Among the many options for planting potatoes, the most popular is planting under a shovel. This method can be called a classic. It is used in small areas with predominantly loose soil. On clay plots, such a planting scheme is impractical because of the complexity of further processing of seedlings. More talk about how to plant potatoes under a shovel.
Preparation of planting material
Potato tubers for planting are prepared in the fall. At the same time eliminate rotten and damaged roots. At this stage, it should be remembered: a strong, healthy potato will bring a great harvest. In turn, rotten tubers can infect the soil and provoke rotting of root crops in the neighboring holes.
To increase the resistance of tubers to diseases in the fall they are kept for 20 days in the sun. In this case, the tubers become green and already become unsuitable for human consumption. Planting potatoes are removed in a dark cool place until spring.
In the spring, the potatoes are taken out and transferred to a bright room for germination. Immediately before planting all tubers browse for the presence of rot. Patients root utilized.
Potatoes are considered ready for planting in the presence of sprouts. They must be strong, but not long. Otherwise, sprouts can be damaged during planting.
Potatoes for planting should be of medium size. Large tubers can be cut in half. At the same time on each half of the potatoes should be sprout. Cuts should be well dried to avoid rotting of planting material. After this, the cuts are treated with wood ash. This method allows you to reduce the consumption of potatoes and is quite popular among experienced farmers.
In the autumn, potato beds are plowed up and introduced into humus. In the spring, before planting potatoes, soil is plowed over again, disinfected and fertilized. As a fertilizer, ash, compost, urea, or nitrate are used. Top dressing allows to increase productivity.
If the soil on your site is clay, but you plan to plant potatoes under a shovel, take care of high-quality and abundant fertilizing of soil. Fertilization not only increases the yield, but also directly affects the quality characteristics of the soil, making it lighter and friable.
Determine the type of soil. You can determine the type of soil on your plot with a simple test. Take some soil from the garden and lightly moisten it with water. Try to sculpt some figure out of it. If the earth keeps its shape well and does not crumble - it is clay, crumbles - sandy. To improve the characteristics of the soil on your site will help sand or wood ash - if the soil is clay, peat - if sandy.
Reaction. After determining the type of soil, test it for a reaction. To do this, remember what weeds in what quantities grow in the garden. If buttercups and plantain grow predominantly - the soil is acidic, bindweed prevails and sow thistle - neutral. To reduce the acidity of the soil, add lime, ash or chalk to it. On 1 square. meter will need 1-2 kg. fertilizer. Such a procedure will help bring the composition of the soil closer to neutral.
Crop rotation. Experienced gardeners and gardeners know that you can not plant the same type of vegetable crops on the same bed every year. In the case of planting potatoes, this rule is also relevant. It is necessary to alternate the planting of potatoes with other types of vegetable crops, which will reduce the disease of root crops or defeat them with wireworms.
Potatoes have good sprouts and crop yields, if planted on beds planted with sunflower, beet or pumpkin before. Also you can plant potatoes after cucumbers and corn. The plot selected for planting potatoes should be well lit and available for irrigation.
The scheme of planting potatoes under the shovel
Start planting potatoes is necessary when night temperature will be set at around 10 degrees. It makes no sense to plant earlier - the first shoots appear after the soil warms up well.
Planting potatoes under a shovel can be done in two ways:
- Linear landing - the wells are in line,
- Landing in a checkerboard pattern.
The distance between the holes should be not less than 30 cm. In case of linear planting, it is necessary to observe an interval between rows equal to 60 cm. Land between rows is required for hilling potato shoots. In late-ripening potato varieties, the tops are more dense, so the distance between the rows must be at least 70 cm.
The hole in which the seed potatoes are placed, should not be too deep. In the lower layers of the soil, the ground is much colder; accordingly, a deep planting increases the time of germination. The optimal depth is 10 cm.
If you decide to plant potatoes in a later period, when the weather is warm enough and dry enough, reduce the depth of the hole to 4 cm. The same depth is necessary when planting tubers in clayey soil. Its dense structure badly passes heat and moisture and increases time of emergence of the first shoots.
Once we have decided on the landing pattern and distance, proceed directly to the landing work. We dig a hole and put potatoes into it in such a way to sprout looked up. We fall asleep with the earth. Similarly, we sow the remaining potato tubers.
If you are using a linear landing, then to facilitate the process of work, you can use the board. To do this, measure the width of the bed and pick up a board of the appropriate length plus 10 cm. The width of the board can be arbitrary, but you need to consider: too narrow a board can break from the severity of your weight, and too wide is inconvenient in work. A suitable board placed on the ridge is similar to the line of the location of the holes. Getting on the board, start digging holes. After digging one row of holes and placing the potatoes in them, move the board to a distance equal to the aisle, and cover the holes with earth. Make the next row and repeat the steps.
