Among the ornamental vegetation, the crested insects have a high place for a reason. They are less unpretentious to external conditions, care and maintenance of them do not take much effort and cost. They tolerate negative temperatures well, are not susceptible to disease, among the pests are rodents that damage bulbs. But certain types of crested hen (Siberian) are used as a folk remedy in the form of poison against mice.
Early spring flowering is a great advantage of the crested crest when gardening a plot with its rich, bright colors. Dark green lush growth, thick bright inflorescences on large bushes will elegantly cut the plot to the beginning of May. Reproduces quickly, has medicinal properties, honey plant.
What you need to know about this universal plant, how to get it on your site?
- Table of contents
- Kinds, conditions of development
- Planting, care
- Diseases, pests, control measures
- Application area
As a plant, the plant got its name thanks to the Greek word “cons”, translated as “We send”. But the folk expression "Crested Chick" in its own way originally interprets the bizarre look of a flower. This herbaceous plant of the Poppy family can be found in the subtropics, in temperate climatic regions of the Northern Hemisphere, in many regions of the temperate zone of Russia, including the Urals, Siberia, and the Far East.
The species composition of the crested bird is numerous - over 300 species, along with perennial ones, there are also annuals. The height of the plant with upright, succulent stems reaches half a meter. An extensive network of processes of a massive rhizome, occurring at a depth of up to 0.15 m, is distinguished by round or oval tubers in the form of thickenings. Nutrients from the soil accumulate in them to accelerate the development of the crested hen with the onset of positive temperatures. On the stem, at its base, there are stalked leaves (up to 4 pieces) of dark green color, resembling the color of a fern. The foliage of the plant, in the form of dissected triangular or oval lobes, is attached to the stem by thin petioles.
From the second decade of April, the first signs of flowering of the crested hen appear: the cylinders of the inflorescences are gathered in a brush, the buds tightly compressed into lumps increase in size and smooth out. In one inflorescence of the plant there are more than two or three dozen flowers elongated to 3 cm in shape. May vary shades: white or yellow, pink or purple, purple, but most often have a red color. The period of flowering at the khukhla is small - only 3-5 warm days. Then the corollas fade away, lose their color and fall off, giving way to greenish fruits.
The corolla of the crested bird is collected by bracts with sepals: the first are large, the second are small, pointed, reaching an average of 2.5 cm. Separately, each flower of the plant has an elongated spur (upper closed petal) in which the accumulated nectar produced by the glands at the base bunch of stamens.
Features of the flower structure makes it impossible to pollinate naturally: the base of the stamen bundle is located together with the nectar in the spur (upper closed petal), therefore, for the transfer of pollen, insects with long proboscis are needed - bumblebees, wasps, wild bees, etc. When plants self-pollinate, the maturation period of pollen and the stigma of flowers should coincide, i.e. take place at the same time. In the khukhlatka, pollen ripens earlier than the stigma (the phenomenon of proterandria), which excludes self-pollination.
After pollination on the stem part of the crested crest, the appearance of dry pods is observed. Inside, behind the pointed dense shutters - a little more than a dozen brilliant black seeds.
White fleshy growths on each seed contain nutrients, of particular value to ants. For this reason, taking them to their anthill, losing along the way, the ants become involuntary distributors of crested seed in forest areas.
Kinds, conditions of development
Having a short period of development (up to 1.5 months), in which the most favorable environmental factors, the crested as ephemeroid plants, do not adapt when they deteriorate, they simply avoid negative consequences. A large variety of species of this flower and climatic features in relation to the conditions of development are expressed as follows:
- crested, growing in regions with arid climate, fleeing from the summer heat and drought, they hide, turning into a state of rest,
- crested species of highlands in tundra areas, submitting to the local natural rhythm in the late spring, a short, unstable summer, they rush in their development, trying to go through the vegetation before the onset of cold weather,
- Forest, most popular among gardeners, active in spring and early summer. With a weak foliage of forest areas, these days there is enough light and sunlight for them to catch up with a brief vegetation, to form seed boxes with fruits. By this final phase, forest caps complete their biological activity by mid-June and plunge into hibernation, covered with a solid carpet of leaves and branches of the revived summer forest.
Despite the similar rhythm of life among themselves, the crested hens react differently to moisture, light, heat and soil:
- the degree of moisture for all types of crested hen is considered optimalif the amount of precipitation on which it depends, fall out during the growing season evenly and do not exceed the multiyear average,
- crested tundra and alpine habitat, compared with the forest, heat and drought are contraindicated. The evaporation of moisture during these periods can reduce the soil moisture of the upper 20-centimeter layer to the level of wilting moisture, which is dangerous for plant death,
- species of khukhlatok, common in the Central Asian deserts and low-mountain areas reducing moisture is not scary - on the contrary, wet soil has a detrimental effect on them,
- in clear sunny weather and high air temperatures, forest species of the crested flower feel biological discomfort and prefer shady places. At the same time, the penumbra species grown in the arid zone do not tolerate. For them, together with the arctic and alpine southeastern Asian ranges of species (for example, Kashmir, Wilson), good illumination is necessary for productive photosynthetic activity,
- There is no need to talk about high fertility and good structure for the plants of crested hen under natural conditions: these plots are occupied by agricultural plants. But for forest species of this flower Favorable conditions for development are created on soils with a reserve of forest organic matter (rotted leaves and small branches of trees and shrubs, remains of dead insects and microorganisms, forest fruits, etc.) and a relatively small humus-accumulative horizon of friable build (turf, podzol) ,
- lowland and alpine species with their shallow root system, clay soils of heavy particle size are not contraindicated. In the presence of a drainage (drainage) system that removes an excess of atmospheric moisture outside the site, when a large amount of precipitation falls out, no overmoistening occurs, and the plants are provided with a normal water regime.
