Oyster - a fungus from the genus Pleurotus, distributed in many areas of the globe: in Germany, Denmark, Portugal, Poland, France, in other countries of Europe, in North America, in Australia, India, Pakistan, Egypt, etc. In our country, this mushroom is found literally everywhere, from the Krasnodar Territory to the territory of Primorye and Siberia.
In the Russian forests, woody mushrooms can be found on the rotted remains of deciduous crops, on stumps, deadwood, and logging waste. Most often, the colonies of these fungi grow on the bark of such trees as:
On the trunks of these trees, mushrooms are located under each other or grow in clusters. There are also such species of these fungi that can be found among the roots of umbrella plants that are on the surface of the earth.
They are divided into numerous species. All of them are similar in that they do not grow alone, but form intergrown groups consisting of many fruit bodies. Each such group of mushrooms can reach an amount of up to 30-50 pieces in a bunch. And the weight of the removed family is more than 3 kg.
Types of tree mushrooms
The distribution of these crops according to their affiliation to the trees on which different species grow, therefore, this classification is somewhat arbitrary. In many works of biologists on the species diversity of oysters, several tens of different species exist in nature, which include both edible mushrooms and inedible ones. Consider some of them.
Oyster mushroom (pleurotus ostreatus)
Another name for mushrooms of this species is oyster oyster. Edible mushroom, with a large fleshy cap, the size of which can grow up to 15 cm (in some up to 25 cm). The color of a young fungus can vary from brown to ash-violet, with aging the hat fades and becomes gray or yellowish.
When the colonies of fungi are found in a humid environment, a mycelial plaque is visible on the caps, which does not affect the useful qualities. White leg slightly curved in relation to the cap, 5 cm long.
The taste of the oyster-type is pleasant, with the smell of anise. There is a mushroom on weakened diseased tree trunks. The collection of oyster mushrooms begins in August and ends in mid-November.
Oyster Horn (pleurotus cornucopiae)
It is an edible mushroom, resembling a shepherd's horn, hence the name. The cap has a horn-shaped (funnel-shaped), up to 12 cm in diameter. The color depends on the growing conditions and age, varying from light sand to gray-ocher. The Oyster Cone is thin and long leg (up to 8 cm with a thickness of 1.5 cm). It attaches to the head side. This oyster mushroom grows in groups, often on elm stumps and its felled trees. Very popular in China and Japan, from where it falls on our shelves. The period of fruiting from May to September.
Oyster Oak (pleurotus dryinus)
Mushroom refers to quite edible. The dimensions of the fleshy elliptical cap vary from 5 to 10 cm. The color of young mushrooms is yellow or cream, and the cap with scales becomes curved upwards as it grows. Velvet leg with a length of 5 to 10 cm has a membrane ring. In relation to the cap may grow in the center or have a lateral position. The flesh, although tough in taste, has a pleasant sweet aroma. And this species, unlike its fellows, grows alone, only occasionally forms a few groups. They collect oak oyster mushrooms from mid-July to September.
Oyster mushroom (pleurotus eryngia)
She royal. Treats valuable edible mushrooms. It has a round or oval cap with small scales, painted in red or brown tones. Sizes range from 4 to 13 cm. The cap tone changes to brown as it grows. The height of the leg is up to 5 cm. In relation to the cap, the leg is located in the center or slightly to the side. The flesh of these oysters is pink-white, sometimes with some brown tint.
Most often, these mushrooms are brought to us for sale from Germany, Poland, France, Greece, Turkey, Egypt. Although, they are also found on the territory of Russia. And they are interesting because they are formed on the roots of forest umbrella plants, and not on the trunks of dead trees. The royal steppe Vyoshenka bears fruit only in spring.
Oyster Pulmonary (pleurotus pulmonarius)
She white oyster, spring or beech. The most common naturally occurring edible mushroom of this species. The size of a rounded or fan-shaped cap is from 4 to 8 cm, although it can grow up to 15 cm. The color of the cap is white or creamy, it becomes yellow with age. White leg, covered with small pile, very short (up to 2 cm, rarely about 4 cm). Abundantly bear fruit on fallen rotten trunks of beech trees begins in May and ends in September. Spring oyster mushrooms mainly form large groups with knitted legs, practically do not grow one by one.
