Plant Care Products

Peat properties and density


Peat is an organic fertilizer. For many years gardeners have been actively using it to feed the soil on plots and houseplants. To obtain benefits, you must follow the rules for the use of peat, otherwise you can harm the plant. Not every soil needs fertilizer. If its composition contains 4–5% of humus, then peat will be superfluous. A soil with a high content of clay and sand will improve after the addition of peat. Properly prepared, it will saturate the soil with organic substances, prevent the nutrients from leaching out of the soil when watering the plants, make it looser and warmer. In addition, peat has antiseptic properties.

How to produce peat fertilizers

In terms of composition, peat is dead and rotten plants. It is formed on peat bogs in the process of long-term formation of biomass layers of dead plants in conditions of humidity and lack of oxygen. There are three degrees of decomposition of peat layers:

  1. Riding - with partially decomposed plant residues.
  2. Lowland - completely decomposed plants.
  3. Transitional - intermediate layer.

In agriculture, horticulture and floriculture, peat is used as a fertilizer. It should be non-sour, well-ventilated, low-lying and transient, have a degree of decomposition of 30–40%, ash content of 13–15% and humidity of 50–70%. Just scattered peat on the site will not bring proper benefits. In its pure form, it does not give nitrogen to plants badly. Insufficiently ventilated and freshly dug peat will harm the plants, as it contains many toxic substances and has high acidity, which adversely affects the life of the plant. Improperly prepared, it can ruin the soil.

Peat extraction process and technology

The extraction takes place in two ways: by milling and by extracting lumpy peat.

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The way in which layer-by-layer mining of peat deposits takes place during short cycles. First, the upper layer is milled with milling drums to a depth of 6–20 mm and as a result peat chips are obtained. At the same time it should be intensive drying with particles of 15-25 mm in size. Further, the layer is teddled, loosened for airing and evaporation. The next stage is the raking of the layer, i.e., the collection of peat into rollers with a triangular cross section of the plant. Then - stacking and isolation of the collected peat.

After harvesting, a new milling begins, the cycle repeats. Depending on weather conditions, equipment availability and layer quality, the number of iterations can reach 10–50 times. This method has been used since 1930 on deposits of all kinds. The preparation of land areas includes the drainage and cleaning of wood and grass residues from the peat massif. The milling method of extraction includes short cycles and intensive drying. It is characterized by the growth of peat extraction per unit area and 100% mechanization of technological production, which reduces the cost of production. The main consumers of milled peat are power plants and production, in agriculture they use 15–25% of this product.

Extraction of lump peat is a process of production by the excavator method, in which bucket devices and slot-hole milling to a depth of 0.4–0.8 m are used.
The following operations are applied:

  • Mining and processing with the formation of peat bricks.
  • A pavement of peat bricks on the field.
  • Drying and stacking products.

The price of peat directly depends on the place of its extraction and the method of delivery. The lower these costs, the lower the price. You can buy these fertilizers in any region of the country.

The impact of peat extraction on the environment

The ecology of our planet is under threat due to the increase in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, which creates a "greenhouse effect". Bogs affect the content in the atmosphere of "greenhouse gases", as a regulator of climate and gas composition of the atmosphere. Bogs in the composition of the ecosystem take part in the circulation of substances, intensively absorbing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. And they do it more actively than the forest.

Through the peat formation process, swamps accumulate carbon in the organic matter of peat. The annual increase in peat deposits is 1 mm. To accumulate a layer with a capacity of 6–8 m, it is necessary 6–8 thousand years. During the drainage of wetlands for peat extraction, there is a violation of the biosphere functions of its ecosystem. This adversely affects our nature and ecology.

On the other hand, in the process of life, the swamps emit methane into the atmosphere, the “greenhouse effect” of which is 20 times higher. Drainage of wetlands during peat extraction prevents methane from entering the atmosphere. Negatively bogs affect forest land, gradually absorbing them.

From the positive aspects, we can single out the energy intensity of peat as a means of fuel. There is an economic benefit in comparison with consumption of natural gas. When burning peat, twice as much carbon dioxide is emitted into the atmosphere, which negates its advantage as a fuel.

In addition, peat contains additional impurities and ash. It is worth thinking about the advantages and disadvantages of using peat as a fuel. In this regard, its production is regulated by law. The government is developing special programs for production and use in a rational mode.

There is a list of peatlands at the state level, intended for carrying out mining according to the results of a competition or auction. To ensure safety and environmental protection, restrictions may be imposed on the use of the peat bog.

Alternative to peat fertilizers

Peat as fertilizer is replaced by dung, bird droppings, silt, feces, sawdust and tree bark, green manures, and also composts.

One of the best substitutes for peat: it is very rich in organic fertilizers. 75% of manure consists of water, 21% are organic matter, 0.5% is total nitrogen, 0.25% is assimilable phosphorus, 0.6% is potassium oxide. In many ways, the quality of manure depends on the type of animal, what food it fed, what litter was used and what method of storage was chosen. There are four stages of manure decomposition:

  • slightly decomposed (straw in manure has almost no change in color and strength),
  • half-ripe (straw turns dark brown in color, strength decreases, breaks easily)
  • rotted (black smearing mass, straw decomposed completely),
  • humus (friable earthy mass).

Fresh manure as a fertilizer is not recommended.

Peat formation

Peat itself is a substance that belongs to the group of natural minerals of plant origin, and is also characterized by a high flammability index. In appearance, it is usually a mass that has a dark brown or black color. The density of peat is quite high, as it is formed from the remnants of marsh plants mixed with soil. To start the desired reaction, be sure to exposure to air.

