting.
Straight and thick branches grow from the main trunk. They are painted in brown tones. Leaves (dark green) are large in size. Their edges are ribbed. Hybrids in small buds. Inflorescences consist of 4 flowers.
On a note! Fruits appear in late June - early July. From each tree can be removed from 20 to 40 kg.
Fruits have a spherical shape, painted in dark red. Inside - dense cartilaginous pulp. Their average weight ranges from 4-5 g. Under favorable conditions, gardeners receive fruits weighing up to 7 g. Berries can crack only in rainy weather.
The yield of Tyutchev cherries during industrial planting is 200-250 centners per hectare.
Novice gardeners often confuse cherries and cherries. Trees are distinguished by bark. In the first species it is painted in gray-brown tones, while in the second it is completely brown with reddish tints. The branches of the cherries are straight, and the seedlings themselves have a great height.
To plant and grow a hybrid, it is necessary to choose the viable specimen for the following characteristics:
- its age should be at least 2-3 years old, it is better to take three-year hybrids,
- the stalk should be 0.8-1 m in length, have up to four healthy shoots,
- purchase a copy with a trace of vaccination on smooth bark, since it is a guarantee that it is grown in a nursery,
- the roots of the seedling must have at least 3 processes 20-40 cm long, in which case the seedlings will take root well on the site,
- on the tree should not be a trace of rot and brittle branches.
If the root system is dried, and its cut is colored brown, to save the sample, put it in a bucket of water for 24 hours. If these measures did not help, you will need to purchase another seedling.
An adult hybrid does not like wind-blown or sunlit places. Therefore, for the Tyutchev cherries, sites are chosen from the south or south-west side, better behind a wall of any structure - it will protect the trees from the wind.
Note: the tree dies from excessive moisture, so it should be planted in places where groundwater is not suitable, for example, on a hillside.
For the seedling is selected loamy soil with neutral acidity. It is forbidden to plant Tyutchev cherries on clay, peat or sandy soils. This will lead to the death of plants.
If the soil in the garden has an increased acidity, to neutralize it, sprinkle the soil with lime (0.5 kg per 1 sq. M). For these purposes, and chalk. After filling the substance, the earth is dug up. If the farmer lives in the southern part of the country, Tyutchev's cherry is better planted in September or in early October (but no later than the 15th of this month). In the middle lane gardener will have to carry out these works in the spring. The best time is April, until the buds are swollen.
The procedure is carried out as follows:
- The pit box is dug no later than a week before planting. Its depth should be 0.5-0.7 m, and the width should be up to 100 cm. The distance between adjacent holes is at least 3-3.5 m, otherwise the trees will come in contact with the canopy and shade each other. It is necessary to drive a peg next to the plant. A seedling will rely on it during growth.
- Fertilizer is applied to the pit. On 1 sapling Tyutchev cherries need 2st. l phosphate, 1 bucket of humus, 1 tbsp. l potassium sulfur. To prevent the roots from burning trees, all substances are covered with a layer of earth.
- After planting, the soil around the seedlings is well compacted, watered with plenty of water, and then mulched with dry grass.
To protect the root system of Tyutchev cherries from the burn, it is straightened and then dipped in a clay mash.
Watering seedlings should be regular
Watering seedlings should be regular, but when it rains, it is better to protect the plants with a film.
The first 3 years to feed the cherry Tyutchev not necessary. When the tree is 4 years old, chicken droppings diluted with water (1:10) are introduced into the soil or rotted manure. On 1 square. m shadow crown on the ground, goes to the bucket of fertilizer. It is necessary to use such dressing no more often than once in 3 years. For Tyutchev's sweet cherry, urea is suitable, which is introduced in the amount of 30 g per 1 sq. M. m shadow of the crown of a tree. This procedure is carried out in the spring, when the weather is warm and it rains.
Note! Trimming for the formation of the crown is not necessary for this hybrid, but sanitary rehabilitation is carried out regularly. To do this, remove the broken and diseased branches, and slice covered with garden pitch.