The use of boards, with a linear planting potatoes, has its advantages. The earth is not trampled down during the work, the wells are located on the same line. As a result, you will get even potato rows.
After the potatoes are planted, it is necessary to level the surface of the ridge. This is done with the help of a rake. So you give your garden a more well-groomed look and eliminate excessive evaporation of moisture from the soil.
Potato seedlings care
After the appearance of the first shoots, it is necessary to carry out the right care for them. In addition to watering and systematic weeding, it includes hilling.
Hilling of potatoes is carried out once every two weeks. With the help of a chopper or a large flat-cutter, the ground between rows of rows is scooped up to potato tops, forming piles around it. Hilling has a positive effect on the formation of potato tubers and also protects shoots from late frosts..
After the potato tops grow and become strong enough, hilling can be avoided by limiting to watering. Watering must be done once or twice a week. Two weeks before the harvest is done, watering should stop. If you plant the potatoes according to the rules, following the advice of experienced farmers, the harvest will delight you with an abundance and large healthy roots.
07/27/2018 admin Comments No Comments
How deep to plant potatoes
Potatoes - the most common agricultural crop grown on household and suburban areas. At the same time, despite the similarity of its agricultural technology in different regions of our country, there is some difference in the methods of planting tubers. That is why the question of how deep the potato is planted is of concern to many, including novice gardeners.
What determines the depth of planting tubers
There are various ways of planting this culture: in the wells, in the ridges, under the shovel or in the furrows. Moreover, the depth of embedding tubers can vary from 5 cm to 30 centimeters or more. What determines the depth of planting potatoes?
It is determined by several different factors. These include:
- The type and composition of the soil. On light and loose soils, the depth of embedding of tubers can be greater, since such a ground quite well passes air, which allows the plant to develop rapidly and give a lot of underground stolons, on which a large number of tubers are fastened. On dense soils, the depth of planting potatoes can be 5-8 cm.
- The size of the tubers. Usually, larger tubers are buried to a greater depth than smaller ones, since they contain a larger supply of nutrients, which allows the stems to grow faster and more actively.
- Type of planting material. Very often, to save planting material, gardeners practice cutting the tubers into pieces. Each of them should have several eyes or sprouts. The cut should be well dried and treated with wood ash. Such planting material is usually buried to a depth of no more than 5-8 cm.
Ways of planting potatoes
Answering the question of how to plant potatoes correctly, it is difficult to say which of the tuber planting methods is the most effective. In different conditions, they all show different results. There are several popular methods of planting this crop.
The choice of the method of planting potatoes is determined by the peculiarities of the land plot, the cultivation region, the groundwater level, and the personal preferences of the gardener.
The most common methods of planting tubers:
- Under the shovel. In small kitchen gardens, many people still plant tubers "under the shovel." This means that they are buried almost to the depth of a spade bayonet. This method of planting potatoes is quite justified on light and loose soils, where the groundwater is quite deep. When planting potatoes "under the shovel," many further limit themselves to creating small earthen mounds around the stalks of the plant, since the bulk of productive stolons are deep in the ground and there is no need to rake a lot of soil on the plant.
- In the ridges. This option is ideal for wet soils. Tubers are planted in the ridges, whose height is 15-20 cm. For their formation, garden machinery or a mini-tractor are most often used.
- In the trench. For this method use the grooves, a depth of 10-20 cm. Their bottom is filled with rotted humus. Planting material is spud from both sides, forming a comb above it, 10 cm high and 20 cm wide.
- "Under the straw." This option is used on unplowed land. Soil do not dig at all. Tubers are covered with a thick layer of straw. As the stems grow, their number gradually increases.
- Scoop into the hole. depth of 10 cm. This method is most often used for growing early varieties of potatoes on light and loose soils.
- Under the winter in the hole. Some gardeners in temperate latitudes, where the winter is not too harsh, are planted potatoes in late summer. This method of planting allows you to get a very early harvest next spring. Landing areas suitable for planting are suitable. In the summer, one tuber is planted in the prepared wells. When the stems spud them. Before the onset of frost cut tops. Combs with potatoes covered with straw, spruce branches or fallen leaves.
Read the same: The most famous varieties of petunias with photos and descriptions
Many people ask: at what distance to plant potatoes? It depends on the size of tubers, potato varieties, planting method. There are various landing patterns, the most popular of which are:
- distance between tubers - 40-50 cm, between rows - 50-70 cm,
- early varieties are planted with an interval of 30-35 cm, row spacing - 50 cm.