Oyster rose (pleurotus djamor)
Or oyster flamingowhich also refers to the edible mushroom species. Convex caps of young bodies are painted in bright pink (sometimes gray-pink) color. As it ripens, a round cap that reaches 3-5 cm, becomes flat, with cracked edges, and the color becomes pale with yellow spots. The flesh has an oily taste and original flavor. The habitat of the pink species includes New Zealand, Thailand, Vietnam, Japan, and other countries of the tropical and subtropical zone. And on the territory of Russia a pink garlic is collected in Primorye and the forests of the Far East.
Lemon and oyster mushroom (pleurotus citrinopileatus)
Or golden oyster - rare, but edible mushroom, has a pleasant taste and smell. The size of the cap is within 3-6 cm. In small mushrooms, the cap is yellow-lemon, and with age it fades to whitish. In young people - a long creamy leg, up to 9 cm high, is located in the center of the cap, as the cap grows older, it moves to the side. On the territory of Russia golden oyster is found in mixed or deciduous forests of the Far East, Eastern Siberia and Primorsky Krai. It grows colonies on dry branches and rotted elm trunks.
The number of mushrooms included in the fused group can reach 80 pieces. Abundant fruiting lasts from May to October.
Oyster mushroom covered (pleurotus calyptratus)
Inedible mushroom species of polenok. Inedible, not because of the fact that it is poisonous, but because of the hard as rubber pulp. This type of name was due to the film, which covered the plate under the cap. The surface of the cap itself is smooth and sticky, painted in a gray-brown tone. As it ages, it fades and becomes almost white. The leg of the fungus is almost absent. The first veshenka covered grow alone and appear in April, their fruiting period by July is already ending.
Useful qualities of the mushroom
Many recognize that in their taste, oyster mushrooms are superior to those popular in mushrooms, like champignons. With proper preparation, their taste resembles a white mushroom. Eating them can only be pre-well-cooked. Mushrooms can be fried, stewed, cooked sauces, soups, pickles and pickles. In addition, they are combined with meat of birds and animals, but not with fish.
In the soft body of young pears there is a sufficient composition of useful components that are necessary for the human body:
- vitamins: B, C, D2, E, PP,
- minerals: calcium, potassium, iron, iodine,
- amino acids: valine, leucine, phenylalanine, threonine.
Fats are found in the body of the fungus in small quantities, these are groups of polyunsaturated fatty acids that can reduce cholesterol levels.
Carbohydrates in the composition of the pulp of mushrooms for 20% consist of glucose, fructose and sucrose, which are easily absorbed by the body, but do not lead to the deposition of fat.
Polysaccharides found in mushrooms are a powerful immunomodulatory agent with antitumor activity.
Alcohol infusions made from the pulp of the fungustake for prophylaxis:
Due to the very low calorie content, the presence of fiber and dietary fiber, these mushrooms are successfully used in the diet of people struggling with excess weight.
Harm of oyster and contraindications
There is a substance in the pulp of mushrooms chitinwhich is almost not perceived by the human body. To assimilate this substance, when cooking, mushrooms are finely cut and boiled for a long time. Unfortunately, getting rid of chitin even in this case is completely impossible. That is why doctors do not recommend eating oyster mushrooms in the children's menu. Teenagers, these mushrooms should be given in food only in small quantities.
With all the positive qualities of peps, during their use, you must be careful about allergies, the elderly, as well as those who have the slightest problem with the liver, gastrointestinal tract, pancreas and kidneys. In order for the oyster mushrooms to bring only benefit, they are recommended to be consumed no more than 2 times a week.
Oyster mushrooms now fairly fairly bred on an industrial scale, collecting high yields. If you follow some of the recommendations, you can grow them at home. With 1 kg of mushroom mycelium, amateur mushroom growers receive about 3 kg of ripe oyster mushrooms. By assimilating nutrients, such as lignin and cellulose, from a substrate prepared specifically for these fungi, they are able to grow on any base that contains plant residues.
Mushroom growers emit 2 ways of breeding oyster mushrooms
1the method is intense. Cultivation in artificial conditions.
The intensive method of growing is very common. on bags. As a substrate, agricultural waste is used in bags: straw, sunflower husk, corn stalks and cobs, sawdust of hardwood, dry reed, etc. The rate of fouling of the base is rather high. Mushrooms are disease resistant. Thus, it is possible to get the harvest all year round, and the spent substrate can then be used in the country as an organic fertilizer or feed for poultry.
