Planting carrots necessarily require regular feeding. Some gardeners use organic matter, others use mineral fertilizers, and still others combine both fertilizers.
- In addition to seed preparation, you should also prepare the soil for planting carrots. First of all, it is necessary to thoroughly clean the area selected for planting from weeds (annual and perennial). Many gardeners are advised to dig the site on the spade bayonet, and this has its own special meaning. Loosening the soil will provide better air permeability of the soil. It is also worth taking care of fertilizer in the soil. In one square meter of planting is required to make a mixture consisting of potassium sulfate (2 tablespoons), a small part of dolomite flour and ash, granulated superphosphate (4 tablespoons). In this preliminary preparation and seed, and soil can be considered complete. You can proceed to the direct landing.
- Carrots are a root crop, without which, perhaps, not a single country planting can do. Experienced gardeners will say with certainty that carrots are pleasing to the eye with slender rows of openwork green leaves, and afterwards with bright and surprisingly useful fruits only in case of proper planting and further care. The gardener will have to try, because for carrots it is necessary to choose the right place for cultivation, prepare the soil, and then - competently and promptly care for the beds. But the initial work begins with the selection of seeds for planting in the open field.
- Photo planting carrots
- Also consider, after what crops you will sow carrots. It is best to choose those areas in which cucumbers, tomatoes, garlic, onions, cabbage, potatoes or greens (except salad) were grown on last year. After parsley, it is better not to plant carrots, as pests may remain in the soil, which are dangerous for carrots.
- After thinning and weeding the soil around the plants, it is desirable to mulch with rotten sawdust, chaff or other small organic material. This will not only eliminate the subsequent weed, but also protect the soil from drying out, the formation of a crust and sharp temperature fluctuations. At the beginning, the layer of mulch should be quite thin - no more than one and a half centimeters, but as the plants grow it can be increased using more coarse materials. By the end of summer, the bed can be covered with a layer of organic matter of 10 to 12 cm - under such a blanket of carrots in the open field neither pests, nor the winds drying the soil, nor the first autumn frosts are terrible.
What should be considered when planting carrots in open ground seeds
What a vegetable garden without carrots! This useful and tasty root crop is one of the most popular with our gardeners. But to grow a flat and beautiful carrot in the open field does not work for everyone, because this plant has its secrets.
- In any case, the seeds are planted at a distance of 3 - 5 cm from each other in rows, and between the rows themselves (grooves) one should maintain a distance of 15 - 20 cm.
- A good owner begins to prepare the beds for carrots from the autumn days. Beds for carrots should be done where previously grew cereals, cucumbers, beets, cabbage or corn. For a full crop, only very well loosened soil is suitable. If the ground is light, not compacted, then you can simply walk with a rake or, better, a flat cutter. In other cases, you should seriously engage in loosening, otherwise you will have to harvest a curve, small carrots.
- To get sweet carrots on the table, plant it in the soil, not oversaturated with acids,
- Carrots are planted, practically, all summer residents. This is understandable, because the root is one of the important places in any kitchen. Yes, and in planting carrots is nothing complicated. He poured the seeds on the garden and wait for the harvest. However, things are not so simple. This article will tell you about some secrets of growing and caring carrots in the open field, about what needs to be done before sowing, and also how to deal with uninvited guests.
- The first application of mineral fertilizers to the soil is produced ten days after the first shoots appear. To prepare the solution, you will need to dilute one teaspoon of urea, one tablespoon of potassium sulfate and one and a half tablespoons of double superphosphate in ten liters of water.
- Read More How to store carrots
- Before choosing a carrot variety, it is necessary to decide on the purpose for which the gardener decided to plant it. If the gardener grows carrots to pamper yourself and your family in summer or autumn, then such varieties as Vitaminna-6 will do. If we are talking about preparations for the winter, then in this case it is preferable to choose varieties with a long growing season. Such carrots are not perishable, so they can lie in the cellar or basement until the very cold. Such varieties of carrots as Golden Autumn, Queen of Autumn, Moscow Winter are suitable for storage in winter.