Tillage after planting
Since the tubers are formed on the side shoots of the plant, after planting, it is imperative to spud stems several times in a season with an interval of 2 weeks until the green between the rows closes. At the same time around the plants form the mounds of the earth. They not only contribute to the formation of a larger number of tubers, but also protect young plants from late frost.
More information on the topic: http://www.glav-dacha.ru
How to plant potatoes under the shovel?
Under the shovel - the easiest way to plant potatoes. You could say classic gardening. So our grandfathers and great-grandfathers planted potatoes. To this day, this method is used everywhere.
Are you a city dweller, and saw potatoes only at the dinner table? So this article is for you! Experienced gardeners will also find useful tips for themselves by reading the manual on how to plant potatoes under a shovel to the end. After all, science does not stand still, improving even the classical methods of agronomy.
Where to begin?
First you need to make sure that the available plot of the garden is suitable for growing potatoes. What to take into account?
- The nature of the soil. Clayey soil or sandy. It is easy to determine: moisten a lump of earth and try to fashion something out of it. If after wetting the earth is not molded at all, it is sandy, we managed to mold a figurine - clay. Sandy soil can be improved with peat, and clayey with sand or ash.
- Soil reaction. If on your plot of weeds like plantain and buttercup grow, it means that the soil is acidic, if thistle and bindweed is neutral. Acidic soil needs to be turned into neutral, for this, add chalk, lime or ash - 1–2 kg per 1 square meter.
- What cultures grew on the site in the last year. If the potato, then do not plant it on this site for the next 4–5 years. It is necessary to alternate potatoes and vegetables. then it is less likely that he will be struck with a wireworm or disease. Ideal to plant potatoes after sunflower. Good after beets, corn, cucumbers and pumpkins.
Do not forget that the plot for planting potatoes should be well lit and accessible for watering. In the fall, scatter manure around the garden (bird droppings, fallen leaves), then dig the ground and loosen it with a rake.
The most important thing! It’s right to plant potatoes under a shovel only in sandy or sandy soil! If the soil is clay, this method of planting is not suitable. When planting under a shovel, the tubers are below ground level. In rainy summer, most tubers rot. For clay soil, use other methods of planting - in ridges, on a pillow, in boxes. Or, add to the soil the amount of sand that will allow excess water to seep into the depths without causing spoilage of potatoes.
Want a good potato harvest? Remember the important rule: what you plant, then collect. So, what kind of tubers plant, this will be the harvest. There is an opportunity to purchase good varieties of potatoes - do it.
Tuber preparation is carried out in two stages.
- In the fall. It is necessary to sort the planting material. Too small or damaged tubers are not suitable for storage and planting. For two to three weeks, hold the potatoes in the light, but not in the open sun. Green tubers become unsuitable for food, but they will be resistant to diseases.
- In the spring. A month before planting, review the tubers for rot and disease. Destroy bad tubers. Then arrange them in one row in a damp, cool room, where sunlight penetrates. You can also do this outdoors in the afternoon, if the temperature is not lower than 10 ° C. At low humidity in the room, the tubers can be sprayed with water.
A few more secrets of tuber preparation.
Before germination, dilute the solution of potassium permanganate (or boric acid) in a bucket. Put the potatoes in a string bag and put them in a bucket for 20 minutes. Also good results are obtained by spraying the tubers with biostimulants.
Features planting potatoes under the shovel
So, your potato has formed many sprouts and is ready for planting. The usual time for planting potatoes is mid-April. Depending on whether it is early or late spring, the landing period is shifted to the beginning or end of the month. Focus on the night air temperature - it should be above 10 ° C.
Conveniently, at least two people are involved in planting potatoes using the described method. One digs a hole, and the second can at this time plant potatoes under a shovel in the beds. The earth dug for the next row of wells digs up the holes of the previous one. If there is a third assistant, he can level the ground with a rake after landing.
To make the rows even, stretch the rope between the pegs hammered into the ground. You can use various methods of forming beds.
- Square nesting. At the same time, the whole plot is broken into squares, in each of which there is a hole (nest) for a potato bush. The distance between the sockets is 50–70 cm.
- Chess. Potatoes are located like honeycombs. To do this, each successive row begins with a shift by half the distance between the plants.
- Two-line (according to Mittleider). Two lines or rows are located very close to each other. The distance between the holes in the line should be approximately 30 cm. Use the distance between every two lines (up to 1 m) for the passage. Внутреннее расстояние между строчками рекомендуется использовать как канавку для полива и внесения удобрений. Лунки двух совместных строчек нужно располагать не друг напротив друга, а в шахматном порядке, или со сдвигом на полрасстояния, как в предыдущем методе.