One "but" for this method requires areas in which you can maintain a special climate for the growth of mycelium. If this is not a problem, then the cultivation technology is as follows:
- Take 2.5 buckets of ready-made substrate for growing oysters.
- Since mushrooms prefer moisture, the substrate is moistened with hot water.
- Substrate pour hot water and boil for about 1.5 hours.
- Then the water is carefully drained. And with excess moisture, the bags are placed under the oppression (the moisture content of the substrate can not be more than 30%).
- Allow the substrate to cool to +25 ° C.
- Then it is crushed into small pieces (it must be breathable).
- Add supplements that increase yield by 30%.
- Raw materials (oyster mycelium) are placed in a room disinfected with 1% chloride solution.
- Tightly close all doors, excluding drafts and ventilation.
- A mixture of oyster mycelium and substrate tightly stuffed bags (calculated on 5-15 kg).
- On the sides of the resulting blocks make cuts of 0.5 cm (so that there are many fruit bodies).
- Blocks with ready-made mixture are placed on the shelves so that a small space remains between them and the sides should not touch the walls either (bags should not be put on each other).
- The incubation period lasts from 2 to 3 weeks. During this time, the room should not be ventilated. This contributes to the accumulation of carbon dioxide and retains moisture in the room.
- The room temperature should not exceed +25 ° C.
- For oyster cats do not need lighting. But in the room should be done daily wet cleaning with a solution of chlorine.
- After a month, the room can be ventilated and provide access to light, now the pellets need air, light and humidity (about 85–95%).
The first harvest will be the richest - from one bag will grow from 3 kg to 6 kg of mushrooms. After 2-3 weeks, wait for the second harvest. If you carry out the proper care behind the oyster mushrooms, then you can take off every subsequent harvest for six months.
2the way is extensive. Growing in a natural environment.
We give an example of an extensive method of growing oysters - on stumps. Used hemp should be cut no later than one year, with no signs of decay, with a height of 0.5 m and a diameter of 0.2 to 0.4 m. The best basis is nut, cherry, apple, oak, alder stumps. However, with this method of cultivation, the harvest will depend on weather conditions and the time of year.
- Opt for the dacha-garden area the most shaded areas.
- If the stump is dry, it should be placed in water for a few days, as wet wood is more amenable to sowing with mycelium.
- The best time to start work is spring.
- It is possible to install stumps in a shallow trench with boiled wheat laid out on the bottom, on top of which is spread the mycelium of mushrooms.
- The chocks installed in this trench are covered with earth a little.
- It is allowed to apply mycelium simply on a cut off horizontal surface of a hemp with a layer of 2 cm (this is called a mycelium infection).
- Several such infected mycelium chocks, put on each other and fasten with wire.
- The construction is wrapped in polyethylene and the germination of the cubs is expected.
- And even easier, it is possible to drill holes on the sides of the hemp, where and planting material.
- Then close the holes with mycelium stoppers of wet sawdust.
- Each such stump with a planted mycelium must be covered with a plastic bag with holes for air.
- In the absence of rain, the "plantation" of stumps must be moistened.
- After 30–40 days the plot will yield.
There is no need to even observe the process. At the right place, the harvest can be removed for 7 years.
Where and when grow mushrooms Oyster mushroom
Where do oyster mushrooms grow: often on dead trees or rotten stumps, less often on dying deciduous and coniferous trees. Prefers to grow close to birch, willow and aspen.
In many countries they are grown under production conditions. In the forest, oyster mushroom mushrooms are quite unpretentious, so when artificially cultivated, they are planted in large groups on sawdust, small chips and even paper, plant and vegetable processing waste (husks or straw).
When oyster mushrooms grow: from mid-September to late December in the countries of the Eurasian continent. Oyster mushroom prefers low temperatures, so it begins to grow with the onset of autumn. But it may appear in the summer, if the weather is cold for a long time.
Eating: It is not only low-calorie, but also a very useful mushroom. It has a lot of protein, amino acids needed by the human body, ascorbic acid, vitamin PP, phosphorus, iron and other elements.
Use in traditional medicine: not applicable.
Other names: oyster oyster mushroom, oyster mushroom, lump.
