If you believe the popular rumor, havortia is a protective plant, giving positively charged energy to others.
And although superstition, as well as religion, is not shared by all, many flower lovers want to see people from South Africa on their windowsill or desktop, whose sockets attract with their decorative effect.
And no succulent mix can do without the inclusion of different varieties havortiya.
Havortia is a perennial succulent undersized plant from the family Xantororeae. In the wild, it grows in desert regions: the favorite places of culture are sand hills, stony mounds and thickets of vegetation.
The maximum height of the old copy can be 1 m, and at home - 15 cm.
The life cycle of a succulent does not exceed a twenty-year period, during which a small annual increase is noted. In the process of aging, the culture is gradually being replaced by children. The fleshy elongated leaflets forming the rosette are located near the ground. It is extremely rare culture has a pronounced stem.
The covering of a sheet plate of keeled form, having a pointed or rounded tip, can be represented by small growths in the form of warts or thin soft cilia. There are varieties of both monophonic green color, and variegated with brown, red or silver patterns. The thin transparent skin hides the fleshy tissue that serves to create a water reserve. Havortia using sockets capable of forming turfs, densely covering the ground.
Perennial blooms are observed at the end of spring or early summer, when flowers, gathered in a brush, bloom at the ends of thickened, short arrows.
The cylindrical corolla consists of six petals, which grow together at the base.
Flowers, inferior in beauty leaf attractiveness, are presented in two colors: light green and pink shades. In the room environment havortia blooms sometimes.
The genus is represented by a large number of species, and between individual specimens there are significant differences.
Of the 70 known species, many have adapted to domestic growing conditions.
- Havortiya striped (Haworthia fasciata) - does not have a stem, the fleshy constricted leaf plates of a marsh shade form a dense socket. The surface of the leaf is smooth from the upper side, and from the bottom in white outgrowths in the form of pimples. During flowering bloom small flowers in a whisk.
Haworthia Pearl (H. margaritifera) - has dense pointed oval sheets, which are covered with pearl large specks. The edges of the foliage framed with thorns. The inflorescences in the form of brushes consist of flowers of green tone. After flowering occurs the death of the outlet, in place of which the children develop. In the literature there is its second name - havortia pearl-bearing.
Haworthia Reinwardt (H. reinwаrdtii) - succulent up to 15 cm high, not having a rosette. Pointed triangular leaf plates are tightly located and bent inward. The surface below is covered with white outgrowths that disappear when there is a shortage of light. Crusiform inflorescences, composed of lime-colored flowers, topped with a 1 m stem.
Havortia drawn or havortia attenuat (H. attenuata) - has similarities with a striped look, but does not look so impressive. Vertical leaves have a length of 6 cm, width up to 1.5 cm. They are covered with almost invisible points of dark green and black colors.
Haworthia scaphoid (H. cymbiformis) - fleshy leaves of the navicular shape, forming a basal rosette, have a bright green color and "tips" on a glossy surface. When flowering on the long arrow bloom small white flowers.
Haworthia Cooper (H. Cooperi) - a plant up to 20 cm high with rough small leaf plates growing in three rows. From above they are pressed in with the tops bent back, and from the bottom they have a navicular shape.
Havortiya meandering - has a small convex bottom of the foliage of dark green shade, covered with pimples.
Havortia is sticky (H. viscosa) - view, reaching 20 cm in height, with shallow oval foliage - 2.5 cm in length, 1 cm in width. Growing plants causes the appearance on flat sheets, forming three rows, below the bulge, and above the concavity. Known under the second name - Havortia Viscose.
Haworthia mosaic or chess (H. tessellata) - differs fleshy foliage convex bottom, the location of which resembles a spiral. The edges are framed with little visible teeth, and the pattern in the form of a grid of thin stripes is striking in its originality. In its natural habitat bloom is observed twice a year.
Havortiya limolistnaya (H. limifolia) - has rigid sheet plates, the width of which is 4 cm. Remarkable is the pattern: the lines in the form of a wave on the upper side are almost mirrored on the bottom.
Havortiya grassy (H. herbacea) - leaves with a fringe of thin shoots may have a different color due to the conditions of watering and lighting - from light green to rich emerald green.
Havortia caustic (H. arachnoidea) - has similarities with the previous species. It is distinguished by its thin and densely located processes, which form a whitish ball at the plexus.
Haworthia Retuz or blunted (H. retusa) - stands out fleshy and densely growing leaves that become a shade of red when there is a shortage of light.
Haworthia dwarf or pygmy (H. pygmaea) - is obliged by the name of the miniature size: the maximum length of the sheet plate, rough to the touch, reaches 1 cm, and the outlet diameter is 6 cm.
Haworthia Marginata (H. marginata) - has a clear resemblance to an artificial flower, the leaves of which are made of shiny plastic. With age, the foliage becomes darker.
Haworthia Atrofuska (H. atrofusca) - the leaves of the variety initially have a reddish tint, and under the influence of the sun's rays turn into translucent crystals.
Haworthia Chopped or Haworthia Trunkata (H. truncata) - when looking at the fleshy leaves of this variety, arranged in two rows, it seems that they are cut off at different heights.
In this video, the expert is very interesting and tells in detail about the species of havortiya mentioned above and other varieties and types:
Regardless of the type of flower, in the apartment, the activities for the care of any similar. Growth and reproduction of room succulent have good performance, but subject to a number of rules.
- Illumination - the flower should be located in a lighted place with diffused light. The optimal solution is to place the plant on the windows of the west or east side of the house: being on the south window requires shading, and on the north, due to the lack of sun, the brightness of the leaf plates may be lost.
- Rest period - in winter, the plant moves to a cool place with no sources of heat, but with enough light.