Лучше всего располагать грядки с юга на север – таким образом, будет достигаться максимальная освещенность растений. Лунку выкапывайте на глубину 10–15 см. Сначала насыпьте в нее горсть перегноя, а уже затем кладите клубень с ростками. Do not damage the sprouts when planting. A little trick: if you throw the seed of the string bean into each well with the potatoes, you will not only get a double crop, but also enrich the earth with nitrogen.
Before the emergence of shoots tubers enough moisture that is contained in the soil. And with their appearance, the potatoes need watering. Water the potatoes once, and in dry times - twice a week. Two weeks before harvesting, watering must stop. Do not forget to spend one or two hilling per season, in order to give the potato the opportunity to grow in normal conditions!
And finally, an instructive video on how to plant potatoes in the beds under the shovel:
All gardeners and gardeners are waiting for spring to begin work on their second land on planting second bread # 8212, potatoes. This is the most popular vegetable that will feed us all winter. I want to collect a good harvest so that you can calmly meet the winter without worrying about what to apply to the dinner table than to feed your family and it is desirable that it be grown with your own hands on your land, and not from the market.
But here you need to know how to properly grow this not tricky vegetable. After all, many think that there is so complicated? That planting potatoes is nothing. He marked the beds, made holes, threw potatoes, buried, poured, and waited for him to germinate, and then dug up all the works.
Time for planting potatoes.
In the spring, after the earth dries out and warms up, when the temperature of the soil at a depth of 10 cm is + 8 ° C, you can start planting. For reference, it is possible to determine the period of planting on birch leaves. If the leaf is the size of a penny - the time has come to plant potatoes. If you want to get an early harvest, the tubers by this time must first be germinated.
But here we must pay attention to the peculiarities of the local climate. It is impossible to give one pattern to all regions, as cold can return, and night frosts will damage the seedlings and damage the crop.
How to plant potatoes.
When landing, you can use the thread to delimit the place future potato bushes. Depending on how far the groundwater is located, the planting method is chosen.
When the groundwater is far from the surface, it is necessary to plant in the wells:
- Rows should be at a distance of 60 # 8212, 80 cm,
- Between tubers there should be a distance of 30 cm,
- Plant at a depth of 6 # 8212, 10 cm,
- After planting the soil level rake, to avoid evaporation of moisture.
With a close location of groundwater, it is better to plant potatoes in the ridges about 15 cm in height. This method of planting allows the soil to warm up and ventilate much faster. Crests from each other are located at a distance of about 60 - 70 cm. Place tubers at a depth of 6 - 8 cm.
If at the site the groundwater level is very close to the surface and the soil is wet, then for planting it is necessary to make wide beds up to 30 cm high.
Tubers of potatoes planted in a bed in two rows with a distance between rows of 70 centimeters and between tubers from 25 to 40 cm (depends on the size of tubers). The distance from the edge of the garden to the row must be at least 20 cm.
This article has examined the question of how to plant potatoes and when they can be planted. After all, if it is not right to plant potatoes, then you can get a bad harvest, but you can even be left without potatoes.
Picked up a video on planting potatoes
How to plant potatoes?
Depending on the geographical location of the area, planting potatoes carried out from the second half of April. Previously, this is not recommended, as the sprouts of potatoes are very sensitive to frost, besides, the roots of the plant are formed in warm soil. If the weather is rainy, you should not hurry with the landing.
For the growth of potatoes and the formation of a full crop it takes 90 days from the moment of emergence. So the potatoes will have time to grow, even if the plant is planted in early June (for the middle band).
For the earliest emergence of seedlings, the potatoes selected for planting are artificially germinated, but can be planted without sprouts. Shoots appear a little later. Medium sized tubers are suitable for planting, large ones are cut into 2-3 pieces. It is important to correctly determine the distance between the rows (edges). The best option is # 8212, 60 cm, it is not worth planting closer, as there will be no place for the tubers to grow, they will be smaller, and it will not be convenient to spud the plant. Plant potatoes properly to a depth of about 10 cm, no deeper, so that the shoots do not have to spend a lot of effort to get through.
Elena (iklife.ru). Hello! I am 27 years old, height 175, weight 55 kg, thin ”
Plastall.com.ua. But how to equip a small bedroom. This "
tusya12. How to choose the right kitchen appliances? ”
Sasha. Consultations on wine-making 0669525901 mail: vinor19 »
Kinders. Master the basics of proper breathing during gripping "
Most read articles
Kak-Pravilno.com - This is a project that will help you answer most of the questions that arise daily before us.
On our site we have collected articles of the best authors in various fields. Articles will tell you - how to act in a given situation, how to make a choice.
I hope we will be friends and you will come to us again and again for advice. Discuss articles in the comments and add us to your bookmarks.
