Family Pine (Pinaceae)
large tree up to 50-60 (80) m tall and trunk up to 2 m in diameter
- in natural conditions it grows quickly, much faster than other fir,
- in the conditions of Moscow region rather slowly, it gives an increase of only 12 cm per year
cuttings take root difficult
does not apply as it does not lead to active branching
for young plants, mulching pristvolnyh circles with a compost or a dry oak leaf with a layer of 8 cm and shelter with spruce leaves for the winter and for the period of late-spring frosts is recommended
has a number of decorative forms:
- f.albospicata - belobonchikovaya
- f.aurea - golden,
- f.aureo-spicata - golden fin,
- f.glauca - gray,
- f.erecta - upright,
- f.pendula - weeping
- more often sold as a Christmas tree than as a planting material,
- only shade-tolerant
- endures loam with some waterlogging, but does not endure stagnant waters,
- sensitive to air pollution and soil compaction,
- possesses high water protection and mining and soil protection properties
- light and non-nuclear wood, provides valuable building and sawing material, raw materials for the pulp and paper industry, the manufacture of musical instruments, cutting and splitting,
- bark contains up to 10% tannins,
- essential oils are obtained from pine needles
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Description of Nordman Fir
Caucasian fir is a coniferous tree. An evergreen plant can grow to 60 m and even 80 m in height in natural conditions.
Let's move on to the detailed description:
- The crown is cone-shaped and reaches 2-3 m in diameter.
- The trunk in natural conditions can be in diameter of 2 m.
- The structure and color of the bark changes depending on the age of the tree, when the tree is young, the bark is smooth and gray-brown, on a more mature tree it is already cracked and of a dark matte color.
- Branches are densely, and each raised up somewhat.
- Young shoots are light greenish with a slight yellowness, with short fluffy needles.
- On the main branches grow dark green needles, shiny above, matte below.
- The needle length can be up to 4 cm long, and when rubbed, its air fills with a characteristic coniferous aroma, which is explained by the high content of oils in the needles.
- An adult tree blooms every year in April and early May, covered with male and female flowers, the male ones are spikelets with a reddish tinge, the female ones are greenish earrings, which are formed mainly in the top of the crown.
- Fruits - large cones, whose length reaches 20 cm, cones on branches are kept upright, have a short leg, immature cones are green in color, ripening becomes more and more brown and coarse.
- If the soil is soft, the roots go deep into the core, in the case of clay and rocky soil, the root system spreads near the surface.
Under favorable growing conditions, a tree can live for about 700 years! Its gain does not depend on age.
- Among several varieties of Caucasian fir can be noted «Golden Spreader». This is a dwarf fir, characterized by a rather slow growth. To grow by 1 m, the tree must wait 10 years. The crown of fir also reaches 1 m in diameter. The needle of this variety is 2 cm in length, golden yellow at the top, yellow and white at the bottom. The variety is well acclimatized in the south of Ukraine, and is more often used in the creation of rock gardens.
- Sort "Jadwiga". Hybrid, one of the main advantages of which are rapid growth and a dense crown with dark green needles, the bottom of which is white. The tree is quite thermophilic.
- "Pendula". Quite a big tree, but slowly growing. The crown is narrow, of dense branches with lush green needles on them. Quite demanding on the cultivation site - it is better to plant in a place protected from drafts and with high humidity.
Tree planting conditions
The tree is unpretentious, so the features of your summer cottage will not affect its growing. Moreover, the growing conditions can be improved by artificial means.
Choosing a place. Caucasian fir is actively developing areas at an altitude of about 1200 m above sea level. m. In low localities, it does not grow as well, but with decorative cultivation it does not matter. The main feature is the ability to grow actively both in the shade and in places that are well lit. Strong winds are not terrible for a tree, but the level of air humidity in the place of its growth should be high.
The soil. Soil wood prefers nutritious, rich in mineral fertilizers. Planting is recommended in loams, but in more acidic soil there is good growth.
The Caucasian fir breeds exclusively by seeds, which are stratified 1.5-2 months before planting. Seeds are placed in the soil, previously poured into a container, and left in the refrigerator or basement. In the spring, seeds are germinated in warmth, and the resulting seedlings are swooping in a larger container.
As a rule, the tree is grown in pots for 5-7 years and only after that it is transplanted into open soil. This is due to the instability of young seedlings that can die under adverse conditions.
The following plants can be planted nearby:
Taking into account the above, it is better to plant the fir on the plot with a sapling purchased in the nursery. A pit 60 cm wide and 80 cm deep is made for it. It is recommended to add a drainage layer to this depth, which is obligatory for planting (gravel or crushed stone is used).