If the environment is characterized by a lack of oxygen, as well as high humidity, then these factors will significantly interfere with the decomposition of swamp vegetation. In addition, due to the high density of peat, this substance is considered the initial stage of the formation of coal. As a mineral, this resource can be found on the border of the watershed, in the valley of the rivers, and most often in the peat bogs. In these places, and the accumulation of the substance.

Types of natural resource

There are several factors due to which the substance is divided into three categories. It is important to note that from belonging to a particular group, a variety of indicators, including peat density, change.

The first group is riding. In this case, so-called peat, which is 95% formed of those plants that germinate in the upper layers of the soil, for example, cotton grass, larch, etc. Most often, you can find this fossil on the hills. In addition, the material is characterized by a low degree of decomposition, and an acid index of about 3.5-4.5 pH.

The second group of peat is lowland. In this case, the substance is the opposite of the first type and 95% consists of plants that grow in lowlands. This may be alder, spruce, aspen, etc. Because of this, most often such peat is found in the floodplains of rivers, as well as in ravines. The acidity of the composition is extremely small or completely neutral, 5.5-7.0 pH. Due to this indicator, the material is often used to reduce the acidity of the soil, for example.

The last species, which consists of the two previous ones, is transitional. Peat belongs to this type, which consists of 10-90% of semi-decomposed plants of the upper type, and the rest is low-lying plants.

It is worth adding that, depending on what kind of plant was used as the basis for peat, each type is also divided into the following subtypes:

Additional groups

To date, six additional groups of raw materials can also be distinguished, from which peat can be obtained, the density of which is also different.

  • Woody type of peat is considered as such, if sawdust is at least 40% of the total mass.
  • The herbal substance consists of 10% of sawdust, 30% of various mosses, and the rest is other plants.
  • Moss peat consists of 70% of moss inclusions, 10% of wood residues, and the rest is plant inclusions.
  • Next come a few mixed types. For example, wood-herbal contains from 15 to 35% of sawdust, and the rest is grass. There is also wood-moss, where also 15-35% of sawdust, and the remaining mass is moss.
  • The last species is grass-moss. The content of these residues is from 35 to 65%, but wood inclusions are not more than 10%.

If we talk about the use of this substance, for example, in agricultural activities, there are only two conditional groups. The first is black or heavy peat, and the second is light or light.

Key indicators of peat

As it has already become clear, the peat deposit is swamps, rivers. However, even in the same swamp, peat may have different properties, appearance, and structure. All these parameters significantly depend and vary depending on what degree of decomposition of the substances included in its composition.

Suppose, if you take the color of a natural mineral, it can start from light yellow and end in completely black. The structure of the material also varies greatly. It can be amorphous or fiber. Parameters such as the porosity of the mineral, and hence the bulk density of peat, also change.

The greater the percentage of decomposition of substances that make up the peat, the less it remains substances that can be hydrolyzed, and the amount of humic acids. In addition, the amount of easily hydrolyzable, as well as water-soluble substances decreases.

The main useful property of peat is the ability to accumulate products of photosynthesis and carbon. If you add this substance to the soil, you can significantly improve moisture permeability and breathability. In addition, the presence of peat in the soil causes a weakening of the action of pesticides, improving the soil, reducing the level of nitrates.

Peat Oxidate Description

Currently used fertilizer based on peat. This plant growth stimulator was developed by Belarusian scientists. The concentration of the product reaches 4%, and in itself it is completely environmentally friendly for humans, animals, bees. Peat oxidate is obtained by special processing of the substance, during which, all excess substances are removed. The color of this fertilizer is dark brown, and is also characterized by good solubility in water.

If we talk about the use of this drug, it greatly enhances the effect of other effects, such as plant protection, mineral fertilizers. In other words, peat for the garden in this form, belongs to the category of synergists. This is a category of drugs that do not have any effect on plants, but only reinforce the influence of other means. The use of such a composition can significantly reduce the consumption of expensive imported seed dressers, for example.

Peat for dry closets

To understand how you can use this substance in this design, you need to know what it is. The basis is two tanks, one of which must contain a reagent, and the second is intended for the accumulation of waste. Another important element is a handle on one of the containers, which will allow to fill organic waste with peat mass. Also available should be a pipe for exhaust, a minimum length of 4 meters.

In such constructions, peat for a dry closet with an admixture of sawdust is used as a reagent. In addition, microorganisms that can process organic matter must also be added to the accumulators. If you use such a bio-toilet at a moderate pace, then the peat filler is enough for the sorption of liquid waste. If, on the other hand, the level of exploitation is increased, the tanks should be equipped with a special liquid outlet.

Fuel briquettes

To date, peat briquettes can be used for heating. This material has several advantages.

  • The high level of safety of use, which lies in the fact that when ignited, no sparks are formed, and during combustion no carcinogenic and toxic gases are formed.
  • Combustible properties of peat fuel are able to persist for several years.
  • Peat bars are almost completely natural product with a minimum amount of additives.
  • It takes much less to store peat briquettes than to store coal or firewood.
  • By purchasing this material in bulk, you can save a significant amount of money. The cost of this fuel is much lower than that of coal and gas.

However, like any other substance, peat briquettes also have their drawbacks. In this case, it is one, but rather unpleasant - it is flammable. In order to avoid problems, it is necessary to store peat briquettes as far as possible from those places where fire is burning, or from any heating appliances.

Mining methods

To date, the extraction of the substance is carried out according to two main methods. The first method is called milling and is designed to produce milled peat. The second method is the excavator one, in which lump peat is obtained. However, it is important to note here that these methods have been used for quite a long time and at the same time they are not without drawbacks, because of which they are actively used only for the extraction of raw materials on an industrial scale. As for the development of smaller peat deposits, for example, to meet the needs of local energy, the use of either of these two traditional methods is impractical from an economic point of view. They are quite complicated due to the preparatory work on the drainage of the field, due to the preparatory work on the arrangement of peat extraction.

