Fruit shrubs

Landing hawthorn: features of reproduction and care in the open field

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Most often hawthorn in suburban areas is grown as an ornamental or fruit plant. The main characteristics that have earned him the love of summer residents, are unpretentious and spectacular appearance. In general, the plant is very popular - garden hawthorn. Planting and caring for him - the procedures are not particularly complicated. We will talk about them later in the article.

Plant description

The hawthorn is a large tree shrub or even a small tree (up to 6 m high) and belongs to the Rosaceae family. His crown is thick, and the branches are covered with long spines. Thanks to these qualities, hawthorn is so good in hedges. The varieties growing in Russia, in contrast to their American and part of the European “relatives,” do not differ in their particular “thorniness”. The leaves of hawthorn are large and ovoid. Some varieties plate rugged, others - smooth. There are both deciduous and semi-evergreen varieties.

Hawthorn spines are former twigs. At the first stage of growth they even grow leaves. The length of spines in different species can vary from three to twelve centimeters. They grow at most near the fruit and serve as a kind of protection. Their distinctive feature is extraordinary strength. Carefully walk around this plant, since hawthorn spines can pierce a sole made of practically any material.

Garden hawthorn blooms, planting and caring for them - the procedures are not particularly complicated, every year. White buds are collected in corymbose inflorescences. Unfortunately, they can not boast of a pleasant aroma. The fact is that they contain the substance dimethylamine, smelling of stale fish.

Hawthorn gives fruits every year. If during the flowering rain will pass, a good harvest is not expected. The color of the fruit can be different (from pale yellow to red or even black) and depends on the variety. The shape of the fruit are elongated, spherical, pear-shaped, etc. Their size, depending on the variety, can vary from 4 mm to 3 cm.

Use hawthorn

Hawthorn, planting and care (pruning, etc.) for which should be carried out according to certain rules, is mostly used to create hedges. The formation of the crown in this case is carried out according to certain rules, which will be discussed below. Also, this plant is often used simply as an ornamental. Especially beautiful is hawthorn in October, when its foliage acquires a juicy red-orange shade. The flowers of this shrub, as well as its bright fruits, look quite impressive. Since the plant is high enough, they usually plant it near the wall of the building itself or along the fence. On large plots, hawthorn of not very tall varieties sometimes surrounds the driveway.

The fruits of some species of hawthorn are edible and are used to make jams, jam and compotes. They are not only tasty, but also healthy.

Hawthorn. Planting and care: breeding

Hawthorn can multiply seedlings, seeds and budding method. Most often, of course, the first method is used. It is believed that the best accepted biennial seedlings. Seeds for reproduction are taken from unripe fruits. Since hawthorn often has "dummies", they should be planted at once in several pieces. Budding is done in the fall, inserting the bud of a varietal hawthorn into a T-shaped incision at the root of an ordinary wild head.

Reproduction seedlings

Planting and caring for hawthorn - the procedures are not particularly time-consuming. The soil for this plant will fit almost any. Only very acidic soils are undesirable. In this case, be sure to make liming. A good solution would be to add a little ash to the soil when planting. It is not necessary to fertilize hawthorn, but for better growth you can use a little bit of humus or compost. With regard to lighting, the hawthorn will feel good in the sun and in partial shade. However, in the first case, it will be better to bear fruit and bloom.

A young hawthorn, planting and caring for which will be successful only if certain rules are observed, is planted to a depth of about 50-70 cm. The step between the individual plants should be about 1.5-2 m, depending on the variety. It is necessary to plant hawthorn so that the root neck is located at ground level. You can slightly bury it in the soil (no more than 2 cm). All roots must be in the ground. When they leave the hawthorn begins to lag behind in development. Having established a sapling in a hole, it needs to be covered with earth and lightly tamped. Next, the plant is filled with water. The soil under the seedling to full engraftment should be constantly wet.

Landing can be made both in the spring, and in the fall. In the first case, this is done immediately after thawing of the soil and its warming up. In autumn, the hawthorn is planted after the beginning of a massive leaf fall and before the start of frost.

Seed propagation

From seeds you can also grow a healthy, beautiful hawthorn. Planting and caring for him later will not take too much time. In fact, this wonderful shrub grows just by itself. Its seeds are covered with a very hard shell. Therefore, seedlings appear no earlier than one and a half years after planting. Sow them thickly, pre-soaking in a one percent solution of potassium nitrate (per day). In the first year, the saplings will grow very slowly and will not rise higher than 12 cm. Next year they will need to be planted for growing. In the third year, the bushes (which by this time usually reach half a meter in height) are cut, leaving 2-3 buds above the soil level. After that, the plant will begin to actively develop lateral shoots. To subsequently get a beautiful crown, you need to leave no more than two. The rest are removed.

How to get a beautiful spectacular hawthorn fence

Thus, we have examined how hawthorn is planted. Caring for hawthorn will subsequently consist in almost one pruning. Being planted around the perimeter of the site, this wonderful shrub forms an unusually spectacular, dead of hedge. To get such beauty in the country, first of all you need to dig a trench for seedlings. The marking for it is performed in the same way as for a normal fence. Since the hawthorn is of almost any variety - the plant is rather high, the trench width should be at least 60 cm. The seedlings are planted at a distance of at least half a meter from each other. They must be placed strictly in the center of the trench. As the hawthorn grows for quite a long time, it is advisable to arrange a temporary fence from the side of the street, picket fence, croaker, or chain-link mesh.

Under the adult plants do not dig a trench, and planting pits. It is best if they have a square shape and strictly vertical walls. Their size should be such that the roots of the planted plants do not reach the main ground on the sides and bottom by 15 cm.

Which varieties to choose for hedge

Practically any hawthorn is suitable for creating a beautiful hedge. The best varieties with this:

  • "Prickly hawthorn",
  • "Sporta"
  • "Soft",
  • "Peristonadrezanny",
  • "Blood red",
  • "Arnold."

The last three species, in addition to forming a deaf impenetrable wall, also bloom very beautifully.

Hawthorn Care

Next, consider how to grow a beautiful thick hawthorn. Planting and caring for him, as has been repeatedly mentioned, do not take much time. However, some rules must still be observed. The hawthorn is not demanding to the soil, but from time to time it is still better to feed it. In the spring, Kemira-Universal mix in the amount of 120 g per square meter is brought under the roots. Before flowering, hawthorn should be fertilized with manure diluted in water (1 * 10 of 8 liters per plant).

Water this plant once a month. At the same time about ten liters of water should fall on each adult bush. In very dry and hot weather, the amount of watering is increased to two per month.

Fruit hawthorn, planting and care for which are intended to obtain a good harvest, it is necessary to feed. Watering in this case is the same as in the cultivation of purely decorative varieties.

Preparing hawthorn for winter

Some hawthorn varieties are not at all afraid of the winter cold (varieties “schilous”, “cockerel spur”). For others, for example, such as the “common hawthorn” (which is planted and cared for just like other varieties), shoots and flower buds can freeze slightly. Of course, covering adult plants is quite problematic. Therefore, in cold regions it is better to use frost-resistant varieties. If any shoots still freeze out, in the spring they just need to be removed. New hawthorn branches will grow very quickly. Young plants that have just been planted are sprinkled with foliage about 15 cm thick in the winter. This will prevent the roots from freezing.

Hawthorn. Planting and care: trimming

Hawthorn - one of the ornamental plants that require mandatory artificial crown formation. In particular, it is important to do this regularly and correctly in the case of a hedge. The lower branches of the hawthorn die over time, with the result that the solid green wall is thinned out.

The first molding is done in the second - the third year after landing in the spring. Bushes are cut to a height of 10 cm from the ground. This procedure is repeated for two to three years, until the bushes become very thick. Next, hedges give a square or semicircular shape. Pruning is desirable to perform every year. In spring, all diseased and dried branches are cut from plants. Next, proceed to the actual formation of a fence. Carrying out this procedure, you need to remember that cutting branches and shoots more than 1/3 of their original length is highly undesirable.

Hawthorn diseases

This is how the garden hawthorn is grown. Planting and caring for him, carried out according to all the rules, will allow you to get beautiful lush plants. However, it sometimes happens that all efforts are reduced to zero due to some kind of infection. One of the most unpleasant diseases of hawthorn is rust. Detected infected shoots should be removed immediately, and the sick plant itself should be sprayed with a 5% solution of Bordeaux mixture. This procedure can be performed for healthy bushes in the spring, in order to prevent.