- Sprinkle ashes on the bed allotted for carrots, cut through it up to 2.5 cm deep through each groove, leaving 20 cm between rows and 12 cm along the ridge edges. Spill the grooves with water and sow the prepared seeds. It is enough to maintain a distance between the seeds of 1.5 cm. Furrows level with earth. Above the garden bed at a height of 15 cm it is recommended to stretch the film so that the seedlings appear faster, and with the appearance of greenery the film can be removed.
- Photo of carrot seeds
Carrots are harvested in the fall or at the very end of summer - depending on the timing of planting. In order to avoid damage to root crops, it is better to pre-dig them with forks. The tops should be immediately cut over the very shoulders, otherwise the carrot will quickly wilt. The roots extracted from the ground are cleaned of the rest of the soil, but they are not washed, dried and placed in a dark and cool place.
Preparation of beds for the cultivation of carrots must begin in the fall. The earth should be loose and deeply dug up. Only on light sandy soil can one get along with surface treatment with a flat cutter. In all other cases, careful loosening is necessary, otherwise the roots will be clumsy and short, more like carrots rather than carrots. If the soil is acidic, it is necessary to use lime, ash or dolomite flour. Moreover, lime is better to make a predecessor, and not directly under the carrot, even in the fall. In the spring it is necessary to repeat the loosening.
So that the weeds do not crush the tender shoots, and the moisture does not erode and a crust does not appear on the soil, the crops are covered with a film. Shoots appear at a temperature of 18 degrees in two weeks. Moreover, young shoots are not afraid of short-term frosts, but after a long cold, the plant ceases to build up the root and gives off flowering.
To achieve a bed with light and lush soil, the land is mixed with compost, with peat or sand. You can add manure, but it must be well rotted. Carrots do not like fresh manure and will respond to its introduction with thick and dense tops, fruits with thick skin, unpleasant taste, small and ugly forms.
Weeding and watering
Seeds will germinate in within 3 weeks after landing. That is why it is desirable to plant them with a different culture. During this time weed will appear on the beds, but thanks to the radish rows will be visible. Weeding can begin boldly, but carefully. Also, do not forget about frequent watering - 3 times a week (more often it is not necessary - the fetus will begin to burst). In order not to form lateral roots, water must penetrate to a depth of more than 20 cm. The next day after moistening, it is necessary to loosen the soil to avoid the appearance of hard bark.
Fertilizer and dressing
As when planting an orange vegetable, in the future it is recommended to pour fine sand so that the earth does not become a monolith. Feeding should start in 10 days after the appearance of shoots a couple of times for the entire season This is quite enough for the normal growth of carrots. Cultivation and care in the open field may seem a difficult process, but do not despair.
Fertilizing can be various types of fertilizers: humus, compost or minerals. It is advisable to apply them simultaneously - it does not hurt the plant. You can not pour on the beds of fresh manure or sawdust, it will lead to oxidation of the soil and some diseases. It is better not to use chemical fertilizers - a mutation of the vegetable may begin, which will affect the yield.
Diseases and control of them
Like all living things, carrots can get sick too. And it is deadly to the culture. The most common diseases are:
- carrot fly (moisture-loving insect and its larvae) - the root crop acquires a purple hue, becomes deformed and acquires a bitter taste, the tops begin to dry out little by little. This dirty trick develops because of an excess of moisture, shade and thick planting. This can be avoided by promptly weeding and thinning the shoots. It is recommended to alternate with onions, garlic and tomatoes, reduce the frequency of watering, if the climate is humid, plant tobacco nearby (scares away other harmful parasites),
- white rot (marsupial fungus) - on the roots is formed mucus, covered with white bloom. The reason is the late cleaning and excessive nitrogen content in the soil. Unripe and overripe vegetables are affected. To prevent this from happening, it is necessary to fertilize the soil with ashes or garden compost during planting and initial growth. And do not put off with the harvest,
- dry rot (fomoz) - also applies to fungal diseases, affects the tops (brown spots on the leaves appear) and the fruit itself (dark depressions with black dots inside). The reason for this is often abundant heat or moisture. The seed itself may also be infected. Therefore, before planting and cultivation, it is necessary to pickle the seeds and often use phosphate fertilizers (according to climatic conditions). And during weeding, remove weeds outside the plot,
- aphid - small insects, very common in the garden craft. Completely cover the leaves, which leads to the drying out of the green mass and lethargy of the culture itself. It helps only ash and chemicals. It is necessary to closely monitor the plant and process it in time.