- Temperature - plant considered to be cold resistant and can withstand temperatures as low as –7 ° С below zero. However, the optimum temperature range for the winter season are fluctuations from 3 to 5 ° C: a value above 10 ° C leads to the stretching of the plant and the complete loss of the correct outlet shape. The exception is variegated forms of culture for which the value should not fall below 15 ° C. In summer, it is better to keep a flower around the clock in the open air, not forgetting about protection from precipitation and direct sun. Although succulent can carry heat at 50 ° C, its lingering period and night temperatures above 28 ° C are critical. Violation of the temperature regime leads to the beginning of leaf darkening and rotting.
- Watering - moderate moisture required. During the growing season, watering should be a maximum of twice a week, in winter, depending on air temperature: at 10-12 ° C - once a month, at 13-15 ° C - once every two decades, at 18-20 ° C - once every two of the week. Watering is carried out away from the central outlet in such a way that the surface of the soil mixture between moistening has time to dry for a third. Strictly not allowed to have water in the pan under the pot. Failure to comply with the rule can lead to rotting of the root and basal rosette.
- Humidity - a parameter to the development of a succulent has no effect. The plant does not need spraying, and in the summer it just moves to a loggia or street.
- Fertilization - fertilization with an aqueous solution of fertilizer for succulents or ornamental crops is carried out from early spring to late summer. A signal of an oversupply of useful elements will be a change in leaf color.
- Protection against diseases and pests - plant unstable to rotthat have a devastating effect. Improper care can be the cause of the appearance of the scale and mealybug, especially in summer when the flower is outside or due to contact with other infected objects. The main measures for pest control are hot showers up to 45C, spraying of insecticidal action - Fury, Aktellik.
- Transplant - a procedure for transplanting young specimens is carried out every two to three years when the size of the pot does not match the flower. The frequency of the procedure for adult plants is two years. But if the roots die off during the period of rest, the transplantation should be carried out immediately.
Breeding is carried out by three methods: kiddies, grafting and seeds.
At home, the most applicable is the reception with the children.
The culture systematically forms lateral sockets, well rooted close to the main plant.
In early spring, the baby with a developed root system is carefully separated from the parent specimen and transplanted into a separate container.
Haworthia can also be propagated by cutting. To successfully root a plant, you must do the following:
- cut the most developed leaf at the base,
- to treat the cut with a fungicide or charcoal,
- let it air dry for two days,
- plant the stalk in a small pot with sandy soil,
- a month later, during which rooting takes place, transplant the cutting into the substrate for an adult succulent.
Nowadays, in specialized stores a wide assortment of seeds is presented, therefore, an attempt can be made to propagate a plant by the seed method. However, this method is more complex and less effective. For seed cultivation, the following steps should be taken:
- to prepare containers of small depth, where loose soil or wet sand is poured,
- spread the seed over the surface and press it into the ground,
- cover the container with a film
- to keep indoors with good lighting and temperature conditions from 20 to 25 ° C,
- after emergence of shoots to remove shelter,
- transplant seedlings a few months later or next spring.
Problems with the content and ways to eliminate
- The elongation of the leaf plates, the looseness and elongation of the outlet - the lack of light. Requires moving the plant to the west or east side.
- The bend of the edges of the elongated foliage and the dullness of the growths - the excess of the allowable temperature for winter. It is necessary to reduce the temperature to 10 ° C.
- Shrinking of the ends of the foliage and twisting along the edges during the rest period is an excess of heat and air drought. Glass is required to protect the plant from hot air masses and to place the pot in a wet-pebble pan.
- Changing the shape of the flower - need a transplant, fertilization and separation of children.
- The weakness of the foliage and its light branch - flower flooded. Requires termination of watering before restoring succulent.
- Faded leaves color or color change to yellow, red - an excess of macro and microelements. It is necessary to reduce the number of feedings - no more than one per month with a low nitrogen content.
Benefits and signs
The useful properties of havortiya consist in both protective and energy abilities.
Signs say that the poor growth of perennials demonstrates the return of a significant energy flow to combat the negative impact: the succulent has no strength left for its own development. The flower is ideal for decorating the workplace, kitchen: it gives energy, increases work and mental activity.
So, sometimes exotic flower havortia scares lovers of indoor plants demanding care. However, it is not capricious and well adapted to the residential environment. It is necessary to make a lot of effort to ruin the plant.
Origin and appearance
Refers to undersized succulents. In the wild form grows mainly in South Africa. The name is obliged to Adrian Haworth, the botanist from England, who gave the classification to the flower.
Outlets are at ground level. They are formed from fleshy leaves of dark green color. Outlets of some species are located on a low stem. In thick leaves, the plant stores moisture in case of drought. The leaves on the edges are smooth, knobby, toothed. As they grow older, there are numerous side sockets. Haworthia blooms in small white flowers. It owes its decorative qualities to the leaves.
Interesting! Haworthia is a real long-liver. In the collections of indoor flowers are instances whose age exceeds 30 years.
All species havortii differ from each other. There are more than 100 varieties in total. They are divided into three groups - grassy, stiff-leaved and windowed. In the indoor floriculture, the most common are the following types.
- Haworthia is striped. Barrel is missing. The socket is dense, the leaves are narrow, dark green color. The lower surface of the leaves is covered with pimples in the form of white growths. Top sheet is smooth. In appearance resembles aloe. During flowering, produces a panicle of small flowers.
- Haworthia Reinwardt. The rosette is missing. It grows no higher than 15 cm. The leaves are triangular, with sharp tips, bent inward. On the bottom of the sheet are white blotches. With a lack of lighting, they disappear. During the flowering period, the succulent produces a long peduncle with yellow-green flowers collected in a brush.
- Haworthia Pearl. Received such name for large specks on both sides of the sheet. The leaves are pointed, dense, covered with spikes on the edges. It produces a spike with greenish flowers collected in a brush. After flowering dies, leaving to replace the child outlet. Lives up to 20 years.