How and where do oyster mushrooms grow - their types and differences
Oyster mushrooms are considered to be unpretentious mushrooms, they tolerate low temperatures well and are more suitable than other species for growing at home. Where mushrooms of oyster mushroom grow, namely - on which trees, interests all fans of this tasty and healthy mushroom.
In this article, we will look at how and where oyster mushrooms grow in nature, on which trees to look for them, what types exist and what conditions they need to ensure for successful cultivation at home.
How to grow oyster mushrooms in nature
There are about 30 species of fungus, although only about 10 of them are grown in home gardens. However, these mushrooms are quite popular due to their high taste, rich aroma and carelessness.
Under natural conditions, they grow on tree trunks, mostly deciduous, but some species can also be found on conifers. The most unpretentious - steppe, which can grow on trees of any breed, and even on old fallen trunks or stumps.
Where to grow oyster mushrooms, on what trees
Experienced mushroom pickers believe that the oyster mushroom harvested in the forest is much tastier and more fragrant than artificially grown mushrooms. It is forest species that are considered a valuable source of vitamins and minerals, but to collect them you need to know where the oyster mushrooms grow, namely, on which trees.
Fig. 1. Locations in nature
In fact, they are parasites that feed on tree sap (Figure 1). Therefore, they can often be found on fallen trunks and old trees that begin to rot. Most often in natural conditions, these mushrooms grow on birch trees, but sometimes they can be found on aspens, pines and even willows.
How and where do oyster mushrooms grow in nature, you can see in the video.
Lemon, or elm, is common in the Far East, although it is successfully grown at home.
The mushroom got its name because of the unusual for this species, bright yellow color of the stem and the fruiting body (Figure 2). The second name - Ilm, received thanks to the peculiarities of growth. In the wild, it is most often found on the elm, a variety of Far Eastern elm.
Figure 2. Appearance of Lemon Varieties
At home, for successful cultivation, you can use wood poplar, birch or aspen.
Horny, or abundant prefers deciduous forests. This species is sensitive to low temperatures, and although the harvest period lasts from May to October, it is almost impossible to find it in cold weather (Figure 3).
Figure 3. Horned oyster mushroom in nature
У нее длинная изогнутая ножка и шляпка с волнистыми краями, а цвет плодового тела – светло-кремовый. Растет, как правило, на стволах старых берез, вязов, дубов и рябине.
Степная вешенка, в отличие от своих сородичей, развивается не на древесине, а на корнях зонтичных растений (рисунок 4). Its second name, royal, she received thanks to the large size. The cap of adult specimens is much larger than that of other species, and can reach 25 cm in diameter. In addition, it has valuable nutritional properties, as it contains a lot of protein and vitamins characteristic of dairy products.
Figure 4. Growing steppe oyster mushrooms
If you want to know where the mushrooms of this species grow, you should send them to a pasture or a vacant lot covered with umbrella plants. Moreover, the harvest can begin in the spring.
A characteristic feature is the pure white color of the fruit body (Figure 5). The hat is convex, and its edges are slightly down. Good news for mushroom pickers: it grows in large families, so for one trip to the forest you can gather a whole basket of mushrooms.
Figure 5. The appearance of pulmonary oyster mushroom
If you do not know on which trees pulmonary species grow, look for old birch, oak or beech. Do not be afraid that after collecting the mushrooms will be damaged. Despite their gentle appearance, they tolerate excellent transport and are not sensitive to low temperatures.
In natural conditions, pink oyster mushroom in Russia can only be found in the Far East. It is also found in tropical countries, but, thanks to its unpretentiousness, it is successfully cultivated at home, on a substrate of straw or corn waste (Figure 6).
Figure 6. Pink oyster mushroom in nature and home
It grows on the trunks of deciduous trees, and grows in groups or intergrowths. It is considered an edible mushroom with not very high taste properties.
Oyster cherries, or ering, are fairly large mushrooms that grow on the ground. The mycelium in this case is located on the roots of the plants (Figure 7).
Figure 7. Cultivation of households at home
Representatives of this species are spring mushrooms. In regions with a warm climate, the first crop can be harvested already in March, and in moderate crops - in May. The fruit body is white or light yellow, and quite large. It is valued for its high taste, high content of protein and vitamins.
How to grow oyster mushrooms at home
Consider the most popular types of fungus that are cultivated in home farms and large mushroom complexes.
