Actinidia Kolomikta - appeared in Russian gardens recently, but quickly fell in love with domestic gardeners. Widespread This plant has not received for one reason only - our gardeners know little about him.
In fact, most people are familiar with actinidia colomicta. This plant and kiwi - closest relatives. Moreover, their fruits are very similar. True, the size is slightly smaller and have a different taste. For this reason, this plant is not grown as a fruit, but is widely used in landscape design. For example, they are often braided gazebos, walls of houses and hedges.
Taste qualities fruits of actinidia colomikta not bad either. These berries are often used in cooking and traditional medicine.
This article will tell you about actinidia colomikta, planting and caring for this plant.
Description of actinidia kolomikta
This is a perennial woody vine. Every year during the cold season, she sheds foliage. In Russia, very quickly, some species of actinidia got accustomed. Planting and care in the suburbs for this plant is not difficult.
It originates from East Asia. It is widely found in the forests of Primorye, on Sakhalin, in Korea, China and Japan. However, in forests mostly wild varieties grow.
In gardens, it is customary to grow adapted varieties:
For the first time this type of tree lianas was described by Charles-Marie. It happened in 1878. After that, gardeners became interested in the plant and began to actively cultivate it.
It is worth noting that this plant originally grew in subtropics, but after East Asia fell into the zone of the onset of glaciers, it was able to adapt to new conditions. Due to acquired adaptive abilities, actinidia feels great in any climate.
This plant has the following characteristics:
- This is a perennial flowering plant.
- This species is able to survive with a significant decrease in temperature.
- Actinidia colomikta can grow to a height of up to 10 meters in nature, but in a garden it rarely grows above 3 meters.
- The stem of the plant is very thin: only 2 cm. However, it is very flexible and durable. Thanks to this clinging cling to any vertical surface and stubbornly creeps up.
- The stem is covered with a thin, but strong chestnut bark.
- Measles have a fibrous plant.
- The leaves of the plant are oblong with a toothed pattern on the edge. The surface of the leaves is slightly wrinkled. Most gardeners give birth to Actinidia precisely because of these beautiful leaves.
- This plant has no single leaf color. During the year, it may change several times. In the spring leaves have a bronze ebb. During flowering, they acquire a juicy green hue. By the middle of summer, their tips turn white. Closer to fruiting white replaces pink or crimson. In the fall, the liana pleases owners of yellow or red-purple foliage.
- Actinidia kolomikta divided into two types: male and female. Outwardly, they are no different. Sex differences occur only during the flowering period.
- Actinidia colomikta gives white or pale pink flowers. Flowering plant begins in mid-June.
- In the female actinidia, the flowers are single and small. In a male plant, the flowers are larger and gather in inflorescences of several pieces.
- During the flowering period, the plant emits a very delicate, but quite strong aroma.
- The fruits of the plant ripen closer to the end of summer. They are quite edible, but have a specific taste.
Variety of actinidia colomikty
At the moment, breeders bred amazing hybrid varieties of this plant. They differ not only in appearance, but also in the taste of the fruit. In addition, hybrids better adapt to the cold climate.
The most popular are the following hybrid varieties:
- "Dr. Shimanovski." This is a female plant that grows up to a height of 4 meters. The average increase in growth is 1.5 meters. This variety has a variegated color of foliage. In spring, a crimson hue is added to the main green color, and then it turns green and white. True, such beauty will become available only after the plant has turned at least 2 years old. The fruits of this sort of actinidia are small: only 2.5 cm in length, but they have an excellent aroma to sweep away apples and pineapple.
- "Pineapple." This variety is also very fast growing. It is represented by both male and female plants. It is often considered as a fruit variety of this plant. The size of the fruit is large and have a pronounced pineapple flavor. Actually, because of this taste, the variety got its name.
- "Adam". This is a large plant that can grow up to 4 meters tall in a garden. Its leaves are large and very beautiful. Their color from spring to autumn varies from green-white to pink or crimson. This is a fast-growing variety. Its flowers are white and smell like lemon.
- "Gourmand". According to the external characteristics, this actinidia is very similar to the variety “Adam”, but its fruits are larger, besides, they are larger. Berries actinidia varieties "Gourmet" have a pleasant sweet-sour taste and aroma of pineapple.
When we speak of the actinidia of colomickt as a fruit plant, then another species immediately comes to mind - actinidia argut. These plants are closest relatives, but the argut is much larger. The length of this vine can grow up to 30 meters, and the diameter of the trunk can reach 20 cm. In contrast to the actinidia of the colomic, the fruit of Arguta are larger, have a red color and a round shape.
What to plant: actinidia argut or colomicta? What's better? These questions torment inexperienced gardeners. In fact, the choice is extremely simple. If more fruits are needed, then the choice must be made in favor of the arguts. However, according to experts, in the fruits of actinidia, colomicas are more useful substances for the human body. But we will tell about it a little later. But with regard to the decorative properties of argan and lian colomikta, they are about the same.
This plant can multiply as seeds and vegetatively. At the same time gardeners love vegetative cultivation more, than reproduction by seeds. This is explained by the fact that no one can predict what sex a plant will grow from a seed: male or female.
How to grow actinidia from seed?
Make it simple enough. It is only necessary to follow the following recommendations:
- Seeds need to get from ripe fruits. After extraction, they should be thoroughly dried in the shade.
- To prepare the seed for planting should begin in December. Seeds are soaked for four days in water and then placed in a container of wet sand. The latter must be placed in a room where the air temperature does not fall below 18 ° C. Every day, while waiting for planting, the seeds must be reached and aired.
- In January, you can begin to germinate seed. To do this, it is immersed in a moist soil.
- After a couple of months, the seed can be moved to a room with an air temperature no higher than 12 ° C.
- All seeds are planted in spring in the prepared soil. After the sprouts will give several leaves, they can be transferred to a greenhouse or greenhouse.
Reproduction by cutting
This is the fastest and most reliable way to dilute actinidia colomicta. It allows you to get immediately many seedlings. This is done as follows:
- In June, shoots are cut from creepers. This should be done at the moment when actinidia will direct all forces to the growth of the fruit.
- For pruning, shoots with a length of at least 50 cm should be selected. Further, they should be divided into individual cuttings from 10 to 15 cm long. The main thing is that each cutting has at least 2 buds.
- The lower cut under the kidney should be oblique. Upper cut need make sure you are straight, and it should be located above the kidney.
- Immediately after pruning, the cuttings should be transplanted into the prepared soil. They should enter the ground at a slight inclination. It is very important to make shelter from gauze.
- The upper bud must be above the soil level.
- After that toak rooting rooted, they can be rid of shelter.
- For winter, the cuttings should be carefully covered with foliage. In the spring, you can optionally transplant to a new place.
Actinidia Colomikta can be diluted with stiff cuttings. In the winter they are sent to storage, tied up in bunches and hidden in the sand or sawdust. In the spring planted in a greenhouse or greenhouse.
Reproduction by layering
This is another popular cultivation method for gardeners. This procedure is performed in the spring at the time of leaf blooming. Need to choose a strong escape plants and pull him to the ground, then sprinkle with soil. It is important to ensure that a tip is left above the surface.
After that, the place of fixing plentifully waterfertilize or mulch. In the future, you only need to remove the weeds and from time to time to water the plant.