- Haworthia scaphoid. Radical rosette formed scaphoid shiny leaves. The diameter of a single plant is about 10 cm, with side shoots up to 20 cm.
- Haworthia Cooper. The size of the outlet usually does not exceed 10 cm. The leaves are pointed at the ends, forming a triangle in cross section. The color of the leaves is faded green, there are no blotches. Look translucent.
Tip! Haworthia look spectacular in the florarium. The composition of plants is selected according to the requirements for care - humidity, watering frequency, temperature. Florarium is decorated with moss, multi-colored stones, sand, twigs, artificial figurines.
Basic rules of care
Caring for havortiya at home is not very difficult, but has its own characteristics.
- Location Choose windows facing the sunny side. In the summer, the flower is carried out to the fresh air, using it to decorate balconies, verandas, and terraces. The room is regularly ventilated. Avoid drafts.
- Lighting. The flower needs a full bright light. In winter, using fluorescent lights. In hot sunny weather, havortia endures light shading. Young plants are hidden from direct sunlight, adults do not leave the sun for a long time.
- Temperature. Optimum performance - 23-27 ° C. Resist summer heat up to 45 ° C.
- Humidity. Dry air is not afraid. Feels great in the apartment without additional moisture.
- Transfer. Rarely transplanted, if necessary - when the pot becomes very small. A little crowding benefits the plant — it looks more decorative and grows better. The optimal period for a transplant is the beginning of March.
- Priming. There are no special requirements for the composition of the soil. Light, breathable mixtures with a pH of at least 6 are chosen. When preparing the soil mixture independently, the amount of organic matter is limited. Professional growers use bonsai soil or special Japanese clay. As an ordinary houseplant, havortia is content with an earthy mixture for succulents and cacti.
- Watering. The lack of moisture tolerates better than waterlogging. Watering is carried out as needed when the soil in the pot is completely dry. The average frequency is once every 5-10 days. Use only soft water at room temperature. From irrigation with cold tap water, havortia may die! During watering avoid getting water on the leaves and in the center of the outlet.
- Feeding. To accelerate growth during the active growing season make funds for cacti and succulents. Feed no more than once a month, three times reducing the concentration recommended by the manufacturer.
- Period of rest. From October to March, the plant provides rest. Не подкармливают, поливают раз в месяц, держат в светлом месте при температуре 5-7 °C.Breeding hybrids do not withstand temperatures below 12 ° C. 2 days before watering the flower is transferred to a warm place, watered, wait two more days and return to cool.
Tip! Prefer wide and flat pots. The diameter of the plant should be literally a couple of centimeters. It is not recommended to use square pots - they provoke root rot. The best material is unglazed ceramics.
Haworthia is easily propagated by side rosettes, seeds and cuttings. All methods are practiced in floriculture.
- Side sockets. Waiting for the formation of roots in the overgrowth, separate it from the parent bush and instilled in a moist substrate. In the absence of the root system, the cut is powdered with ashes and dried for up to 3 days. For the rooting period, they are dripped in moistened sand, then transplanted into the ground.
- Leaf cuttings. A leaf cut is dipped in ash, dried for several days and rooted in moist sand. Until the roots appear, the soil is not watered, but the surface is sprinkled with water. Capacity with cuttings can not be covered with film or glass.
- Seeds. The tank is filled with wet fine sand. Seeds are sown without burial, cover the container with cling film. For germination choose a bright place with a temperature of 20-25 ° C. Seed germination is bad. This method is used to grow rare hybrid varieties.
When growing havortiya you can face a number of problems. All of them are related to the errors of agrotechnology.
- The plant is drawn out. It happens with a lack of light. The problem is more often found in species with dark leaves. Restore the plant by moving closer to the light while feeding.
- The leaves dry and twist into a spiral. The reason is a draft or low room temperature.
- Leaves turn yellowish or reddish. The result of excessive fertilizing with high phosphorus fertilizers.
- Leaves shrivel, stained. A long stay in the open sun led to a sunburn.
- The leaves become soft, lose their shape. The result is abundant, frequent watering. Watering is limited to at least 2 weeks.
- Blackens and rot leaves at the base. Waterlogging in combination with low temperature.
- The pattern fades, the flower is drawn out. The temperature in the rest period above 15 ° C - the plant is hot.
Knowing the cause of the problem, it is easy to eliminate the adjustment of care or conditions of detention.
Types of Haworthia
The form of havortiya leaves is either a triangle or a peculiar cone, the color of the leaves of succulents is dark green, there are blotches. The group includes:
- Haworthia is sticky.
- Haworthia is striped.
- Haworthia Pearl.
- Haworthia drawn.
- Haworthia Reinwardat.
On each side of the leaflets of succulent there are peculiar growths. The foliage coloring of the havortiya drawn is dark green, the shape is mainly elongated.
In striped havortiya warts are developed only from the lower surface of the leaf. True to the surface is absolutely smooth. Rough sheets of sticky havoria grow in three rows at once. Below there is a navicular surface, and from above - depressed.
Total can count about a hundred varieties of culture. The most popular and popular havortias are: Reinwardt, pearl, and also striped.
The striped havortiya does not have a trunk. Thick narrow cleaning with dark green colors are collected in a robust outlet.
White growths are able to create pimples on the lower surface of the leaf, the upper part of the leaf is completely smooth.
Small inflorescences are collected in one broom. The flower looks like a small aloe.
Succulent that reaches a height of only 15 centimeters. He does not have a rosette outlet. Pointed leaves rather thick, have the shape of a triangle, bent inward. From the top, the sheets are smooth, from the bottom they have dotted growths of bright white color. The blotches begin to completely disappear in the case when the plant does not have enough level of illumination around. Flowers are yellow-green, combined in a single brush, located on a long peduncle.