Site materials are protected by the law of the Russian Federation on copyright and related rights.
Any copying of articles without active links is strictly prohibited!
Sources: http://agrarian-blog.ru/kak-sazhat-kartoshku-pod-lopatu/, http://news-content.ru/sad_i_ogorod/posadka-kartoshki.html, http://kak-pravilno.com /ogorod/kak-pravilno-sazhat-kartofel.html
No comments yet!
Soil treatment unit AKP-3
Proper tillage is one of the most important conditions for obtaining a good harvest, as the potato places high demands on the airing of the soil and its saturation with oxygen.
For the roots, trunks and tubers to develop well, we need deep tillage. Currently, for the main tillage advise many methods and techniques:
- deep loosening by cultivators and flat cuts,
- plowing a plow with a skimmer
- deep tilter-free loosening by plows without dumps and plows with cut-out shells,
- plowing with a deepening of the arable horizon.
The choice of method depends on the soil and climatic conditions. In different climatic conditions, the same technique gives different results.
In all regions, the highest yields are obtained when carrying out autumn plowing to a depth of 27-30 cm or to the full depth, if the soil has a small arable horizon. However, one has to be careful: plowing to a depth above the arable horizon can lead to the mixing of the humus layer with the podzolic horizon, which contains almost no humus. This will reduce the total amount of organic matter in the topsoil and increase its acidity, which will have a bad effect on potato yield. In this case, it is better to carry out deep soil tillage by 30-35 cm, which is not inferior in effectiveness to conventional plowing to the depth of the arable horizon.
After harvesting the predecessor with the purpose of loosening the soil, seeding crop residues, pests and pathogens, the field is peeled to a small depth 1-2 times - depending on how dirty it is.
Shelled peeled disc and plowshare
After 2-3 weeks, you can plow to plow. If the soil with a deep humus horizon, then at 28-30 cm ordinary plow. Sod-podzolic, gray forest and other soils (with an arable horizon of 19-22 cm in depth) are best plowed with a plow with a subsoiler and without a cannon, without inverting the subsurface layer. Perhaps the deepening of the arable layer of 2-3 cm.
If you are from the northeastern regions, where the post-harvest period is small, in the middle of August - beginning of September plowing is carried out at full depth, and then, if weather conditions allow, and the weeds have managed to germinate, cultivate or cultivate.
Bog soils and cultivated peatlands are sheared to a depth of 6-10 cm with heavy disc harrows, and then plowed to a depth of 30 cm. If weeds appear, then the field is treated 1-2 times with disc shears.
On light sandy soils, tillage can be replaced by plowing by 14-16 cm.
As established by experience and practice, on chernozem, floodplain and peaty soils, the best potato yields are obtained with an early moldboard deep (30–35 cm) autumn plowing cultivated in the fall as a semi-pair. It is better to plow sod-podzolic soils with a small humus horizon without plow (plows without dumps or plows with subsoilers) to a depth of 28-30 cm with simultaneous introduction of large doses of organic and mineral fertilizers, and on acidic soils — and lime. On flooded floodplains deep plowing is carried out in the spring, after the fall of vernal waters.
On medium-cultivated sod-podzolic soils should be carried out deep shrimp plowing before planting potatoes. Before that, it is necessary to carry out waste plowing under a plowing to the depth of the arable layer. According to some data, such tillage increases the yield of tubers by 15-30 centners per hectare, when compared with deep cultivation since the fall, under plowing, since these soils are usually compacted in the spring to the initial state. Usually on more loose and cultivated soils, where the "maturation" of all layers of soil occurs almost evenly and they are less compacted, it is better to carry out the bottom-up deep plowing of the prick after the early spring harrowing. Before planting potatoes on these soils, additional pre-sowing cultivation is carried out to the depth of embedment of tubers. On a little cultivated and heavy sod-podzolic soils, quickly compacted and slowly drying to a depth, they are processed in layers, i.e.
It is necessary to take into account the fact that future plowing should be carried out in the direction of planting. Often this happens the other way round: the landing is carried out across plowing, which can lead to undesirable consequences. In this case, the planter may move unevenly, as if on waves. In order to ensure a smooth surface of arable land, it is recommended to use reversible plows. The layer must be turned over, crumbled into small lumps and laid without voids. The layers from all enclosures should be the same size. The furrow must be straight.
Comments are closed.
Home >> Crop production >> Vegetable crops >> Potatoes
How to plant potatoes
When planting is too early, when the soil is still cold (4-6 ° C), shoots can be affected by diseases, especially rhizoctonia. A favorable period occurs when the soil is heated at a depth of 8-10 cm to 7-8 ° C or more. On sites with a southern slope and on light soils, planting time comes much earlier.
