Author: Listieva Lily August 09, 2017 Category: Garden Plants
Osteospermum (lat. Osteospermum) - genus of herbaceous annuals and perennials, shrubs and subshrub of the Compositae, or Astrovye family, which mainly grow on the African continent. The generic name is derived from the Greek word meaning “bone” and the Latin word, which is translated as “seed”. Osteospermum is also called “Cape chamomile”, “Cape daisy”, “African chamomile”, “Blue-eyed chamomile”, “South African chamomile”. Why "daisy"? Because the inflorescences of plants of this genus are very similar to the flowers of the representatives of the genus Nivyanik. Several species of the Osteospermum genus are cultivated as ornamental plants.
- 1. Listen to the article (soon)
- 2. Description
- 3. Growing from seed
- 3.1. When to sow
- 4. Landing
- 4.1. How to plant
- 5. Care
- 5.1. How to grow
- 5.2. Pests and diseases
- 5.3. Osteospermum after flowering
- 6. Types and varieties
Planting and care for osteospermum (in brief)
- Bloom: from mid-summer to November.
- Landing: sowing seeds for seedlings at the end of March or at the beginning of April, planting seedlings in open ground at the end of May.
- Lighting: bright light or partial shade.
- The soil: friable, light, well drained, fertile, but without an excess of organic matter.
- Watering: moderate, and only in the dry season.
- Top dressing: twice a month with complex mineral fertilizers in half from the dosage specified by the manufacturers.
- Reproduction: seed.
- Pests: aphid.
- Diseases: the rot.
Osteospermum flower - description
Osteospermum plant, reaching a height of 1 m, refers to evergreen crops. The stem of the plant is erect, although there are species with creeping shoots. The leaves of the osteospermum are unequal at the edges, and the flowers are inflorescences-baskets with a diameter of 4 to 10 cm, consisting of white, purple, purple, pink, orange or yellow reed flowers and blue central tubular. Unlike other members of the Compositae family, in which the seeds are tied with tubular flowers, in osteospermum the median flowers are sterile, and the seeds form reed flowers, bordering the sterile middle of the inflorescence.
Osteosperm is grown in a flower bed, in courtyards, in pots and tubs. Chamomile kapskaya blooms profusely until November, easily tolerates heat, short drought and frost a few degrees. In our climate, perennial osteospermum is grown mainly in annual crops.
When to plant osteosperm.
Dry seeds of osteospermum are sown on seedlings in late March or early April in peat tablets or in boxes filled with loose peat-sand soil. If you want to speed up the process of seed germination, do not soak them (osteosperm does not like it), but simply hold it in a wet wipe for several hours before sowing. Dig the seeds into the moistened substrate by 5 mm, pushing deep into the toothpick. Contain crops at a temperature of 20-22 ºC. Seedlings may appear within a week, and as soon as this happens, the crops are moved as close as possible to the light, and after the appearance of 2-3 true leaves, the seedlings growing in the box swoop in separate containers with the deepening of the stem. Lightly pinch the top of the transplanted seedlings of tall varieties to stimulate more lush blooming in the future and slow down the pulling of seedlings. At the beginning of May, they begin to perform tempering procedures, opening window vents in the room or taking out seedlings to the balcony first by 10-15 minutes and gradually increasing the duration of the session.
How to plant osteospermum in the garden.
Osteosperm seedlings will be ready for transplanting in open ground at the end of May. Chamomile osteospermum prefers areas illuminated by the sun, although it feels good enough in partial shade. Dig holes in a row at a distance of 20–25 cm so that the roots of the seedlings fit into them together with the earthy clod, and after transferring the seedlings, fill each hole with nutritious soil consisting of sand, humus, leaf and sod land in equal parts. Condense the surface and water the plants liberally. Osteospermum blooms from seed in June.
How to grow osteospermum.
Planting osteospermum and caring for it is not difficult and pleasant. The plant needs moderate watering, feeding during the flowering period and timely removal of wilted inflorescences. If the nights in May are cold, young plants need protection from low temperatures.
In a season with a normal amount of precipitation, osteosperm in the open field can do without irrigation, but if a prolonged drought occurs, it can affect the decorativeness of flowers, which shrink from lack of moisture.
In order for the osteospermum bloom to be long and lush, it is fed once a fortnight with complex mineral fertilizers at half the recommended dosage from manufacturers. Sometimes, because of the intense heat, the plant stops forming buds, but as soon as the temperature drops, the intensive flowering of the osteospermum resumes.