The plant will easily overwinter the winter, and in the spring it will be possible to put it on from the maternal liana and easily transplant to a new place.
When to plant actinidia?
This plant is planted mainly in the spring until the juice begins to move along the stalks. A few weeks before planting in the soil you need to prepare the ground. It must be carefully dug up. In addition, landing holes should be prepared.
Due to the fact that this plant grows very quickly, you need to make sure that each liana has enough space or some of them die. The distance between seedlings should be not less than one and a half meters.
At the bottom of the landing holes need to fill the drainage of small gravel. A thin layer of humus mixed with fertilizer should be placed on top.
Immediately before planting, the saplings must be carefully processed: remove dry and damaged roots. If everything is in order, then you can land them in prepared holes. When planting, it is necessary to ensure that the root neck is flush with the ground surface.
At the final stage, the plant must be carefully watered, and the soil around it must be compacted and mulched with peat or sawdust. It is necessary not to forget to build a support for a young liana.
This vine grows very quickly, so she constant care is required. Basically it is expressed in timely pruning. It should be remembered that the start of this procedure is possible not earlier than the plant reaches the age of 3 years. In addition, the vine can only be pruned in summer or autumn before winter itself, and pruning is strictly prohibited in spring. After spring pruning the plant can quickly dry out.
Once in 8 years it is necessary to do anti-aging pruning. It is to remove all the shoots. Only one stump remains, no more than 40 cm high. Such pruning should be done before winter. After wintering, young shoots will start growing from hemp.
Actinidia: beneficial properties and contraindications
As mentioned above, the fruits of this plant are often used in cooking and traditional medicine. This is explained not only by the good taste of the berries, but also by the fact that they contain vitamins, minerals and nutrients important for the human body:
- Vitamins A and B.
- Vitamin C and R.
- Fatty acid.
The bark, flowers and leaves of actinidia colomict contain substances that are used by experts for dietary purposes. Cooked on the basis of of these components preparations allow you to effectively deal with scurvy, anemia and rheumatism. They can also be used in the pathologies of the digestive system.
It is worth noting the fact that the fruits of actinidia easily tolerate freezing. Low temperatures do not destroy their beneficial properties.
Unfortunatelyuseful properties of actinidia not all people will be able to use, as they have certain contraindications. It is primarily about individual intolerance to the components of these medicines. Also, it is not recommended to use decoctions and infusions from this plant to patients with varicose veins, thrombophlebitis, excessive blood clotting.
Description and winter hardiness
The type of this plant can best be described as a woody vine. The stem of the actinidia can be up to 5 cm in diameter; multiple brown shoots run away from it, smooth to the touch, with climbing or straight branches, capable of climbing up to a height of 15 meters. On young shoots there is a small amount of lentils. When confronted with an obstacle shoots twist it counterclockwise.
The main feature of the leaves of this plant is their ever-changing color: At first they have a bronze tint, which eventually turns green, immediately before the flowering begins, the ends of the leaves become bright white in color, and at the end of this process they turn pink, crimson or red. Each leaf is located on the petioles 3-7 cm long, has the shape of an ellipse or egg, the leaf itself is rather thin, has a small amount of hairs along the veins, the bottom is smooth.
The flowers have a pleasant, delicate aroma, most often of a white tint, actinomorphic, arranged on thin stalks, same-sex, drooping, sometimes bisexual specimens are found. Each flower includes five petals and as many sepals. A cup of flower after its drying remains with the fruits. This plant begins to bloom from the age of five, usually the period of active flowering occurs in June-July and lasts 20-25 days.
Fruits - berries of a dark green shade, with a large number of longitudinal strips even more dark, than the main, color. They have a slightly elongated, elliptical shape, sometimes they can be round. If you rip them in a ripe state, they will surprise you with their sweetness, softness of taste and spicy aroma. Inside each berry there is a fairly large number of small seeds (up to 90 pieces) of a dark brown shade. The period of fruiting begins with the age of nine.
Actinidia Kolomikta varieties
This plant can be cultivated by a gardener on a plot with two main objectives: as a fruit crop and as one of the elements of landscape design. Breeders brought a lot of different varieties of this woody liana, with a small list of the most popular ones you can see below.
- "Waffle". It was first received in Moscow VNIIR. The average yield per bush reaches 1 kilogram. Differs in the average period of ripening of fruits, each of which has a weight in the range of 3-3.5 g and an oval shape. Tastes of fruits are evaluated by tasters extremely positive,
- "Magpie". Gives medium sized bushes. The ripening period is medium. Differs extremely high winter hardiness. The average weight of the fruit is 2.5-3 g, the taste is very sweet, the berries have a specific actinidial smell. In the center of the berry is the core, which takes up to 1/3 of the total diameter of the berry,
- The Queen of the Garden. Bred in Moscow VNIIR. Differs in the early term of fruit ripening, is highly resistant to diseases and pests, winter hardiness is medium. The fruits have a cylindrical shape, compressed from the sides, olive shade, have a sweet-sour taste, the aroma has pineapple notes. The average weight of the fetus - 3.4 g
- "Gourmand". Maturing terms are average. The variety was included in the State Register in 1998. The fruits are cylindrical in shape, compressed laterally, the skin is greenish, very thin. It has very pleasant organoleptic properties: the smell of pineapple and a very sweet taste. Resistance to frost and disease - medium,
- "Large-fruited". Early ripening. The main feature is the extremely fast growth and early onset of fruiting. The average weight of the berries is 4.4 g. The fruits are cylindrical, olive-colored, with kiwi aroma and a sweet-sour taste. They tend to shatter when fully mature. Refers to the self-fertile,
- "Commander". Differs moderately pronounced winter hardiness and high resistance to pests and diseases. Refers to the male pollinating species, therefore, does not produce fruit. Flowers in clusters of 1-3 in each. There are no ovaries on flowers
- "Adam". Another male pollinator form. It is characterized by moderate winter hardiness and an average indicator of resistance to diseases and pests. The flowers are large, white, 3-5 in each inflorescence. Flowers without ovaries, each has 5 petals.
Male and female actinidia: differences
Immediately it is necessary to say that almost all the varieties of this plant for normal fruiting and adequate flowering processes require the planting of actinidia next to each other of different sexes or plant branches with different sexes on one bush. Sometimes it happens that your vines stably bloom every year, but the berries in time and after it is not formed. Most likely, this phenomenon is due to the fact that actinidia of only one sex grow on your site.
VIDEO: HOW TO DISTINE THE ACTINIDES FEMALE FROM THE MENHere's how to distinguish female plants of this species from male ones:
- on male plants, flowers are most often collected in inflorescences of 3 pieces each,
- in the center of male flowers there are no embryos of fruits,
- in the male flower you can find a large number of stamens
- during the flowering period under the male plant you can find a lot of fallen flowers,
- цветки на женских растениях чаще размещаются по одному на длинной плодоножке,
- в центре цветков женских растений определяется чёткая завязь будущего плода,
- there are fewer stamens on the flowers of female plants, and they are much shorter than on male plants.
How to choose seedlings when buying
Saplings of these plants are best purchased in specialized stores, nurseries or breeding centers, because by buying young plants in natural markets or with hands from sellers, you risk not buying the variety that was originally claimed, a variety with unsatisfactory organoleptic properties, and maybe even that instead of actinidia you will be sold a completely different plant.