Milling method of extraction

It is worth considering what the advantages and disadvantages of both traditional methods of extraction. The first one is milling. Among the advantages are the following:

  • low cost of products,
  • possibility of high mechanization of production
  • increased seasonal fee.

Among the disadvantages are the following:

  • it is necessary to carry out expensive work on the drainage of peat deposits,
  • in summer, the danger of peat fire in the drained zone increases greatly,
  • the work is highly dependent on meteorological conditions.

When extracting raw materials in any way, it must be remembered that its properties differ greatly depending on the composition, and the density of peat in kg / m3 can vary from 200 to 890. As can be seen from these data, the gap is very large. The properties of a substance are important to take into account, since their indicators strongly influence the process of peat processing.

Extraction of lump peat

For the extraction of lump peat using the excavator method. The name of the method speaks for itself. Among the advantages of this method, it stands out well that it can be dried after extraction. Humidity level can be reduced to 35%. Sod peat is not subject to such an effect as self-heating. As for the bulk density of lumpy peat, it is about one and a half times higher than that of raw materials, which is obtained by the milling method of extraction. In addition, due to the fact that the density of lump peat is much higher, and the humidity is lower, its thermal qualities are at a high level.

The disadvantages clearly include the fact that it is necessary to evaporate a huge amount of moisture, since the initial humidity ranges from 80 to 88%. During the machining of peat mass, there is a significant energy cost. Low productivity of applied process equipment.

What is peat

Peat - plant residues that decomposed and compressed hundreds of years ago. Peat is formed only in the swamps. Именно повышенная влажность болота способствует размножению бактерий, которые в процессе жизнедеятельности перерабатывают остатки болотных растений в торф. В период жизнедеятельности эти бактерии выделяют большое количество тепловой энергии. Именно поэтому корневой системе растений комфортнее в торфяном грунте.

With the industrialization of the USSR, peat was used to generate electrical energy. When the peat power plants were closed, scientists began to explore peat and look for another use for it. It turned out that peat is an excellent bioactive fertilizer. It was peat and fertilizer based on it that helped increase the yield of cereals and potatoes several times.

Peat extraction

Peat is extracted in the marshes. For commercial extraction, the marsh is drained by laying drainage channels. If you look at the swamp from a height, then the network of drainage channels will look like a network of urban roads. The main canal directs water to a lake or river near a swamp. Gross discharge channels flow into the main canal. The gross canals intersect many small map canals that collect water from around the swamp.

When the marsh is drained, special machines with cutters drive onto it. They dig peat and crush it into a crumb. Next, peat dries exactly 24 hours. When peat chips are separated and dried in the peat deposit, they are collected in piles - artificial hills. Next, the piles are given a triangular shape so that in rainy weather the water would flow to the ground. Then the mineral is transported to a packing factory, where peat is packed both in five-liter bags and in a 200-liter tank.

Peat is one of the few bulk materials, the amount of which is usually measured in liters. Peat volume is a more stable value because weight depends on peat moisture. Therefore, unscrupulous sellers moisten peat and sell it, measuring the amount of fertilizer in kilograms.

Peat industry

The peat industry is a category of industry that provides the country with fuel as well as fertilizer. Today, peat is used in agriculture, at chemical plants, power plants.

So what is peat? Peat has a characteristic brown color. It is formed over a long time from the almost decomposed remains of plants, mainly mosses. Peat deposits are swamps and ponds, which are almost overgrown. In Russia, the territory with the presence of peat are located in the forests. In fact, peat consists of 60% of carbon, which makes it the most important biomaterial, because It has a sufficiently high calorific value. Peat is also made by various heat-insulating means, for example, plates.

Recall that in 2010 in Russia there was a terrible fire associated with the ignition of peat territories, as a result of which forests were damaged. After the incident, it became obvious that the peat industry will be recovering for a long time.

Now around the world receive about 25 million tons of peat. In 1985, peat extraction reached its apogee, namely, 380 million tons was produced in a year. However, since the 90s, the level of mineral extraction has dropped significantly to 29 million tons.

The development of the peat industry in Russia

Peat industry began to emerge in the XII-XIII centuries. The first countries for its production and use of steel are Scotland and Holland. And starting from the XVI century. peat extraction began to develop in Germany, France and Sweden. Russia lagged a little behind European countries, because the mineral was first mined in 1700, when, under the leadership of Peter I, near Voronezh, for the first time, they found peat deposits. After 3 years, deposits were found near Azov. Much later, by the end of the XVIII century. peat development began near St. Petersburg and in the Smolensk region. Almost until the XX century. oil production was carried out in a primitive way, i.e. With the help of the simplest equipment: molding frames, devices for grinding peat and various scooping devices. Basically, they mined and carved peat. To the place of processing, peat was taken away on horses, as well as by waterways, through canals and rivers. At the time of landowners, in the provinces various committees and schools were created, where they studied methods of peat extraction and processing. Late XIX century. He marked the transition to mining by factory, thanks to which minerals were mined by advanced equipment.

Oddly enough, since the beginning of the XX century. Russia has become ahead of European countries in technologies for peat extraction, as well as in quantity. In the Moscow region was formed about 40 peat. It was in Russia in 1913 that the first power plant in the whole world was built, which converted peat into fuel. Engineers V. Kirpichnikov and R. Klasson developed a scheme for peat extraction by hydraulic means. In 1914, thanks to this method, Russia managed to build industrial enterprises for the processing of peat. Already in the 20s, excavators began to be commissioned, which made mining of all minerals much easier. Peat was supplied from the Urals to heavy industry enterprises that used peat gas as a process fuel. At the end of the 20s, entire scientific centers and institutes of the peat industry were created. In 1988, peat extraction exceeded all previous years. In comparison with 1914, it has increased 93 times.