Another common disease of this ornamental plant is the hawthorn mite. In the case of infection, branches are also pruned (in spring or autumn). The bush itself is treated with colloidal sulfur. In the event that the plant is very badly affected, the spraying is repeated after flowering.

Thus, we have figured out what the hawthorn plant is (description, reproduction, care, planting). As you can see, growing it is simple and even pleasant. All that is needed is to periodically water the bushes and perform the correct pruning. If you allocate a little time to care for this wonderful plant, you can get an unusually spectacular decoration for a country site.

Choosing a landing site

The site for planting must be chosen correctly, because after 4-5 years the transplant is complicated by a powerful root system. For the cultivation of hawthorn fit a well-lit place, the plant carries and darkening. Suitable for planting near buildings or as a hedge.

It should be borne in mind that some varieties form a volumetric shrub, so it is important to observe the planting interval between plants.

The plant is unpretentious to the quality and composition of the soil. Feels best on fertile loam with a neutral reaction. It can grow and develop even in dense and swampy places, but in such conditions decorativeness and yield volume decreases.

How to choose seedlings

Purchase planting material hawthorn can be in the nursery or gardening shop. When choosing, consider the following points:

  • 2-4 skeletal branches must be formed,
  • in a healthy seedling, roots are well developed, without signs of disease, mechanical damage and growths,
  • optimum height of planting material - 1-1.5 meters,
  • Normally, the trunk has a brownish tint; there should be no damage on the bark, no traces of rot.

It is advisable to purchase seedlings aged from 2 to 3 years, since they are best rooted, quickly adapting to new conditions. At a later age, planting is complicated by a strong root system, which will have to be shortened.

Landing dates

Seedlings are best planted in the spring, when the ground and the air warms to a stable warm temperature. In the southern regions work can be carried out from the second half of April, in northern latitudes, landing is carried out from the first decade of May.

In addition, the hawthorn can be planted in the fall. Due to its high frost resistance, the plant goes through a period of adaptation in the winter, and in spring a violent growth of green parts begins. In this case, it is important to land before the start of frost.

Site preparation

Work on the preparation of the soil is desirable to carry out a month before the planned landing. To do this, you need to dig a place for 2 depths of a spade bayonet, remove plant residues and stones. With increased acidity should be made dolomite flour or lime at the rate of 300 g / m 2.

Individual wells are prepared for planting, the optimum size is 70x70 cm. A broken brick or expanded clay layer is laid up to 7 cm in the bottom, and a fertile mixture consisting of peat, humus and mullein in equal proportions is placed on top.

The hole for sealing the seedling should be filled to 2/3 of the depth. After that, it should be closed with a film in order to form a comfortable biological environment inside.

Landing in open ground

The process of planting hawthorn is simple; even a novice gardener can handle it. Stepwise Algorithm:

  1. Spread out the roots of a seedling, spray them with a 1% solution of potassium permanganate to prevent diseases.
  2. Carefully deepen the young plant in the hole, sprinkle it with a layer of sod and garden soil in the ratio 1: 1.
  3. Tamper the area around the circle of the trunk circle, pour plenty of warm water at the rate of 10 liters per plant. Mulch the surface of the earth with a layer up to 7 cm.

To ensure hawthorn comfortable growth and to avoid rotting of the trunk, it is necessary to deepen the sapling so that the root neck is approximately at the level of the soil.

The recommended distance between the plants is 3-4 m. To create a hedge, seedlings can be planted at intervals of up to 1-2 m.

Care features

All species of hawthorn culture - unpretentious plant that can grow and develop quickly, even with minimal care. Basic rules for plant care:

  • watering is carried out 2 times a month, when drought occurs, it is advisable to spray the leaves and increase the watering regime twice,
  • during the season, only one dressing is carried out in the spring before the bud formation begins. As a fertilizer, it is desirable to use a solution of mullein in a ratio of 1:10, which is applied directly under the roots,
  • It is important to promptly remove all deformed, damaged branches. If you are growing hawthorn as a hedge, you should conduct regular shaping in the fall and spring, it is advisable to cut off the shoots, as well as branches, to 1/3 of the length,
  • a layer of mulch should be maintained; in the fall, it is recommended to dig in the plant to the depth of the spade bayonet.

The plant is able to withstand severe frosts, even in the northern regions of the shelter for the winter is not carried out. It is enough to carry out mulching in autumn with a thickness of up to 10 cm.

Harvesting and storage

In folk medicine, inflorescences and hawthorn fruits are used, so the material must be collected in a timely manner. Flowers are harvested only at the beginning of flowering, when they contain the maximum amount of useful substances. It is advisable to take only the opened buds, which are easiest to save and use for processing.

Berries can be collected at the end of September. Maturity can be determined by the characteristic rich red color and softness. Harvest should be before the start of frosts, as in cold conditions they reduce the amount of vitamin C.

You can store flowers and berries in frozen or dried form, as well as twist with sugar in sealed glass jars.

Selection of seedlings

A healthy seedling is distinguished by a well-developed strong root system, a smooth, even trunk with 3-5 skeletal branches. To determine the quality of hawthorn, carefully examine it, paying attention to the description below:

  1. Roots should be fresh and well branched, with no nodules, galls, suspicious stains, mold and putrefactive areas. To check them, slightly scratch the lower processes - on suitable for planting specimens, fresh wood will appear at the site of damage.
  2. Ствол можно назвать качественным, если на нем нет никаких механических повреждений и непонятных новообразований, его кора ровная и гладкая.
  3. Высота растения должна колебаться в пределах полутора метра. Слишком рослые образцы плохо приживаются, болеют и долго сидят без роста.
  4. For rooting an excellent material are seedlings of 3 years of age. Trees that are more than 4 years old are not recommended to be replanted, as hawthorn has very deep rhizomes. Exceptions are specimens grown in large garden containers. When planting containers simply break open, so as not to damage the root system of the plant.

For long-term transportation, the root part of the acquired planting material is wrapped with a damp cloth and polyethylene. Alternatively, you can cover the wet substrate in a small plastic bag and place a seedling in it. The latter option will ensure plant vitality for several days.

How to plant hawthorn

Hawthorn is considered a very unpretentious plant, its cultivation and care in pleasure even to the most busy and lazy gardeners. This is the case when you can plant a tree and remember it only periodically, when it comes time to harvest the fruit. We will understand how to properly organize planting plants.

Many prefer to realize the rooting of seedlings in the spring, when stable warm weather is established outside and the earth warms up sufficiently. This period begins somewhere in the second decade of April. It is believed that such specimens grow up quickly, form powerful roots and build up lush biomass. These inclinations help a tree or shrub easier to winter.

Others are convincing of the greater benefits of autumn planting, since the young sapling, hitting the ground, has enough time to gain a firm hold before the onset of cold weather and grow into the ground. And even more so hawthorn, which is famous for its long powerful roots. With the onset of heat, such patterns are rapidly growing. In this case, the landing should be planned in mid-October, a few weeks before the first frost.

Experts share the opinion of those and others. In their opinion, the landing period is not particularly significant for hawthorn. The main thing is that the earth was not cold, and the weather allowed the plant to adapt to new conditions. It is also noted that spring plantings require regular moistening of the pristvolny holes in order to protect the seedlings from drying out.

Landing patterns

Planting is carried out in prepared pits so that its root collar is at ground level. Do not forget to pre-straighten the rhizome, pour it and thoroughly tamp the soil in the pit.

Some gardeners with this purpose specifically shake the seedling, while filled up the voids formed in the roots. At the end of all the work, the trunks of the wells are re-moistened, covered with a thin layer (up to 5 cm) of peat or other mulch.

When planning a landing, consider hawthorn crown volumes. In single landings, experts advise retreating from the trunks of neighboring plants up to 2 m. And if you conceived to create a living hedge from thorny bushes, you need to compact them with gaps of 15-20 cm.

For these purposes, land owners prefer single-pest and prickly hawthorn species. To the best of their branching shoots need to be twisted.

There is an alternative way to bookmark a hedge. It consists in rooting seedlings at a distance of half a meter each other in specially prepared trenches.