Hybrids are protected from various diseases with special preparations that destroy fungi and microorganisms. For prevention, it is enough to carry out such work 2 times a year. To protect against pests Tyutchev's cherries are sprayed with a solution of wood ash and soap chips in water. If dangerous insects appear anyway, they are destroyed with the help of special preparations.
For normal fertilization, pollinators are planted next to the seedlings. Suitable hybrids Ovstuzhenka, Raditsa, Bryansk pink, Revna, Lena. If these varieties are planted on the adjacent plot, then the farmer may not worry about pollination - it will occur automatically.
With proper care, sweet cherry will give a good harvest.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
According to the description of sweet cherry Tyutchevka hybrid has the following advantages:
- the tree suffers a sharp drop in temperature to -25 ° C, and the seedling can not be covered,
- if the frost has increased to -35 ° C, only branches with no snow will freeze and become brittle,
- high frost resistance allows the tree to recover easily in spring,
- fruits have good taste and long shelf life,
- You can transport the crop to any distance due to the fact that the skin perfectly protects the fruit from mechanical damage.
The disadvantages of the hybrid are as follows:
- it does not tolerate high humidity and rainy weather,
- из-за переувлажнения плоды на деревьях начинают растрескиваться,
- для оплодотворения растения нужен сторонний опылитель.
Начинающему садоводу для разведения черешни Тютчева надо запастись терпением. Урожай не заставит себя ждать, если будут соблюдаться все рекомендации специалистов по уходу за этой культурой. Неприхотливость черешни Тютчева сделала её популярной не только среди дачников, но и в крупных хозяйствах.
Description of sweet cherry varieties Tyutchevka
Tyutchevka was obtained by crossing sweet cherry varieties 3–36 and Red Dense in the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Lupine (Bryansk). In this institute there is a fruit growing department engaged in the selection of berry bushes and fruit trees. There, at the end of the last century, a new sort of sweet cherry appeared as a result of the work of the breeder M. V. Kanshina. In 2001 Tyutchevka was registered in the State Register of the Russian Federation and recommended for cultivation in the Central region.
Cherry Tyutchevka grows in the form of an average height of a tree with a rare rounded crown. The shoots are thick, durable, brownish in color. The leaves on them are oval, large, without pubescence, located on short petioles. The first fruits appear on the 5th year after planting a tree, full-fledged yields are observed at the age of ten and later. The main fruiting - on the bouquet sprigs. Inflorescences consist of four flowers with long stamens and pistils. This cherry blossoms no earlier than mid-May, and the fruits ripen late: at the very end of July or in August.
The variety is almost self-productive: without pollinators, the crop is insignificant. Pollinators can be any cherry trees, flowering at the same time. The best varieties in this regard are Ovchuzhenka, Raditsa, Iput, Bryansk Rose. In industrial cultivation, the average yield is about 100 c / ha, the maximum registered was 275 c / ha. In private farms, about 2 buckets are collected from a tree, the maximum described is 40 kg.
Normal fruit bearing, as estimated by gardeners, should last about 20 years, which, for obvious reasons, has not yet been confirmed.
The variety is winter-hardy, it easily tolerates frosts up to -25 o C, in the most severe winters in the middle zone (at -35 o C), up to 20% of the kidneys were frozen out. Return frost during flowering with a decrease in temperature to -5 o C kill about 70% of the flowers. Disease resistance is assessed as high, but for diseases such as coccomycosis and nodules is only average.
Tyutychevka Cherry is distinguished by beautiful fruits above average size (about 23 mm in diameter, weight 5–7 g), widely rounded in shape, their color is dark red with specks. The flesh is thick, fleshy, red, the juice of cherries is colored light red. The fruits are on medium-sized stalks. The bone is small, oval in shape, not very well separated from the pulp of the fruit. Fruits come off the stem easily, without loss of juice.
The fruits of Tyutchevka are large, beautiful, ripen fairly amicably
Fruits are sweet (sugar content about 11%, acidity 0.4%), fragrant, tasting score 4.9 points out of 5. Easily transported over long distances, which is valued by cherry growers for sale. For good transportability fruits should be removed from the stalk. In particularly rainy seasons, they are prone to cracking.
The purpose of the harvest is universal. The fruits are used fresh, the excess is frozen, allowed for processing: they prepare jams, compotes, etc.