Today, enterprises specializing in peat processing are combined into whole complexes. For example, in the Smolensk region there is an enterprise Smolenkstorf, it extracts about 100,000 tons of milled peat, processing it into energy raw materials, about 280,000 tons are mined for agricultural purposes, etc.

Details on the methods and types of peat extraction

As mentioned earlier, more peat deposits are on the surface. Peat is mined only in two main schemes:

  • from the ground (cutting topsoil)
  • from quarries (with the help of excavators)

There are only 5 types of peat:

  • milling (cutting)
  • hydraulic scraper
  • hydrotorf
  • lump
  • bumper

Milled peat - one of the most common types. It is mined at a depth of only 2 cm thanks to the tractor, which loosens the soil, crushes peat and turns it into fine chips. Then the peat dries in the sun, gathers into rolls, and then another layer is loosened. After each such process, peat is harvested at the same place another 5-6 times. The collected peat is delivered to a special platform and collected there in separate shoulders. A suitable season for the extraction of such peat is the summer period, when natural mineral drying is possible. The milling method is also used to obtain lump peat.

Sod peat get by excavation. Each such piece of peat weighs at least 500 g. This method of extraction practically does not differ from the previous method, but the only difference is that it needs weather conditions. Sod peat can be mined at any time of the year. Such peat is mined from a depth of 50 cm using a special disk with a cylinder in which peat is pressed.

Hydrorf get hydraulically, which was first proposed in 1914, as mentioned earlier.

Carved peat extracted from peat bricks by hand, sometimes machine-forming.

As for the transportation of peat from the mining sites, it is carried out after the final drying of peat and exported by rail narrow-gauge. For agricultural purposes, peat is transported by road.

Peat in agriculture

Peat is useful to mankind not only as a fuel, but also on an agricultural scale. Peat is an excellent fertilizer, while good peat for this sector is one that has decomposed by 40%. It is extracted from swamps and overgrown reservoirs. Peat, decomposed by only 25%, is excellent as a litter for animals. Before use, peat is usually well ventilated, but not dried to the limit. Sometimes it is frozen on purpose, so that later it is more easily crushed and distributed into areas that need to be fertilized. Because peat contains too little phosphorus and potassium, it is necessary to add manure, superphosphate and a little potassium chloride to it.

Peat favors soil fertility, improves its structure. Due to the fact that peat practically does not contain micro and macronutrients, it is rich in useful acids that stimulate growth and development. It is good for soil of any kind, because it has gas absorption. Actually. Peat can be divided into two types: Light and heavy. Light has a degree of decomposition of 15%, and as much as 40% or more. In agriculture, peat is well conducive to ensuring long-term moisture retention, as well as oxygen exchange.

Peat formation process

Material formation conditions have their own specifics: complete decomposition of the components that make up the complex structure of peat does not occur, only dieback and partial decomposition take place under conditions of a small amount of oxygen. As a result of such transformations, a material with a high content of carbon, shale gas and other additional elements is formed.

It is classified as a combustible mineral, as the main use of peat in industry is used as a fuel, but it is a specific fertilizer used in agriculture.

Peat extraction is a developed industry, Russia has large reserves of rock and is inferior to the palm in the volume of explored deposits only in Canada.

Peat deposits in the world

Peat reserves in the world are quite large. It occupies approximately 3% of the land area. The north, the richer peat deposits in different countries. This is due to the increase in freshwater reserves with the distance from the equator, and in the northern areas there are the most favorable conditions for the formation of large deposits of peat.

World reserves of minerals are currently estimated at 500 billion tons. Russia ranks 2nd in the world in explored reserves, which are about 188 billion tons, behind Canada, whose share is about 200 billion tons. In addition, the peat industry is widely developed :

The leader in terms of peat extraction is Finland, in which peat is widely used for heating homes or centralized heating and hot water. Mining is concentrated in the northern region of Europe, where up to 80% of total world production is mined.

What are the ways to extract peat?

The peat industry has two main production methods:

Career. The breed is cut in large pieces, divided into briquettes of a certain size (lump peat) and sent for further processing. Excavators or similar ones are used, giving the opportunity to mechanize the process and get high performance.

The disadvantage of this method is the need for subsequent drying and processing of the material, which forces the transport of raw material, creates an unproductive load on the transport. Mining is concentrated in one place.

Surface. The breed is cut from the surface of the soil with a thin layer of 2–3 cm, it is pre-loosened and dried. In fact, it is going to be prepared for the use of peat.

Varieties of Mining

In accordance with the technology of extraction distinguish the types of breed:

Milling It is extracted by loosening a thin surface layer (2–3 cm), it is kept for some time to dry, for which it is turned over for better removal of moisture using a tedder installed on the tractor and packed in rolls.

All work is done right at the place of extraction, the breed is practically exported to further use. The method is very successful, but depends entirely on the weather, since all operations are carried out in the open air.

Hydraulic scraper. Removable with scraper winches. The resulting breed was named hydrotorf.

Lump. Removed by excavators, fraction size not less than 500 g.

Bagherny. The method of extraction is a kind of excavation mining when special bucket frames are used - the buggers. The method has a high degree of mechanization, but requires a surface devoid of stumps or other wood obstacles. In open areas without mechanical obstacles, the technique shows good results.

Carved. It is mined in small enterprises. Works are performed manually, with ordinary shovels, or with the use of small-scale mechanization. The share of this method of extraction is currently small, since the productivity of the technique is extremely low.

What is peat

Peat is a rock that forms in wetlands, so it always contains a lot of water. Most of the material reserves are in regions with a large number of wetlands, bodies of water with stagnant water or small rivers with a weak current. The exceptions are reclaimed areas, from where the water was diverted for a long time and the surface of the soil managed to dry out well, giving the opportunity to conduct industrial development of peat.