How to care for hawthorn

The plant does not require special care and special knowledge. It is possible to improve its appearance and fruiting by regular processing and moistening of the soil, periodic feeding and trimming. We will understand in more detail the main secrets of gardeners.

Watering, weeding and loosening

When hawthorn roots get too much water, the risk of developing putrefactive processes increases. Culture does not require frequent watering at all, since most of its species tolerate drought well. Their root system develops deep enough to feed the trunk with nutrients and moisture.

Therefore, mature trees can not be watered, but young seedlings need additional attention. Plants moisturize only during periods of lack of rain, pouring about 2-3 buckets of settled water under each barrel.

Regardless of the age of the hawthorn, it is imperative to clean the weeds around the planting in time, loosen and mulch the soil. Together, these works contribute to better aeration and nutrition of the roots, do not allow moisture to evaporate, and improve the aesthetic appearance of the garden.

Frankly, this procedure for hawthorn apply only caring owners who have free time. The culture is unpretentious, so it can do without fertilizers, but in this case, there are obvious signs of slower growth of shoots and deterioration of decorativeness.

Supplemental nutrition is desirable for all large-fruited varieties. To stimulate the harvest, the first time they are fed in early spring, the second - when the hawthorn blooms, and the third - during the ripening of the berries.

Two-time fertilizer is recommended for decorative variegated forms. It is conducted in spring and autumn. In all cases, solutions of organic substances are poured at the root, for which chicken manure, mullein, humate and compost are ideal. Also, a handful of urea dissolved in a bucket of water or mineral complex substances will not interfere. Ideally, fertilizers alternate.

Pest and disease control

In a temperate climate conditions, hawthorn is threatened: butterfly-boyar, deciduous moth, silkworm, apple sucker and aphid, which lay eggs on foliage and feed on the juice of young shoots.

The plant loses its healthy appearance, its leafy plates wither and curl, and premature leaf fall begins. To save the culture from the aggressive parasite, you can use any insecticide. Aktara, Aktellik, Bi-58. New have proven themselves well.

In the case of improper care with excessive watering in the roots of the plant can start a fungal infection. Notice it is easy on the general condition of the bush or tree. Its leaves begin to wither and turn yellow.

The only method of treatment is to stop all water procedures and add any fungicide to the roots. Experts recommend: “Acrobat MC”, “Abiga-Peak”, “Alirin B”, Bordeaux mixture, “Gamair”, “Skor”, “Topaz”, “Fundazol”.

Proper planting and care for hawthorn

Hawthorn grows in the form of shrubs great height. The plant received its wide distribution in decorative design.

Also hawthorn used for medical purposes, thanks to its beneficial properties. Hawthorn berries are eaten.

This article will describe hawthorn varieties and its beneficial qualities. Consider tips on planting, growing and caring for this plant, and more.

The berries and flowers of this plant are very useful. for human health. They are used either for prophylactic or therapeutic purposes.

Hawthorn components normalize blood pressure and digestive processes, prevent fatigue, reduce the risk of nervous diseases. Hawthorn should be used by those who suffer from cardiovascular diseases.

In ancient times, the berries of different varieties of hawthorn were used for medicinal purposes in Asian countries. In the sixteenth century, various species and varieties of plants were grown.

To begin with, hawthorn was used to combat diarrhea. And only then this plant was used to improve the performance of the cardiovascular system.

The main advantage of hawthorn is that its berries contain carotene, which is necessary to strengthen the immune system.

Also they contain a huge amount of calcium, magnesium, iron and many other chemical elements that are needed to improve the functioning of the circulatory system.

When using hawthorn fruit in the form of a decoction or infusion, it benefits each organ separately.

Berries and flowers of hawthorn are very useful for human health, necessary for those who suffer from cardiovascular diseases

This plant needs clay soilbut which contains many minerals and is rich in humus. After you have dug a hole (its depth should be 65 centimeters), you need to prepare a planting mixture.

It should consist of humus, sand and peat. At the very bottom of a dug pit, pour rubble about 20 centimeters high.

It is important to plant the plant in a sunny place.or it cannot produce a bountiful harvest.

Adult hawthorn has very long roots. Therefore, it is possible to do transplantation only at a young age of the plant, that is, up to five years. After this, it is not necessary to replant it anymore, since the hawthorn will acquire a strong and durable root system.

Planting hawthorn should be engaged in the spring or autumn. Regardless of the planting period, the plant will produce the same fruit yield. Until the plant is two years old, you need to decide the usual place where the hawthorn will grow.

After planting the soil must be watered. and cover with peat or ordinary earth for about seven centimeters. When planting you need to take into account the distance between the other plants in the garden, it should be two or three meters.

Bring a huge harvest hawthorn begins five years after planting. The greatest amount of hawthorn fruit will bring ten years after planting.

The expert will tell you about hawthorn, its features, planting and care:

One of the main advantages of hawthorn is easy care for it. You are required attentiveness. Important time to cut branches or shoots that withered or fell ill.

To plant looked neatly, it should be constantly cut. You need to cut the plant in the spring, and removal of dried and diseased parts can be done at any time of the year.

There is a need for constant removal of weeds and loosening the soil cover. Fertilizing hawthorn can be ordinary manure just before the flowering period of the plant.

Abundantly watered in summer and spring need only once a month. On one bush should pour 12 liters of purified water. But if the summer period is dry, it is important to increase watering up to three times.

Caring for hawthorn after planting consists in pruning, watering and loosening the soil, fertilizing with manure before flowering

Multiply hawthorn can be several methods.

The reproduction of seeds or pits of a given plant at home is a rather difficult process, because the stratification of a plant lasts approximately one year, and the first seeds sprout after a long period. Many seeds cannot germinate at all.

Prepare the seeds in advance and run the following algorithm.:

  1. They should stand in purified water for 72 hours in a room at room temperature (23 degrees Celsius).
  2. Then they just need to wipe thoroughly.
  3. Prepare potassium nitrate (combined mineral fertilizer) and lower the seeds there for 48 hours.
  4. Plant the seeds in the ground. Landing should be carried out in the last month of the autumn period (November).
  5. As soon as the seedling has reached a height of 60 centimeters, it must be cut. The shortening pruning involves removal of three buds. Also there is a reduction of shoots, there should be two of them - this is necessary for further proper growth of the plant.

Crimean hawthorn. Crimean Hawthorn - the species looks like a tree of low height and grows in the Crimea. The plant is almost impossible to find alone, it is planted in a group with other shrubs.

The berries of the plant have a cherry color with a dark shade, and the bark of the tree is brown with a dark shade. Leaf color is green. This variety grows on rocky slopes.

Among the varieties of boyarshnik distinguish Crimean, Chinese, Myagkovaty, Arnold, Maksimovic and others

Chinese hawthorn.

Since it most often grows in China, this species received such a name. Chinese hawthorn is grown in other countries on the banks of various rivers.

In Europe, the plant appeared in the nineteenth century.

This species loves the sun's rays, but can be grown in partial shade. The height of the tree reaches more than five meters. The bark of the trunk is gray with a dark shade.

The main feature of Chinese hawthorn - it has practically no spikes. The leaves have a green color with a bright shade. The inflorescences of plants on average have a diameter of seven centimeters.

The color of the berries is red with a very bright tone, almost. The berries themselves are shaped like a regular ball. The diameter of the berries - an average of 16 millimeters.

Soft hawthorn. This species is most common in areas of the United States of America.

Forest edges are the main distribution area of ​​soft hawthorn.

It tolerates low air temperatures and can grow on soil that is not rich in minerals.

The tree has a powerful trunk, and its height reaches nine meters. The spines of the plant have a chestnut color, and their length is ten centimeters. The length of the leaves - 6 or 7 centimeters. Flowers that have a diameter of three centimeters, create inflorescences, consisting of 12 flowers.

Berries - orange flower with a red tinge. The flowering period begins at the end of the spring period (May), and the soft hawthorn begins to bear fruit at the beginning of the autumn period (September).

Each variety of boyarshnik has its own characteristics, but the main advantage is easy care of the shrub

Hawthorn "Arnold".

Homeland of this variety is North America.

Distinctive features: thick shoots and large leaves that reach four centimeters in diameter, and their length is ten centimeters.

The flowering period begins either at the end of spring (May), or at the beginning of summer (June). In general, the plant begins to flower only eight years after planting.

Hawthorn "Arnold" brings early harvest. Berries can be collected almost every year.