Pearl variety havortiya
Possesses oval leaves of dense nature, the leaves are in most cases pointed. On both sides, the culture has large-sized pearl blotches. On the edges of the leaves can be found thorns. The socket dies after the end of the flowering process. In its place come new daughter shoots.
Juicy triangular leaves with cilia combined in one outlet. Therefore, the flower does not possess a stem. This group includes:
- Haworthia mesh.
- Havortyai grassy.
- Haortia Cobweb.
The rosette of a grassy plant is obtained by combining small leaves. The color of the leaflets is determined by the indicator of illumination around, as well as the level of watering. Leaf color can vary from light green to rich dark, which is more like black. The size of the outlet can be up to five centimeters.
Long cilia on the edges of the leaves havertiya web spreader all parts of the plant. Hence the name of the variety.
On the yellowish-green leaflets of the succulent mesh form, you can see special veins that form an unusual pattern - mesh.
The plants at the edges of the leaves have translucent windows. Succulents when growing only half is in the soil, the windows are capable provide light to the inside of the culture.
The shape of the leaves in this variety may be completely different - light green or brown. In its characteristics and capabilities, the plant is more like lithops.
In this group are:
- Haworthia was blunted.
- Havortyai chopped off.
- Haworthia scaphoid.
The leaves of the boat-shaped havorti are fleshy and have a bluish-green color. Near the ends are transparent stripes. New sockets are formed quite rapidly. Flowering occurs at a plant several times a year. The inflorescences of the plant are small, whitish type.
The curved and translucent edges of the leaves of the blunted havortiya are mostly turned back. Single sockets are fleshy and solid in character.
Chopped havorti species most often grow in an upright position. The tips of translucent sheets are formed on the surface.
How to choose the lighting?
Arrange the plant should be in a bright place where there is no direct rays of the sun. The best condition for growing havortiya will be the western and eastern windows. With the growth of plants on the south side, it is imperative to create additional shading so that the leaves of the plant do not form burns. The lack of light in the cultivation of the culture on the windowsill, which goes to the north side, the plant quickly lost brightness, color from the leaves, as well as general decorative appearance is dramatically reduced.
Plant resting time
Winter is the time when all plants fall into a certain period of rest. Plant stands put in a cool place away from the heating system, but with a sufficient amount of light intensity. If the temperature of the air near the plant becomes uncomfortable for growing, then its cleaning will soon begin to darken and be affected by decay.
From the balcony or veranda, the pot should be placed in the room at night from the end of the summer season. With the arrival of the spring period, the culture should always be in the conditions of the house.
Watering the plant
Watering should be moderate. From spring to autumn - no more than two times in seven days, in winter:
- At a temperature of 10-12 degrees Celsius every 30 days.
- With a temperature development of 13–15 degrees Celsius, once every twenty-one days.
- At a temperature of 18-20 degrees once every 14 days.
The soil surface of the plant should not be wetted too much: the top layer of soil, where chavortia grows, should dry for a third between the irrigation processes. If there is an excess of moisture, then possible development of rotting root system.
Water should not get into the center of the bush so that the closet socket will not become affected by the rot. In summer, there should not be excess water in the pan.
Plant nutrition and fertilizer
From the beginning of the spring period to the end of the summer, the plant should be actively fed with various organic mixtures. To do this, use a weak solution of specialized fertilizers for succulents or for ornamental plant varieties once a month. If there are too many nutrients in the plant, then flowers are beginning to actively change their color.
How to carry out the correct transplant plants?
The process of transplanting and renewing a young havorti plant of any kind occurs two or three times a year when the pot is too small. Adult specimens are transplanted once every two years. If the rhizomes in the process of dying die off, then the transplant process should be carried out as soon as possible.
Which pot should you choose for the plant?
Capacity for planting a flower should be chosen wide, low, and not very deep. In a very large pot, the plant begins to grow in depth, not up. Too narrow capacity - this is the main reason for the smaller inflorescences of the plant.
For the cultivation and care of house havortiya should use a plastic-based pot, as well as a rounded shape. In square vases, the plant begins to actively bend the roots and quickly rots.
In the pot should be mandatory drainage. Soil is equal to the ratio of clay-sod soil, sand, and leafy soil. You can use small pieces of lava, as well as pumice, adding to them part of the soil.
Succulent grows well in a fertile mixture that includes sand, clay, and battered shells. The soil should have a weak acidity and be slightly alkaline. In the acidic soil, the plant begins to die for some time.
Humidity is able to regulate brick crumbs inside the pot. But its disintegration into particles is capable of negatively affecting the structure of the soil mixture, as well as harm the flower itself. He will have to repot every year.
How can propagate havortiu?
The best time to multiply food will be spring. Plant propagation methods:
- Reproduction kids. In the process of transplanting a plant that put down the roots of the children should be transplanted into a separate pot. To plant a daughter rosette in the wet soil, on which there are no roots, for the rooting process.
- Seeds. It is much more difficult to propagate a plant through seeds. From the moment of planting havortiya and before the development of sprouts, a long time passes. This method of reproduction is well applied to breeders, as well as lovers of rare and ornamental domestic plants.
- Reproduction leaves. From the mother plant you can cut or break one sheet. It should be left to dry for several days, planted in loose soil, which will be wetted with water, or in sandy soil. Do not water the plant for one month. During this period of time the plant will begin to give their roots. Sapling is forbidden to water for about three weeks. During this time, the first roots begin to develop on the plant.
The best temperature for growing a flower can be - 15–20 degrees Celsius in the summer, and in the winter - 10–12 degrees Celsius. If the temperature begins to drop to lower levels, the plant dies.
What is the main difficulty during the maintenance of the culture?
If havortia begins to grow together with other plants, it is located in most cases alongside with larger ones. Extra long leaves when caring for a plant, looseness, as well as elongation of a complete rosette - all this happens as a result of a lack of light level. Haworthia should be grown in the western or eastern window.