First of all, when choosing a sapling, it is recommended to carefully examine its root for damages, both mechanically applied (by a human hand) and natural (various fungal lesions, dampened areas, frostbite, etc.). The root of a normal seedling of actinidia should in proportion to its overall size be proportional to the trunk (that is, be neither thinner nor thicker than it).
Next, you should pay attention to the condition of the trunk and leaves. If you see on them traces of obvious painful manifestations (white, gray or black spots, holes, bite, etc.), then you should not get such a seedling. In addition, it is not necessary to buy a sapling, which was clearly notched tip. For planting in the soil are suitable seedlings that have not yet reached the age of 4.
The best time for planting actinidia is spring, but planting in autumn is not excluded, it’s best 2-3 weeks before the first frosts. If you decide to plant actinidia in the autumn, it will be necessary to properly mulch the bushes with peat or rotted compost.
Where to plant on the site
This plant tolerates stagnant water rather poorly, so you should not plant it near gutters and groundwater accumulation sites, but at the same time, planting under a house wall or stone fence will help it to cope better with harsh winter conditions and increase its chances for successful transferring of this period. .
This plant shows the best indicators of growth and development in the penumbra; this is primarily due to the fact that under natural conditions it mainly grows in sparse forests. Open spaces and constant exposure to direct sunlight affect this plant destructively.
Soils with an alkaline composition are very poorly suited for it, but at the same time it is fairly undemanding to the content of mineral and organic fertilizers in the soil and is well rooted and shows significant growth rates on soils with a poor nitrogen and phosphorus content. It is undesirable to plant this plant in soil with a heavy, clayey composition.
Stepwise landing process
An approximate algorithm for planting is as follows:
- First, it is necessary to prepare landing holes 50x50 cm in size. The distance between bushes should be 1.5–2 meters with the bush landing method, and not less than 50 centimeters with the vertical one.
- A drainage layer is laid on the bottom of each pit, it is desirable that it be a broken brick, shell rock or crushed stone.
- Then a layer of chernozem, 10-12 kg of humus, 150-200 g of superphosphate and several glasses of ash are introduced into each hole.
- A layer of fertilizer sprinkled with a thin layer of soil in order to protect young roots from possible chemical burns.
- After that, the seedling is placed in a hole in such a way that the root system is fully expanded in it, and gradually begin to sprinkle it with earth, compacting it.
- Next, plant a bush watered (1-1.5 buckets of water) and mulch the ground around it with peat, sand, or fallen leaves.
VIDEO: HOW TO GIVE ACTINIDIA CORRECTLY
How to care for actinidia
Caring for actinidia does not require any special skills from the gardener, but even in such a simple business there are some subtleties that would be worth your attention.
These bushes do not require particularly active watering, but in extremely dry and hot weather it is recommended to water them at least once a week at the rate of 1 bucket of water for each plant. With dry air and prolonged absence of rain, it is recommended to spray the plants with water from a spray bottle in the evening.
This plant, as already mentioned, is extremely sensitive to excessive waterlogging, so it is recommended to check the soil for moisture before each planned irrigation. This can be done with a simple stick: pick up the soil in the tree circle to a depth of 3-5 centimeters and see if the plant needs additional hydration.
To better preserve moisture, reduce the frequency of irrigation, and also to provide the plant with more comfortable conditions for wintering, it is recommended to mulch the tree trunk with peat, sand, or rotted foliage. Every few months, the layer of mulch needs to be updated, and once every six months, completely changed.
Mulching also helps to preserve more nutrients when feeding and to prevent the rapid evaporation of moisture from nutrients at excessively high temperatures.
Reliance is one of the very useful tools that will serve you especially well if you grow actinidia in order to produce fruits. The fact is that on the supports the vine has the possibility of almost unlimited growth upwards, respectively, the area of the likely appearance of ovaries on plants increases, which, in turn, leads to an increase in yield.
For these lianas, supports with a height of 2-2.5 meters are best suited, which to increase the usable area is recommended to bend with a visor at a convenient angle for you at the height of human growth. Thus, the stalks of the plant, when they reach the highest point, will not stop growing, but will curl further along the support, but already at an angle to the vertical support.
Pruning is a rather important aspect of caring for this plant, as it sets the future vector for the development of the entire liana and contributes to providing you with a rich and high-quality harvest. It should be noted that spring pruning for some reason (actinidia is very actively “crying”, because of which it can even die) is extremely undesirable. It is best to prune during the period of active flowering or late autumn, after all the foliage has completely subsided. The first step is to remove all thin, dried and weak shoots. In addition, it is recommended to cut off all young shoots that did not have time to stiffen, since they can significantly reduce the quality of your liana's wintering.
Preparing for the winter
In addition to the already mentioned pruning and obligatory mulching of the stem, it is also recommended to remove the plant from the support and place it under a polyethylene or canvas bag. However, in the event that the winters in your region do not differ in special severity and are quite snowy, you can do without it.
VIDEO: COVERING ACTINIDIA IN WINTER So, we hope that this article has helped you find answers to many questions concerning the actinidia of colomicta. With love and respect, treat all the abodes of your garden, carefully monitor the condition of each plant, follow all the recommendations for caring for them, and then you and your family will surely receive a generous reward in the form of a bountiful harvest!
Actinidia: description and features
In nature, there are 36 species of this plant, which grow mainly in Japan, China, Primorsky Krai, on about. Sakhalin and the Far East. The most popular type of actinidia is a delicacy, better known as kiwi.
In a culture grown varieties such as kolomikta (Amur gooseberry), argut, purple and Chinese actinidia. To date, many hybrids and varieties of actinidia kolomikty have been created with extremely tasty, high-quality fruits.
Actinidia kolomikta - a powerful tree-like liana, having brown shoots with peeling bark 2-5 cm thick and 12-14 m long. The shoots are nicely wrapped around the support in the counterclockwise direction, the young stalks are endowed with bright lentils that cling the vine to the support.
Foliage and flowers
The crown of colomikty is wrinkled, large, pubescent, dense, has a decorative appearance, because at different stages of development the tree changes color. In the spring, when young leaves only open, their front side has a bronze-green shade, as the vines grow, all the foliage turns the same color, then darkens. In the middle of June, before the beginning of flowering, the tips of the leaves take on a white color, which in 2-3 days covers almost half of the leaf.
Flowers are large (up to 1.5 cm in diameter), white in color, hang down on long pedicels, very fragrant. Their smell, reminiscent of garden jasmine and intensifying in the rain or towards evening, attracts butterflies and bees. Actinidia colomicta blooms for about three weeks. It is a good honey plant, pollinated by bees.
During the flowering period, the white tips of the leaves acquire a pink-raspberry shade, later they become saturated-crimson, with some leaves may turn silver-gray. The brightness and variegation of the colored areas is determined by the degree of illumination - in the shade the color turns pale. By the end of summer, the liana becomes even more elegant - on the same tree you can see purple, crimson, pink, brown-red and yellow tones at the same time.
Actinidia: landing and care
For planting actinidia in the garden plot they use mainly cuttings, because plants grown in the seed way lose their varietal qualities. Seedlings can be purchased at a specialty store or grow yourself.