If we consider the origin and subsequent morphism of the rock, this is a transitional stage in the formation of brown coal. The longer the occurrence process, the less organic remains in the rock and the higher the density of the material. The level of occurrence are distinguished:

Peat moss. Arises from the decomposition of moss, cotton grass or pine. It has a small amount of calcium and, accordingly, high acidity, as a result of which it is not used as a fertilizer.

Lowland peat. It is formed from rotting alder, sedge or moss. Contains a high percentage of calcium, the acidity of the material is reduced. This species is highly valued and used in agriculture as a fertilizer. It has three degrees of decomposition of organic matter: weak, medium and strong, which is valued above all.

The names of both materials have arisen in connection with the places of their production - higher sections or lowlands, floodplains, swampy wastelands. Wood peat is isolated, containing a large amount of bark remains, wood and leaves of various sorts of wood growing along the banks or in the area of ​​swamps. It is such regions that are famous for peat deposits, which can occupy very large areas - 1000 hectares or more.

Where is peat used

The use of the breed in various activities is quite wide. It applies to the following areas:

  • Energy. Used as an inexpensive and quite efficient fuel.
  • Agriculture. Breed is a good fertilizer that changes and regulates the composition of the soil.
  • Livestock. It serves as bedding for livestock, allowing to organize high-quality and inexpensive animal housing.
  • In the construction of peat make insulating material.
  • In medicine, it serves as a material for mud baths.
  • With the help of peat made whiskey.
  • In ecology, peat is used as a good sorbent.

Such a widespread use of the breed and the relative cheapness of its production make the breed very profitable and successful for many areas of production activity as minerals, give grounds to rank peat as an important and necessary resource.

Experts note the high environmental friendliness of using such fuel, since peat ash is much easier to utilize and does not pollute the atmosphere with harmful emissions. The content of sulfur oxides or nitrogen in slags is much lower and can be almost completely removed without environmental consequences.

The introduction of peat into the composition of arable soil allows you to update the content of essential minerals in them, to balance the presence of all the components necessary for the growth of crops. The use of peat in agriculture, which had fallen to a critical size in the late 90s of the last century, is gradually recovering, displacing chemicalization harmful to the state of the soil.

Perspectives of the peat industry

Effectively the use of peat for medicinal purposes. Peat therapy, more effective than mud treatment, allows you to treat various diseases - arthritis, rheumatic conditions, cardiovascular disorders and many other ailments. Procedures are much milder and easier tolerated by patients.

Prospects and opportunities of the material are underestimated, need more intensive use and development. Fossil reserves, ease of mining and processing make peat a profitable, effective material for various fields of activity or industry.

Bird droppings

It is considered the best substitute for peat among organic fertilizers. The most valuable - chicken and pigeon, less valuable duck and goose. Best bird droppings to make in the soil in the fall. Most effective in liquid dressings.

In nature, sludge accumulates at the bottom of water bodies, so it is very rich in humus, nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus. Before use, the sludge should be ventilated and used in sandy soils.

Before applying this type of fertilizer must first be prepared. The cesspool is lined with peat 20-25 cm for better preservation. Further, weekly feces are additionally perepilyayut a layer of peat to save nitrogen and get rid of the characteristic odor. To disinfect the faeces from the worms, they are composted, as the eggs die at a temperature of 45-50 °.

Sawdust, bark

The cheapest organic fertilizer. It is necessary to bring only in a pereprovshiv form. Can be mixed with slurry, fallen leaves and plant residues. Well mated with the ground. Древесную кору предварительно компостируют, потом измельчают, перемешивают с минеральными удобрениями, время от времени помешивают и увлажняют. Через шесть месяцев удобрение готово к употреблению.

Представляют собой запаханную в землю высокостебельную растительную массу. По свойствам сидераты почти равноценны навозу. They include single and perennial crops such as legumes, sunflower, buckwheat. Being in the soil, nutrients are gradually released from the green manure, restoring the structure of the soil.

Creating a compost pile together with peat and manure will make peat as a fertilizer rich in nutrients and harmless.
A compost pile is prepared on the site in 2 x 2 m layers.

  1. Peat is laid out in height of 25-30 cm.
  2. Top sawdust is 10 cm high.
  3. The next layer is a mixture of garden land with tops, weeds, food remains 20 cm high.
  4. Manure is laid horse, mullein or bird droppings with a height of 20 cm.
  5. It is necessary to lay out peat again from 20 to 30 cm high.

To ensure a special microclimate in the heap on the sides, the construction should be covered with peat or garden soil. To prevent rainwater from flowing into the pile, it is necessary to lift the edges by 10–15 cm. It should not be above 1.5 m in height. Now this compost pile must be left to rot for 12–18 months. For periodic moistening, use a bucket of water with the addition of 100 g of superphosphate. To hide a bunch of sunlight, it will be useful to make a canopy. And with the arrival of autumn, it is necessary to sprinkle it with dry foliage, high peat or earth. In winter, you should wrap a pile of snow coat.

Of course, peat is good for nutrient-poor soil. With its structure, it improves the physiological properties of the soil: fertilized with peat, it becomes more friable, water and breathable, the root system of plants breathes freely.

Peat as a fertilizer gains value only if it is used together with organic and mineral fertilizers, as well as in the form of composts.

If the peat is plentifully spread on the soil, the effect is difficult to wait, because even though it is rich in nitrogen (up to 25 kg per ton), the plants get only 1–1.5 kg. Therefore, fertilizing the soil with peat alone is useless. On the other hand, if it is naturally rich in nutrients, the use of peat as fertilizer is absolutely not necessary. But keen gardeners are always armed with peat as a fertilizer for potatoes and other garden plants.