The leaves are elongated, the edges begin to curl, the growths actively fade - too high a temperature index in winter. Should reduce the temperature to 10 degrees Celsius.
During dormancy, the ends of the leaves begin to dry, the edges are actively curled - excess heat and an excess of dryness.
The lower leaves can be easily cut, if they are lethargic - it means the plant is excessively flooded with water. It is necessary to stop making watering until the full restoration of the appearance of the flower. To do this, you can use glass or installation in a pallet with a pot of wet pebbles.
The flower is starting to change its shape, stretched out in length - should be transplanted and fed with mineral fertilizers. It is imperative to separate the children. With the development of brown spots on the sheets - you need to darken the culture itself.
The unusual property of havortiya is that light needed for 3-4 hours. To accustom the flower to the sun should be in the spring, while the plant should be accustomed slowly to avoid the development of burns on the leaves.
History of origin and botanical description
Haworthia is a succulent, part of the Asphodeal family.. Haworthia was named after a botanist and traveler Adrian Haworth, who explored African plants.
This succulent dwells in the arid regions of South Africa. It can be found on stony, sandy and grassy soil under the shade of trees and shrubs. The peculiarity of this plant is in its fleshy, succulent leaves, which accumulate and retain water for a long time, which allows it to survive in a hot and very arid climate.
The stem of this plant is shortened or absent altogether. Succulent flowers are small and inconspicuous, white or greenish in color, they grow on peduncles long from 50 to 90 cm. Since the flowers do not have a decorative appearance, it is better to remove flower stalks so that the plant does not spend any strength on it and does not deplete.
Sufficiently undersized succulent. Height does not exceed 15 centimeters. Does not have a rosette outlet. Thick, pointed leaves are triangular in shape and slightly curved inward.
The upper part of the leaf plates is smooth, dark green. At the bottom - pinpoint, bright white outgrowths that disappear in low light. Yellow-green flowers grow on a peduncle in the form of a fluffy tassel.
It has pointed, dense, oval-shaped leaves, at the edges of which there are thorns. On the sides of the plant are large, similar to speckled pearls.
Greenish flowers are collected in a brush. After flowering, the rosette of the plant dies, and a new subsidiary grows instead.
This variety succulent has no stem. Dense rosette consists of narrow, thick leaves of dark green color. This havortia got its name because of the growths that form pimpy strips of white color on the underside of the leaves. The upper part of the leaves is smooth. Flowers collected in a small panicle. The plant is a bit like a small, densely grown aloe.
Lighting and location
Haworthia loves bright but diffused light. Direct sunlight, like constant shadow, does not suit her. Therefore, it is best to have a flower in the southeast windows of the apartment.
The pot for the plant should be low, not very deep and wide. In too large a capacity havortia will grow in depth, not up. But in a very tight pot, young havortiya leaves will become small.
Succulent soil should have good drainage. The substrate consists of equal parts (1: 1: 1):
- clay-sod land
- leafy ground
It is also good to use a mixture of clay, shell rock and sand. The soil should be weakly alkaline or neutral.. In an overly acidic environment, the plant will not survive.
This variety of succulent loves coolness, will feel most comfortable in the range of 15-25 ° C. In a warmer room the plant needs to create a constant inflow of fresh air. For example, you can take it out for airing on a glazed balcony or loggia.
In the winter months, havortia is at rest and it is necessary for it to provide a reduced temperature of up to 5-10 ° C. If the flower is small - you can try to place it between the window frames. Or to enclose from the hot air in the room with a transparent box, placing closer to the glass window.
Watering is required moderate, because the flower grows in nature in conditions of frequent drought. The soil before the subsequent watering should be dried by 2 cm. Excess moisture leads to rotting of the roots and the base of the leaves. In winter, water should be watered only after the start of the loss of turgor leaves.
Succulent does not need additional moistening of the air around it. But so that the leaves do not accumulate dust - the flower can be bathed under a warm shower, after covering the ground from moisture.
This type of plant is better to underfeed than to allow an oversupply of food. For feeding, you can use the complex fertilizer for succulents in a diluted form of water.
It is necessary to replant and renew young havortia once every 2-3 years.when the roots become crowded in the pot. Mature plants have to replant a little more often - 1 time in 2 years. But it is worth monitoring the state of the roots during the rest period, if they die off - it is necessary to transplant the flower immediately!
We offer to see a video of how to replant a plant:
Pests and diseases
Pests rarely attack striped havortie. But sometimes on the leaves the mealybug is settled. Чтобы избавиться от вредителя – розетку и листья нужно тщательно обработать мыльным раствором. Если это не помогло, спасет системный яд: Актелик или Фитоверм.
Болезни цветка возникают из-за неправильного ухода:
- Избыточный полив провоцирует гниль корней и листьев.
- Overcooling leads to blackening and rotting of leaf plates.
- When there is a lack of lighting, the plant can begin to stretch, losing its beautiful, compact form.
- From direct sunlight on the leaves appear burns in the form of brown-brown spots.
- Excessive acidity of the soil causes growth retardation and root rot.
Basic rules of agricultural engineering
- Haworthia should be in a bright, cool place. A window or a glazed winter loggia with a temperature of no more than + 8 + 10 ° C will do. It needs shading from direct sunlight.
- During the period of active growth from May to October, the flower should be regularly watered with settled water at room temperature. During the rest period, watering is reduced to 1 time per month.
- Also, during the growth period, the flower should be fed with complex fertilizers for succulents - once a month. In winter, fertilizing is not needed.
- A transplant of an adult plant should be carried out no more than once in 2 years
- Propagate havortiu better with side sockets or shoots. Before planting, seedlings need to be dried.
We introduced you in detail with the havortiya striped. If you want to see incredible beauty on your window sill all year round, then by all means get this unusual succulent. He is quite unpretentious to the conditions of detention and is easy to clean. And there will be more than 10 years to please with its decorative look.