Figure 8. Types of oyster mushrooms for home cultivation: 1 - ordinary, 2 - horned, 3 - steppe, 4 - pulmonary
Examples of different types of mushrooms are shown in the figures below.:
- Shrouded: The most common type of mushroom of this species. In nature, usually grows on stumps. In households, it can be cultivated on logs or grown in bags filled with substrate.
- Horn: These mushrooms grow in large groups. In young horn-shaped specimens, the cap has a convex shape, but as it grows it becomes similar to a funnel. The mushroom has a rich aroma, and the cap darkens with age (various shades of white and yellow). Especially common in China, Japan and Primorsky Krai.
- Steppe: occurs in the steppe regions and grows on dead stems and roots mainly in the fall (in September and October). Hats often have an irregular shape and can be covered with small scales. Color is yellow-brown or slightly reddish.
- Pulmonary: caps are white, but may have a slight grayish tint. She has a soft pulp with a pleasant mushroom smell. As a rule, the fungus grows in groups on fallen trunks of deciduous trees from June to October. Older mushrooms are edible, but can be a little tough.
- Lemon hat: characteristic feature is a bright lemon color. This is one of the most sought-after species, but due to its fragility, these mushrooms are difficult to transport. An added advantage is a pronounced smell, and when added to food, the dishes acquire a light nutty flavor. It is also called the Ilmak mushroom, as it grows in nature on the Far Eastern species of the Ilmak tree, although it can be found on the trunks of poplar, beech, oak or birch. In wild conditions, the fungus grows in Asia and North America, but is also cultivated in the Far East.
- Pink: grows together, and the caps have a pronounced pink color. Under natural conditions, it can be found in tropical and subtropical regions, but it can also be grown artificially, using cotton waste, fermented straw or corn cobs as a substrate.
- Florida: differs in rather large funnel-shaped cap (diameter can be up to 20 cm). Outwardly similar to the usual, but differs in a lighter color of the caps and less soft flesh. Florida is home to North America, but it is successfully cultivated in the Caucasus, using beech logs.
Interestingly, Florida is not a separate species, but only a regional variant of the usual mushroom.
Modern breeders brought a lot of hybrids, which are characterized by higher fecundity, ease of care and improved taste. Below is information on the most common strains and their main characteristics (Figure 10).
This is one of the most common hybrids, which brings a great harvest. Characteristics: round hat of gray color with a diameter up to 12 cm.
The strain is grown on wet plant substrates. For the growth of mycelium, it is necessary to maintain a stable temperature of 24 degrees, but to obtain better-quality mushrooms, the temperature must be lowered to 21 degrees.
It is important that the color of the hybrid's head is influenced by the intensity of the lighting: the higher it is, the more saturated the shade will be.
Hybrid, characterized by high yield. Fruit bodies beige, medium, grow in small groups. For the preparation of the substrate using wheat straw, sunflower husks and corn waste. The substrate must be crushed and moistened to 70-75%, and to increase the yield pasteurized or fermented. A distinctive feature of the strain is resistance to the composition of the air and the differences in lighting.
This hybrid has a gray or brown cap, the intensity of the color of which depends on the temperature. Strain requires the use of a quality substrate for cultivation. Chopped wheat straw mixed with alfalfa stalks and corn cobs can be used. Good yields are achieved when using a substrate of cereal straw and sunflower husk. All components must be crushed, thoroughly mixed and moistened.
Figure 10. Popular strains: 1 - NK-35, 2 - P-20, 3 - P-77, 4 - strain 107
When grown substrate temperature should not exceed 25 degrees. In such conditions, the mycelium fully grows after about 2 weeks. After the appearance of the first fruit temperature is reduced to 14 degrees, maintaining humidity at 90 degrees.
Note: Strain P-70 does not lose yields and at elevated growing temperatures, but this negatively affects the quality of the fruit bodies.
The main advantages of the strain is the high density of the fruit body, which facilitates storage and transportation, high yield and the possibility of long-term storage.
This strain is characterized by high yield and low system requirements. As a rule, the cap is dark gray, but the hue depends on the temperature of cultivation and the intensity of illumination.
Hybrid shows high yield when grown on ordinary chopped straw, but the temperature of the substrate should not exceed 30 degrees. Full fouling with mycelium occurs in 12-16 days. After the appearance of the first fruit bodies, the temperature is reduced to 11-16 degrees, and the humidity is maintained at 90%.