When buying young plants, you should definitely pay attention to the following factors:
- Plant floor. Since actinidia is a dioecious culture, it is necessary to grow trees of both sexes to get the harvest.
- The method of obtaining the escape: if it has a short stem with processes on its sides - the shoot is obtained by cutting, growing from a kidney - from seeds.
Pay special attention to the roots of the plant - they must be hidden (in a special container, polyethylene, earth). Dry air, heat and sunlight can damage the plant.
For planting it is better to purchase seedlings at the age of three years, since older plants do not tolerate transplantation. Gender of actinidia can be identified by flowers. Seedlings obtained by cutting, acquire the floor of the donor plant. In connection with this, it is recommended to buy cuttings of already decolorized vines.
Planting dates for the cultivation of actinidia are of no small importance. Since gardeners have not come to a common opinion about the optimal timing, we can distinguish the following options:
- planting actinidia in the spring, before the start of sap flow,
- the last decade of April - the beginning of June, that is, at the end of flowering,
- autumn months, at least 2-3 weeks before the onset of frosts.
Actinidia feel well on neutral well-fertilized soils, but still prefer to be slightly acidic and acidic. Least of all they are suitable clay soil with a high content of groundwater. The main condition for the normal growth and development of actinidia is good drainage. The best place for planting are elevated areas with natural runoff.
How to plant actinidia?
Before planting seedlings, the following preparatory activities should be carried out:
- trim broken or dry shoots
- roots dip in clay talker,
- Pour one bucket of water into the prepared hole.
Before planting plants (in two weeks), it is necessary to prepare holes or trenches (when decorating walls):
- dig a hole the length, width and depth of which is 0.5 m, the length of the trench is determined by the length of the wall,
- lay a layer of drainage (pebbles, brick chips, etc.),
- then a layer of enriched soil (a humus bucket, 250 grams of superphosphate, 50 grams of charcoal).
After the earth has settled, as well as during planting and after it is necessary to fill the usual soil.
Neighbors and recommended precursors to actinidia
Black currant, which does not deplete the soil and at the same time loosens it, is considered to be the ideal predecessor. The choice of neighboring cultures is determined by the degree of their usefulness for actinidia. The following cultures have a beneficial effect on colomicu:
- filbert, black currant,
- legumes - peas, beans, beans (they contribute to the improvement of the microclimate and soil composition, and also support the necessary moisture balance),
- flowers - calendula, gerbera, petunia, aster, etc. (decorate, do not dry the soil).
The following plants have a negative effect on actinidia:
- Mature fruit trees (especially apple trees). Tree roots dry up the soil, and digging and loosening the near-barrel circle poses a serious danger to actinidia. In addition, a nearby tree can become a kind of support, on which the stalks of vines climb far up, which makes harvesting difficult.
- Young fruit trees that risk dying from the embrace of actinidia.
However, not only neighboring cultures can influence the growth and development of actinidia, but it, in turn, is able to have a particular impact on nearby growing cultures.
Actinidia Colomicta is, in fact, a rather aggressive representative of a kind and able to strongly inhibit neighboring trees. In addition, its actively growing root system is spreading in different directions and suppresses the roots of other plants.
Therefore, when planting a plant is necessary provide about 6-8 m2 of personal plotIt is recommended to fence around dense dense polyethylene or sheets of slate.
The distance to neighboring crops should be at least three meters.
The best option is the landing actinidia on the trellis, at the path, fence, pergola or arch. Firstly, the vine planted in this way will not interfere with other cultures, and secondly, it will serve as an original decorative ornament. In addition, it will facilitate the collection of fruits.
Many gardeners mistakenly believe that actinidia colomicta is a dioecious culture, like other members of this species. In general, yes - wild-growing, as well as vines grown from seeds are truly dioecious, which requires planting several seedlings of both sexes (as a rule, 6-8 female seedlings - one male). However, modern cultivars have both male and female flowers, so a separate planting of a male tree is not required.
Saplings of the designated crop up to the age of three need shading, as direct sunlight can cause them to burn the stems and root system.
Actinidia colomickt: care
The main activities for the care of this exotic vine are the following:
- shaping and trimming.
Actinidia colomicta prefers wet soilsTherefore, watering should be frequent, however, it should not allow stagnant moisture. In dry and hot weather, we recommend spraying with water to ensure good growth of the vine. Early summer season need to feed the plant infusion of mulleinwhich is diluted with water at a ratio of 1:10. The use of mineral fertilizers is also allowed. To avoid drying out of the soil, it is recommended to mulch.
The most effective, but at the same time, simple method is the powder of the near-barrel circle with sawdust. Actinidia Kolomikta, growing in Siberia, the Moscow region and the Urals, needs shelter for the winter.
Cropping and crown formation
Care for actinidia includes regular pruning of the vine. Young plants pruning is necessary for the correct formation of the crown, for adults - because of the constant and vigorous growth of vines, which leads to darkening, thickening and lower yields. The following rules apply for trimming:
- The best period for the procedure are the summer months after flowering.
- It is not recommended to cut the plants late autumn (approximately a month before the onset of frost), because the young shoots and awakened buds do not have time to mature and the frost will destroy them. In the southern regions pruning is carried out at the end of leaf fall.
- In early spring, with the beginning of sap flow, pruning is strictly prohibited, as this can lead to the death of the plant.
Plants older than 4 years are subjected to formative pruning throughout the summer season, after which the stalks of the vines are distributed over the support. You can also pinch the tips of the stems.
When actinidia reaches the age of eight, it is recommended to make a rejuvenating pruning, that is, to leave only a small stump of the plant (40 cm). In the second half of September, the branches are cut off, and the stalks of the plant are cut by half - this is necessary for sanitary purposes.
The process of propagation of an exotic vine does not pose any difficulty, however, here it is necessary to take into account the fact that the sex of a young plant is inherited only when it is propagated by a vegetative method (layering, cuttings). Actinidia, obtained by the seed method, are much more enduring, but at the same time they lack all varietal qualities. Кроме того, у них нельзя определить пол, так как они не наследуют его от растения-донора . Да и плоды у таких лиан появляются куда позже - через 5-7 лет, в то время как у деревьев, полученных вегетативным способом - уже на третий год.
Самым быстрым методом размножения актинидии является черенкование. Процедура проводится в начале летнего сезона, когда стебли растения становятся бурыми. The cutting is performed in the following way:
- in the morning, before the onset of heat, cut two young twigs (not older than a year),
- divide each of them into several pieces, about 10 cm long, while ensuring that all cuttings have 2 internodes and 3 buds.
- make the lower cut at an angle. The upper foliage cut by half, get rid of the bottom.
Now you need to prepare the soil for planting. To do this, take a slightly acidic soil (2 parts), humus (2 parts) and river sand (1 part), add complex fertilizers without chlorine.
The cuttings are planted at an angle of 60 degrees. Plants are watered, just pressed into the ground and watered again. Cover the seedlings with gauze rolled up in two layers. Before final rooting, young vines should be sprayed at least five times / day (this can also be done through shelter). After 2 weeks the shelter is removed. In winter, young trees must be warmed, and with the onset of spring, they must be planted in a permanent place.