Pests and diseases of osteospermum.
Cultivating and caring for osteospermum involves taking protective measures against diseases and pests, and although African chamomile is extremely resistant to infections and insect attacks, this kind of problem can also arise from it. For example, cultivation in the shade with abundant and frequent watering can lead to a weakening of the plant's immunity, as a result of which osteospermum infect fungal diseases: the roots of the plant begin to rot, and the bush withers. Therefore, grow osteospermum in the sun and allow the soil between waterings to dry out. Sick bushes handle fungicide solution.
Weakened osteospermum is an easy prey for aphids, which settles on the stems and leaves and feeds on their juice, from which the leaves turn yellow and fall, and the bush fades. Destroy aphis with acaricidal preparations - Aktellik, Aktar or Karbofos.
Osteospermum Eclon (Osteospermum ecklonis)
- a plant from the east of the Cape region. Some forms of the species have straight stems up to 1.5 m in height, other forms are spreading, short, almost creeping. The inflorescences of plants of this species, with a red-purple center and white reed flowers, covered with pink veins on the underside, reach 8 cm in diameter. There is a species with bluish median flowers.
Osteospermum shrub (Osteospermum fruticosum)
come from the south of the Cape region. It has creeping stems capable of covering large areas. Reed flowers in this species are light purple, white or red. Shrub osteospermum was brought to California and extremely spread there.
Osteospermum appreciable (Osteospermum jucundum)
- perennial from hinterland of South Africa. It blooms for almost the whole year with inflorescences with purple-pink reed flowers darkening towards the center.
As for the varieties and hybrids of osteospermum, their origin is uncertain. The most popular of them are:
- – Bamba - variety with broader marginal flowers than other osteospermums, which at the beginning of flowering are painted white, but gradually turn purple,
- – Buttermilk - bushes about 60 cm high with gray-green leaves, dark median flowers and pale yellow marginal,
- – Cannington roy - undersized creeping shrub with inflorescences up to 8 cm in diameter, consisting of white with purple tips of the rims, which gradually become pink-lilac,
- – Congo - variety with small inflorescences and pinkish-purple reed flowers,
- – Pemba - a plant, reed flowers of which grow up to half the length into a tube,
- – Lusaka - variety with long light purple reed flowers,
- – Volta - a variety in which reed flowers are first lilac-pink, and then they become almost white,
- – Silver Sparkler - bushes up to 40 cm high with white marginal flowers and bright dots on the leaves,
- – Sandy pink - a plant about 40 cm tall with pink inflorescences and spoon-shaped marginal flowers,
- – Starry aes - plants a little over half a meter high with white on the upper side and gray-blue with lower reed flowers folded along in half.
Stems erect, less often - creeping. The height of the plant is about 30 cm; varieties up to 75 cm high are bred. The leaf plates are dense, ovate, oblong, with smooth or jagged edges. Stems and leaves may have a bright green or grayish color.
Delicate inflorescences like daisies. The core may have a blue, blue, smoky black color. Color petals (reed inflorescences): white, various shades of purple, pink, yellow, orange, blue. Their shape is oblong with pointed tips, but the so-called osteopermum spoon is derived: the shape of the reed inflorescence resembles a spoon.
The diameter of the inflorescence is 3-8 cm, they are simple, breeders derived terry and semi-double. It blooms almost throughout the summer, and if the weather favors it can bloom until October. Each inflorescence lives about 5 days, they continuously replace each other. Flowers reveal in clear weather.
A variety of shades, long flowering, simplicity in care contribute to the popularity of osteospermum.
Growing osteospermum from seeds at home
Osteospermum seeds photo
The plant successfully propagates by seeds: they remain viable for up to 4 years, friendly shoots appear 7-10 days after sowing. Excellent self-seeding breeds.
In open ground, seeds are sown in April. No seed pretreatment is required.
How to plant osteospermum seeds on seedlings, tell the video:
Hardened seedlings, planted by the method of transshipment, practically does not get sick and immediately take root, especially with careful care. Do not be too zealous and flood the plants: just keep the soil slightly moist.
Reproduction osteospermum cuttings
How to propagate osteosperm cuttings photo
To save varietal traits used reproduction cuttings. This method is suitable for plants that are moved to the premises for the winter.
- In February, select the escape, which did not bloom, and cut the apical stalk, the cut should pass under the knot.
- Remove the leaves from the bottom and plant the stalks for rooting.