Among the best-selling forest species deserves attention Haller's crested. This flower has confidently mastered the forest edges with a good solar exposure not only in foreign regions of Western Europe, but also in Russia - to the Urals, moving eastward. The development of a perennial plant of this species sets a small tuber, the diameter of which does not exceed one and a half centimeters. During the growing season, Haller's crested hens form stems reaching 25 cm with two petiolate leaves, pinnately dissected into trifoliate lobes.
Inflorescences, according to the description resembling small cylinders, dense addition, by the middle of the second decade of April bloom. The composition of the flower is complemented by linear petals, which obsity-shaped bracts hide and corolla pink-purple color 2 cm in length.
Yellow Crested no less popular and is used in the decoration of suburban areas. It also grows in many western regions of European countries and Russia. Unlike the tuberous species, the yellow tuft is a creeping rhizome, providing an upright stem vegetative mass up to 0.3-0.4 m tall. The form of leaves having a gray-green color is dissected. Located at the bottom of the stem - at its base. Bright yellow flower buds have up to 10-20 pieces. They bloom after the disappearance of snow cover, the flowering period is long and steady.
In contrast to the above species, Marshall Crested Chicken mainly occupies areas in southeastern Europe. The blooming of this species of crested hen with a creamy-yellow shade in flowers attracts the attention of vacationers and other nature lovers. The shoots of the plant, up to 0.2-0.3 m in height, cover the bark of a reddish-green color. The leaves are bluish-green in color: like in the majority of forest crested, they are collected in the lower part of the stem, they have a triple form. Mass flowering occurs in late April - early May. The length of the flowers is no more than 3 cm; the crown of Marshal's upper petals is distinguished by a spur of thickened appearance.
There are two ways to increase the number of crested hen plants on the plot: propagate by sowing seeds or by dividing the tubers by growing points. The most reliable is considered the first, its technology is as follows:
- seed collection for sowing It is necessary to start immediately if the seed pods are still greenish, but can be opened without much effort. This is necessary to preserve a high percentage of germination and preservation of seed material: in case of delay, the spontaneous opening of the bolls with fruits and their subsequent pulling away by omnipresent ants is not excluded.
- prevent seed drying and the remaining specimens can be stored for 1-2 weeks using wet moss or turf,
- the use of containers containing sand and peat mixture, contributes to obtaining from the seeds of the crested seedbed seedlings in the first season. Subsequent sowing them in open ground will ensure flowering of plants in the third fourth year.
Creepering with the help of lateral nodules implies separate planting them after the fruiting season of the crested hen. In the case of large tubers with several growth points, they are cut into pieces, immersed in sections in activated carbon and planted in holes 6-8 cm deep. In case of unforeseen downtime, the tubers are placed in hermetic bags to avoid draining.
With the onset of summer, the vegetative mass of the crested crest dies and it is difficult to find for transplanting. It is more expedient to carry out this in the flowering phase, which makes it possible not to tear off the fragile above-ground part of the plant and remove it along with a clod of earth.
When planting the tubercle tubercles (June-September), they pay attention to the depth of the hole: 5-6 for small ones, 12-15 cm for larger ones. For heavy-grained soils, adding crushed stone or sand of small fraction improves the structure and its properties. Solar glades or forest edges surrounded by tree-shrub vegetation allow the crested grasses to obtain the necessary solar energy before the start of tree crowns.
Special care for the crested hen is not observed. Spring watering successfully replaces the stock of moisture during the melting of the snow cover and small rains that ensure the active growth of plants with the onset of positive temperatures of up to three degrees in the soil. By the time the seeds (fruits) ripen in early June, the biological weight of the crested hen turns yellow and dries out. Work on cutting and harvesting of completely dried leaves and stems should not be started prematurely, allowing tubers to stock up with useful elements.
The root system of the crested insects, being in the upper humus-accumulative layer, is not subject to trampling. Surrounding the forest prevents the disastrous desiccation of the soil from hot dry weather, covering them with forest litter. Subsequently, it becomes a source of organic fertilizer.
Diseases, pests, control measures
The following signs indicate lesions of the crested insect:
- with viral infection stems and leaves curl, growths, spots, patterns appear - it is necessary to remove diseased plants in order to avoid infection of the whole flower garden,
- fungal effect causes dark or rusty red spots on the vegetative mass of the crested hen - they cut out and destroy fragments of affected parts of plants, use Bordeaux liquid for processing,
- bulbous nematode action appears ring marks on tubers, yellowing areas - on the foliage. The affected specimens are to be destroyed, the neighboring ones after digging up are placed in a container with water heated to 55 degrees for half an hour. In the future, changing the place of the flower garden, on the infected site, the planting of bulbous plants is not performed for 4-5 years.