For reproduction of actinidia also stiffened stems are used. To do this, they are cut (at the end of autumn), tied up and placed in a box with sand vertically, the temperature should be no more than +5 degrees. The young liana is planted in a greenhouse and watered once / 2 days. Further care is the same as for cuttings.
Observing all the recommendations for planting, growing and caring for such an exotic plant as actinidia, you will receive not only an extraordinarily beautiful, elegant plant, but also a vitamin supplement to your table in the form of delicious, fragrant fruits.
- 1. Listen to the article (soon)
- 2. Description
- 3. Landing
- 3.1. When to plant
- 3.2. How to plant
- 4. Care
- 4.1. How to grow
- 4.2. Diseases and pests
- 4.3. Actinidia Kolomikta in Moscow region
- 5. Trimming
- 6. Reproduction
- 6.1. How to multiply
- 6.2. Growing from seed
- 6.3. Reproduction green cuttings
- 6.4. Reproduction by lignified cuttings
- 6.5. Reproduction by layering
- 7. Grades
- 8. Properties: harm and benefit
- 8.1. Beneficial features
- 8.2. Contraindications
Planting and care for actinidia colomikta (in short)
- Bloom: from the age of five within three weeks from the second decade of June.
- Landing: the beginning of May.
- Lighting: bright sunlight or partial shade.
- The soil: humid, rich in humus, mild, acidic or weakly acid reaction.
- Watering: frequent and plentiful, by sprinkling or with the help of a watering can with a shower head.
- Feeding: in the form of a layer of mulch from humus or peat 5-7 cm thick.
- Pruning: during flowering or immediately after it.
- Breeding: seeds, green and lignified cuttings, autumn and spring layering.
- Pests: leaf beetles, caterpillars of hawk moths and chickpea moths, golden-eyed, bark beetles, barbel, locust filly and slugs. Cats are stripping bark from a plant.
- Diseases: spotting - Ramulariasis and phyllostiktosis, rot - fruit and black, mold - gray and green, and powdery mildew.
- Properties: it is the most valuable food product with therapeutic and dietary value and having expectorant, tonic, analgesic, hemostatic and sedative properties.
Actinidia colomikta - description
Actinidia kolomikta is a woody liana with barely flaking bark, climbing or erect trunks which reach a diameter of 2 to 5 cm and can climb to a height of 14 meters or more. The shoots of the plant are smooth, shiny, dark brown. On the young shoots a lot of longitudinal light lentils. Non-lignified vegetative shoots in a collision with any support twist it spirally counterclockwise.
The leaves of the actinidia Colomikt - alternate, elliptical or ovate, long-pointed, doubly pointed, with a rounded or heart-shaped base, 5 to 13 cm long, located on petioles 2-7 cm long - at the beginning of their development have a bronze color, then turn green before beginning flowering they, starting from the top, gradually acquire a bright white color, and after actinidia Kolomikta ottsvetet, the leaves become first pink, then red and crimson. In the fall, pink, light yellow, bright yellow, red and red-violet leaves can be observed on the liana at the same time. Especially pronounced variegation in actinidia, growing in well-lit areas.
For the first time actinidia kolomikta blooms at the age of five. Its flowering begins in the second decade of June and lasts up to three weeks. Fragrant white or slightly rosy from the outside, actinidia flowers are usually dioecious, same-sex, although there are also plants with bisexual flowers. Staminate flowers (male actinidia kolomikta) with a diameter of about 1 cm form a three-flowered semi-sheath inflorescence, and pistillate (female actinidia colomicta) and bisexual with a diameter of up to 15 mm are arranged singly in the leaf axils. The most valuable are the self-fertile actinidia of the colomicta with bisexual flowers - they do not need pollinating plants.
Fragrant, soft and sweet in a mature state fruits of a plant - dark green, oblong, elliptic or roundish berries with even more dark strips. In length, the fruit reaches 3, and in width - 1.5 cm. The fruit contains about 90 small dark brown or yellowish seeds. Fruiting actinidia kolomikta usually begins at the age of nine. Berries ripen from late August to mid-September.
When to plant actinidia colomikta.
To obtain a fruit harvest, 3-4 female plants should be planted with one or two male plants. The best time for planting an actinidia colomikta is early May.
The plant prefers a well-hydrated, humus-rich light soils, slightly acidic and acidic. Alkaline soil is not suitable for plants. Planting of seedlings is carried out from north to south, since such an arrangement allows the snow to linger longer in spring in tree trunks and provides heat to protect the roots and trunks of the actinidia with a shadow from its crown.
Actinidia colomicta well tolerates shade, but grows better and bears fruit in open sunny places or in lacy penumbra. They have a group of actinidians in sheltered from the south, south-west or south-east side of buildings, not closer than 80 cm from the basement. You can plant this vine along the fence of the site as a hedge, but wherever you plant the plant, the vertical support needs very strong support.
How to plant actinidia colomikta in the garden.
Planting pits measuring 60x60x60 cm are prepared for two days before planting: a drainage layer of broken brick, crushed stone, expanded clay or gravel 15 cm thick is put on the bottom, and a mixture of such composition and in such amount: compost or humus - 3 buckets, sand - 2 buckets, ashes and peat - for half a bucket, phosphate and potash fertilizers - 250 g each, and bone meal - 150 g. All the ingredients are thoroughly mixed before filling them with soil mixture to obtain a homogeneous mass. Having filled the pit with soil, 2-3 buckets of water are poured into it and left for a couple of days for the soil to settle. When planting, seedlings of actinidia colomikta are deepened so that the root collar remains at the surface level. Finish planting abundant irrigation.
The plants are located at a distance of 1.5-2.5 m from each other. The first time after planting, seedlings of actinidia kolomikta protect from the sun. Immediately after landing, you need to install strong supports.
How to grow actinidia colomikta in the garden.
The care of actinidia of colomickt consists mainly of three procedures: watering, mulching and pruning.
Due to the fact that the plant needs high humidity, in a dry time you will have to pay more attention to actinidia. Watering the plants is carried out in the evening by sprinkling, using a watering can with a shower head and trying to saturate the soil with moisture in a peristural circle well. Since the root system of actinidia colomicta is superficial, it quickly overheats in the summer heat. For this reason, it is not recommended to deeply loosen the soil around the plant.
Prefers feeding Actinidia Colomikta in the form of mulch from peat or humus. And mulching with sawdust, pine bark or fallen leaves will protect the roots of actinidia in the winter from frost. The thickness of the mulch layer should be 5-7 cm.
Diseases and pests of actinidia colomicta.
The leaves and fruits of actinidia are subject to fungal diseases: the leaves are affected by spots (Ramularia, phyllostikosis), and the fruits - by rot (fruit and black) and mold (gray and green). Sick of actinidia colomikta and powdery mildew. The pathogens die after 2-3 treatments of the plant with one-percent Bordeaux liquid or two-percent colloidal sulfur. Powdery mildew is treated with actinidia pollinated with ground sulfur, after which it is sprayed twice with a 10-day interval with a solution of soda ash. As for rot and mold, none of them can not be cured. During the fruiting period, it is necessary to remove and destroy the affected fruits, as well as to cut out damaged and drying branches. After the leaf fall, remove all plant residues from the plot and burn actinidia and the soil with the fungicide solution.