For the successful development of the tree is prepared a mixture of these ingredients:
Complex fertilizer is added to the mixture, and a part of it is poured on the bottom of the pit by a hill. The roots are laid out on this hill, then everything is completely covered with soil, only the root collar is left above the ground. Watering is needed only when planting.
Requires periodic watering and fertilizing, carried out only during the growing season. Only young saplings are watered, adult trees in general can not be watered, because their roots are fully capable of providing moisture in sufficient quantity.
Feed the plant start from 5-6 years after planting. As a fertilizer, liquid complex preparations for fertilizing softwood are recommended.
Young seedlings are extremely sensitive to weeds, therefore it is important to keep the near-stem space clean. To maintain this very cleanliness, it is recommended to regularly mulch the soil around the tree using fine wood sawdust.
In general, pruning is not required, but if you need to make wood more decorative, pruning is done. Old trees with many dry branches are pruned. So that because of them the view of the tree does not deteriorate, the branches are neatly cut, and the sections are processed.
Pests and diseases
Caucasian fir is sufficiently resistant to various kinds of pests, but still there may be damage from parasites attracted by the richness of the needles of the tree. Unsuitable growing conditions (poor climate or soil, lack of fertilizer) provoke a number of diseases.
A more detailed description of the problems:
- When the needles start to shrivel, and honey drops appear on it - most likely, the tree was struck by a false guard, which they fight by using sackcloth traps soaked in glue from the tracks.
- Cobwebs and spots on the needles of yellow-brown color are a sure sign of the appearance of the spider mite, from which it is almost impossible to save an adult tree, dwarf fir is recommended to be sprayed with infusions of dandelion and garlic.
- White plaque on the needles leaves, as a rule, Hermes, with which effective control is possible only with the use of insecticides.
- The fir moth is dangerous for needles, therefore its butterflies are destroyed with biological preparations, and the soil around the trunk is dug up each spring to destroy the larvae.
Nordman's fir starts to fruit quite late. As a rule, it is necessary to wait until the onset of fruiting 10-20 years. This process starts faster with hybrid varieties..
It should be noted that in case of insufficient moisture, the needles and shoots can dry out, therefore, for planting, select the variety on the site that has the highest probability of survival.
Under natural conditions, Nordman fir grows in the Caucasus, distributed in Turkey and the countries of the Middle East. Forms coniferous forests. Often adjacent to the beech.
Fir requires rich in minerals and fertilizer soil. Prefers loam. In such conditions, the tree develops rapidly and gives growth. It grows on alkaline soils.
Fir tolerates frosts well down to -30 ° C. Frost resistance increases with age.
The belt optimal for breeding is 1200–2000 meters above sea level. The plant can be planted in the shade and in the open area, not afraid of the wind.
Abies nordmanniana planted in home gardens, in urban parks. Varieties used:
The latter is similar to the Caucasus. Features of other varieties:
- "Pendula". Growing slowly, the crown is already normal. Used for decorating plots.
- "Jadwiga". Growing faster than other representatives. Crohn's narrowed, rapidly increasing in diameter. Tree suitable for landscaping.
- Golden Spreader. The eternal dwarf. Slowly growing, height - up to 1 m at 10 years of age. Bred in pots, planted on alpine slides. Special care is not required.
Danish fir is spread all over the world. Constantly displaying new varieties.
Propagated by ripe seeds. The vegetative system is poorly developed - cuttings are grafted with great difficulty, or this function is completely absent. Seeds ripen in October-November. They need to be collected during this period, until the material has flown out of the open cone.
Gather seeds from mature trees.
Seeds are sown in the ground, leaving holes for the embryo to breathe, placed in a refrigerator or cellar for stratification. Withstand 1-1.5 months.
Germinate seeds in a pot or wait for early shoots in the forest belt. Shoots grow slowly, the process does not accelerate even good care. If a spring planting is planned, it makes sense to purchase a ready 5–10-year-old sapling. Younger individuals will die in the new place, the old ones will not take root: the firs do not like transplanting.
The place is chosen open, not cluttered with other trees. The soil must be fertile. When designing avenues or planting several individuals, calculate the distance between the trees. For prospectuses - 3-4.5 m, for groups - 2.5 m each.
Description of the landing process
General action plan:
- Dig a hole 50 x 50 or 60 x 60 cm, up to 80 cm deep. The sizes depend on the power of the seedling, its root system.
- A drainage layer is poured on the bottom - 20 cm of broken brick or gravel.
- Add mineral fertilizers for coniferous, about 10 kg of medium-sized sawdust.
- The pit is kept for 2 weeks.