- Objects for the appearance of mice, moles are tubers of the crested. Damaged by these rodents, they rot and die. They practice pruning of gnawed tubers, processing with wood ash, drying.
Crest of crested hen
If necessary, pasture as a technology is used to accelerate the growth and flowering of bulbous plants, but at home it is rather difficult to sustain it without violating standard requirements. In the first place - this is associated with certain costs, and secondly, a convenient place and time is required. As the initial one, choose a responsive look - dense tuft, then:
- tubers planted in pots filled with loose garden mixture are planted not exceeding the average size so that its top is slightly recessed less than 5 mm.
- A container with pots of a crested bird is placed in a dark place for 2.5 months. The air temperature throughout the entire period should not go beyond the established range: minus 3 - plus 7 degrees,
- at the end of the stage, the container with the pots moves to the room where intensive lighting and air temperature at the level of 10-12 degrees are provided.
- watering these days should be done carefully, paying attention to maintaining optimum soil moisture during flowering,
- from the moment the vegetative mass of the flower (stalks, leaves) starts to wither, it is necessary to wait for its final completion and only then to remove the pots in a cool dark place.
Landscape design, landscaping
The ability of the crested bird to grow in inconvenient geomorphological conditions (slopes, terraces, rugged terrain, etc.), among the cluttered places with driftwood and shrub vegetation, they try to use when planting new squares, parks, and garden plots. Features and useful properties of this flower:
- planting forest crested insects in landscape design of alpine slides, curb framing,
- the creation of several types of flower beds among garden trees,
- planting of empty space around ponds and artificial reservoirs in a decorative combination with boulders and large stones,
- alternation with flowers of a longer vegetation, which in the ensemble with the crested hen does not leave the bare surface of the occupied territory,
- when placing, take into account the biologically favorable neighborhood with: crocuses and snowdrops, hosts and hyacinths, snowdrops and tulips.
Melliferous, cooking, medicine
- Nectar produced in the early spring days, the crested insects are attracted by useful insects to collect this valuable and fragrant natural product,
- high ascorbic acid content in young leaves used in cooking vitamin salads, first courses,
- alkaloidscontained in almost all types of flowers, but mostly in the hollow chick, finds application in medicine: in the spring for this purpose they harvest grass, in the summer time nodules, which, after drying, are left for annual storage, placed in paper or tissue bags ,
- popular recipes based on alkaloid bulbocapnine reduce excessive muscle tension (tone), involuntary human fading (catalepsy), dysfunction of the stomach (intestinal motility),
- crested hen's broths used for pain relief, anesthesia, anticancer protection, to stop bleeding, as a sleeping pill.
Cultivating the plant of the crested insect at its country site is undoubtedly associated with a number of difficulties. But such an early spring flowering of this amazingly unpretentious and versatile plant will be rewarded a hundredfold and will delight you and your loved ones, leaving wonderful feelings for a long time.
Crested hen: plant description
The main value of the crested bird or Corydalis: with its help you will be able to decorate the bare April site. The flower begins to grow under the snow, in March, and blooms even at +3 ° C on the soil. The colorful bed of the crested crest will work out even in the shadow zone. Срок цветения — около 3-х недель. На месте цветка образуется семенная коробка. Основными распространителями семян являются муравьи.
Attention! Planting crested the tuber. It is in them that nutrients accumulate in the future to start the early vegetation of the plant.
- Bright flowers - another of its "business card". The combination of shades depends on the variety, of which the culture has more than 300.
- A characteristic feature of the crested hen is the same flower structure. They consist of 4 petals. The ends of the outer pair are bent. Moreover, the upper petal has a spur - a long process at the base, in which nectar is formed. A pair of internal petals spliced and slightly protrudes due to the limb of the outer.
- Flowers merged into a raceme. In some species - in a single version.
- Crested flowers smell pleasantly when the air warms up under the May sun.
Species of crested hen, use for decorative purposes
Pleasant-looking culture has a great variety of varieties. The most popular among domestic flower growers are:
- Caucasian. Forms pink-purple loose inflorescences.
- Hollow or tuberous. It produces a high peduncle. Brush rises above the green foliage. Color - shades of lilac. Rarely white.
- Crested Marshall. Similar to Paula, only flowers have a pale cream or yellowish-pink color.
Attention! Today new hybrids with excellent decorative properties and adaptation to the climate of the Russian Federation are on sale.
The height of popular varieties is about 30-40 cm in adulthood, so it is convenient to combine them and combine them as a decorative mosaic on one flowerbed. Due to its light simplicity culture is universal in landscape design. The planting of the crested bird will decorate the bare ground in a circle around the spreading trees, where even after withering there will be a pleasant ground cover green. The flower is used in compositions on stone and pebble elements of the landscape, in alpine hills, for framing garden paths. Examples can be seen in the photo. Culture is also in demand in the creation of a butterfly garden.
Landing crested Breeding features
If you do not have on the hands of the tubers of this culture, you can buy them in the flower shop. Good planting material appears around August-September. This is the period when collected tubers of faded plants entered the resting stage and underwent the necessary training. Later, in the fall, they will turn from hard and juicy to wrinkled, flabby and will become unsuitable for reproduction.