Of the insects, leaf beetle causes the greatest harm to Actinidia colomicta. As a result of its activity, by the end of the summer the plant may even be left without leaves. In addition to the leaf beetle, the actinidia are harmed by the hawk moths and the peckworm moths, the goldfish, the bark beetles and the barbs, as well as the grasshoppers and slugs, but they do not affect the plant as much as the leaf beetles. Against all these pests, actinidia is treated with insecticides or acaricides.
The roots, trunks and shoots of actinidia suffer from cats that peel the bark from the plant, because it contains a substance that is similar to valerian. To protect actinidia, its roots are covered with wooden shields, and around the trunks they put protective nets impregnated with creosote to scare off the caudate bullies.
Pruning actinidia colomikta
Proper pruning of actinidia helps not only to form a beautiful plant, but also to increase the yield of its fruits. You should know that in the spring in the stems of the plant is very strong sap flow, so pruning at this time is dangerous. The end of summer is also unfavorable in this regard, since any mechanical damage can provoke an undesirable awakening of the buds on young shoots. It is best to prune the actinidia colomicta during flowering or immediately after it. Pruning after leaf fall does not harm the plant.
First of all, the plant for sanitary purposes is free from thin, weak, frozen over the winter and drying shoots. Formative pruning of the actinidia colomicta depends on what type of support is used to support the vine in an upright position, but since this type is usually grown on a flat trellis, fan pruning of the plant is used. In the first year after flowering, you need to select 3-4 developed vertically growing shoots and vertically fix them on the trellis as the “fan” sleeves. The rest of the shoots cut out at the root. After the leaf fall, the sleeves are shortened, cutting them to the level of the matured (woody) part. During the next summer shaping, the strongest of the regrown lateral branches are fixed on the trellis in a horizontal position, after which the remaining lateral shoots are cut and the vine is pinched in different directions. In the third year, the formation of the bush is carried out in a vertical direction: the resulting shoots are tied in parallel to the arms of the "fan". In the fourth year, which should complete the formation of an actinidia colomikta shrub, the newly formed strong shoots pinch in a horizontal position, tying them to the second lower trellis guide.
After the bush is formed, it remains to carry out regular seasonal thinning and sanitary pruning, as well as the removal of root shoots. Since actinidia colomicta has fertile buds on both short and long vines, exercise caution during pruning, otherwise you may jeopardize the next year’s crop.
From the age of 8-10 years, the actinidia of Colomikt begin to carry out a gradual rejuvenating pruning of the plant: each season one of the branches is removed and replaced with a strong young shoot from the seedlings.
Useful properties of actinidia colomicta.
The value of the fruits of actinidia colomicta is primarily in a large number of vitamins (C, A and P), minerals and trace elements contained in them. Berries reduce sugars, starch, carotene, dyes, pectins, fatty oils and other substances necessary for the human body. The fruit of actinidia colomicta is a concentrate of vitamin C, the amount of which increases as the berries ripen. The combination of polyphenols and ascorbic acid allows you to use the fruit for the benefit of the body both in fresh and in processed form, since biologically active substances are perfectly preserved in frozen and dried berries. Canned fruits of actinidia are tasty and healthy. Berries actinidia kolomikta also used for the preparation of syrups, jellies, jams, pastila, jam, marmalade, compotes and jelly.
Not only fruits, but also flowers, bark and leaves of actinidia have therapeutic and dietary value. Preparations from these parts of the plant are used for scurvy, whooping cough, anemia, worms, diseases of the respiratory and digestive organs, chronic constipation, rheumatism, paralysis, and neurosis of the stomach. The fruits of actinidia eliminate vitamin deficiency and regulate metabolic processes. Broth bark treats caries and headaches, use it also as an expectorant, tonic, analgesic, hemostatic and sedative.
Actinidia Colomikta - contraindications.
Actinidia drugs are not recommended for people with varicose veins, thrombophlebitis and increased blood clotting. Contraindication is individual intolerance to the product, which can result in a strong allergic reaction.
Sometimes when eating a large number of fruits, even an absolutely healthy person has an eating disorder.
Actinidia Colomikta: planting and care, popular varieties
This species stands out among other high winter hardiness. It is quite easy to withstand up to 45 degrees of frost without any shelter. The length of the actinidia of the colomica usually varies from 8 to 10 meters.
On the trunk is a large number of medium-sized thin light green leaves (8-10 cm) with double sparse teeth at the edges. They have an oval shape with a small sharp end and are covered on both sides with short down.
This species, as mentioned earlier, attracts the attention of the original color of the leaves, which changes several times per season. At the very beginning of the growing season, the leaves are painted in a bronze tint, and in summer they turn green. In addition, with the blooming of the flowers, the ends of the leaves are painted in a white shade, and after a while - in crimson. With the arrival of autumn leaves become either pink or purple.
The loamy roots of this culture are located at a depth of 30 to 45 cm. The width of the root system is from half a meter to 0.8 meters. Spectacular white flowers with a diameter of about one and a half centimeters have a pleasant aroma. Especially beautiful in the center of the flower stamens with yellow anthers, located evenly around the pistil.
Interestingly, on male plants flowers bloom in loose flowering inflorescences of 2-5 pieces, and on women - one by one. The greenish fruits of actinidia with an attractive aroma and sweet taste have a length of about 2 cm and a width slightly more than one centimeter (1.2 cm). They ripen on slightly inclined and elongated stalks. Thin darkish stripes stretch along the length of the fruit. Their weight varies from one and a half to five grams.
Description of varieties
Currently, there are a little more than three dozen varieties of actinidia. Let's get acquainted with several popular hybrids.
Site Selection and Landing
For the cultivation of actinidia pick well-lit and warm areas. Best of all, this culture succeeds on weakly acidic or neutral soils with a large amount of nutrients. The length and width of the pit for planting is about 0.6 meters, and the depth - from half a meter to 0.8 meters, depending on the composition of the soil. A layer of fine gravel or a mixture of sand and crushed stone with a height of 10 to 15 centimeters is poured on the bottom.
Also, before planting, microelements or ashes, ground egg shells (50-70 g), as well as about 10 kg of humus are introduced into the pit. All fertilizers and humus must be mixed with good soil.
The best time for planting actinidia is spring (the first two weeks of May), but this culture also takes root quite well in the autumn period. At the cottages the plants are placed in a private planting, and between the bushes should be from 2 to 2.5 meters.
Since actinidia refers to dioecious crops, for good harvest planted next to male and female plants. It is worth knowing that one male is enough for pollination of 5-6 female bushes.
Works on the care of various species and varieties of actinidia consist of regular dressings, irrigation, weed, and weed removal. This culture responds well to the introduction of both organic and organic fertilizers.
Organic fertilizers are usually applied in the spring and autumn periods. In the spring (end of April) for fertilizing use complex fertilizers with nitrogen. In the fall (the second decade of September) actinidia is fed with phosphorus and potassium fertilizers. Удобрения раскидывают в месте расположения корневой системы перед рыхлением.
Формирование и обрезка актинидии коломикта
Since this culture is distinguished by a rather powerful growth of shoots and the presence of a large number of lateral buds, and this causes a rapid thickening of the bush. Therefore, throughout the growing season, actinidia requires proper and regular pruning.