Hawthorn "Maksimovic". This variety is given such a name due to its discoverer from Russia. The fruits are small in size, have the shape of a ball, and their diameter is only one centimeter. One kilogram contains on average 1800 berries.

The flowering period begins in the last month of spring (May), and this hawthorn variety begins to bear fruit at the end of summer (August) or at the beginning of autumn (September).

In the early twentieth century, the plant began to spread in other parts of the world. The leaves have a rhombus shape with a pointed end.

This is only a small part of the species and varieties of hawthorn.

Each species and variety have their own distinctive features. The main advantage of hawthorn is unpretentious care for him. Certain varieties can produce a huge harvest.

In the future, you can eat berries for preventive or medical purposes. If you suffer from any cardiovascular diseases, then this plant is suitable for you.

Remember: hawthorn can bring you many benefits and joy.

The main methods of reproduction hawthorn

Hawthorn is a magnificent plant that is actively used not only in traditional medicine, but also as a gardening tool, as well as in landscape design.

There is a huge number of species of this wonderful plant, but a little over 50 are cultivated in gardening and gardening.

To successfully grow hawthorn in your garden, you need to have an idea about the main ways of its reproduction: cuttings, seeds from bones. Below you will find information on the proper reproduction of the plant (with photo).

Hawthorn: description, useful properties

Hawthorn is an incredibly beautiful plant that during the flowering period pleases the eye of a luxurious look with bunches of red berries surrounded by lush fiery foliage.

This shrub or small tree is known not only for its excellent appearance, but also for its incredible properties, which is possible due to the presence in the fruit of the plant of a large number of various trace elements and vitamins: vitamins A, E, K, potassium, calcium, zinc, iron, copper and so forth

Hawthorn has a great benefit to the cardiovascular system, normalizes the work of the digestive tract, improves the elasticity of blood vessels, restores the nervous system, etc.

Everyone knows teas and decoctions made from hawthorn. But few know that hawthorn can be harvested also in winter (and both the fruit and flowers).

The branches of the plant are laid out in a cool, well-ventilated area.

Carefully dried flowers are neatly folded into fabric bags and stored in a dry place.

It is also important to have an idea of ​​how the hawthorn can bring not harm, but harm. You can not use the plant in any form (teas, infusions, etc.

) children who are under the age of 12, pregnant and lactating mothers, as well as individuals with individual intolerance to the components contained in hawthorn fruits.

All other categories of persons also can not be abused hawthorn for one simple reason: it can cause severe dizziness.

Reproduction by cuttings

The vegetative breeding method is also quite applicable for hawthorn. But it is important to use the root cuttings, since the green ones will not give a qualitative growth of the seedlings, and those already stiffened are completely unsuitable for the reproduction of hawthorn.

For vegetative propagation, use hawthorn root cuttings.

Корневые отпрыски следует аккуратно отрезать от материнского растения, не затрагивая при этом горизонтальный стержень. Когда отпрыск образует несколько первых корешков, можно отделить его полностью и осуществить пересадку на основное место.

Если речь о кустовых видах боярышника, то здесь более уместно использовать для размножения отводки.

For these purposes, suitable annual growths that need to be laid out in small holes dug around the bush. Gains are necessarily filled with earth, but before that, gently pressed to the ground with wooden mounts. In the future, it will only be necessary to periodically moisten the soil and feed it with beneficial compounds.

Once the root system has developed sufficiently, it is possible to separate the young plant and transplant it to another location.

That's all you need to know about the main ways of growing hawthorn in the garden. As you can see, the plant is completely unpretentious and easy to reproduce in standard ways. Good luck!

Healing Hawthorn Recipes

Somehow it happened that only hawthorn was grown in our gardens for ornamental purposes, planting and care in order to obtain medicinal raw materials were rarely met.

Later, this official medicine investigated the hawthorn berry and confirmed that its fruits really have a cardiological effect, and therefore are useful for functional disorders of the heart activity, neuroses, and for primary forms of hypertension. In addition, the preparations of this plant tone the heart muscle, eliminate arrhythmia, tachycardia, reduce the excitability of the central nervous system, strengthen the cerebral and coronary circulation, reduce pain, a feeling of heaviness and contraction in the heart and improve the general condition of patients.

It is true that the common hawthorn is beautiful. In the spring, it is lushly decorated with white or pink flowers, and in the fall it is covered with a purple outfit - all the branches of the plant are entirely covered with tassels of spherical berries (up to 1 cm in diameter) hanging on long stalks.

Just like a madam, dressed up in a smart sundress. In the people the hawthorn and was called the madam-tree. Hawthorn was also called a damn needle for very hard spines of 1-2 cm in size in the lower part of shoots. This is a modified short shoots that have developed from the axillary buds.

Such pricklyness can be used by planting a hedge from hawthorn. For a long time, it will serve you no worse than a fence made of a picket fence — a hawthorn will live to 200 years. And the birds on your site will attract - lush thickets of mary-tree - one of the favorite nesting sites.

And hawthorn is attractive for bees, especially its flowers.

As he grows

In nature, this handsome man grows as a tree and a bush, reaching a height of 4-5 meters. Occurs on the edges, in the meadows, on the slopes, along the banks of rivers and streams.

On a garden plot, a single hawthorn plant is better formed as a bush, then it is more convenient to pick berries.

Formation of the crown is similar to how it is done in bird cherry.

Trees usually have a wide crown. The bark of the hawthorn ordinary brown or gray. The leaves are unusual - shiny, leathery, bright or dark green above, but lighter below. White flowers blooming in May-June look good against their background.

Among the variety of species (more than 80), the blood-red hawthorn is widely known and ubiquitous. Only he is used for medicinal purposes. It was him and the people called them affectionately lady.

But here the lady is not afraid of frosts, the hawthorn is frost-resistant and unpretentious: its powerful root system easily adapts to any soil. Planting and caring for hawthorn is very simple. He loves only that the soil was wet, but not indifferent to the sunlight.

That's all the conditions for the cultivation of hawthorn to be successful.

How hawthorn bears fruit

Hawthorn fruits ripen in August-September. From the bush you can collect up to 15-20 kg. But hawthorn starts fructification from 10 years after planting, before this time the harvest is rare, berries are picked a little.

Other years and completely barren. The fruits of hawthorn with a diameter of 1-3 cm, have a variety of forms - spherical, oval, pear-shaped. The taste varies, everything determines the type of hawthorn.

The taste of the pulp of blood-red hawthorn is mealy, sweetish, slightly astringent. Inside the fruit 1-5 hard bones.

Freshly harvested fruits are usable, but a large amount of fruit eaten can lead to chills, shortness of breath and other painful phenomena.

Hawthorn description

The plant is a a fairly large tree shrub or, one might say, a small tree that grows up to 6 meters in height, belongs to the family of multi-colored. It has a thick crown and branches covered with long prickles. Thanks to these qualities, the plant is great for creating hedges. The hawthorn species that grow in Russia are not particularly “thorny”, unlike their “relatives” from Europe and America. The shrub has large, egg-shaped leaves. Some species are distinguished by a rugged plate, while in other species it is even. There are both semi-evergreen plants and deciduous plants.

Spines hawthorn is nothing like his former twigs. They can even grow leaves at the first stage of growth. In different species, the length of the thorns varies from twelve to three centimeters. For the most part, they grow near the fruit, serving as a kind of protection. The main distinguishing feature of such protection is its extraordinary strength. It is necessary to walk with great care near this plant, because the thorns of hawthorn can easily pierce a thin sole, which is made of almost any material.

Garden hawthorn blooms annually, and care and planting for the plant - the procedures are not very complicated. White shrub buds are collected in corymbose inflorescences. Unfortunately, they do not have a pleasant aroma. The fact is that they contain the substance dimethylamine, which smells like stale fish.

Hawthorn does not bear fruit every year. If during the flowering period there was rainy weather, then you will not have to wait for a good harvest. Fruits can have a variety of colors (from red to pale yellow and even black), which completely depends on the cultivated variety. The shape of hawthorn fruits are pear-shaped, spherical, elongated, etc. Their size depends on the variety variety and can vary from 4 millimeters to 3 centimeters.