Planting crested hen right after receiving tubers. Caucasian, hollow and other forest varieties deepen by about 6-8 cm, new Chinese varieties - by 12-13 cm. Forest varieties love loose, saturated with organic fertilizers. Chinese willingly grow on heavy clay soils (subject to good drainage).
In open ground, the plant can be propagated by seed. They take root well and sprout:
- collect the boxes in the green state, but with black seeds inside (the boxes should be easily opened),
- sow immediately after ripening, which occurs 2 days after harvest,
- slightly deepen the seeds in the ground (pot or container),
- Be sure to regularly moisten crops and seedlings that will appear in the spring.
Attention! If you miss the moment of gathering seed, you risk losing all the seeds. When the boxes mature and open themselves, they will be taken away by ants.
Depending on the variety, Corydalis has not only a perennial tuber, which can be dug up and re-planted every year until it is aged. Among the varietal diversity there are plants with a replaceable root. Every year a new one grows inside the old one, which is subject to transplant. Anyway, after the flower wilts, you should dig up its underground part. It does not matter if you stay with this procedure for a couple of weeks - the tubers will not suffer from moisture or heat. After digging, the material must be dried for some time.
The enemies of the chickens are similar to the pests of snowdrops and crocuses: rodents, moles, and diseases characteristic of low temperatures. Use the same prevention methods. And the rest of the plant will stand for itself. The chick-hen has a lot of advantages and does not require any frills in growing.
- 1. Listen to the article (soon)
- 2. Description
- 3. Landing
- 3.1. When to plant
- 3.2. How to plant
- 4. Care
- 4.1. How to care
- 4.2. Watering and feeding
- 4.3. Transplantation and reproduction
- 5. Diseases and pests
- 6. Types and varieties
Planting and caring for the crested hen (in short)
- Bloom: in March for three weeks.
- Landing: planting tubers in the ground - in August and September.
- Lighting and soil:mountain, chinese and alpine the species prefer bright sunshine and drained sandy sand on elevated areas, and forestry species need partial shade and loose humus soils.
- Watering: regular but moderate. If the spring was wet, then watering will be needed only from the beginning of summer.
- Top dressing: only forest species need fertilizers: you can dig up the area before planting with humus (compost) or add a solution of mineral fertilizer to the soil before flowering.
- Reproduction: most often by tubers and rhizome division, less often - by the seed method.
- Pests: rodents.
- Diseases: viral infections and root rot.
Crested plant description
The crested bird can be both annual and perennial. The rhizome of representatives of the genus is massive, located at a decent depth and consisting of branched processes, which sometimes form rounded tubers with nutrients. The erect stems of the crested hen reach a height of 15 to 45 cm. At their base in an amount of 2 to 4 pieces are dark green with a bluish bloom fern-like leaves, twice or three times complex with round or triangular lobes, each lobe has its own petiole.
Around the middle of April, cylindrical brushes form at the top of the shoots, in which from 5 to 35 long flowers of white, pink, yellow, purple or violet color. Corolla in flowers 15-25 mm long, large bracts, sepals small and pointed. Each flower is supplied with a long spur - container for nectar, access to which can be obtained only by insects with long proboscis. The fruits of the crested hen are oblong boxes with small shiny black seeds. Each seed has a fleshy growth - a favorite delicacy of ants taking away crested hen’s seeds over long distances.
The growth of the representatives of this numerous genus begins in March, the plant creeper blooms when the soil warms to 3-4 ° C, and this bloom lasts for about 3 weeks. Seeds ripen in June, and after that the ground part of the crested hen dies.
In landscape design, the crested hens are well combined with other primroses: crocuses, muscari, hionodoksami, galantusy and early tulips.
When planting a crested hen in the ground.
Crowned tubers that are at rest come from mid-June to September, and it is during this time that they are planted in open ground. When buying, carefully inspect the planting material: the tubers should be dense and juicy. Easy drying of the tubers does not harm only the Central Asian species of crested hen.
The choice of the site depends on the plant belonging to a particular group. For example, forest crested birds prefer to grow in partial shade on humus loose soils, and mountain, Chinese and alpine species like sunny open spaces with sandy, well-drained soils located on hills and uplands. The soil reaction for the crested hen should be slightly acidic or neutral.
How to plant a crested bird.
Planting a crested hen and caring for her in the open field will not seem complicated to you. When preparing the site in too heavy and dense soils make a gravel or small gravel under the digging. Since the roots of the plant easily rot, consider how to organize the flow for excess water.
The depth of planting of tubers depends on their size: small ones are buried by 5-7 cm, large ones - by 10-15 cm. After planting, the area is watered.
Watering and feeding the crested hen.
In early spring, when growth begins, the soil is usually wet from melting snow, so you will not have to water the flowers. In the future, regular watering is necessary for all khchlatka, but at the same time desert and alpine species are much easier to tolerate drought than stagnant water in the roots. Actually, stagnation is unacceptable for any of the species, which is why it is so important that the soil in which the crested hen grows is well drained.