Initially planted early ripening, with germinated tubers of the variety, and then later. In the northern zone of the Nonchernozem region, this period begins in the middle of May, and in some years - in early May or late April. A week, and sometimes even 10-15 days earlier, can be planted in more southern areas. In areas protected from cold winds and with a southern slope, the sites are also planted earlier.
Tubers are planted on a flat surface. But if the soil is over-wetted and quickly compacted, then pre-do ridges 10–15 cm high at a distance of 70 cm from each other or ridges 1–1.2 m wide, 15–20 cm high. When landing on ridges and ridges, protection against excessive moisture, air and thermal conditions are improved. The optimum planting depth is 10–12 cm for light soils, 8–10 cm for medium loamy and heavy ones. But it’s better to plant to a depth of 5–6 cm where the soil warms better and after sprouting to pile up the plants, increasing the soil layer over the tubers to the indicated depths. Small tubers are planted to a shallower depth, large ones - 2-3 cm deeper. On the ridges are placed in 2 rows, with spacing for early varieties of 60 cm (on poor soils), for later - 70 cm.
On sandy and sandy soils, as well as in areas with a southern slope, ridges and ridges do not. On soils with a relief surface and on the southern slopes, shoots appear a few days earlier and potatoes grow much faster. In highly fertile, abundantly fertilized soils, the row spacing is increased to 80 cm, especially when using potentially the most productive varieties - Adretta, Site, Hilt, etc.
Plants of early varieties, unlike late ones, have a smaller size of vegetative organs and upright stems. Therefore, they are planted with a smaller distance in rows - after 25-30 cm. On light soils, the width between rows can be reduced to 60 cm. Tubers of medium and late-ripening varieties are placed in a row at a distance of 30 cm. Standing density also depends on the size of planting tubers. Small planted with a smaller distance than medium and large.
When using poor or medium soil fertility, pre-planting of humus or compost into the wells or grooves is effective. Under each bush give 2-3 handfuls of fertilizer. It is also advisable to make phosphorus-potassium fertilizers (best of all - wood ash), pre-mixed with organic. 3-4 kg of mineral fertilizers are added per 1 m 3 of compost.
If the aim is to improve the taste of potatoes, then you need to use only organic fertilizer and ash. If possible, the use of pesticides should be avoided, using mainly agrotechnical methods of dealing with diseases and pests.
Choosing a landing site
The plot for planting potatoes under a shovel should be small, since this method is quite laborious. It is desirable to choose the well-lit beds without the close location of groundwater and other causes of stagnant moisture.
For good growth and development of potatoes requires moderately moist and loose fertile soil. Before starting work, it is necessary to determine whether the existing garden area is suitable for growing potatoes.
For this it is necessary to take into account a number of criteria:
- The nature of the soil: sandy or clay. To determine this, it is necessary to moisten a lump of earth and try to fashion something out of it. If, after wetting, the earth is not molded at all, it is sandy, but if you manage to mold the figure, it was still possible - clay. It is recommended to improve sandy soil with peat, and clay soil with ashes or sand.
- Ground Reaction It can be determined by weeds growing in the area. Plantain and buttercup love sour soil, bindweed and sow thistle - neutral. For the conversion of acidic soil into a neutral per 1 square meter you need to add 1-2 kilograms of lime or ash.
- Cultures that grew in the last year on the site. If potatoes were growing on a bed before this, then planting it at this place for the next 4-5 years is not worth it. To reduce the likelihood of a potato being damaged by diseases or wireworms, it is necessary to alternate it with vegetable crops. The ideal precursor for potatoes is sunflower. Good to plant it after corn, pumpkin, cucumbers, beets.
Under a shovel, it is recommended to plant potatoes only in sandy or sandy sandy soil. This method of planting is not suitable for clay soils. Tubers planted under a shovel are below ground level. In rainy summer most of them rot.
For clay soil it is better to use other methods of planting - on the pillow, in the ridges. You can make sand in it in such quantity that excess water seeps into the depths and does not cause spoilage of potatoes.
Before planting potatoes, on the ground should be the right preparatory work. Experienced potato growers recommend starting soil preparation for planting in the fall.
You can perform this procedure in two ways:
- Dig the soil on the site on the bayonet of the shovel, simultaneously remove the weeds and apply fertilizer for each square meter of planting area: 7 kilograms of manure, 40 grams of superphosphate, 15 grams of potassium sulfate.
- Plant a site under the potatoes with green manures, mow them in the spring and to a depth of about 10 centimeters to bury in the ground. By rotting, siderats enrich the soil with microelements necessary for potatoes. After 14 days, potatoes are planted using peat mulch as the top layer.