- The roots of the seedling moistened with water, placed in a prepared cavity so that the root neck remains above ground level.
- Abundantly watered.
In the first winter during frosty days, Nordman fir must be covered with insulating materials. In the future, such care is not needed.
How to care for a tree
The plant is unpretentious, but requires certain conditions:
- sufficient level of humidity and light,
- nutrient replenishment.
Care for young plants:
To get the crown of the desired shape, in the spring, when the sap flow period has not yet begun, the twigs are pruned.
With the growth and strengthening of the trunk care is reduced to the introduction of fertilizer in the spring.
General description of Nordman fir
According to the description of the variety, fir has the following characteristics:
- Lifespan. Tree refers to long-lived. There were instances whose age was 7000 years.
- Kind of needles. Needles have a light green color and a shiny surface. Small needles are located on a branch horizontally. The length of the needles does not exceed 4 cm. The trunk is covered with gray shiny bark. As it matures, it acquires a brown tint. In natural habitat, needles change occurs every 13 years.
- Root system The plant has powerful deep roots. It grows best on loose soils. The root system of the tree is sensitive to changes in humidity.
- Frost resistance. Fir can withstand severe frosts, as a decorative culture it is used in regions with a harsh climate.
The following varieties of Nordman fir have their own distinctive features:
- Golden Spreader. Dwarf variety is characterized by the presence of depressions in the center of the crown. The plant grows slowly. The average height of an adult specimen does not exceed 1 m. The external surface of the needle is painted in marsh color and has a characteristic luster. The inside of the needle has a light yellow color and lack of gloss. The variety is grown in rock gardens.
- Jadwiga Differs in fast growth and big height. The outer sides of the needles are dark green, the inner ones are white. The branches covered with dense needles form dense krone.
- Pendula. The hybrid differs in slow growth and wide sprawling krone. The needles have a rich green color. The plant does not tolerate high humidity and mechanical damage to the trunk. Pendula fir is cultivated in arboretums and on dacha plots.
How to plant fir?
The procedure for planting and caring for Caucasian fir includes the following steps:
- The choice of location. The tree grows well in the mountains, in the lowlands its growth slows down, which does not affect the decorative qualities. Fir can be grown both in lighted and shaded areas. The plant is not afraid of strong wind, but it is sensitive to drought.
- Selection of soil. Fir comfortably feels in nutrient soils containing a sufficient amount of minerals. Loams are suitable for planting, but the tree can grow on acidic soils. Fir is planted in the neighborhood with rowan, spruce, barberry, thuja or juniper.
- Selection of seedlings. Planted young young plants with a developed root system. When buying seedlings pay attention to the presence of signs of disease.
- Preparation of the landing pit. The hole should have a depth of 90 cm and a width of 60 cm. When digging a hole, it is necessary to increase the depth for arranging the drainage. It is formed from gravel or rubble.
- Backfilling. Sand, peat, clay and humus are mixed in a ratio of 1: 3: 1: 2. The resulting mixture is fertilized with a complex top dressing. After that, fill up half the pit with ground.
- Planting seedlings. The plant is set in the hole, straightening the roots. The soil is filled up so that only the root neck remains above the surface. Form pristvolny circle, which is carefully moistened.
Rules for the care of Nordmannian fir
Fir care is not particularly difficult and involves the following activities:
- Watering. The tree is watered abundantly only in the first year after planting. After the formation of a powerful root system, the plant begins to receive moisture from the soil.
- Tillage. In order to preserve the decorative qualities of the fir, the tree trunk circle is regularly freed from weeds. Mulching helps reduce the frequency of weeding. The soil is covered with sawdust or peat. Over time, the tree itself creates a protective layer of fallen needles.
- Top dressing. Fertilizers begin to make 5 years after planting. The plant needs minerals, therefore complex liquid top dressings are used. Bring them in the period of active formation of cones.
- Formation. Cut the healthy branches of fir is not necessary. Sanitary haircuts are aimed at removing the affected fungus, dried or damaged shoots. Pruning is carried out annually, in spring time. The cuts covered with garden pitch.
- Pest treatment. This variety of fir is resistant to diseases, however, with increasing humidity or the use of infected seedlings can spread fungal diseases. Fungicidal solution treatment helps to cope with gray mold, rust and rust. Insect pests are destroyed by spraying with insecticides.
- Preparing for the winter. Adult plants are resistant to low temperatures, seedlings must be protected. Pristvolny circle is warmed with fallen leaves, the trunk is covered with spruce branches.
How does the plant reproduce?