After watering, the land around the plants is loosened and weeded, but if it is covered with organic mulch, you will have to water it much less often and loosen it and even water it.
You need to feed only forest species of crested hendigging the soil when planting with leaf humus or compost. It is possible to use organic fertilizers as a mulch with which the area is covered in spring.
After completion of flowering, ground organs of the crested crest gradually turn yellow and die. In order not to forget where it grew, mark the site with pegs. Since the crested bird has a high winter-hardiness, it is not necessary to cover it for the winter. The only exception is the Chinese Crest, freezing at -23 C.
Transplantation and reproduction of the crested crest.
The chick-hen is best transplanted during dormancy, although it easily tolerates this procedure even during flowering. However, the ground part of a flowering plant may break, then the tubers will sink into a state of rest. Transplant the plant with the preservation of earthen coma.
Crop reproduction of tubers, division of the rhizome and seed method. Tubers on rhizomes form only Bush crested and Kashmir. The division of the rhizomes carried out during transplantation, in the second half of the summer or spring. The shrub is divided so that in each division there is a part of the rhizome and a bud of renewal. Delenki are planted at a depth of 5 to 15 cm, depending on the size of the tubers, keeping the distance between the holes of at least 10 cm. However, the division of rhizome is not the most popular way of breeding the crested hen.
For seed reproduction, immature seeds are used, which are already blackened, but are still in the green box. Do not miss the moment, otherwise the dried boxes will open, the seeds will fall to the ground, and ants will take them away. Seed germination of the crested heap loses in a week, so hurry up with the sowing.
Crested seedlings are sown in containers with moist soil and germinated in the shade, preventing the substrate from drying out. Seedlings are planted in the open ground next spring, and they will begin to bloom depending on the species in 2-4 years.
Diseases and pests of the crested
Crested insects are very rare. Fungal diseases can occur due to stagnant moisture in the roots, and not a single culture is insured against viral diseases, no matter how well you cared for it. Copies affected by a viral infection should be immediately removed and burned, and the place where they grew should be shed with a strong solution of potassium permanganate. For the treatment of fungal diseases, solutions of fungicidal preparations are used. As for pests, then only rodents - moles and mice are to beware. Destroy them, spreading the bait with poison in the area.
Types and varieties of crested hen
Numerous khukhlatki can be divided according to environmental requirements defining agrotechnical type. The most unpretentious of the perennial tuber crested are forest specieswhich includes:
- - Bush crested
- - the crested hen is dense, or Haller,
- - crested smoky-leaved,
- - Crested Caucasian,
- - the crested colony is flowered, or gigantic,
- - crested Kuznetsova,
- - Magadansky crested,
- - Marshall's crested chick,
- - the tuft is low,
- - Malka crested hen,
- - crested deceptive, or doubtful,
- - Crested insect,
- - intermediate crested
- - the crested crest, or Turchaninov,
- - Crested Collard.
These species like sandy and clayey soils rich in humus and leaf humus; they can be grown in a fruit garden under trees, in meadows in the grass among deciduous trees and in permanent flower gardens. The most popular are the varieties of the crested hen, or Haller:
- – Bat evans - variety with pale pink flowers with white spur,
- – Prasil Strain - variety mixture of plants with variations of shades from red to pink and salmon,
- – George Baker - a plant with bright red, almost cherry flowers,
- – Dieter Schacht - variety with flowers of a delicate pink shade,
- – Highland Mixt - crested with inflorescences smoky bluish-pink tone,
- – Myunich Forms - variety with coral-red flowers,
- – Nettleton pink - A plant with juicy pink flowers.
It is harder in our climate to grow perennials in Himalayan deserts, foothills and high mountains, which are conventionally called mountain views. These include:
- - Crested Kashmir,
- - Wilson's crested chick,
- - crested halobyl,
- - Darvazian tuft,
- - the crested crest,
- - crested Ledebour,
- - marakand tuft,
- - cherished Narinyan,
- - Pachosky's chick,
- - Crested Popov,
- - crested slice,
- - crested leafless crested
- - crested bluff,
- - Crested Severtsov,
- - Shanglin crested
- - Emanuel Crested Chick.
TO rhizomatous perennial species crested yellow, sulfur-yellow and noble.
One year old crestedFor example, the evergreen crested hen and touchy touchy are rarely found in culture.
Recently, highly decorative crested hens from the Chinese region of Sichuan — winding and high — were introduced into the European garden culture. The most popular varieties of the crested insect are:
- – Blue panda - a plant with pale blue-green leaves and azure flowers with curved spurs,
- – Perple Leaf - crested with reddish-purple foliage and stems with dark red spots at the base of the leaves,
- – China Blue - variety with leaves brownish-green in winter. Flowers are greenish-azure, up to 31 cm long,
- – Balang Mist - variety with pale blue flowers.
Varieties and types
Representatives of this kind can be divided into several groups, differing in the possibility of growing them as a flower crop and care.
Least of all problems when grown in central Russia are forest species, the most undemanding of all:
- Haller or dense,
This type is the most common, its representatives can be easily grown among deciduous trees. Forest crested insects grow well on loose, clay-rich soil with humus or sandy loam. Do not tolerate excess moisture.