- The soil is a mixture of peat, sand and perlite.
- Cover with a can, trimmed with a plastic bottle or film.
- Rooting lasts about a month. Ventilate and moisten the soil regularly.
- With the onset of heat transplant rooted cuttings in open ground.
Planting in open ground
The best place for landing will be an open sunny area, perhaps a slight shading.
The soil requires a loose, moderately fertile, permeable, neutral or slightly acid reaction.
- Dig the plot, loosen the ground and let it settle.
- Plants are rolled over together with the earthy clod - the hole must fit this size.
- Between the bushes keep a distance of 30-40 cm.
- Press down the soil around the seedling a little, pour it well.
How to care for osteospermum in the garden
Osteospermum Sky and ice - blue-eyed chamomile photo
The plant is drought-resistant, but to maintain abundant flowering requires moderate watering. Do not allow overmoistening, water only in case of severe drought.
Pinching and dressing
- Pinch the tops of the shoots to stimulate branching.
- Feed three times per season: a couple of weeks after planting in open ground, then during the setting of the buds and at the end of the summer. Use complex mineral fertilizers for flowering plants.
- Constantly remove faded buds.
Osteospermum in the open field winters only in regions with warm winters (the maximum decrease in temperature to - 10 ° C). For a successful wintering it is necessary to cover the plants with dry leaves in the fall.
If the temperature in your region drops below -10 ° C, the plants will die, but to save them until spring and propagate by cutting, you can dig up bushes and keep them in a cool place. Carefully dig the shrub without disturbing the earthy coma and place in a wide container. Keep at low temperature, water occasionally. In the spring, transplant again in open ground.
Osteospermum Eklon Osteospermum ecklonis
Osteospermum Eclon Osteospermum ecklonis photo
Grown as an annual crop. Shrub strongly branched, upright stems stretched to 1 m, the leaves are narrow with jagged edges. The core of the inflorescence has a red-purple hue, the petals are white, on the lower part there are streaks of pink color.
Osteospermum Eklon Osteospermum ‘Sunny Philip’ photo
Zulu - inflorescences bright yellow.
Bamba - the color of the inflorescence varies from white to purple.
The sky and ice are the heart of blue, petals are white.
Volta - pinkish petals become white as they bloom.
Buttermilk - petals of bright yellow color turn white as they bloom.
Silver Sparkler - inflorescences of white.
Congo - Inflorescence purple-pink color.
Pemba - reed inflorescences twisted into a tube to the half.
Sandy Pink - petals of a pink color in the form of a spoon.
Sterry Ice - reed inflorescence along folds in half, the inner part has a white color, outer - blue-gray tint.
Sand - a hybrid series of this type. It should be noted varieties Pink lace, Gnome Salmon, remarkable spoon-shaped reed inflorescences.
Osteospermum noticeable Osteospermum jucundum
Osteospermum noticeable Osteospermum jucundum photo
The color of the petals is white, purple, the reverse side may have a violet-purple tone.
Buttermilk is a plant up to half a meter high. The color of the petals is pale yellow, their downside acquires a bronze tint.
Lady Leytrim - the heart is almost black, the petals are light purple.
Bengal fire - the inner side of the reed inflorescence is white, and the outer side is of a blue hue.
Shrubs are branched plants, they produce a large number of flower baskets, resembling chamomiles, thanks to this osteospermum is called “Cape chamomile”. The stalks of flowers are tall - up to 30 cm. The inflorescences reach 5 cm, but they have already bred varieties, the flowers of which grow up to 9 cm, and the stems up to 75 cm. We almost cannot find them, they are grown only in Europe.
The color of the inflorescences is white, pink, orange and purple. The center of the flower in the main blue, but in some varieties can be orange, white, deep pink. The leaves are bright green, dense. The flower is unpretentious and blooms almost all summer.
It happens that a plant is confused with a dimorphological plant, as these flowers are relatives. It often happens that dimorpotek is not sold under its own name, but as a relative. The difference between these flowers is that the osteospermum is long-term, and the dimorofote is an annual plant.
The best varieties of osteospermum with photos and names
Osteospermum Akila Osteospermum Akila photo
Variety Aquila has many shades from white and pink to burgundy and dark purple. Looks beautiful in miksovyh plantings.
Osteospermum Passion Osteospermum Passion Mix photo
The variety Passion is also magnificent in mix beds, its compact, low bushes with powerful upright stems are densely dotted with beautiful flowers with neatly contoured petals, on which longitudinal volumetric strips are pronounced.