On the video you can see the use of peat as fertilizer in other areas of the national economy:


The method of waste-free processing of peat belongs to the chemical, petrochemical industries, agriculture and power system. The method is carried out by two-stage heating of peat with the possibility of obtaining gaseous and solid components. At the first stage, peat is dried to a moisture content of not more than 15% by portion feeding at 350-1050 g / s and heating to a temperature of 120 ± 5 ° С. Steam and flue gases are purified and vented. At the second stage, the solid residue is heated to a temperature of 520-530 ° C without oxygen for 1-6 seconds, then cooled and the resulting pyrogas is condensed to form a liquid fuel. This technical solution allows optimizing the peat processing process and reducing energy and material costs while increasing the productivity and efficiency of peat use.


The invention relates to the processing of peat and can find application in the fields of oil refining, thermal power of agriculture and other industries.

There is a method of thermal processing of organic substances, which consists in the fact that thermal processing is carried out by heating the substances to the decomposition temperature with simultaneous and continuous compaction, and the protective environment is created by the gases formed during the decomposition of materials with an oxidizer lack (RF patent 2119124, MKI F 23 G 5/027, 1998).

The disadvantages of this method are: the need for high-intensity energy supply, which limits the amount of processed product, the complexity of the separation of the products obtained, high energy intensity and low productivity.

The closest known method is the method of processing organic substances (RF patent 2201951, MKI G 01 B 49/00, 2002), including peat by means of its multi-stage heating with the possibility of obtaining gaseous and solid components. Heating is carried out in two successive stages with the possibility of obtaining water vapor at a temperature of 200-375 ° C in the first stage and with the possibility of producing combustible gases at a heating temperature of 550-750 ° C, depending on the type of organic matter.

The disadvantage of this method is the high level of losses in the form of waste, significant energy intensity and low quality of the resulting secondary products.

Thus, the task to which the claimed invention is directed, is to create a method of waste-free processing of peat, which would not contain these disadvantages.

Solving this problem, the technical result is achieved, which consists in minimizing waste processing peat, improving the quality of pyro-fuel, fertilizers, water vapor obtained in the process of processing peat, while reducing the energy intensity of the process and reducing heat loss to the environment, with an increased process speed.

Another technical result is the possibility of implementation of practically waste-free, environmentally friendly processing of peat with the lowest energy and material costs while increasing the productivity and efficiency of peat use.

It also achieves the technical result consisting in optimizing the peat processing process by supplying such a quantity of peat, which increases the productivity of the method, and due to the intensive supply of energy in two stages: to the drying temperature of the peat, which excludes the formation of resinous substances, and sharply to the pyrolysis gas formation temperature , during the exothermic reactions, which does not require additional supply of external energy and also improves the characteristics of finished processed products.

The technical result is achieved as follows.

According to the proposed method of waste-free processing of peat by two-stage heating with the possibility of obtaining gaseous and solid components in the first stage, the peat is dried to a moisture content of not more than 15% by portion feeding 350-1050 g / sec and heating to a temperature of 120 ± 5 ° C. The formed steam and flue gases are cleaned and removed for use in municipal energy systems, in the second stage the solid residue is abruptly heated to a temperature of 520-530 ° C without oxygen access for 1-6 seconds, pyrolysis gas enters the condensation system to produce liquid pyrolysis fuel . The solid carbonaceous matter from the reactor after cooling (to a temperature of 40 ° C) is sent for further use as a replacement of potash fertilizer or char for use in metallurgy.

The claimed temperature of peat processing by the proposed method is optimal and is based on theoretical calculations of the heat capacities of the source (peat) and the resulting substances and is confirmed empirically.

The drying temperature in the first stage is set at 120 ± 5 ° С in order to exclude the process of bertinization (formation of resinous substances), which for peat can occur in the interval 130-170 ° С. The temperature in the reactor (pyrolysis chamber) is 520-530 ° C. In this temperature range, exothermic reactions prevail for peat, i.e. reactions that go with the release of heat and do not require the supply of external energy.

The time of the first stage - peat drying is not limited. The main determining factor in the passage of this stage is peat moisture at the outlet. After drying, it should be no more than 15%. The pyrolysis time in the second stage in the reactor should not be more than 6 seconds. High-speed pyrolysis occurs in the time interval 0.7-6.1 sec. Therefore, the optimal residence time of peat particles in the reactor is in the range of 1.0-6.0 s.

The performance of the process is chosen on the basis of economic feasibility, minimization of the structural dimensions of the installation and design series. The minimum capacity of the design range is 100-300 g / sec of dry peat in the reactor.

Based on the productivity of the reactor, the productivity of the drying process should be no less than 3.5 times that of the reactor.

The high speed of the process is provided by a high-intensity supply of energy, which also reduces heat loss to the environment. A significant energy gain is achieved when carrying out processes that occur when the parameters of peat approach the boundary of the existence of peat derivatives in the condensed phase (to the “spinodal”). The closer the peat parameters approach the parameters of the spinodal, the higher the process speed and the lower the heat loss, and, consequently, the more cost-effective the process. Improving the quality of the pyro-fuel produced is due to the lower content of resinous substances in the peat processing process, due to the exclusion of bertinization from the peat processing process.

The drawing shows a diagram of the proposed method.

Hereinafter the invention will be described in more detail with reference to the drawing, which shows a diagram of the implementation of the claimed method using a pyrolysis unit.

At the initial stage, using propane (approximately 15 kg), heat the reactor to a temperature of ˜520 ° C. The duration of bringing the installation into operation ˜4.5 hours.

The heated air together with flue gases through the heat exchanger sets the temperature in the drying 120 ± 5 ° C.

With a screw feeder, wet peat at 350-1050 g / s and humidity of 60-65% is fed into the dryer, which operates in the fluidization mode - the circulating fluidized bed (CCS) mode.