It is more difficult to grow in culture a crested bird growing in the mountains and deserts of Asia:
Tuberous plants are attributed to the two types listed above, but there are a small number of crested insects with rhizome:
And very rarely, in a domesticated form, you can find a evergreen crested hen and a touchy crested.
Well and last of all it is worth mentioning the species that have appeared quite recently and have not yet gained wide distribution:
In the wild, they grow only in Sichuan in China, so for a long time they were not known to a wide range of gardeners.
We should also mention the hybrid forms, which are obtained by crossing different species. They have various characteristics derived from their parents.
On packages with such seeds the hybrid will always be written, and then the species from which it was obtained may be indicated. Some species of crested insects have already become the material for obtaining new varieties.
For example, the narrow-leafed crested hen became the basis for the Blue (Blue) series:
- Crested Blue Heron (Blue Heron),
- Crested blue line (Blue line).
Crested hen landing and care in open ground
The rules for the care of the crested hen are not burdensome This plant is an ephemeroid, just like a snowdrop, and prefers to avoid problems rather than live through them. They can grow in different places and for different reasons they can disappear.
The most common forest varieties bloom when the trees in the forest do not yet have foliage, and after that they begin a period of rest, since they cannot grow under the shade of dense foliage.
Cultures living in dry areas avoid summer heat, and growing in the mountains and tundra, respectively, synchronize with the weather of their area and try to bloom and give seeds as soon as possible, because the cold can descend even in the summer months.
As you can see, this plant has a fast rhythm of development, but the care requirements are different for different types. For example, during the growing season, plants of all types require quite a lot of water, but during dormancy the requirements for moisture are different. Forest, tundra and mountain species have a poor attitude towards dryness, while desert species, in turn, do not like high humidity.
Forest type does not require bright lighting and grows better in shady areas, and mountain views, on the contrary, require bright light. There are also preferences for soils: forest species need loose and organic soil, and Asian mountain species need clay substrates with drainage.
Eritronium also called the cordy is well suited for group plantings for growing and caring in open ground. It is not exacting in leaving and well breeds. Recommendations for growing and care can be found in this article.
Following the fruiting, the crested hen begins to turn yellow and dry, after which they have a period of rest. Tubers at this time remain in the ground, they are not afraid of virtually no external influences, and sometimes it is even difficult to determine where the plant is located while it is dormant.
At this time, you can easily transplant a flower to a new place, moving it along with an earthy ball.It is also possible to transplant during the growing season, but then there is a high probability that the green part will come off and the flower will fall prematurely into the rest period.
Planting in the autumn
In the summer and autumn in the markets and in shops, tubers are sold at rest. They must be stored in a perforated plastic bag filled with sawdust. Only hard and full of juice, nodules can be planted in the ground, dry and wrinkled can not be planted, if it is not only a desert species, the tubers of these crops can be slightly dried.
When planting, plant tubers are deepened depending on their size. Small specimens are buried about 6 cm, large ones 12-14 cm. The choice of a place to plant and the soil is chosen according to the type of plant.
Forest forms can be grown together with snowdrops, they are well compacted together.
If the summer is too humid, even the tubers of forest forms may suffer, it would be advisable to dig them out and dry them for 30 days at room temperature. You can also build a greenhouse that will protect the site with tubers from rain.
Among the ways of reproduction is the main seed. The division of the rhizome is not available for almost all species, except for the crested bush and Bush and Kashmir, which still appear small new tubers. But in other species, the formation of young nodules occurs very rarely, so you should not hope for it.
Seed method is quite reliable, if you observe a couple of conditions.
The first is sowing immediately after harvest, because the seeds lose their germination in 6-8 days. It is also important to collect them in time: the seeds of the crested hen are very fond of ants and immediately pick them up as soon as they spill out of the boxes.
The second condition is a constant content in the wet state, since when drying, the seeds lose their germination immediately, so it is better to plant the crops in pots, where it will be easier to care for them.
In general, the chickens reproduce normally by self-sowing, unless there are ants near, in this case the seedlings will be much smaller.
Features of the crested
A flowering crested plant is a perennial and annual. The rhizome of such a plant is quite massive, it is located at a rather large depth and consists of branched processes. The formation of rounded tubers with nutrients inside is sometimes observed on individual processes. The height of upright shoots can vary from 0.15 to 0.45 m. At the base of the stems, there are 2–4 fern leaf-shaped plates of a dark green color with a bluish bloom. The leaves can be double or triple complex, the shape of the lobes is triangular or rounded, with each of them having its own petiole. The formation of racemose cylindrical inflorescences on the tops of the stems is observed in mid-April. The composition of inflorescences includes 5–35 long flowers that can be painted in pink, purple, white, purple or yellow. In flowers, the length of the corolla is from 1.5 to 2.5 centimeters, the pointed sepals are small, and the bracts are relatively large. All flowers have fairly long spurs, inside of which is nectar. It can only be obtained by insects that have a long proboscis. The fruit is a box of oblong shape, inside which are small glossy seeds of black color. Each seed has a fleshy growth that ants simply adore. As a result, ants can drag these seeds for a fairly long distance.