The advantages and disadvantages of the variety
Tyutchevka is a relatively young variety, although, of course, in 17 years it has already managed to show all its positive qualities and discover some shortcomings. As the main advantages of the variety gardeners say:
- high stable yield,
- spectacular presentation and excellent taste of the fruit,
- good crop transportability,
- unpretentiousness to growing conditions,
- high frost resistance and disease resistance.
Among the relative disadvantages are the cracking of fruits in conditions of high humidity and the need for pollinators.
Variety Tyutchevka designed for the Central region, where any stone fruit crops are trying to plant in the spring: the autumn planting is fraught with the possible freezing of not fully planted seedlings. However, seedlings with a closed root system can be planted in the fall, but late spring or even early summer is much preferable for them.
Spring planting in Tyutchevka in the case of seedlings with bare roots can be carried out in a very limited time. The soil by this time should already be completely thawed, and the buds on the seedling should not be dissolved, they can only swell. The threat of severe frosts at the time of landing must pass. Usually such a situation in the middle lane develops in early or mid-April.
Although Tyutchevka is frost-resistant, in summer, in order to get full-fledged yields of sweet berries, the tree should be well lit by the sun's rays and protected from piercing winds, especially from the north. Well, if there is a gentle southern slope. As fences from the winds, high fences, house walls and even other fruit trees “work” well.
Cherries in the middle lane prefer to plant near the fences, protecting them from the winds
The best soil is breathable sandy loam or loam with a neutral reaction and high nutrient content, in no case swampy or flooded by groundwater. Sometimes a small hillock is specially built for planting cherries, filling up fertile soil. If there is time, and even more so if the site is overgrown with perennial weeds, it is dug up beforehand with the introduction of a small amount of humus (half a bucket per 1 m 2), carefully choosing the rhizomes of the weeds.
Landing pit preparation
It is very difficult to dig holes in the spring, so it should be done in the fall, at any time. The dimensions of the cherry pit are 80–90 cm in length and width, 50–60 cm in depth. 50 cm is enough, but if the soil is heavy, they dig deep, and 10–12 cm of gravel or broken brick are put on the bottom as a drainage layer. The preparation of the landing pit for Tyutchevka does not represent anything unusual: the lower layer is thrown away, and the upper one is mixed with fertilizers and returned to the pit.
Fertilizers when planting are 2 buckets of humus and a pair of good handful wood ash. On poor soils, you can immediately add 100 g of superphosphate, other mineral fertilizers will be needed later for fertilizing. In case of overly acidic soils, add a little chalk or hydrated lime: up to a liter jar. When planting several trees between them leave a distance of at least 4 meters.
In large gardens, sweet cherries are planted in rows, where 3-4 meters are left between the trees.
It is best to take a two-year-old tree as a sapling: three-year-olds take root somewhat worse, and it will take a year longer to harvest from an annual twig. It is important that both the bark and the branches as a whole are healthy and the roots developed and flexible. The planting technique of Tyutchevka cherries is the same as that of most fruit trees.
- If there are damages on the roots of the seedling, they are cut to a healthy place, and then the roots are soaked in water for at least a few hours, and better for a day. Immediately before lowering into the planting hole, the roots are dipped into a talker made up of equal amounts of clay and mullein and sufficient for the consistency of sour cream amount of water. The coating of clay on the roots accelerates the survival of seedlings
- Having removed the necessary amount of soil and pits, they form a hillock in it, next to which a strong stake of sufficient height is driven in (not less than 80 cm above the ground). The count is selected so that it reaches the first side branch of the seedling
- Having set up a seedling on a hillock, they select a height so that its root collar is several centimeters higher than the level of the soil (in the future it should barely look out of the ground). Spreading the roots, gradually cover them with soil, periodically compacting it. The position of the root collar depends on whether the tree will take root and whether it will bear fruit normally.
- Tie a sapling stem to a “eight” stake using a soft rope or a strip of dense polyethylene. Carefully pour out 2–3 buckets of water under the seedling.