White Osteospermum Ice White Osteospermum ice white photo
It is impossible not to admire white daisies with blue centers, in which rare yellow specks of stamens are scattered. This is a unique grade Ice White.
Osteospermum Sunny Philip Osteospermum ‘Sunny Philip’ photo
The stunning imagination of Sunny Philip really resembles small suns with radial rays. The tips of the petals seem to be pinched, curled into tubes.
Osteospermum Osteospermum Impassion Purple photo
Variety Impassion has a special form of petals, the flowers look very neat, as if stamped, one to one alike.
Osteospermum Double Parple Photo
Double Double Parple variety With tubular central petals resembles a chrysanthemum in some way.
Osteospermum Osteospermum 3D Purple Photo
Another stunning terry 3D variety with several rows of petals is crowned with a central tubular core. The color is saturated, the lower petals are oval-elongated, the middle ones are slightly shortened and dissected at the tips.
Osteospermum in landscape design
Osteospermum in landscape design photo
Low-growing species are planted as ground cover plants. They are also good in pots for decorating balconies, terraces, porches.
Osteospermum will be a bright accent in any flowerbed, it looks good in rocky gardens, framing ridges, planted in groups in mixborders.
Osteospermum flower photo on flowerbed
Next to white-colored osteosperms plant Carpathian bells of white, blue color, petunias, forget-me-nots, alissum, iberis, lavender.
The moth, asters, cuff, jerk, geranium, and silverweed are combined with the variegated forms.
The birthplace of this unique flower is South Africa (Cape Province of South Africa), so it is called “African Daisy”, “Cape Daisy”.
This unique flower was brought to Europe by the British back in the 10th century.where he gained immense popularity.And all because "African Daisy" is very beautiful and unpretentious.
Plant and care for the plant is easy and simple. Differs in flowering duration (from June to the most autumn frosts). Due to this, the flower is used not only for decoration of flower beds and flower beds, but also for cultivation on balconies, in hanging pots and even on home window sills.
The plant belongs to evergreen crops, up to 1 meter high. Stems erect, studded with dense foliage. There are species with creeping shoots. Leaves dense, oblong, with smooth or jagged edges.
On the branchy bushes bloom a large number of flowers, in appearance resembling daisies. The heart of the flower can be blue, blue, smoky-black. Petals (lingular inflorescences): white, purple, blue, pink, orange, yellow. The size of the inflorescences is from 3 to 8 cm. The inflorescences are simple, semi-double, terry.
Osteospermum is often confused with dimorphological, as these flowers are very similar and are relatives. The difference lies in the fact that osteospermum is a perennial plant, and dimorofote is an annual. In central Russia, osteosperm is grown as an annual.
African Daisy blooms long from June to October. The life of one inflorescence is not more than 5 days, new flowers abundantly appear in its place. The inflorescences open in the sun, and when night falls or the cloudy weather closes. So the flower protects the pollen from the effects of rain or night moisture.
Popular varieties and hybrids
Osteospermum affects a variety of varieties. In nature, there are more than 45 species, on the basis of which many hybrids were bred.
The most popular for breeding work is osteospermum "Eklon" or "Cape Daisy". The main varieties based on it:
- "Silver Sparkler" - white inflorescences, leaves with white spots.
- "Zulu" - inflorescences yellow.
- "Sky and ice" - white petals with a blue heart.
- "Buttermilk" - pale yellow inflorescences.
- "Congo" - bright pink-purple petals.
- “Volta” is a chameleon variety, the flowers change color from lilac-pink to white.
- "Bamba" - white petals turn purple.
- "Pemba" - the petals twisted in half into tubules.
- "Sandy Pink" - rose petals are like spoons.
- "Erase an ice" - the petals are folded along in half.
Very popular variety "Passion" - the most stunted and compact bushes. Differs in cold-resistance and lush flowering. The inflorescences of white, purple and magenta two-tone shade are beautifully combined in osteospermum "Passion". A mixture of seeds can be purchased in specialized stores. The most popular varieties are “Gnome Salmon”, “Pink Lace”.
Another type of breeding hybrids often use osteospermum pleasant, in which the petals of the inflorescences have different colors on both sides. On its basis, hybrids are derived:
- "Buttermilk" - pale pink petals, bronze bottom.
- "Bengal fire" - white petals on top, bottom blue.
- "Lady Leitrim" - inflorescences are white with pink markings.