Grow the crested hen begins in March. Its flowering begins after the ground warms up to 3-4 degrees. Duration of flowering - about 20 days. Seed ripening is observed in June, after which the part of the plant above the ground dies off. In landscape design, these plants are most often grown with other primroses, for example: with crocuses, muscari, chionodox, galantus and early tulips.
What time to plant
As a rule, the planting material of the crested hen is sold at a time when its tubers are at rest, or rather, from the second half of June to September. It is during this period of time that it is recommended to plant this crop in open soil. Acquired planting material must be carefully examined. You should choose dense and juicy tubers. The tubers of the Central Asian species of this plant may be slightly dried, it does not harm them.
When choosing a site for planting, you should pay attention to which group the species of crested bird belongs to. So, for example, Chinese, mountain and alpine species experts advise to grow in an open, lighted area, with well-drained sandy loam soil, while it should be located on a hill or a hill. And forest species are recommended to be planted on a shaded area with loose humus soil. It must be neutral or slightly acidic.
There is nothing difficult in planting and growing the crested hen. Before planting the site must be prepared. If the soil is dense and excessively heavy, then when digging it is necessary to make small gravel or gravel. It should be remembered that with the stagnation of moisture in the soil on the roots rot forms very quickly. To avoid this, you should take care that the excess liquid quickly enough flowed from the site.
The depth to which the tubers should be planted depends directly on their size. Large tubers should be planted to a depth of 10 to 15 centimeters, and small ones should be buried by 5–7 centimeters. Planted tubers need abundant watering.
Caring for the crested hen in the garden
When growing the crested hen in the garden, it should be watered in a timely manner, weeded, fed, loosened the surface of the soil and protected from pests and diseases. But it should be noted that in different types of requirements and preferences in care may differ.
How to feed and water
In the first spring weeks, when the beginning of the growth of the crested hen is observed, as a rule, the ground is rather wet from melt water, so the plants will not need watering. After the earth dries, you will need to water the plants systematically. It should be noted that alpine and desert species should be moderately watered, as they react negatively to the stagnation of moisture in the root system, and a short drought does much less damage to the plant. It must be remembered that any of the species of the crested hen extremely negatively reacts to the stagnation of water in the ground, therefore the land in the area must be necessarily well drained. When the bushes are watered, you need to loosen the surface of the site, while removing weeds. To reduce the amount of weed, irrigation and loosening, the surface of the site must be covered with a layer of organic mulch.
Only forest species of the crested hen need to be fed, while compost or leaf humus should be introduced into the ground during digging before planting. Also in the springtime, the surface of the plot can be organic.
After the bushes ottsvetut, their parts, located above the ground, with time become yellow, and their dying out is observed. To remember where they grew, you need to mark each bush, sticking a peg next to it. This culture has a rather high resistance to frost, so it does not need shelter for the winter. However, it should be noted that the Chinese Crest can perish if the air temperature drops less than minus 23 degrees.
How to replant and propagate
Transplantation of this primrose is recommended during its rest period. But even during the flowering period, crested bushes tolerate this procedure quite well. However, when transplanting a part of a flowering bush located above the ground, it can easily come off, in this case, the tubers will begin a dormant period earlier than usual. Transfer the bushes to a new place with a lump of earth.
For reproduction of such plants use seeds, tubers, as well as the method of dividing rhizomes. On the rhizomes, tubers are formed only on the Kashmir and Bush crested hens. It is possible to divide the rhizome in the springtime, as well as from the middle to the end of the summer period, and this is done during the transplantation of the plant. When dividing the bush, it should be noted that each delenka should have a renewal bud and part of the rhizome. When planting delenok, they are buried in the soil for 5–15 centimeters (depending on the size of tubers), and at a distance of at least 10 centimeters between the holes. But it should also be noted that this method of reproduction is not very popular among gardeners.
It is necessary to sow the immature seeds of the crested hen. So, they should be painted black, but the boxes should still be green. Try to break the boxes in time, otherwise, when they are fully ripe and unfold, the seeds will pour out onto the surface of the plot where the ants take them pretty quickly. Seeds remain viable for 7 days; therefore, it is not necessary to delay their sowing. Seeding is done in containers that need to be filled with a moistened substrate. Then they are transferred to a shaded place and make sure that the soil mixture is always a little wet. Seedlings can be planted in the garden after spring comes. Crested hen seedlings bloom for the first time in 2–4 years (depending on the species).
Diseases and pests
Crested birds are highly resistant to diseases, therefore they are extremely rarely affected. If stagnation of water is observed in the root system, this can cause the development of a fungal disease. Any culture can be infected with a viral disease and it does not matter whether you care for it well or badly. Bushes affected by this disease should be removed from the soil and destroyed, and the area where they were grown should be shed with a solution of manganese potassium, which should be strong enough. To cure a plant affected by a fungal disease, it must be sprayed with a solution of a fungicide.
Among the pests, mice and moles pose a danger to the crested hen. To get rid of them, on the surface of the site in several places you need to place the bait with poison.
Description and photo
Unpretentious nature allows you to endure any climatic difficulties, including the harsh winter and summer drought. The crested hen grows with equal success in the shade and under the scorching sun. It has pronounced medicinal properties and is used in folk medicine as a remedy for pain, intestinal upset and as a part of herbal preparations of wide application.