Caring for havortiya striped at home
In terms of room content, this succulent proved to be quite unpretentious and hardy. It does not require much attention, it grows easily and is practically not subject to diseases. From the grower he needs the very minimum.
Lighting. When placed in a room, the windows of the east and south directions are preferred, since Haworthy prefers bright diffused light and does not tolerate direct sunlight as well as shading.
Temperature. This succulent loves coolness, and the summer range of comfortable temperatures for it lies between 15 and 25 ° C. When warmer, the plant should provide a constant inflow of fresh air: it is advisable to take the havortiya to the balcony or to the garden, where it will be blown away by a breeze, but be sure to provide shelter from the rain.
In winter, Hawortia has a period of rest, and it needs to lower the temperature to 5 - 10 ° C. If the rosette of leaves is small, the plant pot can be placed between window frames. Large specimens can try to isolate from the warm air of the room with a transparent box, pushing it closer to the window glass.
Watering should be moderate, as the plant is accustomed to a dry climate. Soil between watering should be allowed to dry to a depth of about 2 cm. With cold content, striped havortia needs water even less, the excess of which can lead to rotting of the roots and the base of the rosette of leaves. Therefore, in the autumn-winter period, watering should be treated with extreme caution and watered only after the leaves begin to lose turgor.
Humidity. Succulent does not need to increase the humidity of the air, but periodically the leaves can be washed under a warm shower, cleaning them from the accumulated dirt, protecting the ground from water beforehand.
The soil. Haworthia Striped prefers slightly alkaline poor nutrition soils with a pH of 7.0 - 7.5, with good water and moisture permeability. The earth mixture can be prepared independently, taking for this purpose a ready ground for succulents and cacti, fine gravel, coarse sand, clay and broken shell rock in a ratio of 3: 3: 3: 1: 1.
When planting at the bottom of the pot, you need to create a good drainage layer, and the pot itself should be chosen, focusing on the root system: it should not be much larger than its size.
Fertilize plant very carefully, as havortiu better underfed. It is enough once a month to irrigate a weak fertilizer solution for succulents and houseplants.
In winter, they do not feed at all.
Transfer. Young specimens are transplanted annually in a larger-diameter tank, and adults only as needed when the pot becomes too small for the roots.
Breeding. Haworthia striped has a habit of expanding in breadth, releasing many side daughter outlets. Therefore, the easiest way of reproduction is to carefully separate a small “baby” with well-formed roots during transplantation and plant it in a separate potty.
You can propagate and seed, but it is quite a long and laborious process.
Pests. As a rule, the plant is not exposed to pest infestation, but sometimes a mealybug can live on it. To get rid of it, the socket should be well washed with soapy water. If this method does not help, the plant is treated with an appropriate systemic poison, such as Aktelik.
Diseases. Of the diseases occur, mainly the consequences of improper care. So:
- root and leaf rot develop from over-irrigation,
- from the cold, the tips of the leaves may turn black and, again, rot,
- with a lack of light, the plant is drawn out and loses its compact attractive form,
- direct sunlight causes leaves to burn, leaving brown-brown spots on them,
- acidic soil leads to a slowdown in the growth, rotting of the roots.
Brief description of cultivation
- Bloom. This succulent is a leafy ornamental plant.
- Illumination. Sunlight bright, for growing fit windows of east, south or west orientation. Species, in which the foliage has a uniform color, on hot summer days can be removed in light penumbra.
- Temperature conditions. It grows well at normal room temperature.
- Watering. During the growing season it is necessary to water moderately, right after the top layer of the soil mixture dries out well. If in winter the bush has entered a period of rest, then the number of waterings is reduced to 1 time in 4 weeks.
- Air humidity. Any level of humidity is suitable.
- Fertilizers. It is necessary to feed in April – August 1 time in 4 weeks. To do this, use complex fertilizer for cacti, while the concentration of the solution should be 2 times less weak than recommended in the instructions attached to the tool.
- Rest period. Not expressed.
- Transfer. Young bushes need to be replanted 1 time per year, and adults - in spring time 1 time in 3 years.
- Breeding. Most often, the vegetative, by separating the daughter outlets.
- Harmful insects. Mealybugs and scale insects.
- Diseases. Due to waterlogging, or when the liquid enters the outlet, the plant begins to rot.
In order to grow a spectacular bush havortiya on your windowsill, you must always adhere to the agrotechnical rules of this culture:
- For its cultivation, windows of western, southern and eastern orientation are excellent, but the flower must be protected from the scorching rays of the sun.
- Spring and summer watering should be moderate. In winter, the plant is resting, so it should be removed in a cool place (10 to 12 degrees), while watering should be carried out 1 time in 4 weeks.
- It is necessary to replant a bush every year. To do this, take a not very deep and wide container, at the bottom of which a good drainage layer should be made.
- For planting it is necessary to use a soil mixture consisting of leaf and sod land (1: 1), while adding 30 percent of brick chips or small gravel to it.
Household care at home
Haworthia has a very attractive and spectacular appearance, but despite this, it is undemanding. In this regard, to grow such a succulent in his house everyone can, you just need to know how to properly care for him.
If the bush grows on a window sill well lit by the sun, then in strong heat it should be moved to a small penumbra, and if there is such an opportunity, then take it to the terrace or a shaded balcony. Since this flower is a succulent, any air humidity is suitable for growing. The room in which the havortia grows needs to be aired regularly in summer and in winter.
Water used for irrigation should be well settled and soft. When watering, you only need to slightly moisten the top layer of the substrate in the tank, since this succulent needs just a little water. In summer, the bush is watered immediately after the top layer of the substrate dries out. If in winter it is in a cool room (from 10 to 12 degrees), then it should be watered only 1 time in 4 weeks, if the flower grows at a temperature above 18–20 degrees at that time, as a rule, watering is carried out 1 once a fortnight Water should be poured in such a way that it could not get into the center of the outlet, as this can cause rot.