Reproduction by cutting
In order to propagate osteosperm cuttings, you need to take care of this in advance. In the autumn the bushes are dug and stored indoors.
In January - February, the tops of the plant 5–7 cm long are cut off with a sharp knife, the cut is carried out at an angle. Cut the lower leaves and cuttings put in the water for about a month, before the roots. Then the rooted cuttings are planted in pots with soil, peat and humus. Try to keep the temperature at least 20 degrees. In mid-May, when warm weather sets in, the cuttings are planted in a permanent place in the garden.
Storage of osteosperm in winter
Osteospermum is a perennial culture, but it can survive the conditions of winter only in the conditions of the southern climate, where the temperature does not fall below 10 degrees. It will be enough just to shelter for the winter.
If you want to keep a variety, you can dig up a bush, plant it in a spacious pot and bring it to the room. From December to March, ensure winter peace for osteosperm. The temperature in the room where the flower will be contained should not be higher than 15 - 17 degrees. Watering should be reduced to a minimum. In the spring, land a wintered bush in the garden.
Varieties and types
One of the most popular varieties is osteospermum eklon. It grows widely and has a very massive stem. He loves a temperate climate, does not like the cold. Many hybrids having different colors and petals have been created from it - Buttermill, Congo, Zulu, Volta, Silver sparkler and others.
Osteospermum ampelous - This is a variety whose flowers have a large shrub with many flowers. It blooms best in the sun and is very thermophilic. To keep the flower as a perennial in cold winter conditions, it must be placed in a cool place with good lighting and rarely watered.
Osteospermum coolness - this variety is resistant to cold weather, and therefore continues to bloom until the frosts themselves. Not afraid also of heat, wind. But, unfortunately, this annual flower. Apparently he was brought out with the help of dimorphology.
Osteospermum mix - mainly grown as an annual because of climatic conditions, but it is perennial. He loves the sun, but also grows well in the shade. Withstands cold and heat. If you want a flower to be perennial, then for the winter keep it in a cool room, bright with a slight watering.
Osteospermum peshn - one-year undersized flower, which is mainly kept indoors, but can be planted in the garden. This is also a one-year variety of dimorphology.
Osteospermum cultivation and care
Some features of different varieties mentioned above, but now let's talk about the care, in general. For his landing suitable loosened area, well lit by the sun. In the shade the plant will grow too, but the flowering will be insignificant.
It is advisable to fertilize the earth with humus, sand and turf ground. The same amount of all components. Regarding the temperature, as already mentioned, this flower perfectly tolerates both heat and cold, but not excessive.
If you grow a plant in a pot, then water it regularly, but do not overdo it. Very well, if you can fertilize a flower weekly. Under this condition, its flowering does not take long.
Pinching osteospermum is needed for the bush to be thicker. This procedure must be done at least a couple of times. And another important point is the removal of wilted and dried inflorescences.
Origin and Description
In its homeland - South Africa and the Arabian Peninsula - osteospermum is represented by more than 70 species. There is a perennial plant that retains its foliage all year round.
Depending on the type, osteospermum may have the appearance of a grassy perennial, or a shrub. Height ranges from 10 to 100 centimeters. The flowering of this plant is very long, in our latitudes, it begins to bloom in June and ends just before the onset of frosts.
The flowers are multi-colored daisies, the palette of which varies from white to purple and from yellow to red. The size of the flower, depending on the type and variety may be 3-8 centimeters.
The only minus of this plant, when grown in the temperate zone, is that its flowers are open only in sunny weather, thus, this flower protects its pollen.
Only a few species of this plant are suitable for use in ornamental floriculture:
- Osteospermum Eklon, it is called the Cape daisy, on behalf of the area where it grows. This species can grow up to 1 meter, and in natural conditions is a shrub. In Russia, it is grown exclusively as an annual plant.
- Osteospermum is noticeable, in appearance it is not very different from the previous one, with the only difference that its height is less, and it is more resistant to a decrease in temperature. Therefore, in the southern regions of the country, where the temperature does not fall below -10 degrees, it can winter in open ground.
Location and soil
In order for osteosperm to bloom magnificently, he needs to select the sunniest place, in the extreme case, the openwork shadow.
One of the positive qualities of this plant is that it can grow in the sun itself without detriment to the decorativeness and color of the flowers.
Virtually any soils are suitable, except clay, because the moisture permeability of the soil on which it grows is important for osteospermum.