Flowering in the middle climatic zone begins in mid-April, in the northern regions slightly later. Many species of crested insects are very decorative, and they are planted as a flower crop on summer cottages, in particular on alpine hills.
The average plant height reaches 30-35 cm. The stem is surrounded by leaves similar to ferns. The root system reaches 15 cm in depth and is a branched system with formed thickenings (tubers).
Ways to grow in the suburbs
There are several ways of breeding the crested hen.
Planting seeds in the soil is carried out immediately after they ripen on an adult plant, because they have a very short term germination. When sowing, you only need to slightly powder it with a nutrient primer, imitating the natural process of self-seeding, you do not need to fill up much.
An interesting fact is that the seeds of the crested crest are the favorite food of the ants, which are able to move them and produce a chaotic planting of flowers at a considerable distance from the adult shrub. Planted in this way, seedlings will emerge in the spring, after the snow cover disappears, and the expected flowering will begin to occur 3-4 years after planting.
Some species of crested insects are capable of forming lateral nodules, which are a convenient form of subsequent reproduction of the plant. The nodules are cut and immediately placed in a nutrient substrate, maintaining constant humidity.
An adult tuber also acts as a planting material. To prepare for planting it must be divided into parts with several points of growth. The cut point should be treated with activated carbon powder and moved to the soil until drying. If the planting material is to be subjected to long-term transportation, its storage must be matched with the contents in a plastic container with obligatory irrigation with water.
Popular species and varieties
To date, there are more than 300 species of crested hen, differing from each other by technical characteristics characteristic of growth in one place or another of the globe. Consider the most common in Russia and grown by growers and gardeners in the suburbs:
- Haller's crested crest. Perennial growing on sunny glades and edges. The height varies from 10 to 20 cm. Flowering is performed by the release of the corolla, which has a pinkish-purple hue.
- The hollow is a tall species, reaching 40 cm. The stalk is framed by two toothed leaves. A tall peduncle is crowned with a large brush, consisting of many large, up to 20 mm in diameter, flowers of a rich violet hue.
- Noble - one of the tallest species, capable of reaching 80 cm. The leaves are developed, numerous, and the flowers have a yellow color, mating with the presence of a black border.
- Yellow - a frequent guest beds. It has the shape of a bush, medium length and numerous flower stalks with bright yellow buds. Blossoming later (in the middle - the end of May), but long. Very branchy root system, developing many lateral nodules.
Site selection for planting
The crested hen is predisposed to grow in partial shade, in sunny places or with diffused light. It imposes much higher requirements on the soil, which should have neutral acidity and good drainage indicators.
When choosing a landing site, it should be borne in mind that the plant does not tolerate stagnant water, therefore, if there is a swampy area, a special, elevated ridge should be prepared, which will save the root system from water overload. The same measures are taken in close proximity of groundwater.
If the soil does not have sufficient nutritional value and friability, when digging it is necessary to add a large amount of humus, peat or re-burnt straw. It is enough to fertilize and loosen the dense ground.
It is favorable to spread the drainage layer to the depth of the proposed planting of tubers, materials for which can be gravel, crushed stone and expanded clay.
Planting a crested bird in open ground
Planting of seed material is carried out in the autumn, as the seed pods ripen.
The planting of tubers, in equal measure with the transplants to a new place, takes place during the rest period of the plant, that is, after the end of the active flowering phase. They are placed in the re-dredged and loosened soil to a depth of 5-7 cm - if the plant involves the development of small nodules, and 10-15 cm in relation to the chick, which has a larger tuberous structure.
The distance between plants also varies from 15 to 35 cm, depending on the selected species. After placing the tubers in a permanent place of growth, moisten the soil with separated water and slightly mulch.
Caring for both young and adult plants does not require much experience and excessive effort from the gardener. It is enough time to produce weeding, watering as necessary and making a simple composition of fertilizers during active flowering. As a top dressing humus is used, both in dry and in liquid forms.
It is useful to make a small amount of superphosphate.
It is unacceptable to produce excessive moisture, which can lead to rotting of tubers.
As ottsvetaniya you can cut dry stems, maintaining the level of decorative plantings.
Pests and diseases
Among insects and pests, butterfly moths can cause significant damage to the crested hen. When the appearance of insects on the outer part of the plant appears, you should turn to chemical preparations specialized in the treatment of flower crops from the effects of insects.
Tubers can be affected by moles and rodents. To prevent such troubles when planting, they can be sprinkled with sand. In addition, the use of traps, mousetraps, placed under the base of the bush is effective.
Dangerous for the culture and fungus, which is possible to appear in case of non-compliance with the rules of agricultural engineering, in particular - recommendations for watering and drainage. Fungal diseases manifest themselves by the appearance of spots and twisting of leaves. If signs are found, the affected specimens should be removed, and the neighboring ones should be treated with fungicides and try to adjust the soil moisture level.
Preparing the plant for winter
The crested crest is well tolerated by the Russian winters, if frosts below -10 degrees occur during the formation of snow cover. If a snowless winter is expected, the landing site should be carefully covered with mulch, opal foliage, straw and humus.
Compliance with the necessary depth of planting is quite capable of preserving the tuber in the winter.
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