Externally, the mushrooms look very neat: a small leg and a hat the correct form. At the same time, they are perfectly adapted for long-term storage, have a saturated mushroom odor and do not break during transportation.
The strain also has a high yield, and fruit bodies have a delicate light gray or cream color. For cultivation, you can use chopped straw or mixed substrate. It must be pasteurized, fermented and moisturized. During the sprouting up of the mycelium, the temperature should not exceed 30 degrees, and full fouling is observed already after 2 weeks.
The main requirement for growing the 420 is to thoroughly filter the air and maintain a stable temperature, since mushrooms of this type are sensitive to the composition of the air and do not tolerate temperatures below 22 degrees. Recommendations for choosing a suitable strain are given in the video.
At what temperature do oyster mushrooms grow
If you already know where these mushrooms grow and on which trees to look for them, you should decide on the time of harvest.
The variety of species allows you to collect mushrooms from spring to autumn, but for most of them temperature is important. Thus, the sprouting of the mycelium occurs at a temperature of from +5 to +20 degrees, while the optimal indicator is considered to be the range from 10 to 16 degrees.
Thus, in nature, maximum fructification occurs in August-October (for a temperate climate). However, there are some species that can be found only in the spring (for example, royal).
If you are interested in how they grow at home, it should be immediately noted that the success of cultivation will depend on what conditions you create for mushrooms. It is desirable that the room is maintained at a stable temperature (on average, +17 degrees) and humidity at 70%. Otherwise, these mushrooms rather ordinary stumps, arranged in the garden. In this case, you can grow and harvest in natural conditions.
How to grow oyster mushrooms
Oyster mushrooms can be not only harvested in the forest, but also grown at home. This is one of the most unpretentious mushrooms, which requires minimal conditions and care, and the crop will be quite plentiful.
If the mushrooms create the correct temperature and humidity regime, the mycelium will sprout quickly enough. Both at home and in the forest, a large specimen grows in 3-4 days, and you can start harvesting.
How to distinguish oyster mushrooms from toadstools
Oyster mushrooms, grown from the mycelium of the house, can be eaten without fear of food poisoning. But, if you went for mushrooms in the forest, you should know where they grow in nature, and how to distinguish them from poisonous twins.
It is not difficult to distinguish a false mushroom from a real one for several reasons. Firstly, they are not very common in our forests. Secondly, they are much larger and brightly colored to attract attention.
There are two most common types of false oyster mushrooms, which are found in Russia (Figure 11):
- Orange - painted in bright and juicy colors. A characteristic feature is the almost complete absence of the leg: the mushroom is attached to the tree directly with a hat. In addition, they have a rather unusual smell. Young specimens smell like melon, and mature ones smell like rotten cabbage. Families are large, grow mainly on deciduous trees, and look very beautiful, so they are often used in landscape design.
- Common spotted wolf can be found on dead hardwood and coniferous woods from June to November. Hats are cream or brown, grow sideways on the trunks, and mature specimens are covered with characteristic red spots. The smell of mushroom, but the flesh is very bitter.
All false species do not contain potent toxins, therefore they cannot cause a lethal outcome. However, they are not suitable for food because of too bitter taste.
What does an oyster (ordinary) mushroom look like?
Oyster oyster mushroom or common oyster mushroom is the most common type of these mushrooms (Figure 12). It is successfully grown at home, as this variety is unpretentious to the temperature and humidity conditions and other cultivation conditions.
She has a funnel-shaped cap, shaped like an ear. The skin is matte and smooth, with shades from light gray to dark. The family grows from one mycelium, and forms a dense multi-tiered bunch.
Figure 12. External features of the oyster (ordinary) mushroom
In nature, it grows on loose deciduous trees and fallen trunks. In addition, it tolerates a decrease in temperature well, and although the harvest begins in September, it can continue until November. Only young specimens are suitable for food, since old mushrooms have too hard pulp.
When can I collect oyster mushrooms
A wide variety of oyster mushroom species allows collecting them from spring to late autumn. In spring, royal grassland appears on pastures and meadows, in the summer, starting in June, one can find horn-like and pulmonary in the forest, and oyster or ordinary fungus is found in the forests even in late autumn, giving way to only winter honey agarics.