Note: if the shade is dense, the flowers will begin to shrink, and terry varieties will become common. Moreover, in deep shade, the flowers will often be closed.
It is also desirable that the soil was not too fertile, otherwise the plant will increase the green mass to the detriment of flowering.
Types of osteospermum
Before you start growing osteospermum, you should decide on its varieties. After all, some of them grow up to a meter in height, which may not be suitable for a certain place of their landing.
The most common species is Eclon or Cape Daisy. Very neat, compact plant, stem height from 30 to 100 cm, depending on the variety. This southern perennial is afraid of winter frosts, because in the middle zone it is grown as an annual. Some flower growers manage to dig up a plant before frosts, to store in a cool room with moderate watering in order to plant it in the spring in a flower bed. The plant tolerates such a procedure well, it is quickly restored after transshipment to the open ground and from June begins to delight with beautiful chamomile flowers.
The most popular varieties of osteospermum (photo):
- With white petals - "Sky and ice", "Silver sparkler",
- Yellow flowers - "Zulu", "Buttermilk",
- Multi-colored - lilac-pink "Volta", purple-pink "Congo", lemon "Cream Symphony" with a purple stripe,
- Variety with embossed petals, which include varieties "Pink Lace", "Gnome Salmon",
- Low-growing varieties suitable for growing in flowerpots and flowerpots, decorations for balconies and windows from the Peshn series grow up to 30 cm, have all shades of pink with a rich blue midpoint,
- Differ in a large range of colors varieties Sunny, Cap Daisy, growing to half a meter.
Today, breeders have developed a new kind of flowers, osteospermum is pleasant (photo), the distinguishing feature of which is the change of petal color from white to purple as the flower blooms. The back side of the petals is always darker than the top. The flowering period of each flower is 10-15 days, after which its color gradually becomes lighter and it fades. It is more difficult to grow than the cape daisy, due to some breeding features. These include varieties "Buttermilk", "Bengal Fire", "Lady Leytrim." This evergreen plants that can move the winter in warm regions under shelter.
Sometimes low-growing varieties of osteospermum are confused with dimorpotema. They are very similar in appearance, bloom until frost, love the sun and heat. But the osteospermum is perennial, with cold winters the pot can be cleaned into the room and in spring the plant can be transplanted into the open ground, and the dimorfote is annual and cannot be stored in winter.
This method can be used only in the case when you need to grow some specific, very liked, variety, or have a desire to engage in selection. After all, osteosperm grown from seeds may not completely copy the external characteristics of the mother.
Selection of cuttings should be carried out in January-February, carefully cutting off the tops of the mother plant. These sprouts should be kept in water for at least a month before the formation of roots. The temperature of the room, the most suitable for rooting, +20 degrees Celsius. Land for planting sprouts should be loose, consist of equal parts of humus, sand and soil in which they will grow in the summer, watering moderate.
Growing osteospermum from seeds is a very simple and quite productive way to produce young plants. Seeds of osteospermum are rather large, they are distinguished by good germination. To get the first flowering in June, sow in March. The root system of the plant is very sensitive to transplants, because it is better to place the seeds in peat tablets or several pieces in separate cups, which does not require picking.
Into the moistened soil, bury the seeds for half a centimeter, sprinkle with a thin layer of earth on top. Cover the seedlings with glass or film, put in a warm, well-lit place. Can be placed on the windowsill, removing from it with each airing. At a temperature of 18-20 degrees and moderate watering the first shoots will appear in 7-8 days.
Despite the fact that the plant is rather cold-resistant, its shoots need to be tempered in the open air immediately after the appearance of the first leaves, each day increasing the duration of the air baths. You can open the window for a few minutes every day, making sure that there is no strong draft.
Planting in open ground grown from cuttings or seeds of plants should be carried out in the second half of May, when the threat of night frost disappears. For landing, you must choose a well-lit warm place. The distance between the bushes depends on the variety and the intended branching, but not less than 30 cm. By the middle of June, the first flowers will appear on the seedlings. You can sow osteosperm directly into open ground in early May. But in this case, it will bloom much later than seedlings.
Features of the cultivation and care of osteosperm
For the cultivation of osteospermum you need to find a sunny place with a loose, fertile soil. In the shade or partial shade of his magnificent flowers may not be revealed. Groundwater should not be located too close to the surface, otherwise the plant root system will quickly rot, leading to death.