The best time to hold it is autumn, because spring pruning can lead to depletion of the bush. But if it still needs to be held in the spring, then it is carried out at the very end of spring or early summer (during the intensive regrowth of shoots).
Pruning and the formation of actinidia directly depends on the method of cultivation. With the vertical method of cultivation of bushes, they are placed on trellis about 2 meters high, between which 3 or 4 rows of wires are stretched. They can be both wooden and concrete. Typically, the trellis set from east to west. Two-year-old seedlings are planted along them from the south side.
There are two options for the formation of the shape of the bush with this method of cultivation, which make it possible to obtain regular and abundant crops: fan and comb-like:
- With a fan-shaped bush, shoots are placed at an angle to the trellis. Usually on a plant form from 5 to 8 main branches, which are replaced by young shoots in 5-6 years. It should be noted that the crown in the form of a fan does not require a large amount of manual labor.
- The crest-shaped form of the plant is created in several stages. Formation begins one year after landing, when two most powerful shoots are selected on a bush, which are positioned in different directions on the trellis on the lower wire row. All other shoots pruned.
The following year, in the spring, horizontally located branches give vertical shoots. Of them leave from 4 to 6 (2-3 on each of the main skeletal branches) and tied to the upper rows of the wire. They should be well developed and rather symmetrically located relative to each other. The remaining shoots must be removed.
Vertically growing branches most often grow and develop unequally. The most powerful appear from the buds located at the beginning of the skeletal horizontal shoots. It is worth knowing that the crop of berries ripens on the side branches extending from the vertical shoots. The main horizontal branches are replaced with new ones every 5 or 6 years.
Also actinidia is grown in the form of a bush. The formation of the bushes begin at the age of two. From 3 to 4 best shoots are left on the plant, which are shortened to 30-40 cm, and all other branches are completely cut. In subsequent years, during the annual pruning, shoots without flowers are shortened by half or one third, and the thickening branches are also removed.
For rejuvenation of the plant after 7-9 years, the main shoots replace new ones and at the same time pruned branches at the very base of the bush that produce few fruits. This gives an impetus to the emergence of new shoots from dormant buds.
Varieties and types
Among the many species of this plant, three are cultivated. Stand alone interspecific actinidia, polygamous and hybrids.
Actinidia argut in the wild form grows to huge sizes in a couple of tens of meters. At home it is much smaller. It has oval, pointed foliage, white, pleasantly smelling, flowers. The fruits are edible, but have light laxative properties.
Most popular varieties: Actinidia samoplodnaya, seaside, large-fruited.
Actinidia colomicta endures the winter cold better than any other species. The foliage is round, variegated, changes its color during development. Flowers in males are combined into inflorescences, while in females - solitary.
Grades: Pineapple, Dr. Shimanovsky, Gourmand.
Polygamous actinidia resembles the look of colomikta Foliage oval, oblong, covered with white spots. Sometimes there are hermaphrodite specimens with bisexual flowers.
Grades: apricot, beauty, patterned.
Actinidia purpurea grows well and develops in the shade. Rarely grown here due to poor susceptibility to frost.
Actinidia hybrid appeared by crossing actinidia argutus with actinidia purpurea. Thanks to this process, varieties that are well fruiting and resistant to cold have been created.
Grades: Kiev large-fruited, candy, souvenir.
Actinidia planting and care in the open field
Actinidia need to plant in the early spring or autumn periods. Since this plant lives for a very long time, it needs to choose the right place to grow it. This vine grows well in the shade, but its fruits can ripen only when illuminated by the sun. Therefore, you need to select a site that will be illuminated before noon, and during the midday heat to be in the shade.
You can not plant Actinidia next to the apple trees, because such a neighborhood badly affects her. This plant grows poorly on clay soil. For it you need to pick a loose soil with good drainage, it is also impossible that it was alkaline.
It is best to plant actinidia on a hill or slope, as otherwise the roots of the plant rot due to stagnant liquid.
Planting in the spring should be carried out before the juices are set in motion. Individuals should be planted not less than a meter from each other. If the landing is carried out near the wall, then you can place copies at a distance of 50 cm.
Before planting, the roots of the plant are inspected and cleaned from rot and dried parts. Next, they are placed in a clay mash.
15 days before landing you need to prepare the site. Half-meter holes are dug out, drainage is put in them (any, except materials that have lime in themselves, since it dampens the soil). Next, the hole is filled with soil mixed with peat and mineral supplements (120 grams of ammonium nitrate, 250 grams of superphosphate and 35 grams of wood ash).
In this case, you can not use supplements with chlorine. After two weeks, the soil will settle, and it will be necessary to fill up the soil without fertilizers. Now you can land actinidia, it is placed so that the root neck is at the level of the top of the soil, and then the roots fall asleep so that the hole becomes full.
Planting the plants, they are watered, and the site is covered with 4 cm of peat mulch. It is also advisable to make a fence so that the cats do not get to the landing, as the smell of actinidia attracts them.
In autumn, the flower is planted 15-20 days before the arrival of frosts. There is a condition for planting at this time - only young plants can be planted, not older than three years. Sea anemones can be safely planted near houses and gazebos, since they do not have aerial roots.
If you do not make supports for the vines, then they will be confused and it will be difficult to look after them, and the number of fruits will also decrease. In the course of growth and development of the plant, it will need to be tied to a support, so that it will continue to curl.
To irrigate actinidia is better in the way of spraying, doing it in the morning and evening. Around the plants you need to loosen the soil shallowly and destroy the weeds.
Top dressing actinidia
Fertilize the vine should be minerals that will help enhance the growth of the stems, to help move the winter and increase the yield. With the arrival of spring, you need to make 35 grams of nitrogen and 20 grams of potash-phosphorus dressings per square meter of land.
The second time you have to fertilize the flower during the formation of ovaries. It is necessary to bring in 20 grams of nitrogen and 10 potash and phosphorus per square meter.
In the second half of September, the third fertilizer is held. This time 20 grams of potash-phosphorus top dressing per square meter is applied. After fertilizer plants should be watered well.
Actinidia winter preparations
In winter, young plants should be removed from supports and insulated with foliage. Prepare an impressive ball of insulation - about 20 cm. It is also advisable to add poison for mice to it. Old actinidia for the winter can not cover.
Actinidia reproduction by layering
Reproduction of actinidia arc layings, probably the easiest and most reliable way to get a new plant. When the spring movement of juices is over and young leaves appear, take a strong stalk and attach it to the ground.
Next, sprinkle the soil with a sprout, forming a mound above it, but make sure that the tip of the stem remains open. Next, try to water the cuttings and clean the place around it from weeds, and by the fall the young plant will already be ready to transplant.
Actinidia stalk propagation
Also, actinidia can be propagated by lignified stems.
To do this, they need to be cut at the end of the autumn period, tie and hold vertically in the sand at a temperature of maximum 5 ° C.
Planting material produced in the greenhouse and once a couple of days watered. And then the care of seedlings does not differ from that of green cuttings.
To use seed propagation, you need to collect seeds from ripened fruits. They are put in gauze, kneaded and washed. After that, seeds are selected and dried on paper in the shade.
In early December, the seeds are placed in water for 4 days, so that the liquid covers them only a couple of centimeters. At the same time, water must be replaced every day.