On this basis, they can be grown at home year-round, using the old basement or greenhouse.
Oyster mushrooms in the forest on birch, aspen, willow and pine trees
Mushroom pickers who know the taste of forest oyster mushrooms are sure that they are much tastier and more fragrant than those grown in special mushroom farms.
Experts say that oyster mushrooms - a real source of vitamins. The content of vitamins in these mushrooms can be compared with vegetables and fruits. With their nutritional value, these fruit bodies can compete with legumes. We offer you to read information about oyster mushrooms: in what forests grow, when to collect and is it possible to meet them on the ground?
Let's start with where the oyster mushrooms grow in the forest? Very often these mushrooms are found on dead, fallen stumps, on dying coniferous or deciduous trees. The favorite place of oyster mushrooms in the forest is on the birch trees. However, they are often also found on aspens, willows and pines.
Forest oyster mushrooms - unpretentious mushrooms, so they can be artificially grown even at home: on sawdust, small wooden shavings, paper, straw or waste from the sunflower. I must say that in the modern world, many people often do this, which brings a good harvest of mushrooms all year round.
Types of oyster mushrooms and what mushrooms grow in the forest on earth
In the wild, there are five species of this fungus and they are all considered conditionally edible. Therefore, for culinary experts, the advice: oyster mushroom should be pre-boiled in salted water for 20 minutes. These mushrooms are found in all countries of the former Soviet Union.
The most common is oyster mushroom, or oyster.
There is a rich oyster mushroom, pulmonary, late and steppe. By the way, there is only one type of oyster mushroom that grows in the forest "on the ground" - this is a steppe. However, here the surface of the land in the meadows should be densely dotted with bark and branches of broken trees. Therefore, it seems that mushrooms grow right on the ground.
Although the types of oyster mushrooms differ in color, size and shape of caps, they all grow in large colonies on the trunks of dried trees - standing or fallen.
See photos of oyster mushrooms grow in the forest. They hang from the trunks of a large stepped garland, whose weight can reach more than 3 kg. If the mushrooms grow on a fallen tree, their legs are long and are located close to the side of the cap. And if their colony was formed on a still-standing tree - their legs are short, as if they were fused together.
The collection time of oyster mushroom varies from April to November frosts. However, even frost is not harmful to these mushrooms: they do not lose their taste and nutritional properties. In addition, this type of fruit bodies is not damaged by worms while they are young. Only on very old copies can one notice the depravity.
Another type of oyster mushroom - plentifulgrowing in deciduous forests. Her collection begins in the month of May and lasts until October. These mushrooms are afraid of frost, so in the cold they should not be looked for. The most mass fructification in abundant oyster mushroom comes in June, and then in October. They love humidity, and at this time of the year, especially during rainy weather, there are a lot of fruit bodies in the forest. They can often be found on old birch, elm, mountain ash and oak trees. Abundant oyster mushroom has a wavy edge of the caps and a light cream shade. Leg mushroom long and curved to the cap.
Another type of oyster mushroom - pulmonarywhich is different in white. It has a convex bonnet with slender edges downward. Her leg is covered with a delicate white fluff that resembles velvet. It grows in colonies on oaks, birches and beeches. Although the pulmonary oyster mushroom looks very tender and delicate, it is well transported and tolerates cold for 4 days. This type of fungus can easily take root at home: spread the forest oyster mushroom in the yard near the stumps, and after a while you will see the result - a good harvest of homemade mushrooms.
Autumn oyster mushrooms in October and winter mushrooms in December
As for the late oyster mushroom, it fully justifies its name. Autumn oyster mushrooms grow in the forest in October. Sometimes it is found in November, if not very cold. Mushrooms grow on coniferous trees or rotten stumps, especially them, a lot on old cuttings. Autumn oyster mushroom features a greenish color, reminiscent of green olives. These mushrooms taste a bit bitter, so some mushroom pickers do not pick them, although they are edible.
For cooking, oyster mushrooms are chosen in small sizes. Только молодые грибочки имеют нежный вкус и ярко выраженный грибной аромат. Более старшие экземпляры тоже съедобные и вкусные, однако, не с таким лесным ароматом.