In a small area a few days before planting, it is advisable to dig up the ground with a pitchfork in order not to disturb much the worms helping to loosen it. If plowing is carried out by a tractor or a motor tractor, the ground should stand and settle for a couple of days.
When to plant?
The potato that has formed many sprouts is ready for planting. The usual time for this is mid-April. The planting dates may be shifted to the beginning or end of the month, depending on whether it is early spring or late.
It is necessary to focus on the night air temperature, which should be above + 10 ° C. Late planting due to lack of moisture will adversely affect the yield. With early work, cold land, frost and disease will ruin the entire seed.
Basically, the timing of planting potatoes depend on the heating of the soil. In the regions, this process takes place in different ways, so the timing is also different. In the third decade of March, early varieties of potatoes can be planted in the south. The optimal time for planting mid-season potato varieties come here in early April.
Following the southern regions, it is warm and reaches the middle band. The third decade of April is optimal for planting potatoes here. Самые поздние сроки посадки в Сибири и на Урале: необходимая температура устанавливается здесь только в первой декаде мая.
По народным приметам следует обращать внимание на цветение черемухи и появление листьев у березы. Между этими событиями разница обычно составляет 10 дней, знаменующих начало периода посадок.
Под лопату можно сажать картофель сплошной посадкой, в гребни или на гряды. In case of a continuous planting, the subsequent care of the plants may be difficult due to the closure of the tops in the final stages of the growing season.
This is the most common method of planting in the case of heavy soil on the site. It is better to prefer planting potatoes in the ridges.
In the lowlands or in areas with high groundwater deposition, potatoes are planted in ridges that form approximately 15 centimeters in height. Between the ridges with a standard fit under the spade leave a distance of 50 centimeters.
At least 2 people take part in planting potatoes under the shovel. One of them digs the hole, and the other lays out the potatoes in them. Tubers put sprouts up or lying down, cut - cut to the ground.
Adding fertilizer to the wells, be sure to mix it with the ground. The ground dug for the next row of wells digs up the previous ones. A third member can rake the ground after landing.
To obtain even rows between pegs hammered into the ground, it is necessary to tighten the rope.
You can create beds by various methods:
- Chess. Potatoes are located in the form of honeycombs. Each subsequent row for this begins with a shift between plants at half distance.
- Two-line (according to Mittleider). Two rows are located very close to each other. The distance between the holes in a row is approximately 30 centimeters. Between every two lines make a gap for the passage width of 1 meter. The distance between the lines inside is used as a groove for fertilizer application and irrigation. In the two joint lines, the wells are placed in a staggered or half-distance shift.
- Square nesting. The entire plot is divided into squares, in each of which there is a hole for a potato bush. Between the sockets should be a distance of 50-70 centimeters.
It is best to have the beds from south to north: the illumination of plants in this way will be maximum. The hole is dug 10-15 centimeters deep. First, a handful of humus is poured into it, and then a potato tuber with sprouts is put, which should be avoided during planting.
Together with the potatoes, you can throw the seed of the string bean into each well. So not only will it be possible to get a double harvest, but also to enrich the earth with nitrogen.
Loosening and hilling
One week after planting, it is necessary to water the potato plantation and remove the weeds. Regular loosening relieves the soil of excess moisture and prevents the tubers from rotting. Weeds make the soil impenetrable: it is a great environment for the emergence of infectious diseases. After reaching the tops of a height of 18-20 centimeters, hilling is performed.
Approximately a month after planting the potatoes need to feed the first time. The production of environmentally friendly products is facilitated by the use of natural fertilizers.
For fertilizing, it is recommended to use wood ash and humus. Potatoes respond well to bird droppings, the application rate of which is 200 grams per 1 square meter. It is important to bear in mind that in case of excessive application of organic matter to the detriment of the quality of tubers, potato tops may grow excessively.
Mineral fertilizers can also be used to feed potatoes. An average of 20 grams of superphosphate, 10 grams of urea and 10 grams of potassium chloride or sulphate are needed per square meter on average, which are recommended to be dissolved in water for irrigation.
If irrigation is organized along the groove, fertilizers can be dry scattered between the rows in a separate groove made at a distance of not less than 12 centimeters from a row. If the potato has a very fast growth of the tops or it is too lush, then nitrogen and so in excess, urea and ammonium nitrate should not be added.
After the plantation blooms, the tubers are fertilized a second time, doubling the dose. Before making substances, it is necessary to water the potatoes so that the chemicals do not burn the root system. The third time it is fed up after flowering.
In addition to the main dressings, at least a couple of times it is desirable to conduct additional foliar dressings: spray the tops with a 2% solution of a mixture of potash fertilizer, superphosphate and Bordeaux mixture. In addition to feeding potatoes, they will provide him protection from pests and diseases.