After that, the material is wound in a nylon cloth and stored in a container with raw sand at a temperature of 19 ° C. Every 7 days, the fabric must be removed and ventilated for 5 minutes, after which the seeds are washed, then wrapped with cloth and placed in the sand. The most important thing is that the material is always wet.
In the middle of winter, a tank with sand and seeds can be placed in a snowdrift. If the winter was not snowy, the box is put in the fridge in the vegetable compartment. After 60 days, a container with seeds is placed in a room with a temperature of around 11 ° C.
As before cooling, the seeds should be washed every 7 days, and when germination is detected, they are sown in the soil from river sand and soddy soil. Landing is carried out on 5 mm.
Placed capacity with planted plants in the penumbra, it also needs to be constantly sprayed. With the emergence of three true leaves of plants, they dive into the greenhouse. The first flowering will occur very soon, and accordingly the floor of the plant will not be determined until then.
Frost is a major threat to actinidia in the spring during the development of shoots and flowering. The plant itself can withstand temperatures down to -45C. With a slight freezing to -2 degrees, the leaves begin to wither, but this quickly passes. At -4 C, the leaves darken and die off, the open flowers die, the shoots fade. At -8C frost can provoke the death of shoots.
Actinidia with small flowers 1.2–1.5 cm in diameter, axillary, paired or single. The flowers are beige with dull yellow anthers. Flowering occurs in late May - early June.
Female and male actinidia
This plant culture is dioecious, therefore, in order to grow a crop in a garden plot there must be female and male actinidia. The structure of the flower recognizes the gender:
- In the female actinidia there is a thick pestle, surrounded on the sides by stamens with pollen,
- In men, there is no pistil, but there are many stamens.
Thanks to the wind and insects, pollen passes from male flowers to female ones.
Watch the video! How to distinguish female actinidia from male
This crop can be cultivated in a garden plot for two purposes:
- fruit and berry culture,
- beautiful detail for spectacular landscaping of the garden plot.
Breeders brought numerous varieties of actinidia. Below are the most popular ones.
Queen of the garden
The height reaches 7-8 m. Early matures and resistant to various pests and diseases. Berries weighing 3,4g, olive-green color, with a sweet-sour taste. Frost plant is almost not damaged. Rather, it grows in the shade and with abundant soil moisture. At the time of flowering leaves get pink color.
It has good winter hardiness. Bushes of normal size can harvest up to 1 kg.
The berries are cylindrical in shape, weighing 2.5-3 g, sweet in taste, not bitter. The fruits of this variety have a large amount of vitamin C and smell like apples.
Average yield, up to 1 kg of yield from one bush. Fruits until autumn.
The berries have a round shape, weight up to 3.5 g, the taste is sour-sweet. The color of the fruit is matte.
Several times during the season, the plant changes its color and closer to the autumn golden-green fruits appear.
The shape of the berries are close to the cylinder. To taste the fruits are like pineapple, very sweet. The smell reminds apples and strawberries. The plant is moderately resistant to frost.
Shrubs grow quickly and bear fruit early. The berries are cylindrical, weigh 4.5 g. Kiwi fruit flavored.
Berries are rich in vitamins. Gather them from mid to late September. Actinidia large-fruited is resistant to insects and diseases.
Resistant to diseases and has a moderate winter hardiness. The leaves are medium sized, green in color.
Inflorescences with 1-3 flowers. Fertility is absent, as it is a male pollinator species.
Actinidia colomikta Adam is a perennial variety. Liana grows up to four meters. Male shrub - pollinator. During the season, leaves with an unusual structure change three colors: green, white, pink. The flowers themselves are white and large, 3-5 in the inflorescence. Average resistance to frost and disease.
September actinidia is popular among gardeners for its healing and palatability. In its fruits is a considerable amount of vitamin C. Having tried one berry, you can immediately fill the rate for the consumption of ascorbic acid. The berries have a dark green color, the taste is sweet and sour. Fruiting continues for 30 years.
The shrub of this variety will make any garden more beautiful due to its interesting, bright foliage. Liana grows up from 2 meters.
This is a female plant, resistant to cold weather. Berries actinidia appear in August, have a green color and sweet-sour taste.
Phased planting process
We can distinguish such methods of planting plants:
- planting actinidia in the spring, before the start of sap flow,
- at the end of April - the beginning of June, at the end of flowering,
- autumn months, 2-3 weeks before frosts.
It is important to know! Without transplants actinidia can grow up to 50 years.
No need to plant this plant very close to the buildings. One meter will be enough. The gap between actinidia themselves should be 1-1.5 m.
The optimal pit for the seedling will be 60 cm wide and 50 cm deep. It should be made of drainage from broken bricks, pebbles or gravel.
It is necessary to use fertilizers. Add:
- 8-10 kg of humus,
- 150-200 g of superphosphate,
- 70-80 g of calcium chloride,
- 40-50 g of ammonium nitrate,
- 300-400 g of wood ash,
- on heavy soils - 1-2 buckets of sand.
All is thoroughly mixed with the upper fertile layer.
Then it is necessary to sprinkle a layer of fertilizer with a small layer of earth to protect the bush from burns. Next, put a seedling there so that the root system is evenly placed in the pit. Then you need to pour on top of the ground. After compacting the ground, the planted plant is watered with 1-1.5 buckets of water and mulches the ground around it with sand, foliage or peat.
Caring for this shrub is similar to caring for other cultures. But in this case there are small nuances that should not be missed.
It is necessary to water actinidia only in especially hot, arid weather, approximately once a week, one bucket of water for each bush. The plant does not interfere with both morning and evening spraying. If you do not carry out such procedures, the actinidia will not survive.
Reproduction Methods for Actinidia
Actinidia can be propagated vegetatively and by seed. When a shrub originated from seeds, it is more hardy, but the floor of the plant can only be determined in the seventh year of cultivation. When propagating in a vegetative way, the shrub will bloom for 3-4 years.
Watch the video! Achenidia cutting
Easy method reproduction bush layings:
- in the spring you must choose a developed, high escape,
- bend it to the ground, pin it down and sprinkle it on the ground at 10 cm, the top of the shoot should remain above the ground,
- This is followed by mulching with sawdust or humus,
- then you need to water, spray the sprout and weed in a timely manner,
- in autumn or spring, the sprout can be separated from the main plant and planted in a permanent place.
Reproduction of actinidia using cuttings
In order to propagate Actinidia with green cuttings you need:
- In June, select several annual branches and cut them into pieces of 10-15 cm. All cuttings should have 3 buds for growth and 2 internodes.
- The cut under the lower kidney should be at an angle of 45 degrees, the upper - 4-5 cm above the kidney - straight.
- The leaves should be removed from the bottom along with the stalks, the upper ones should be cut to 1⁄2 lengths
- Rooted anywhere, right on the garden, in the greenhouse, or in the water.
- Place the handle at an angle of 60 degrees. The average kidney will be level with the ground. Having condensed the soil, plentifully water.
- In winter, covered with fallen leaves. In the spring you need to transplant Actinidia to a permanent place.
We hope that this article will help to find answers to all questions related to actinidia colomicta. By caring properly for the garden plot plants, you can get a bountiful harvest.
Watch the video! How to plant actinidia