But a vegetable can be simultaneously affected by several pests, therefore, disease prevention is required to be carried out comprehensively. Timely weeding and loosening of the land gives a great chance to grow healthy fruit tasty.
For example, you can take growing carrots in the open ground in the Moscow region. For this region, such species are more suitable: Callisto, Shantane, Queen of Autumn. These hybrids will have high yields because of their resistance to excess moisture and the tolerance of small frosts. The remaining varieties will bring worse results. Abundant mulching is required in this area due to increased dampness and early cold weather. A month after planting, it is recommended to apply a layer of crushed grass, about 2 cm. The root crop during loosening will not be damaged and will receive a constant circulation of oxygen. The appearance of weeds will also decrease.
Cleaning and storage
These are the basic methods of growing carrots in the open field. It remains to add a little about cleaning and storing a tasty vegetable. Harvested, depending on the variety: spring - in July-August and summer - in September-October.
For storage there are several ways:
- root vegetables should be placed in a wooden box with dry sand so that they do not look out. It is recommended to put everything in the basement, in which there is no water or moisture. This will give long-term storage for later varieties - it will wither and rot less. It is sometimes necessary to check, because bacteria eventually penetrate. The main thing for this is not to damage the rind when cleaning (it will start to wither or rot),
- Early varieties can be placed on a previously installed grid with a small layer, covered with thick cardboard on top. This option is of little use due to the rapid deterioration of the vegetable and the requirement of a large area,
- Recently, a new way to store carrots has appeared. Fruits should be grated, folded in plastic bags, nylon containers and placed in the freezer under dry freezing. Get some kind of briquettes, which can lie up to five years without special care. And on hand will always be a finished product for the kitchen. This method allows you to plant this culture every couple of years.
You can use all types of storage - it is quite practical, because it does not always require a ground mass.
Here is an uncomplicated farming technology for carrots, which will help grow and maintain a great harvest for every gardener in the open ground. The main factors are to do everything in a timely manner, correctly and have the desire to do it.
Planting carrots seeds in open ground
Excessive watering leads to the fact that the carrot begins to grow vigorously, but coarsens and becomes, rather, feed, than the dining room,
- The second fertilizing with mineral fertilizers should be carried out no earlier than ten to fourteen days after the first. To prepare the solution, we will need to dilute in ten liters of water one tablespoon of azofosca and potassium sulfate.
- There are various schemes for planting carrot seeds in open ground. It’s not possible to talk about an ideal way, because everything depends on the conditions of planting and on the further care of carrots.
- Every experienced gardener keeps his secret, thanks to which planting carrots always brings him a good harvest. Some prepare the beds in the fall, others - a couple of weeks before planting seeds in open ground.
- Experienced gardeners in an effort to simplify the process of sowing seeds, sometimes come up with quite
Dig the soil in the garden in the fall, and in the spring, walk on the ground with a flat-cutter. In addition to digging should not be - for carrots preferably settled ground. Most importantly, do not add fresh manure to the soil, as the carrot does not tolerate its acid. The bed can be fertilized with mineral fertilizers a couple of weeks before planting carrots.
Carrot - a very necessary vegetable in the kitchen! All year round we add it to hot dishes, eat fresh and mix salads. The cost of carrots in the store is low, so maybe it would be more convenient to just buy root vegetables as needed, without spending time on its cultivation? However, closer to spring, the store carrot begins to rise in price substantially, its quality is noticeably deteriorating, and those who have not made stocks on time are having a hard time.