Haworthia flowers do not have decorative value. In this regard, as soon as the flower stalks appear, it is recommended to remove them, as a result, the bush will not waste its strength on flowering.
In the period from April to August, it is recommended to carry out systematic feeding of the succulent, do it 1 time in 4 weeks. To do this, use fertilizer for cacti, while the concentration of the solution should be 2 times less than what is written in the instructions. Experienced growers are advised to pour fertilizer into water for irrigation. In autumn, the succulent stop feeding.
Havortia transplantation is performed when necessary, for example, if the capacity becomes very small. As a rule, young specimens are transplanted annually, and adults - 1 time in 2 or 3 years. For landing, you should choose a not very large, low capacity, which should be wide. If the pot is too deep, then because of this in the root system will be observed stagnant fluid. For planting, you can buy ready-made soil mixture for cacti, but you should add a small amount of small claydite and clay to it. Expanded clay is able to absorb excess water with excessively abundant watering. At the bottom of the pot it is necessary to make a good drainage layer. In principle, planting and transplanting havortia is very simple and even a novice can handle it.
If roots have already formed at the lateral outlet of the havorti, it should be carefully separated from the parent bush and immediately planted in a pot filled with a moistened substrate. In the case when the cuttings with two or three leaf plates that have no roots were separated, the cutting place will need to be treated with wood ash, after which they are dried for several days, and then planted for rooting in moistened sand. After they have formed roots, they are transplanted into a pot filled with substrate. Leaf stalk needs the same procedure. After pruning, it is left to dry in the open air for several days, and then planted for rooting in sand or loose substrate. Until the roots grow, it is not necessary to water the substrate in the pot, it is only necessary to moisten it a little from the sprayer. Capacity should not be covered on top of either film or glass, the fact is that in such greenhouse conditions it is likely that the cutting will rot. Springtime is good for breeding.
How to propagate seeds
Haworthia seeds are spread on the surface of loose substrate or moistened sand, crops are covered with glass or film on top, then the container is removed to a well-lit and warm (20 to 25 degrees) place. But it is necessary to take into account that the seed has extremely low germination, while growing havortia from seeds for a very long time. In this regard, growers prefer to propagate this plant vegetatively.
Such a perennial plant has no trunk. The bush includes several basal dense rosettes consisting of original thick lanceolate leaf plates, on the inside surface of which there are convex strips of white color, with the front side smooth and green. The length of the sheet plates reach 50 mm, and their width - 10-15 mm.
This species is similar to striped havortiya, but this plant is less impressive. On its leaf plates are convex points of green or white color. Lanceolate leaf plates are directed upwards, their length is about 70 mm, and their width is up to 15 mm.
This species is also called aloe winding. In havortii there is not a very high stem, which reaches a height of about 15 centimeters. The length of the dark green leaf plates is about 25 mm, the bottom surface is convex and there are small warts on it.
Scaphoid glossy fleshy leafy plates are on the surface of the window, they are part of the basal rosette, which is 10 centimeters in diameter, and in the case when there are side shoots, the diameter will be 15-20 centimeters.
This is a herbaceous perennial succulent, which has practically no stem. The basal rosette is formed from rigid sheet plates of a pointed oval shape, their length is 70–80 mm, and the width is up to 25 mm. On the green leaf plates on both surfaces there are round protuberances of pearlescent white color, they are similar to pearls and make the bush very spectacular.
Triangular thick sheet plates have a jagged edge, they are part of small rosettes. On the front surface of the foliage there are stitches of white color, which form a grid, while on the wrong side there are warts.
Haworthia Retuza, or blunted
Hard fleshy triangular leaf plates are bent in the upper part, they reach 50 mm in length, on their surface there are transparent windows and light colored shirts. The color of the foliage can vary from greenish brown or greenish red to green. There are low chlorophyll and variegated forms. In the "Giant" variety, there are very large leafy plates, and the upper part of them is cut by veins.
Such a culture can get sick only when agrotechnical rules are violated. If you follow the rules for growing such a crop, then the plant will never get sick.
Haworthia kinds of photos and titles
Havortiya striped - the most demanded "home" look. It has a narrow, fleshy foliage (similar to aloe) with a length of 5-10 cm, the bottom of the leaf is littered with a large number of bright inclusions, forming transverse stripes. The diameter of the leaf outlet does not exceed 15 cm.
Other types of havortiya grown at home may be so different from the striped one that at first glance you will not even believe that they belong to the same genus. The most popular ones are:
Haworthia Cooper - miniature (only 2.5 cm long), with a light green ciliated foliage rosette.
Haworthia Pearl - reaches 8 cm in length, white, pearl chaotically located warts cover the foliage on both sides.
Species havortia navicular - named on the outlines of almost smooth foliage of a bluish-green color, with a rosette diameter of 8-10 cm, has a variegated (variegated) shape, which is highly valued in plant growing.
Havortiya limolistnaya - a very decorative look, having an external resemblance to a symmetrical star, with a wide sheet base and narrow tip, each leaf is painted in a dark green color, and golden stripes fill its entire length.
Haworthia Retuz (blunted) - with rigid 3-sided, folded over the top of the leaves, either pure green or reddish or brownish, up to 5 cm long, coated with transparent windows and light strokes.
Species havortia pearl-bearing - Its green foliage is covered with randomly located white growths.
Haworthia truncated - low (2 cm in height, 10 - in width), easily recognizable by rectangular foliage with a cross-section, while the ends of the sheets seem to be cut (truncated).
Species havortia reynvardta - on the contrary, a rather high appearance - up to 20 cm in length, with a characteristic difference from all the others, manifested in the fact that the triangular, slightly concave inward foliage with pointed ends and white growths grows from the shoot.