Getting a beautiful hawthorn hedge

Now you know how to properly plant hawthorn. Plant care will subsequently consist mainly of one pruning. Planted hawthorn around the perimeter of the site forms a deaf, spectacular and unusual hedge. To obtain such beauty in his country house, should be the first thing dig a trench for future seedlings. The marking is done in the same way as when building a regular fence. Hawthorn of almost all varieties has a great height, so the width of the trench can not be less than 60 cm. Seedlings, as a rule, are planted in half a meter from each other. They should also be placed strictly in the center of the excavated trench.

Since the shrub grows for quite a long period, it is advisable to install a temporary fence from the netting of a chain-link, croaker, shtaketnik or boards at the site of planting.

For adult plants, it is necessary to dig not a trench, but pits for planting. It would be best to make them square in shape with strictly vertical walls. Their size should be chosen in such a way that the roots of the plants for planting do not reach the main ground from the bottom and sides by 15 cm.

The choice of varieties for hedge

To create a beautiful hedge, almost any kind of hawthorn will do. but The best grades are:

  • "Arnold",
  • "Blood red",
  • "Peristonadrezanny",
  • "Soft",
  • "Sporta"
  • "Prickly hawthorn",

The first three varieties not only form an impenetrable blank wall, but also bloom very beautifully.

Shrub care

Now it is worth considering how to grow a thick and beautiful plant. The process of planting and maintenance does not take much time, but you should follow some rules. Hawthorn is not particularly demanding on the substrate, but from time to time it should still be a little fed up. In the spring, it is recommended to bring Kemira Universal (a mixture of 120 grams per 1 square meter) under the roots of the plant. Before the flowering period, all plants should be fertilized with manure diluted in water (1:10), approximately 8 liters per bush.

Watering hawthorn, usually once a month. At the same time each adult bush should have at least 10 liters of water. The amount of watering can be increased to two per month in very hot and dry weather.

Fruit plant must be fed. Watering such hawthorn should be done in the same way as when watering a conventional ornamental variety.

Preparing for the winter

Some of the hawthorn varieties are not at all afraid of the winter cold:

Other varieties, such as "hawthorn ordinary", are very afraid of frost. Even at positive temperatures, the plant can freeze flower buds or young shoots. Covering an adult plant is, of course, quite problematic. That is why in cold regions it is customary to grow frost-resistant varieties. If some shoots still freeze out, they need to be simply removed in the spring. Hawthorn very quickly will be able to grow new branches. Young plants that were planted relatively recently, it is customary to sprinkle with a leafy layer, which is at least 15 cm. This procedure will prevent the roots from freezing.

Pruning hawthorn

Hawthorn is one of those ornamental plants that require mandatory artificial crown formation. It is especially important to do this correctly and regularly in the case of a hedge. The lower branches of the plant often die off and the solid green wall gradually becomes thinned.

The first formation is usually carried out in the spring to the second or third year of life. Bushes are usually cut to a height of ten centimeters from the ground. This procedure is repeated for two to three years, until the bushes become thick. After this hedge can be given a semicircular or square shape. It is advisable to perform pruning every year. In the spring, the plant is removed from the dried and diseased branches, and then proceed to the direct formation of a hedge. When cutting, it should be remembered that the shoots and branches can be cut only 1/3 of their original length.

Content

  • 1. Listen to the article (soon)
  • 2. Description
  • 3. Landing
    • 3.1. When to plant
    • 3.2. How to plant
  • 4. Care
    • 4.1. How to grow
    • 4.2. Transfer
    • 4.3. Pests and diseases
  • 5. Types and varieties
  • 6. Properties: harm and benefit
    • 6.1. Beneficial features
    • 6.2. Contraindications

Planting and caring for hawthorn (in short)

  • Landing: better in the fall, in the period of leaf fall, but it is possible in the spring, before the sap flow begins.
  • Bloom: spring or early summer.
  • Lighting: bright sunshine.
  • The soil: heavy, well drained fertile soils.
  • Watering: in the normal season, one irrigation per month is enough at a rate of 1 bucket per adult bush. In drought should be watered more often.
  • Top dressing: Once per season, before flowering, a solution of mullein (1:10) is introduced into the soil.
  • Pruning: in spring, for sanitary purposes and for shaping the crown.
  • Breeding: seeds, root suckers, grafting, layering and cuttings.
  • Pests: green apple aphid, comma-shaped apple scutes, rosian moths and haws.
  • Diseases: powdery mildew, ocher, brown, white, gray and yellow spot.
  • Properties: some hawthorn species have healing properties.

Hawthorn plant - description

Most haws are deciduous, multi-lined trees, but there are also semi-evergreen plant species. In height hawthorn reach from 3 to 5 m, but in optimal conditions they can grow up to 12 m. Their crown is round, dense, ovoid or spherical, often asymmetrical. The bark is gray or brown, fissured or ribbed, in some species it peels off in small plates. Branches are straight, zigzag or weeping. Young shoots - with a felt downy or bare, purplish-red color. The branches of many species are equipped with leafless spines from 5 mm to 10 cm long, developing from the axillary buds. Asian and European hawthorn spines are small or not at all.

Rounded, rhombic, elliptical or ovoid leaves of hawthorn with pinnose, solid or lobed plate with serrated, serrated or dissected edges are arranged on the shoots in a spiral. The length of leaves is from 1 to 12 cm, they can be bare or densely pubescent, petiolate or almost sedentary. In autumn, many species of leaves turn orange, purple or golden, but some species keep the leaves green until they fall off.

White, pink or red flowers of hawthorn with a diameter of 1-2 cm with five petals form complex corymbose or umbellate inflorescences. Sometimes they are many-flowered, but in some species the flowers are single or collected in a bouquet of 2-3 pieces. The flowers contain dimethylamine, giving them the smell of decaying fish. Hawthorn begins to bloom in spring or early summer.

Hawthorn fruits are spherical, pear-shaped or elongated small apples ranging in size from 5 mm to 4 cm. Several large trihedral seeds ripen inside the fruit. The color of the fruit depends on the type and variety of the plant: they can be red, bright orange, orange-yellow and almost black. Fruits ripen in September or October. The maximum fructification hawthorn reaches to 10 years.

We will tell you how to plant and care for hawthorn in the open field: when and how to plant a plant, how and when hawthorn blooms, how to protect it from diseases and pests, when hawthorn can be transplanted, what types of hawthorn can be grown in culture, in which benefit hawthorn and to whom it can harm.

When to plant hawthorn.

On garden plots, hawthorn is planted, as a rule, to create an impassable hedge, as well as a separate plant for receiving fruits. It is planted in spring or autumn, and autumn planting, as is the case with other fruit trees, is preferable.

Hawthorn likes open sunny areas and heavy fertile soils with good drainage.

How to plant hawthorn.

The choice of location and method of planting hawthorn depends on the purpose for which you grow it. If you are interested in fruit harvest, it is better to plant two or three plants at a distance of about two meters from each other - so they will be better pollinated. To seal the landing pit, you need to prepare a mixture of peat, sand, humus, the upper fertile layer of the earth and with great care add a little lime to it.

Planting hawthorn for hedge is carried out in a common trench with a depth and width of 50 cm. Seedlings are placed into it at a distance of approximately 50 cm from each other. When choosing a place for a hedge, try to avoid even the slightest shading, because in crowded, and even in the shade trees will not develop.

The best planting materials are biennial seedlings. For a solo landing, dig pits with a depth and width of about 70 cm, in which a layer of broken brick, crushed stone or gravel is placed 15-20 cm thick, and a layer of sand 5 cm thick is poured in from above. The roots of the seedling gently straighten, placed in a hole and covered with prepared soil mixture so that the root neck was 3-5 cm above the surface. After planting, the seedlings are watered abundantly, and when the water is absorbed, the tree-trunk area is mulched with a layer of compost, peat or humus not less than 5 cm thick, and the shoots of the seedlings are shortened to 10 cm.

How to grow hawthorn.

Caring for hawthorn consists of the usual for any gardener procedures: watering, loosening the soil and weeding in the tree trunks, fertilizing, pruning and measures to protect the plant from diseases and pests. It is very important to monitor the general condition of hawthorn and timely cut off diseased, drying, thickening and competing branches and shoots.