See also: When to plant a seedlings seedling
The rooted osteosperm will easily endure high temperature and a short absence of irrigation, it will feel quite comfortable at temperatures as low as -5. It is enough only to periodically feed it during budding and flowering, and sometimes water it in a particularly dry summer. Faded inflorescences do not leave the stems for a long time, because to maintain their decorativeness, they must be removed manually.
For continuous and abundant flowering under osteosperm should weekly fertilize, alternating mineral with organic. Periodically rapidly growing bushes, especially in tall varieties, should be pinched in order to provoke their additional branching. At very high summer temperatures, the plant can "hibernate", stopping flowering and the laying of new buds. In August, when the heat subsides a bit, it makes up for lost time, actively forming buds.
Osteospermum brought to the house for the winter period needs a period of rest. And no matter how great the temptation to extend the summer on the window sill, it is necessary to create proper conditions for hibernation from December to March. The pot with the plant should be placed in a cool, but not cold room, isolated from light, limiting watering to a minimum. The most suitable temperature is + 15-17 degrees.
Osteospermum is an evergreen, the height of which does not exceed 100 centimeters. As a rule, shrubs have upright shoots, but there are also species with creeping stems. The edge of the leaf plates unequal gear. Flowers are baskets-inflorescences, the diameter of which is 4-10 centimeters. They consist of reed flowers, painted in purple, pink, yellow, white, purple or orange, as well as from the central tubular flowers of blue color. Osteospermum differs from other members of the Aster family in that its median tubular flowers are sterile (infertile), and the seeds are tied with reed flowers.
This plant adorns the courtyards and flower beds, and they are also grown in pots and pots. Lush flowering ends only in November. This plant is resistant to heat, drought and short frost. In middle latitudes, perennial osteospermum is grown, as a rule, as an annual.
Planting seedlings in open ground
Osteospermum seedlings are transplanted into the open soil in the last days of May. For planting should choose a sunny area, but this flower can be grown in a shaded place. Between the landing holes must observe a distance of 20 to 25 centimeters. Their depth should be such as to fit not only the root system, but also the earthen room. Seedlings should be carefully transferred to prepared holes, which are filled with soil mixture consisting of humus, sod and leaf soil, as well as sand (1: 1: 1: 1). Ram the surface of each well. Planted seedlings need abundant watering. Flowering will begin in June.
Caring for osteospermum in the garden
Growing osteospermum is very simple. All that is needed is to moderately water, feed in time during flowering, and also pick off inflorescences that began to fade. In the event that in May at night it is still cold enough, then it will be necessary to cover the osteosperm.
Watering such flowers is usually required only in a long dry period. The fact is that due to lack of moisture, flowers may begin to shrink. If it rains systematically, then osteospermum can do without irrigation.
Чтобы увеличить пышность и продолжительность цветения, надо 2 раза в месяц производить подкормку данного растения комплексным минеральным удобрением, при этом использовать нужно ½ часть от рекомендованной дозировки, указанной на упаковке. If prolonged hot weather is observed, then the process of bud formation is suspended in osteospermum. After the air temperature drops, the lush bloom continues.
Pests and diseases
Despite the fact that osteosperm is highly resistant to diseases and pests, it can still cause problems of this kind. For example, if a flower grows in a shaded place and at the same time is watered quite often and abundantly, then its protective system weakens, which leads to the defeat of fungal diseases. This is manifested in the fact that the root system of the bush rot, and he dries out. In this regard, it is best to grow osteospermum in a sunny area, while remember that between irrigations the surface of the soil must necessarily dry well. Treat affected specimens with a fungicide.
If the plant is weakened, then aphid can suck on its shoots and leaf plates, sucking the juice out of it. In the affected bush leaves turn yellow and fall off, while the plant itself fades. In order to get rid of aphids, it is necessary to treat the bushes with acaricides (Aktar, Aktellik or Karbofos).
After the winter period comes, the one-year osteospermum will die. But there is a way to make him a perennial plant. In the autumn, dig up the bushes and plant them in pots that should be put in a cool room, where they will bloom for quite some time.
Osteospermum - a bright favorite of flower growers
Flower originally from Africa. It belongs to the grassy artisanal and semi-handicraft family Compositae. Osteospermum perennial plant. But due to the peculiarities of the climate in our latitudes, it is more often cultivated as an annual plant.
An intricate name, culture received thanks to a combination of the Greek word for bone and the Latin for seed.
Usually, the flowers of this species are grown in open ground.
The flower has a rather branched shrub that can reach up to half a meter in height. Many growers prefer osteosperm for the fact that it is an evergreen culture.