- If necessary, add soil, form rollers at the edges of the pit for subsequent watering, sprinkle the seedling a little more and mulch the soil with peat, humus or sawdust in a layer of 2–3 cm. Water is often poured from a bucket, but it is better to use a watering can to make the moisture more uniform.
- Prune a sapling so that the above-ground part meets the ability of the roots to feed it: the height of the two-year-old plant after planting should not exceed 1 m, the length of the side branches is 50 cm.
In the first few weeks after planting, plant a sapling systematically: in dry weather, perhaps in a day. The soil in the wheel should be constantly wet. Good mulch can significantly reduce the frequency of watering.
When the seedling takes root, he needs watering less often. The intensity of irrigation depends on the weather, but you can not overdry the soil during the period of growth of new shoots, as well as during the filling of berries. Mandatory and podzimny irrigation. Up to 10 buckets of water may be required for an adult tree, but it cannot be poured either, especially during the ripening of the crop. Cherry Tyutchevka suffers from excessive moisture, responding to the uncontrolled cracking of fruits, as a result of which the crop may fall sharply. Therefore, if there are heavy rains 2–3 weeks before harvesting, the tree trunk circle should be covered with plastic wrap.
Top dressing begin in the third year after planting. Once every 2-3 years, the cherries are fed with manure or chicken droppings. It is better to give litter in diluted (1:10) form, dry, rotted manure can be shallowly buried around the periphery of the crown. Enough bucket of manure and, accordingly, half a bucket of dung, make them shortly before flowering.
Every year at the very beginning of spring they give nitrogen fertilizing with mineral fertilizers. It is best to use urea (25–30 g per 1m 2 of the barrel circle). If urea is scattered over the frozen soil, when thawed, it will be pulled into the root zone. In case of a later application, the fertilizer should be shallowly ground with a hoe. In August, in the same way, feed the sweet cherry with potassium sulfate (in the same dose) and superphosphate (twice as much). Periodically pristvolny circle sprinkled with a thin layer of wood ash. Weeds around the tree are systematically destroyed throughout his life.
Urea (carbamide) is one of the safest mineral fertilizers
If, when planting, the tree was cut correctly, it will not be necessary to approach it with a secateur for a long time. Cherries growing in a harsh climate generally try not to prune unnecessarily. In spring and autumn, only broken and dried branches are cut out, carefully smearing the wounds with garden pitch. Tyutchevka not prone to thickening, and therefore lightening pruning is rarely carried out. But young growths on adult trees after harvest are slightly shortened annually.
Shelter for the winter require only young trees in the first 2-3 years. After abundant podzimny irrigation, the near-trunk circle is covered with a thick layer of sawdust or peat crumb, and a pine conifer is placed on top. Having hammered in the required number of pegs, the tree itself, together with the crown, is wrapped for the winter with nonwoven material or roofing material. As the appearance of snow throw it into a circle around the trunk, forming a snowdrift.
Young saplings for the winter are transformed into a kind of cocoon, but even a breathing shelter must be removed in time after wintering.
With the arrival of spring, it is necessary not to be late to remove the shelter so that the tree does not fly out!
Mature Tyutchevka trees easily tolerate normal winters, and if the tips of the branches lightly freeze slightly, they quickly recover. In the case of severe frosting, which is extremely rare, dead pieces in the spring should be cut.
Tyutchevka beautifully this year and wintered, and blossomed and tied. Frosting was once, but then I grabbed all the trees, sawed large branches. Recovered quickly.
In recent years, MV Kanshina and A. A. Astakhov, the breeders of the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Lupine near Bryansk, have done a lot of work with cherries. Based on more than 40 of the most durable samples selected by them, they created new varieties. The most severe "exam" for them were two severe winters that followed each other in 1995-1996 and 1996-1997. Withstood the tests of Bryansk Pink, Iput, Tyutchevka.
Chermashnaya, Tyutchevka, Iput, Revna, Astakhova's Favorite ... in terms of winter-hardiness, approximately all of the same level.
Tyutchevka Cherry is considered to be one of the best varieties for the middle band. It combines the excellent quality of fruits and unpretentiousness to the growing conditions, versatility of use and high frost resistance. Tyutchevka deservedly enjoys great popularity among gardeners.