If you want to give the crown a certain shape, you will need to carry out formative pruning, and it is better to do it in the spring, as well as sanitary cleaning. It is more convenient to grow hawthorn in the form of a bush, for which they leave 5-6 skeletal branches, maintaining their height with pruning at a level of 2-2.5 m. On seedlings of a hedge, the first few years are cut by half of the annual growth, and then maintained bushes within 50-70 cm

As for soil moistening, in a typical summer hawthorn only needs one irrigation per month at a rate of 1 bucket of water per adult bush. If summer will be hot, then watering can be made more frequent. After moistening, the soil should be loosened in a peristal circle to a depth of 10-15 cm. In autumn, hawthorn is dug around the crown perimeter to the depth of a spade.

Cultivation of hawthorn and caring for it involve only one dressing for the growing season - before flowering. As a fertilizer, it is best to use a mullein solution (dilute 1 part of cow dung in 10 parts of water). This food plant should be enough for the entire season.

Hawthorn transplant.

If you need to transplant hawthorn in the garden, then you need to prepare for it a new pit, and only then proceed to transplant. When is it better to transplant hawthorn? As early as possible, since by 5 years he has already formed a long and powerful root.

Prepare a nutritive mixture for hawthorn. Обкопайте куст по проекции периметра кроны, стараясь не нарушить корни, подденьте земляной ком лопатой и, наклонив растение, вытащите куст из земли, переложите его на расстеленную ткань или пленку, перетащите к новой яме, обработайте обнаженные корни раствором Корневина и посадите куст на новое место.

Вредители и болезни боярышника.

Caring for hawthorn flower provides for the organization of its protection against harmful insects and diseases. Hawthorn affects the same pests and diseases as other fruit trees: cherry, plum, pear, apple, apricot, cherry plum, peach and others. Still, he most often suffers from such diseases as powdery mildew, ocher, brown, white, gray and yellow spotting, and among the pests it is most dangerous for the plant to have a green apple aphid, a comma-shaped apple tree, a rosette leafworm and a hawthorn.

Mealy dew forms on the leaves and shoots of hawthorn white cobwebby or gray felt bloom, which eventually darkens and dries, twisting the leaves and deforming the shoots. The affected shoots must be cut, and the hawthorn should be treated with Cumulus, Vectra or Scor. After two weeks, the treatment of the plant with fungicides should be repeated.

Ocher spot appears on the leaf plates of the plant in the middle of summer with brown or ocher spots without clear edging, which causes the leaves to dry prematurely and fall off.

Brown spot looks like round or angular brown spots up to 6 mm in diameter with a dark border on the upper side of the leaves of hawthorn. In places where they were formed, the leaves begin to dry.

Gray spot - These are numerous rounded spots of gray with a dark border on the leaves. The active period of the disease is observed at the end of the summer.

White spot appears by the middle of summer with small round brown spots, the middle of which gradually turns white, and the edges remain dark.

Yellow spot it is diagnosed by the appearance of large yellow spots on the upper side of the leaves, which eventually turn purple-brown in a yellow halo. And from the underside of the spots are formed fruit bodies of the fungus. Leaves turn yellow and fall off.

In the fight against all types of spotting, hawthorn is treated with a one-percentage Bordeaux mixture or copper oxychloride. For prophylactic purposes, such treatments are carried out in the spring before the buds swell and in the fall after leaf fall. In addition, it is necessary to remove plant residues after pruning hawthorn, and in the fall, rake and destroy fallen leaves.

Green Apple Aphid damages the young organs of the plant, sucking the juice out of them, causing the leaves to fold and prematurely wither, and the shoots are deformed. You can kill aphids with a solution of 20 g of Malathion in 10 liters of water or folk remedies - garlic or tobacco infusion with soap. And as a preventive measure, hawthorn treatment with Nitrafen gives good results before leafing.

Rosana moth lays eggs in the bark of trees, and the caterpillars that emerge from them eat away the buds of the plant, wrap the leaves, gnaw through the ovary. To combat the leafworm, hawthorn is applied to a solution of 20 g of Chlorophos in 10 liters of water, and prevention from the pest consists in spraying the plant before the start of sap flow with Nitrafen.

Hawthorn - the butterfly feeds on the nectar of hawthorn flowers and lays eggs on the upper side of the leaves, and the caterpillars eat the buds and leaves. Destroy the pest before flowering and after treatment with Karbofos or Chlorophos (20 g per 10 liters of water).

Apple ciclopaata - small sucking insect, feeding, like aphids, cellular sap of hawthorn leaves and shoots. You can get rid of it by treating the plant with Karbofos, Fufanon, Aktar or Aktellik.

Pear Hawthorn (Crataegus phaenopyrum)

differs from other species in three-lobed leaves, reminiscent of viburnum leaves. In nature, it can be found in the Midwest USA. This tree is up to 12 m high with straight spines up to 5 cm in length. Flowers of the hawthorn pear are collected in many-flowered corymbose inflorescences, and bright red fruits reach a diameter of 5-8 mm. The disadvantage of the pear hawthorn is its low winter hardiness, therefore it is not grown in the middle lane,

Soft hawthorn (Crataegus submollis),

or half hawthorn is a typical representative of the North American flora. This tree is up to 8 m high with a thick crown in the shape of a tent. Its leaves are ovate, dark green, with three or four pairs of lobes, at first strongly pubescent, but with age the pubescence remains only along the veins. In autumn, the leaves become red-brown. The large flowers of soft hawthorn, up to 2, 5 cm in diameter, on thin and long pedicels, are collected in ten to fifteen-flowered thyroid inflorescences with felt pubes. Fruits are orange-red, with a diameter up to 2 cm, with mealy tasty pulp of yellow color. This species is most decorative during the fruiting period. In culture since 1830,

Peristonadresis Hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida)

often called Chinese, because in nature it grows in the Amur region, Primorye, Korea and Northeast China. This is a winter-hardy, moisture-loving and undemanding to the composition of the soil a highly branchy plant with a height of 4 to 6 m with a spreading crown, dark gray bark, with a small number of spikes about 2 cm long. It has medium-sized shiny bright pinnate-cut leaves and bright red pear-shaped or spherical fruits up to 17 mm in diameter, dotted with small white warts. Decorative tree for the whole season. In culture, view from 1860,

Spider hawthorn (Crataegus crus-galli),

or "spur" originally from the eastern part of the United States, where it grows along river valleys, edges, mountain slopes and valleys. The plants of this species reach 6 to 12 m in height. Their crown is wide-spreading, with drooping branches dotted with slightly curved spikes similar to rooster spurs up to 10 cm long. Leaves are 8-10 cm long, bare, leathery, elongated obovate, with irregular sharp teeth along the edges, dark green, but in autumn they become bright orange. White flowers with a diameter of up to 2 cm in the amount of 15-20 pieces are collected in shields. The fruits ripening in the third decade of September and remaining on the hawthorn throughout the winter can be of different colors - from whitish green to dull red. The plant is drought-resistant, normally tolerates the conditions of the city, but its frost resistance is low. In culture, the view from 1656,

Green Hawthorn (Crataegus chlorosarca)

originally from the forests of Kamchatka, Sakhalin, Kuriles and Japan. This species grows with a bush, reaching a height of 4 to 6 m. The bark on the trunk and the old branches is gray, and the young shoots are dark purple in thorns up to 15 mm long. The leaves are egg-shaped, with a broad base and a sharp apex, lobed, bare or pubescent, with the pile on the underside of the plate thick, and on the top dispersed. White flowers with dark anthers stamens form dense shields. The black spherical fruit has a delicious green flesh, so the hawthorn is called green meat. In culture, the view from 1880,

Common hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna)

found wild in the Caucasus, in the southern regions of the European part of Russia and in Central Asia. Biologically, this species is close to the prickly hawthorn, but differs from it in its rapid growth and pinkish color of flowers. The life span of the plant is 200-300 years. The tree reaches a height of 3 to 6 m, but in favorable conditions it can grow higher. It has a symmetrical rounded crown marina, bare shoots in a few spines up to 1 cm long, rhombic or ovate leaves and inflorescences of 10-18 flowers. In the fruit of the hawthorn odnopestichnogo only one bone matures. There is this kind of form with double pink and white flowers. From garden forms more than others are common:

  • - pyramid - a plant with a crown in the shape of a pyramid,
  • - weeping - a bush with branches downwards,
  • - crimson (with single dark red flowers),
  • - pink weeping (with pink flowers and branches down),
  • - pink - petals of flowers of pink color in a white strip,
  • - white terry - with double white flowers,
  • - red terry,
  • - always blooming - elegant plant, blooming throughout the summer,
  • - split-leaf - hawthorn with deeply dissected feathery leaves,
  • - white and motley - a form with motley leaves,
  • - wheelless.