With proper care, the plant blooms profusely from early summer until late autumn. The flowers are 5 centimeters in diameter and are found in a rather diverse color palette.
Omteospermum varieties and photos
There are a large number of varieties of osteospermum, but only a few species are massively cultivated in our region.
- Osteospermum appreciable. This type of flower is grown mainly in areas with warm winters, as the culture does not tolerate frost. Evergreen shrub whose flowers can change color from white to purple. The reverse side of the inflorescences has a purple color. Each flower can bloom up to 15 days, gradually changing the shade, and after it falls. Quite a difficult form for growing beginner growers.
- Osteospermum Eclon. Culture up to one meter in height with toothed sheets. It also does not tolerate frost and therefore grows as an annual. On the basis of this species, many subspecies have been derived, therefore the color and size of flowers may differ depending on the plant variety.
- Ampel. This type of plant is also a frequent visitor in our region. Most often, the culture is grown in pots or pots. This kind of thermophilic and will generously delight flowering, if it grows in the sun.
Breeders brought a large group hybrid plant representativesthat are adapted for growing in our climate. These include:
- Sparkler. A small bush, only 30 centimeters tall. It has white and blue inflorescences with golden stripes.
- Passion. A good variant of the osteosperm variety for growing in pots. Flowers usually reach 5 centimeters in diameter and are painted in lilac or pink.
- Pemba. Quite an interesting hybrid. Flowers plants have an unusual spoon shape. More often, the inflorescences are pink or purple.
- Aquila. The plant has fragrant purple flowers. Differs in sufficient resistance to frosts.
- Congo Hybrid and many others.
Osteospermum: planting and care in the open field
To get started is to determine the place for landing. It should be well lit. You can choose any soil for growing osteospermum, since Cape chamomile is unpretentious to its composition.
The distance between crops depends solely on the variety of the bush, its pomp and height. The average distance between plants should be at least 30 centimeters.
Osteospermum is quite drought tolerant, and the lower temperature index that the crop can withstand should not be below five degrees.
Abundant flowering osteospermum begins to delight in early summer. During the peak heat period, which in our region begins in July, the plant flows into a period of short-term dormancy. And with the advent of recession heat, returns to normal and begins to bloom again.
Watering Cape chamomile should be moderate. Slight drying of the soil is allowed. But the bogging and stagnation of water in the ground will cause root rot.
An important point in the care of this crop is timely feeding, which is produced twice a month. It is necessary to fertilize a plant, until osteospermum has not entered the stage of rest. It is better to give preference to mineral and organic fertilizers, alternating them.
Young plants of chamomile need to pinch. This will provide better branching of the shoots of the plant. After pinching, branches of tall varieties need to be tied up.
As for growing a flower in pots or pots, it should be remembered that if the temperature drops below 5 degrees, the plant will be brought into a room with a temperature of 10 degrees heat. And with the arrival of spring, it can be planted in the ground or transplanted into a new pot.
Osteospermum is a plant with high resistance to diseases and insect attacks. Therefore, growing shrubs, do not be afraid. The only thing that can lead to damage to the plant, as mentioned earlier, is excessive watering and waterlogging of the soil.
As for insects, the only enemy in our latitudes for osteospermum is aphid. To combat this pest, it suffices to treat the shrub with soapy water or special acaricidal preparations.
Osteospermum growing from seeds at home
If the varietal characteristics of the flower are not important to you, then you can use the method of growing from seeds, as it is more simple. Osteospermum seeds are large and because of this, you can skip the picking stage, and immediately plant in separate containers (this way the plants will not suffer from transplanting).
Sowing is carried out in March. For planting is taken turf, sand and humus or peat tablets. It is better to plant the seeds no deeper than 5 mm, so they will ascend faster. Keep pots indoors at a temperature of about 20 ° C, when sprouts appear, then lower it a little.
After the appearance of a pair of true leaves, slightly deepen the stem and pinch the top. In May, it is necessary to start teaching osteosperm seedlings to coolness - take the flower to the balcony or to the garden to fresh air.
Landing in open ground is carried out at the end of May. Planted osteospermum at a decent distance from each other, not less than 20 cm, as the bushes grow strongly. Having planted a flower, water it in the morning and in the evening some days.
In the fall, you need to transplant the plant in a pot and bring it into the house. Keep it in moderate coolness. To collect seeds, inspect the outer petals (tongues) - they are formed on them, and not inside the basket.