A distinctive feature of the proposed peat processing technology is the possibility of burning the gas produced in the installation. This allows you to solve many environmental problems and increase the degree of fuel combustion.

Then, using a dosing shutter with a capacity of 100 g / s, dry peat with a moisture content of 15% is fed to the reactor, where high-speed peat pyrolysis (exothermic reactions) occurs with a duration of 1.0–6.0 seconds to form pyrolysis gas and solid carbonaceous matter .

Peat pyrolysis is economically more advantageous to directly process it in an installation, since in this case it is not necessary to re-heat the peat to its drying temperature. However, gas can be burned in another place.

Pyrolysis gas is sent to a condensation device (condenser) to produce liquid pyrolysis fuel (pyro-fuel), stored, and then sent for use as feedstock in the petrochemical industry, as fuel and lubricants for automotive and locomotive equipment, a substitute for fuel oil and heating oil for various CHP and boiler houses. Remaining after condensation, the gas is sent for incineration.

Solid carbonaceous matter is cooled and stored, and then sent for use in agriculture as a fertilizer, and in metallurgy as a coke component.

Water and air are used to control the temperature regimes, as well as to cool and condense the products of pyrolysis and peat drying.

At the same time, the released heat is directed to the system of municipal heating or steam generation to generate electricity.

Intensive heat supply is due to the rapid temperature change, and the peat is preferably heated by burning peat and / or gas, but can also be done by using electricity or using any other energy source.

In the process (after drying peat) gaseous substances and a solid precipitate are obtained, consisting mainly of inorganic substances. The gaseous fraction is sent for incineration or cooling. When cooled, condensation of fractions occurs, which are used for various purposes.

The solid residue resulting from the pyrolysis of peat, if necessary, is burned to the complete removal of organic matter, modified and used as a fertilizer after cooling.

Since the initial substances and substances formed in the process are heated to a high temperature, in order to obtain maximum economic benefits, they can be cooled by heating water, for example, used for heating.

Characteristics of the substances obtained

1. Liquid pyrolysis fuel.

Class fuels and lubricants, the composition is close to diesel fuel brand DTL according to the Russian standard. Out of 100 grams of the initial fuel (dry peat), this method of processing yields about 65 grams of pyro-fuel.

2. Solid carbonaceous substance.

By its chemical composition, the carbonaceous substance obtained after pyrolysis of peat is located between the semi-coke and coke, which allows its use in metallurgy. According to the method of influence, when used in agriculture as a fertilizer, is equivalent to potash fertilizers. From 100 grams of dry peat, 15 grams of solid carbonaceous substance is obtained.

3. Heat released.

With this method of peat processing, the heat released by its energy impact is equivalent to the heat received in CHP and boiler houses. In accordance with this, the resulting heat can have a wide range of applications in the municipal economy as an alternative to existing methods of obtaining heat.


Method of waste-free processing of peat by its two-stage heating with the possibility of obtaining gaseous and solid components, characterized in that at the first stage the peat is dried to a moisture content of not more than 15% by portion feeding at 350-1050 g / s and heating to a temperature of 120 ± 5 ° C, at the same time, the formed steam and flue gases are purified and removed, at the second stage the solid residue is heated to a temperature of 520-530 ° C without oxygen access for 1-6 seconds, then cooled and the formed pyrogas is condensed to form a liquid fuel.

Types and characteristics of the material

Depending on the conditions of origin and growth of plants, as well as the nature of their accumulation, forming valuable natural material, the raw materials are conventionally divided into three types:

  1. Horse riding This mineral is almost 95% formed from residues of decomposed plants growing in the upper layers of the soil (cotton grass, larch, pine, bog sedge and other plants). Most often, this type is formed in elevated areas of soil (watersheds, slopes, etc.) and has a low degree of decomposition. Acid indicator of about 3.5-4.5 pH.
  2. Lowland. This type consists of 95% of the plants of the lowland species. Most often, alder, spruce, willow, reed, birch, fern and many other species are found in this type of formation. Lowland peat deposits are found in the floodplains of rivers and ravines. This type has a slightly acid or neutral pH of 5.5–7.0, therefore it is often used to reduce the acidity of the soil composition. Lowland peat is considered the most nutritious and common in use because of its mineral-rich (3% nitrogen, 1% phosphorus) composition.
  3. Transition. The composition of this type includes 10–90% of semi-decomposed plants of the surface species, and the rest - low-lying plants. Basically, this type is formed in intermediate forms of terrain. The reaction is slightly acidic (4.5-5.5 pH).

Each peat type is in turn divided into the following subtypes, which are caused by the type of plants, employees of the main composition:

And it is also possible to distinguish six groups of raw materials from which peat can be obtained:

  • Woody - contains in its composition at least 40% of wood residues.
  • Grass - consists of 10% of wood residues, 30% of various mosses and other inclusions from grass vegetation.
  • Moss - contains up to 70% of moss, the rest is woody debris (10%) and herbal inclusions.
  • The wood-herbal composition contains 15–35% of wood residues, among the others, grass residues predominate.
  • Wood-moss - 15–35% contains wood residues, the rest is moss.
  • Grass moss - contains 35–65% moss and grass residues, but wood residues can contain only up to 10%.

In agricultural activities, this natural material is conventionally divided into two groups: heavy (dark) and light (light).

In order to thoroughly understand the natural features of this mineral product, it is necessary to become familiar with its composition and properties. The main components are:

  • Humus (partially decomposed organic products).
  • Water.
  • Minerals.

It consists of:

  • Hydrogen - 5%.
  • Oxygen - 2–3%.
  • Carbon - 40–60%.
  • Phosphorus, sulfur, potassium in small quantities.