By hybridization, a variety of hawthorn of the same name, Rosa Flora Pleno, with dark pink flowers of double flowers was bred.

As for the varieties of hawthorn prickly, the description of which we gave at the beginning of the article, decorative forms Bicolor (white flowers with red edges), Pauli (with terry shiny purple crimson flowers), oak-leaved and golden (with yellow fruits) grow more often than others. Such varieties of hawthorn prickly are also of interest:

  • Crawl scarlet - ornamental plant with a height of 3-4 m with an asymmetric wide crown and double flowers of carmine shade. The leaves of this cultivar are three to five-lobed, dark green from the upper side and lighter from the lower. Fruits are spherical or ovoid, red-brown, slightly silver cast,
  • Arnold - large-fruited hawthorn with thick articulated shoots, rough grayish bark, rounded leaves, spikes up to 9 cm long, white flowers in the corymbidal inflorescences and sour-sweet fruits with 3-4 seeds.

Besides these species are found in the culture of the Altai hawthorn, Crimea, scarlet, fan-shaped, white-naped, Douglas, blood red, or Siberian, rotundifolia, zelenoplodnyh, pyatipestichny, krupnopylnikovy or krupnokolyuchkovy, Maksimovic, Pontic, Poyarkova, streamside and others.

Useful properties of hawthorn.

Since the beginning of the XVI century, hawthorn began to be used in medicine as an astringent for intestinal disorders. From the XIX century, tea was used to purify blood from its flowers and leaves, and from the beginning of the 20th, flowers and fruits of the plant have been used for vascular and heart diseases.

Not all types of hawthorn have the same healing power. The most pronounced therapeutic properties are hawthorn blood-red, ordinary, Dahurian, green-fruited, five-pedigree and one-pest. For the manufacture of medicines using flowers and fruits of hawthorn.

The composition of hawthorn fruit includes sugars - mainly fructose, so they can be eaten by diabetics - and a whole range of biologically active substances: triterpenes, as well as tartaric, coffee, chlorogenic and citric acids, acetylcholine, choline, quercetin, tannins, phytosterols, fatty oil, sorbitol and vitamins A, P and C.

The use of hawthorn has a beneficial effect on the work of the heart, and the fruits of the plant and preparations from them do not have side effects. Hawthorn is shown to people of old age and as a prophylactic agent, because it helps strengthen the heart muscle, prevents changes in the coronary vessels, speeds up blood flow, normalizes and stabilizes blood pressure, relieves fatigue, irritability and anxiety.

The most famous hawthorn preparation is tincture. At home, it can be prepared in two ways:

  • - 100 (150) g ​​of dried fruits should be well crushed with a wooden mortar, placed in a glass dish, pour 1 liter of alcohol (vodka), tightly sealed and placed in a dark cool place for three weeks, then strain through cheesecloth,
  • - 100 g of fresh flowers placed in a glass dish, pour 1 liter of alcohol (vodka), tightly close and leave in a cool dark place for 10 days, then strain.

We multiply the hawthorn themselves

How to plant a hedge

Healing Hawthorn Recipes

Somehow it happened that only hawthorn was grown in our gardens for ornamental purposes, planting and care in order to obtain medicinal raw materials were rarely met.

Later, this official medicine investigated the hawthorn berry and confirmed that its fruits really have a cardiological effect, and therefore are useful for functional disorders of the heart activity, neuroses, and for primary forms of hypertension. In addition, the preparations of this plant tone the heart muscle, eliminate arrhythmia, tachycardia, reduce the excitability of the central nervous system, strengthen the cerebral and coronary circulation, reduce pain, a feeling of heaviness and contraction in the heart and improve the general condition of patients.

It is true that the common hawthorn is beautiful. In the spring, it is lushly decorated with white or pink flowers, and in the fall it is covered with a purple outfit - all the branches of the plant are entirely covered with tassels of spherical berries (up to 1 cm in diameter) hanging on long stalks.

Just like a madam, dressed up in a smart sundress. In the people the hawthorn and was called the madam-tree. Hawthorn was also called a damn needle for very hard spines of 1-2 cm in size in the lower part of shoots. This is a modified short shoots that have developed from the axillary buds.

Such pricklyness can be used by planting a hedge from hawthorn. For a long time, it will serve you no worse than a fence made of a picket fence — a hawthorn will live up to 200 years. And the birds on your site will attract - lush thickets of mary-tree - one of the favorite nesting sites.

And hawthorn is attractive for bees, especially its flowers.

As he grows

In nature, this handsome man grows as a tree and a bush, reaching a height of 4-5 meters. Occurs on the edges, in the meadows, on the slopes, along the banks of rivers and streams.

On a garden plot, a single hawthorn plant is better formed as a bush, then it is more convenient to pick berries.

Formation of the crown is similar to how it is done in bird cherry.

Trees usually have a wide crown. The bark of the hawthorn ordinary brown or gray. The leaves are unusual - shiny, leathery, bright or dark green above, but lighter below. White flowers blooming in May-June look good against their background.

Among the variety of species (more than 80), the blood-red hawthorn is widely known and ubiquitous. Only he is used for medicinal purposes. It was him and the people called them affectionately lady.

But here the lady is not afraid of frosts, the hawthorn is frost-resistant and unpretentious: its powerful root system easily adapts to any soil. Planting and caring for hawthorn is very simple. He loves only that the soil was wet, but not indifferent to the sunlight.

That's all the conditions for the cultivation of hawthorn to be successful.

How hawthorn bears fruit

Hawthorn fruits ripen in August-September. From the bush you can collect up to 15-20 kg. But hawthorn starts fructification from 10 years after planting, before this time the harvest is rare, berries are picked a little.

Other years and completely barren. The fruits of hawthorn with a diameter of 1-3 cm, have a variety of forms - spherical, oval, pear-shaped. The taste varies, everything determines the type of hawthorn.

The taste of the pulp of blood-red hawthorn is mealy, sweetish, slightly astringent. Inside the fruit 1-5 hard bones.

Freshly harvested fruits are usable, but a large amount of fruit eaten can lead to chills, shortness of breath and other painful phenomena.

We multiply the hawthorn themselves

Hawthorn propagated by seeds, root suckers, root cuttings.

During reproduction, seeds are sown seeds, which are seeds. Because of the hard shell of seeds, seeds do not easily germinate. Therefore, stratification is needed to improve seed germination. Do it like this.

The stones are mixed with wet peat or sand at a ratio of 1: 3 in a small box, after which the box is transferred to a room with a temperature of 4-7 degrees (basement, refrigerator, the space between the frames on the windowsill) and leave for 3-4 months.

It is best to begin stratification immediately after collection, in August. After that, you can immediately put the seeds in the substrate on the windowsill, occasionally watering the substrate so that it is wet.

Accelerates seed germination by washing the seed in running water, as well as collecting the seed until the fruit reaches maturity.

Often the reason for the lack of germination is that there are no seeds in the seed, therefore hawthorn has a large seeding rate per square meter. meter 10-20 g. Seeds are sown to a depth of 2-3 cm, and the distance between the rows of 20-25 cm.

Do not expect quick results, it happened that the bones were sprouting only in the second year. Slowly grow and seedlings. They are grown for 3, and sometimes 4 years, until they form a fairly stable root system.

Then transplanted to a permanent place.

During seed reproduction, seedlings begin to bear fruit for 10 years, and during reproduction by root suckers and root cuttings - by 3-4. However, with this method of reproduction, seedlings do not always form their own root system.

Reproduction root cuttings produced in the fall or early spring, for this take the roots with a diameter of 0.5-1 cm and cut them on cuttings 6-10 cm in length, planted with a thin end into the ground, the upper end of the cutting is left above the soil by 1-2 cm, the best planting place - bed, soil - sandy.

After planting, the soil needs to be watered and mulched to preserve moisture.

We plant hawthorn correctly

If you got accustomed to hawthorn, it is recommended to transplant it in a spring or autumn to a permanent place. For landing dig holes with a diameter of 50 cm and a depth of 40 cm.