Caring for carrots in the open field and proper watering of the carrot beds
Cabbage, corn, and other grains are considered good precursors for carrots. It grows well after beets or cucumbers. But it is impossible to leave in the ground post-harvest residues - over the winter they will not have time to completely bend and will interfere with the development of root crops that are very tender in carrots, especially at a young age. Therefore, in order not to get bifurcated and knotted carrots, you must very carefully choose from the ground all solid inclusions larger than the pea.
Growing carrots and care in the open field requires a certain systematic approach. This is especially true for watering. It is very important to know how to water carrots in the open field. After all, with a lack of watering, the young roots can not reach the water, and the seedlings will die, and the overflow threatens to turn the tasty and juicy carrots into fodder. It is necessary to water plentifully, but not often. When the carrot forms already long roots, some gardeners stop watering it altogether. In this case, the roots rush strictly down, forming straight and long roots.
Since this vegetable does not tolerate acidic soils, it is worth adding ash, dolomite flour or lime. It is reasonable to add various fertilizers right from the fall. In the spring, such a bed should be loosened once more and only after that sow the seeds.
This vegetable especially likes loose soil, otherwise it will have a curved shape,
What should be considered when planting carrots in open ground seeds.
Fight against diseases and pests
In addition to the use of mineral fertilizers, the introduction of organic matter into the soil is also one of the most important conditions for the formation of healthy roots. For carrots you can use bird droppings in diluted form. They do not water the landings themselves, but the aisles.
Many gardeners are still practicing this method of planting, although there has long been a debate about its effectiveness and feasibility. However, it is one of the fastest. Seeds are scattered in bulk on the site designated for planting, and then buried in the ground and watered. However, there are some downsides. Many seeds simply remain on the surface. In addition, the first shoots are very crowded, in the future they will be hard to weed. Therefore, in the first stage of cultivation, the weeds simply clog the young shoots.
Growing carrots in the open field.
Carrots adore the sun, so a well-lit part of the garden will be an ideal place for planting. Иным важным моментом при высадке моркови является то, что выращивалось на данной почве до высадки культуры. Морковь будет чувствовать себя просто чудесно, если до нее на грядке росли следующие культуры: лук или чеснок, картофель или капуста, помидоры или огурцы. А вот высадка моркови после пастернака, сельдерея, петрушки и укропа крайне нежелательна.
Посадка морковки производится семенами сразу в открытый грунт. Семена заранее подготовьте:
That is why every garden must always have a garden for this beloved vegetable, and experienced gardeners exchange with beginners how to plant carrots in order to get a rich harvest of healthy roots.
Since the fall, fertilizers are added - organic and mineral. But fresh manure in the cultivation of carrots in the open field can not be used - the tops will grow lush and meaty, and the roots will not be almost completely, or will, but frail and ugly.
Frequent, surface watering contributes to the growth of hairiness of carrots and the fact that the fruit grows crooked. But it is also risky to separate the plant from watering. If the carrot will be on a water fast for a long time, and then a rainy period will suddenly come, all the fruits will crack. Watering carrots in open ground should not be frequent, but systematic. Already from the moments of the first shoots carrots can be fed, she gratefully will accept it.
Some gardeners plant seeds just in the ground, however, it is much better to put the carrot seeds soaked for 3 - 4 days and then dry them a little. This will allow to identify non-sprouting seeds and significantly speed up the germination process. Experienced gardeners know how to plant carrots with seeds in the open field. But, since the seeds are very small and it is difficult to plant them, the gardeners have come up with some ways so that the small seeds lie flat and do not fall all in one place.
Carrots do not like fresh manure, it is bent from it, the root is deformed, which leads to an ugly form of the fruit,
Fighting diseases and pests is one of the most important areas in caring for carrots. The culture most often suffers from pests such as carrot fly and aphid. The reason for their appearance is commonplace - this is the neglected planting, as well as excessive moisture in the culture. Fight them with chemicals like Lepidocide and Bitoxibacillin. These chemicals sprayed planting once every two weeks.
Many gardeners use this method of planting seeds. It allows you to get a good harvest of root vegetables. Seeds should be planted at a distance of seven to ten centimeters from each other.
When to sow carrots in open ground
- Early varieties of carrots (Kinby, Color F1, Parmeks, Tushon) can be sown and planted in open ground at the end of April, provided the weather is stable and frost-free. These varieties are juicy and sweet, they are grown for cooking and eating.