The structure, properties and appearance of this natural mineral are able to change as the decomposition of substances included in its composition. Thus, the color change of the product can occur from a light yellow color to a black shade. Depending on the degree of decomposition, the structure of the material also changes - it can be amorphous or fibrous. The porosity of the fossil also changes.

With the increase of decomposition in the composition of peat becomes a greater amount of residue, which can not be hydrolyzed, and the percentage of humic acids increases, while the content of easily hydrolyzed and water-soluble substances decreases.

Основной особенностью материала считается способность к накоплению продуктов фотосинтеза и углерода. Добавление торфа в состав почвы улучшает её влаго- и воздухопроницаемость, а также питательный и микробиологический состав. In addition, peat products can weaken the effect of pesticides in the soil, improve it, reducing the level of nitrates.

Method for determination of decomposition value

Quality indicators are evaluated according to the following criteria: humidity, ash, calorific value and decomposition value.

In order to properly feed the soil in the area, it is first necessary to know the degree of decomposition of the peat composition. The simplest way to determine the value can use any owner of the garden plot. To do this, a handful of peat, clutched in a fist, to hold a piece of white paper.

If a:

  • There is no trace on paper or it is barely noticeable, the amount of decomposition does not exceed 10%.
  • The presence of a light gray, yellow or light brown trace indicates the decomposition of peat by 10–20%.
  • Gray-brown or brown color indicates a decomposition coefficient of 20–35%.
  • With the highest decomposition of 35–50%, the color of a piece of white paper will turn brown, saturated gray or black, while the smear itself will have a smooth surface. The same dark mark will remain on the hand.

Peat application

Currently, with the development of science and technology, there is a wide possibility of rational use of this natural mineral in many areas of the national economy.

As fuel, peat mixture is used mainly in power plants. The heat of combustion of the product, its ash and moisture are considered the main quality indicators for use.

The amount of heat released during the combustion of peat products, as well as their ash content, are entirely dependent on the nature of the peat occurrence. The moisture content of the fuel from peat is formed under the influence of the natural characteristics of the material and the technological nature of its production. It is the quality of the process equipment on which the fuel material is manufactured, and the compliance with the process of its manufacture, and the parameters of the heat of combustion of peat depend.

Peat natural ash has huge fluctuations. The maximum ash content allowed for heating peat is allowed up to 23%. A working indicator of peat moisture is approaching 40%.

The briquette is a type of the household improved fuel. The briquette is made of peat milling chips, which has a moisture content not higher than 15%, by compaction of peat on special pressing equipment.

For the briquetting operation, the following requirements are imposed on milled peat: decomposition of the material should be more than 20% when using peat of the upper type, and for the lowland type this indicator should not be less than 15%, the ash content of peat for briquette is not lower than 20%.

For the production of briquette fuel, the best raw material is peat of the lowland type and a subtype - timber or forest. From top type it is better to use pine peat.


Gasification is considered to be a continuous process of converting solid fuels based on peat into a gaseous state. This transformation is carried out in special gas generators by the interaction of peat heated to hot state with oxygen, water vapor or their combined composition. The gas-generating gas produced in this way is characterized by a low content of active sulfur compounds.

Gasification mainly uses solid lumpy peat with a moisture content of not more than 45%, a decomposition rate of more than 20% and an ash level of less than 12%.


Coking is the process of processing peat fuel by dry distillation in kilns. As a result of the process of dry distillation of peat, a solid residue is formed, which is called peat coke. In addition, by-products are obtained (various resins, resin water). These products serve as a valuable raw material. for receiving paraffin, wax, acetic acid, phenols and many other useful substances.

The degree of technological processing of peat and the properties of the source material significantly affect the quality indicators of peat coke. Peat is suitable for carrying out the process of coking with a degree of decomposition of at least 35% and ash content of not more than 5%. The main source for coking can be deposits of high-moor peat with a high degree of decomposition.

Chemical processing

Peat is considered the richest raw material for the production of valuable chemical products: bitumen, alcohol, fodder yeast, humic acids and other substances.

For the production of high-quality hydrolysis products (alcohol, fodder yeast, furfural, etc.), the best material is peat of the upper type, the degree of decomposition is 10–15%.

High-grade humic acids are obtained from low-moor peats with a high degree of decomposition, which are used in industry in the manufacture of ceramics and silicate to increase the capacity of batteries. Humic acids in agriculture are an excellent stimulator of plant growth. Top type of peat is an excellent raw material for the preparation of bitumen.


As a material for construction, peat is widely used in the road and hydraulic engineering industry (road embankments, near-channel dams). During the construction of technical facilities special use often used peat panels and peat insulation plates. Sphagnum peat with a decomposition of 5–12% is considered the best material for these purposes.

But the insulating plates are made of material mined in areas of special deposits with a complex type of deposits.


Peat deposits in agriculture can be used in many areas of activity. It is considered very promising to use peat deposits, of course, with appropriate agrotechnical treatment, as agricultural useful land, for growing various crops. Best for this use are floodplain and ravine deposits, as well as developed milling areas and quarry areas.

  • This valuable natural resource has been especially widely used as various types of fertilizer for the soil. For this, the best option would be to use lowland type deposits with the highest content of phosphorus, potassium, calcium, nitrogen and magnesium.
  • At preparation of various composts materials of any kind of an origin and decomposition are used. Lowland varieties are excellent for mulching vegetable soil, as well as greenhouse earth and environmentally friendly biofuels.
  • The average product types are excellent raw materials for the preparation of nutritious briquettes and humus pots for seedlings.

Besides, very extensive use of this invaluable material got in the medical field. As a reliable and excellent packaging material can be used during transportation and storage of various fruits and vegetables.

As we see from the article, the scope of natural minerals is very diverse and multifaceted.