2 weeks before harvesting, all tops must be cut. Without wasting energy on growing greens, potatoes thicken the skin and accelerate the development of root crops. Within 8 months, such potatoes will be perfectly stored, without being affected by rot and infections.
Tubers before germination will be enough moisture in the soil. With the emergence of seedlings, potatoes need watering. It should be remembered that it can not be poured, but only moisturize as needed.
Over the entire growing season, 3 main irrigations of potatoes are carried out: after the appearance of the first shoots, with budding and after flowering. Additionally, it is recommended to water it once a week, and during dry summer - 2 times a week. Stop watering 2 weeks before harvest. In rainy weather, additional watering will be superfluous.
The sandy type of soil is suitable for culture: it is loose, it is well permeable to moisture, without delaying it, it is breathable. If the soil is clay, it can be corrected by making sand or ash.
Did you know?In addition to the fact that the tubers can be of different colors, even blue and black, there is a kind of potato growing on trees that takes root in the crevices of the bark or hollows.
Acid reaction of the soil is important for a good harvest, the potato prefers a range of 5.1-6 pH.
Weeds will help determine the soil reaction on your site:
- if oxalic (horsetail, buttercup, plantain) prevail - the soil is acidic,
- wheatgrass, chamomile, coltsfoot dominate, and blackjack is neutral.
In order to reduce the acidity, it is necessary to add two glasses of lime per square meter along with fertilizers for autumnal digging. m
The best predecessors will be:
You can plant after sunflower, pumpkin and corn, but it should be noted that these crops deplete the soil, after which it must be well fertilized and saturated with moisture before planting.
Important!It is not necessary to plant potatoes in the area where they grew up to this day: tomatoes, eggplants, peppers.
Fertilizer before planting
As soon as the top layer of the soil warms up and dries out from the meltwater, the pre-planting work begins: digging, loosening, clearing from weeds, fertilizer.
From organic fertilizers, you can use manure, compost or humus: 6-7 kg per 1 square. m
Mineral complexes necessarily add mineral complexes: superphosphate, potassium and ammonium sulfate in equal parts (20 g).
Before planting, so that the beds are smooth and neat, put the beacons: pegs with a stretched cord. Rows should be placed in a direction from north to south.
You will also be interested to know how it is thought to plant potatoes before winter, how to grow potatoes in bags, according to Dutch technology, under straw.
The plot is divided into squares with the help of beacons, thus, the same distance between bushes and between rows is obtained - 60-80 cm. Plus schemes - in the absence of competition between plants for food and moisture.
In a hole 15 cm deep, fertilizer-dressing is placed on the bottom, then one or two tubers.
Between a pair of tubers should be at least 8 cm.
When landing in a staggered manner between the bushes leave a distance of about 40 cm, the same - between the rows. In each subsequent row, the hole shifts to the side. Fertilizer and one planting tuber are also placed on the bottom.
The depth of the pit should be no more than 15 cm. According to experienced gardeners, the method allows you to get more yield and save space, but caring for it is complicated due to the narrow row spacing.
Two-line (according to Mittlider)
Putting pegs with markup, mark the plot as follows:
- two ridges with a width between them of 45 cm
- wide meter passage,
- again two ridges with a narrow passage, etc.
The method allows you to effectively water and apply other treatments, weeding, loosening.
After the work has been done, the beds are dug up, except for wide aisles, adding fertilizer and scooping around the edge of the sides 15 cm high. On the surface of the beds they dig holes with a distance of 30 cm from each other, 10 cm deep. One tuber is put into each well.
If you planted using the Mittlider method, you do not need to spud the culture. With other methods, ten days after planting, loosening should be carried out in order to saturate the earth with oxygen; incidentally, if necessary, weeds should be removed. Important!After planting the culture, regardless of which method was used, the pits fall asleep, and the surface must be leveled with a rake, breaking up clods of earth. For the first time spud upon reaching the tops of 20-centimeter height. Carry out the procedure carefully, so as not to damage the shoots. They are moved apart with a hand and covered with soil, leaving only leaves on the surface.
Video planting potatoes "under the shovel"
Detailed instructions with detailed explanations of planting culture can be viewed in this video:
Did you know?In the tourist town of Belgium Bruges there is a museum that tells about the travels of potatoes, its history, as well as many recipes of dishes, where it is the main ingredient.
At the first glance, many beginning vegetable growers, when planting garden crops, make minor mistakes that can lead to a lack of harvest. Therefore, in conclusion, we will give advice: explore all the possible nuances of growing and care, and then your efforts will not be in vain.