Before planting, the pits are filled with fertile soil mixed with organic and mineral fertilizers (10 kg of compost or manure and 100 g of nitroammofoski).

Long and broken roots to healthy wood pruned and dipped in a mixture of clay and mullein. У 3-летних саженцев перед посадкой боковые побеги и верхушку обрезают на 1/3 длины.

Настой плодов боярышника

15 г (1 столовая ложка) раздробленного сухого сырья залить 200 мл кипятка. Настоять. Принимать по 1/2 или 1/3 стакана за 30-40 мин. до еды 2-3 раза в день.

Экстракт плодов боярышника 25 г раздробленного сырья залить 100 мл кипятка. Кипятить до уменьшения объема жидкости наполовину. Принимать по 30-40 капель за 30 мин.

до еды 3 раза в день.

Джем из боярышника

Enumerated and washed ripe fruits (1 cup) are poured into the pan, add 1/2 cup of water and cook until softened. The broth is decanted into separate dishes.

Then rubbed through a colander, the seeds and peels are thrown away, and the rubbed mass is mixed with broth and sugar (0.9-1.0 kg of the rubbed mass and broth). Boil until thick cream, constantly stirring.

It is advisable to add citric or tartaric acid during cooking (1-1.5 g per 1 kg of mass).

Reproduction hawthorn

When asked how to reproduce hawthorn, experienced specialists offer the following options:

The scheme of reproduction by layings is based on the fact that in spring the plant escapes into a recess in the ground, is fixed and sprinkled with earth. Then this area needs to be watered and fertilized, and by the fall the shoot will have roots. It is cut from the mother tree and planted as a separate plant.

Propagating hawthorn cuttings - a more complex process. You can chop in the spring before the sap flow season or in the fall after the foliage has subsided. First you need to select the shoots. At this stage, it is important to understand exactly which shoots will take root well. They should not be frostbite, without visible damage, age 1-2 years. The best shoots are in the middle of the hawthorn on the south side of the crown. They need to cut into 10 cm.

It is worth noting that there is a way of hawthorn propagation by cuttings, when for this purpose, not the shoots of the tree, but its roots are used. For hawthorn grafting, at least 2 cm of roots are selected. Next, there are processes of root formation, rearing and planting - all as usual.

After cuttings are cut, they must be placed in a root-forming solution, then planted in a greenhouse in specially prepared soil of peat and sand. After planting, the soil in the cuttings is moistened with the same root-forming solution.

Note! If the escape is immature, it is necessarily trimmed under the kidney or node for better protection against diseases. If already lignified, then in the center of the internode. The incision angle is strictly 45ᵒ. The cutting tool is ground and disinfected.

The next stage is growing. Some gardeners miss it, but it is very important for the general strengthening of the plant. For this purpose, the fertile land is specially selected, it is flavored with chalk and defecation. Cuttings are planted in the soil, keeping a distance of 20 cm between them. The term of growing is long - up to 4 years. All this time, plants take care of, carrying out standard procedures (watering, loosening, pruning). In the second year they feed with nitrogen fertilizer. When the seedling reaches 60 cm, it is cut and leave 2-3 shoots.

Many novice gardeners are concerned about how the hawthorn propagates by seed, and whether it is possible to get something out of it. You can grow almost anything from seeds, but is it worth it? In hawthorn, the seed has a thick shell; it awakens for a long time. When propagating by seed, they will need to be stratified for about a year. After that, they are planted in the garden, but shoots may appear after 2 years. There is also a high probability that the seeds will be empty, so all the work was in vain.

Important! Thus, the most convenient breeding method is a variant of grafting, and according to experienced gardeners, it is more convenient to root (they take root faster, forming a strong seedling).

Hawthorn: cultivation and care

All that needs to be done when caring for hawthorn is to remove dead and diseased branches, fertilize slurry in April or May in spring before flowering, water it copiously once a month, remove weeds and loosen the soil. These are standard care procedures for any garden tree, and do not generate strong financial and physical costs.

Important! In order to avoid hawthorn frost in winter, it is recommended to cover it with dry leaves or straw in the first 2 years with the onset of cold weather.

From 2 years after planting and before the first harvest you need to feed the plant every year. The first top dressing is applied in spring in the form of a nitrogen-based solution, and the second at the end of September from nitrophoska. In the right proportions of the substance diluted with water and poured into the soil by the plant.

To improve hawthorn yield, there is a system of 3 dressings.

  • The first feeding is carried out when leaf buds bloom. To do this, monosodium glutamate is diluted with 3 tbsp. spoons per 10 liters of water. For each bush will need from 20 to 30 liters.
  • The second feeding is carried out when the color of the tree begins. It consists of potassium sulphate and organic fertilizer. At 10 liters of water goes 1 tbsp. spoon of the first component and 3 liters of the second. On one bush will go up to 30-40 liters.
  • Fruiting - the season of the third feeding. Structure: fertilizer effecton and liquid monosodium glutamate.

Why hawthorn does not bloom and does not bear fruit

Quite often in the forums on gardening are interested in why hawthorn does not bear fruit. But in general, when does hawthorn begin to bear fruit? This happens at the age of 5-6 years, and in some varieties from 8-12 years.

Some experts recommend to accelerate flowering in May, cut the bark on the branches 15 cm from the trunk. They claim that the next year from this operation the tree may bloom.

If there is an abundant increase in the crown of hawthorn, this is a sign of subsequent flowering. This means that this year hawthorn will bring harvest.

Also consider the following cultivation factors:

  • the tree should grow in a well-lit area
  • crown and bark of the tree should not be affected by diseases and parasites,
  • the earth should be loosened every season
  • the tree does not need to be filled with water, and in the root system of the hawthorn should not accumulate liquid,
  • need to feed the tree every year
  • the tree needs to remove the damaged branches in the spring, but do not get carried away, as a strong pruning of hawthorn will harm future flowering and harvest.

Important! For a quicker harvest, it is worth purchasing grafted hawthorn saplings, and it is better to plant several varieties nearby.

But gardeners do not recommend planting some crops near hawthorn. In particular, next to a tree it is better not to post:

All these plants have common pests, such as the leaf-worm, the hawthorn, the aphid. If one tree is infected, everyone will suffer, and there will be no harvest in the whole garden.

Insects feed on hawthorn juice, destroy the flowers, and in the spring lay the larvae in the bark, thereby destroying the plant. Against them, the tree is sprayed with soapy water or chemicals (chlorophos or karbofos). When hawthorn is infected with such diseases as powdery mildew or decay, it is possible to get rid of, by removing the affected shoots, and the tree is treated with a fungicide-based solution.

Pest Control

How to harvest

When it comes to harvest, the fruits of the plant are usually mentioned. But you can collect not only fruits from hawthorn, but also flowers, leaves and even bark.

Flowers gather when the tree is just beginning to bloom. It should be borne in mind that hawthorn flourishes quickly in about a week. To collect flowers using a pruner.

The leaves are collected before and during flowering, selected intact diseases and pests, clean. They are cut off or cut off with scissors. It is necessary to ensure that the branches remained 2/3 of the leaves.

Hawthorn fruits are harvested in early October, subject to their full ripening. Berries are cut in clusters, rotting or damaged by pests are also collected, but discarded.

On a note! The bark is cut in the spring during the sap flow, because it is then that it is easiest to remove it from the trunk.

After harvesting, it is worth to worry about storing the gifts of hawthorn. Leaves, bark and flowers are sprinkled on a cloth or paper, placed in a room with good ventilation and stirred after a certain time. Fruits need to be dried in ovens or special dryers with a temperature of 50 ° C. Store everything in paper, hermetically packaged in glass containers, distributed into fabric bags. The beneficial properties of leaves, fruits and bark persists up to 2 years, in flowers up to 1 year.

Hawthorn fruits have a unique composition and include vitamin K, sugar acids, sorbitol, b-carotene, phenolic acid, coumarin and more. They help improve the cardiovascular system, treat angina, arrhythmia, hypertension. Hawthorn is also prescribed for stress, insomnia, fatigue and even neurosis. It is recommended for diabetics, as it reduces blood sugar levels, and the astringent property helps with diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, it is used as a diuretic.

Thus, the hawthorn in planting and care is not demanding, compared with many other garden trees, so its breeding is a worthwhile matter. The tree will become an excellent decorative ornament of the dacha and will give a healing crop for many years.

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