Cuttings rooted rarely, therefore, seeds are used for cultivation of fir at home. Within 2 months they are kept in the freezer. In the spring, seeds are sown in containers with nutrient primer, which is pre-disinfected, roasting in the oven. Strengthened shoots are transferred to individual pots, where they grow for 5-7 years. After this time, the seedlings are placed in the ground.
Nordman fir: description
Fir Nordman, or Caucasian is a coniferous tree, which was first discovered by the botanist Alexander von Nordman, in whose honor and got its name. The plant belongs to the number of evergreen trees that can grow to 60, and sometimes up to 80 m in height (we are talking about the natural conditions of growth).
If you want to plant on your site Nordman fir, pay attention to her description:
- the crown of the tree is distinguished by a cone-shaped shape, which can reach 2-3 m in diameter,
- the trunk of a tree is thick, in natural conditions of growth can reach 2 m in diameter,
- цвет и структура коры меняется в зависимости от возраста дерева – в молодом возрасте она гладкая серо-коричневая, в более зрелом начинает трескаться и приобретает более темную матовость,
- branches on the trunk are densely, each slightly raised up,
- young shoots have a light greenish color with light yellowness, decorated with short and fluffy needles,
- the main branches are covered with dark green needles, shiny above and dull below,
- the length of the needles can reach 4 cm; when rubbed, it feels very saturated coniferous aroma, which is due to the presence in the needles of a large number of oils,
- the adult tree blooms annually (April-early May), covered with both male and female flowers, male flowers are presented as spikelets with a reddish tinge, and female flowers are greenish earrings, which are formed mainly in the crown apex,
- large cones up to 20 cm long form as fruits, they stick vertically on the branches, have a short stem, immature cones have a green color, in the process of maturation they become more and more brown and coarse,
- the root system may differ depending on the characteristics of the soil: if the soil is soft, the root system goes deep into the root, if clay and rocky - spreads near the surface.
Under favorable growing conditions, Caucasian fir is able to live for about 700 years. It is noteworthy that the increase in the tree is observed regardless of age.
Choosing a landing site
Caucasian fir is a tree that actively develops plots at an altitude of about 1200 meters above sea level. Therefore, it shows low growth rates in low areas, which, however, is not important for ornamental cultivation. The main feature (with the exception of some varieties) is the ability to actively grow in shady and well-lit places. This tree is not afraid of even strong winds, but prefers areas with high humidity.
What kind of soil is needed for successful growth
Caucasian fir Nordman loves nutritious soils rich in mineral fertilizers. Loam is best suited for planting; however, good tree growth is also noted when planting in heavier acidic soils.
Watering and feeding plants
Nordman fir in growing requires periodic watering and fertilizing, which is carried out only during the growing season of the tree. Watering is carried out only for young saplings, mature trees can not be watered at all, as their root system is fully capable of providing large trees with moisture. As for dressings, they begin to be carried out only from 5-6 years after planting. It is best to use liquid complex preparations for fertilizer conifers for fertilizer.
Young saplings of fir are very sensitive to the neighborhood with weeds, therefore it is very important to keep the near-trunk tree of the trees in perfect cleanliness. In order to maintain it longer, it is recommended to regularly mulch the soil around the Caucasian fir, using rotten sawdust for this purpose.
Nordman fir in general does not require pruning. However, if you want to make the tree more decorative, pruning is quite acceptable. The need for it arises in relation to old trees, on which a lot of withered branches appear. So that they do not spoil the appearance of the tree - the branches must be carefully removed with a saw, not forgetting the processing of the cut-off place.
Plant Diseases and Pests
The Caucasian fir is quite resistant to various pests, but the succulence of its needles can still attract them. Under unsuitable growing conditions (the climate is not suitable, the soil or not enough fertilizers) some diseases can also affect this tree. We will get acquainted with the problems of Nordman fir in more detail.
- if the needles start to shrivel and honey drops appear on it - most likely the fir was struck by a false shield, which would help get rid of burlap traps soaked in glue from caterpillars,
- cobwebs and yellow-brown spots on the needles - a sure sign of spider mites, which is almost impossible to get rid of on an adult tree, it is recommended to spray dwarf fir with infusions of dandelion and garlic,
- a white coating on the needles of fir usually leaves hermes, which only insecticides effectively help to fight,
- the fir moth is also dangerous for the needles of the tree, so its butterflies need to be destroyed with biological preparations, and also every spring to dig the soil around the trunk of the fir to destroy the larvae.
Hopefully, you will no longer have a question about whether fir can be planted on the plot and how to take care of it. Consider only that with insufficient moisture, shoots and needles on the tree can dry out, so choose for planting on your site the variety of Caucasian fir that is more likely to take root on it.