Haworthia Big Band
Highly decorative, long narrow linearly-pointed dark green leaves up to 5-10 cm long on the bottom side have bright white blotches forming stripes.
Haworthia marginata - endowed with very tough glossy foliage, as if cast from plastic.
Kind of havortia drawn - resembles a striped one, however, its white bulging foliage is replaced by white and green convex dots.
Haworthia terkovidnaya - similar to pearl-bearing, but its foliage is narrower, elongated, long pointed, and growths are smaller and thicker, especially from the bottom.
Havortiya meandering - has a 2.5-centimeter leaves, convex bottom, obliquely keeled, dark green, speckled with small growths.
Type havortia mosaic (chess) - with short pointed, thick, bent outward, with light transverse stripes of leaves, dazzling in the sun with a dark brown-green shade.
Haworthia dwarf (pygmy) - very interesting thick foliage on the upper surface is rough, which makes it similar to the cat's tongue.
Haworthia Maugani - as if not the most unusual of all the havortias, with a rosette formed by cylindrical sheets, at the ends of which there are transparent (and sometimes with a pattern) windows.
Haworthia care at home
It is easy to take care of home eating at home, as she, like all succulents, has an unpretentiousness.In nature, she prefers to grow in places sheltered from direct sunlight, and, therefore, in the apartment for her, it is necessary to ensure some shading - a shelf in the middle of the room with windows facing south is quite suitable.
If there is no shadow in the room, it is better to shade the windows, while at the same time it is impossible to create conditions of insufficient illumination, as the foliage will suffer from this.
Echeveria is a succulent plant that is easily grown for home care, the plant belongs to the Crass family and has a huge number of varieties and species. Recommendations for growing and care can be found in this article.
Watering plants should be moderate. It is impossible to prevent the stagnation of ground moisture - after the land is completely dried, it is watered 1 time in 5-10 days. Following the watering you need to drain the water from the pan.
This procedure requires distilled water, as salts that are part of the tap can destroy the root system. A prerequisite for each irrigation is to avoid the ingress of water on the foliage and in the central part of the outlet.
Soil for havortiya
The following components in equal proportions are applied to the soil mixture under the havortiya: clay-sod, leaf soil and sand. Also in the store you can buy ready-made substrate for succulents.
Drainage must be provided in the pot. If you add a brick that has been crushed to crumb, in addition to drainage, you can almost forget about moisture for the winter period of rest - 2 irrigations will suffice for a plant for 30 days.
It is recommended to transplant adult plants once in 2 years, in the springtime, but in the case of young stock, it is necessary to increase the frequency of the procedure - to perform it every year. When the roots begin to expand, the pot should be increased.
Since the roots are mostly on the surface, it is advisable to pick a low, wide pot. It should be noted that it will be easier for a plant to develop if its root system is somewhat cramped, therefore the pot for a couple of sizes is more inappropriate here. When planting do not need much buried roots!
Fertilizer for havortiya
Fertilizers for havortiya contribute monthly in the spring and summer. To do this, use a special solution for cacti or decorative leafy plants.
When soil overflows with mineral compounds, foliage may change color.
In room conditions, flowering havorti rarely occurs. At the end of spring, adult specimens produce oblong flower stalks, which are not decorative, although, for example, in Haworia, the scaphoid flowering is quite beautiful. Nevertheless, experts advise to cut the flower stalks as soon as they appear, so as not to waste the reserves of the plant.
Moreover, some species die immediately after flowering. Interestingly, the better care for the havortia, the less often it blooms, and, if such a period has arrived, you need to wait for it to finish, and carefully remove the peduncle from the plant.
It is also possible to make a pollination of a flower in order to form seeds, which in the future will be useful for planting, however, it will take so much energy to ripen the seeds that this may result in the death of the plant.
Haworthia in winter
The optimum temperature is 15-20 in summer and 10-12 in winter. Lower temperatures will lead to the death of the plant. For the winter, it should be moved to cool (where there are no heating elements), but at the same time, to ensure an adequate level of lighting, otherwise during the period of rest the foliage will fade and lose its decorative qualities. Feed during rest is not worth it.
Under conditions of improper wintering, the root system may rot, then the plant should be removed from the pot, removed parts of the roots that rot, and transplanted into a new soil.
With the arrival of spring, the pot needs to be transferred to heat, and in the summer it should be placed on the balcony, but not in direct sunlight. In the fall, as soon as the temperature drops to 12-15 at night, bring it back to a warm room.
Haworthia seed reproduction
The third method - seed - is very difficult to implement, therefore only breeders are interested. The breeding procedure is best done in the spring, combining it with transplant.
Do not create a greenhouse for the plant, because if you cover it, it is likely to rot!
Diseases and pests
Havortia is extremely rarely ill, but such pests as the root scarlet and aphid occasionally cause her noticeable damage. For the appearance of the root worm is typical redness or yellowing leaves, and changing their shape.
Further spread of the pest is reflected by white flakes on the ground, at the edges of the pot and with a bloom similar to the wax.
Fighting it consists of several steps:
- You need to hermetically wrap the plant container with plastic wrap for a couple of days,
- Once in 14 days, the foliage should be treated with ethyl alcohol or calendula tincture,
- Additional processing - with the help of phytoverm, aktar, phozalona, Intavira and the like - is performed 3-4 times, alternating drugs, with a frequency of 14-21 days.
In case of defeat by aphids leaves gradually dry and curl. It is possible to cope with this pest only by using chemical means, such as Actellic, and the aqtar and Intavir mentioned above.
Treatment involves 3-4 treatments with an interval of 10-12 days, also with alternating insecticides. To prevent aphid attacks, a plant can be sprayed once per 7 days with an infusion of onion or tobacco ash.
If a Haworthia suddenly stopped growingIt means that the air temperature in the room is too low. It is worth noting that for the rest period this is quite a normal phenomenon, but if we are talking about the growing season, the temperature in the room must be raised.