Растут ли вешенки в лесу в зимний период, например в декабре? С уверенностью можно ответить, что растут, особенно если зима мягкая и тёплая. Свисающие многоярусные гирлянды вешенок можно встретить на разных деревьях. Their winter is clearly visible, since all the foliage of opal. Often experienced mushroom pickers when collecting oyster mushrooms carefully look at the tops of the trees. There are colonies of fungi at a considerable height from the ground.
A positive point in the collection of oyster mushrooms is the fact that in our region this species does not have poisonous counterpart. False counterpart grows in Australia and is fatal to humans. However, you can not worry, in Russia, this species simply will not survive because of the cold weather. Therefore, even novice mushroom pickers may not be afraid to collect "prey".
Why have oyster mushrooms become such common mushrooms lately? It turns out that they are very resistant to bacterial and viral lesions. Their bactericidal properties are capable of removing radioactive substances from the human body. And, moreover, the oyster mushroom has a more pronounced aroma than other mushrooms, and it is also more affordable.
Mushroom growing places
Oyster mushroom in nature is found on fallen trunks and rotten stumps. They prefer mostly deciduous trees. Most often you can find these mushrooms in birch.
It is impossible to say for sure where the oyster mushrooms grow, on which trees, since each species has its own preferences.
- Lemon (Ilm). It grows in the Far East on deciduous trees. The mushroom has a double name for the following reasons. Lemon - in honor of the bright yellow color of the legs and the fruiting body. Ilmovaya - in honor of the elm breed characteristic of the Far East. Basically oyster mushrooms grow: on elms, deadwood, fallen trees, on all kinds of elm. Rarely on birch and poplar.
- Horn - he likes deciduous forests, but he tolerates low temperatures very badly. Although the harvest can theoretically be collected from May to October, in the cold season, the oyster of this species is not found. This fungus grows on the trunks of old elms, birches, oaks and mountain ash. Growth area: almost all of Russia and the North Caucasus. Populations can grow in China and the islands of Japan.
- Steppe. It is unique in the sense that it develops not on wood, but on the roots and stems of umbrella plants (for example, ferule, glade, or blue-headed tree). Also found on pastures, in deserts on plant debris. It grows where it is relatively warm - in the south of Russia, in North America, Central Asia and Europe.
Description of other species
In addition to these, there are still a large number of other species that are no less common. for example:
- Pulmonary - grows a large family, for one mushroom collection, you can collect a whole basket. This species can be collected on old birch, rarely on conifers. It lives not only in forests, but also in gardens and parks.
- Pink - in natural conditions is quite rare. It grows, as a rule, on the trunks of deciduous trees, usually grows in groups or intergrowths. Chooses mountain ash, maple, birch, beech, poplar. Pink oyster mushroom is common in Thailand, Singapore, Vietnam, Mexico, Japan and other countries of the subtropical and tropical zones.
- Royal - quite a big mushroom, because it grows on the ground. Mycelium is located on the roots of plants. Mushrooms of this species are spring mushrooms. In warm regions, the first mushrooms can be collected already in March, and in a temperate climate - only in May. Royal Oyster mushroom is quite common in Poland, Slovakia, Germany, the Czech Republic, Turkey, Cyprus, Egypt, as well as other countries of Western Asia and Central Europe. In Russia, they are found right up to the Primorsky Territory in the steppes of Central Asia.
Cultivation in artificial conditions
Some varieties were excellently cultivated and grown on an industrial scale with the creation of conditions similar to the growth of oyster mushrooms in the forest. Thanks to this, mushrooms can be enjoyed all year round. There are two ways of growing - intensive and extensive. The first includes:
- preparation of the room
- the process of creating the necessary conditions, the choice and preparation of the substrate,
- adding mycelium,
- creation of mushroom blocks,
- block care,
The method is good because it does not depend on the weather and the season.
The second method involves the process of growing on the street (for example, in the usual cottage or even in the garden). Financial investments are needed to a minimum, and there are not so many troubles, as the special equipment is not required. Any stump or log is useful. For example, lemon oyster mushroom is easily grown on sawdust, straw, cardboard, and other cellulose-containing things. However, in this case it is better not to wait for a big harvest.
Forest oyster mushrooms are not only very tasty, but also contain valuable vitamins and minerals, so it is useful for every mushroom picker to know on which trees oyster mushrooms grow in nature in order to find this valuable mushroom. It is important not to confuse a real mushroom with a false one, otherwise there may be food poisoning.