When choosing a plant for plotting, it is necessary to take into account a number of features of fir:
- Krone - trees have a dense crown in the shape of a cone, the diameter of which can reach 3 m.
- The trunk - the diameter of a powerful trunk with a maximum height can be 2 m.
- Needles - dense needles up to 4 cm in length are colored green.
- Flowering - the phase is observed annually in the second half of spring, when female and male flowers are formed. A female flower is represented by a green color earring, and a male flower is represented by a reddish spikelet.
- Cones - vertically attached fruit with a length of 20 cm, the color of which changes from green as it grows to brown.
- Root system - rod rhizome when landing on stony soils can be located closer to the surface.
Common varieties and species
Based on the type species, breeders have deduced a variety of varieties, among the range of which the gardener can choose the most attractive for him.
- Golden Spider - dwarf variety, which for 10 years of intensive development does not exceed 1 m in height and in diameter. The needles are colored in golden-yellow color, acquiring a whitish tint closer to the base.
- Yadviga is a rather heat-loving variety with fast growth rates. The crown is formed by densely located shoots covered with dark green needles.
- Pendula - a variety represented by large trees that grow quite slowly. Graceful branches form a dense crown of bright green color.
Site selection and soil preparation
Caucasian fir can be planted both in sunny areas and in shady areas of the garden. Soil culture prefers fertile and friable. But if the tree turns out to be on a heavier soil with an acidic reaction, then the plant will still take root and will continue to grow.
Saplings, purchased with a closed root system, can be planted from spring to autumn, guided by the following requirements:
- For a seedling, a planting pit 60 cm deep and 80 cm wide is dug out.
- A drainage layer is placed at the bottom of the pit, which further protects the taproot from stagnant moisture.
- Drainage is sprinkled in the form of a mound with a soil mixture of peat, sand, humus and loam in equal parts.
- Next, set the seedling.
- The recess is filled with a prepared substrate, which is compacted and moistened upon completion of the planting work.
Features care for an ornamental plant
Caring for Nordman fir is simple and involves only standard care activities.
Abundantly moisturize fir only at a young age. When the tree matures and builds up its core root system, it will be able to get moisture from the deep layers.
In order for the plant to grow healthy and not lose its decorative effect, for several years after planting, the tree trunk circle is recommended to be carefully freed from weeds. If you use the technique of mulching, then we will not have to carry out weeding often. Over time, the fallen needles will create a layer of mulch naturally.
Top dressing and fertilizer
Start feeding after the plant reaches the age of five. The most optimal fertilizers are liquid mineral complexes for coniferous crops. Agrochemicals are introduced during the active growing season.
There is no need to form a crown for Nordman fir. But sanitary pruning, which removes dried, injured branches, should be carried out every spring. Spilov places must be treated with garden pitch.
Protection against diseases and pests
The species of fir is resistant to diseases and pests. But with constant overflows or the planting of poor-quality planting material, the development of rust and gray rot can be observed, and spraying with a fungicide will help to cope with them. If the ephedra is inhabited by a false guard, spider mite, fir moth or hermes, then it is worth resorting to the use of an insecticide.
How to prepare Nordman fir for winter
Caucasian fir has excellent winter hardiness, which over the years has only improved. But the young seedlings should be protected from frost by mulching the trunk circle with fallen leaves and leaf cover with spruce leaves.
Planting and maintenance of Nordman fir
Growing fir does not take much time and effort. Choose a plot with moderate light and drained loamy soil. A good time for planting conifers is a warm cloudy day in April or September.
Get 5-year-old saplings and plant according to the scheme:
- 2 weeks before planting, dig a planting hole 80 cm deep and 50-70 cm in diameter.
- Put on the bottom up to 20 cm of drainage from rubble or broken brick.
- Prepare a soil mixture of humus, clay soil, peat and river sand in the proportion of 3: 2: 1: 1, put part on the bottom of the planting pit.
- Insert the seedling, and place the root neck at the top level relative to the edge of the pit. Pour into the soil mixture, mixed with 10 kg of sawdust, and add 200 g of nitrogen fertilizer.
- Give plenty of water to the tree circle, mulch the soil with sawdust or pine needles.
- Dig the next hole at a distance of 3 m.
Water the seedlings every 2 weeks. The mandatory program for the care of coniferous trees includes loosening the soil to a depth of 10 cm, pruning dry and damaged branches. In April, add mineral fertilizers to the soil. So that the needles do not burn in the sun, apply the seedlings with spruce branches, polyethylene or breathable fabric.
Fir is a tree that will settle on a garden plot for at least 500 years. It will decorate the surrounding area, and tinctures of pine needles and essential oil with anti-inflammatory action will support the health of colds and rheumatism.