- Mid-ripening varieties (Viking, Nantes 4, Typhoon, Perfekshen) are suitable for longer storage of root crops, their sowing in open ground begins in the middle of the month, and planting of seedlings in open ground can begin earlier, May 8-10.
- Late varieties (Selecta, Olympus, Java, Vita Long, Valeria 5) are ideal for storage, transportation and harvesting for the winter. Sowing occurs at the end of May, planting seedlings in the second half.
In the northern regions, attention should be paid to climatic conditions, and if necessary, sowing is postponed for half a month.
Sowing carrots in open ground
Favorable days for sowing on the lunar calendar are 3-4 and 30-31 May, when the moon will be in a growing phase (1st quarter). All sowing work is recommended to do before lunch.
The choice of location and preparation of beds for carrots
Fertile and loose soils are best suited for growing carrots, namely: loamy-sandy, having a neutral acidity of 6-7 pH.
It is important that a crust does not form on the surface of the soil, preventing access of air to the roots. Therefore, the surface loosening of the beds is important at all stages of cultivation.
Preparing high beds for sowing carrots
Increased soil moisture can lead to the development of fungal diseases and reduce the taste of the fruit. It is better to equip high beds for carrots, or choose a place on a hill. Swampy and stagnant water do not fit.
Crop rotation rules for carrots
It is not necessary to plant a vegetable in the same place for 2 years in a row. This greatly increases the likelihood of damage by pathogenic bacteria and pests.
- Good precursors for sowing carrots are: cucumbers, grains and legumes, all kinds of cabbage, tomatoes,
- After growing most types of greens (fennel, cumin, parsley, dill, parsnip), it is not desirable to use these beds for sowing carrots.
Soil preparation for sowing
Growing carrots in the country includes tillage in two stages. In autumn, the soil is loosened and, if necessary, mulch with sawdust. In the spring, before sowing, rotted manure in the amount of 1 bucket per two square meters of bed is added to the soil.
A mixture of sawdust and manure to prepare the soil for carrots
You can add to fertilizers:
- If the ground is heavy, you can add 2-3 kg of sawdust - this will give it friability.
- A small amount of wood ash (450-500 grams per square meter of bed) will significantly improve the taste of vegetables and prolong the yield.
Not recommended for use:
- Nitrogen fertilizers - they increase the level of nitrates in vegetables and contribute to the coarsening of their tissues,
- You can not use fresh manure, as the roots will begin to branch and shrink. In addition, it will attract Medvedka.
Carrot seeds are rich in vegetable oils, which blocks the access of moisture to the embryo. It is recommended to pre-rinse and soak them. There are several ways of preplant preparation of planting material.
Germinated carrot seeds for planting in open ground
- The instillation into the soil will help to significantly increase the germination rate: the seeds are placed in a bag of fabric and placed in wet ground to a depth of 30 cm for 10 days, they are removed and dried before sowing. The seeds swell well in damp earth and give good shoots,
- Drazhirovanie - nourishing shell allows you to significantly simplify the procedure for sowing small seeds and improves their germination. For cooking you will need: 0.2 kg of liquid mullein and powdered peat. A tablespoon of seeds is placed in a 1-liter jar and 1 tablespoon of powder and manure is added, covered with a lid and carefully shaken for several minutes. The procedure is repeated several times until the shell is formed on the seeds, after they are dried and stored until sowing in a dry place,
- Soaking in a nutrient solution (1 tablespoon of ash per 1 liter of warm water). The pips in the bags are placed in liquid for a day, then they are kept on a damp cloth in the refrigerator for 3-4 days for stratification. Before sowing, planting material is dried.
Advice on buying seeds from China via Aliexpress
If you purchased a new variety, it is recommended to check it in advance for germination. A month before sowing, soak a few seeds and sow in a pot. According to the results of germination, you can decide whether to use this variety or not.
Carrot planting technology
- Shallow grooves (up to 2 cm deep) are made on the prepared beds, the distance between them must be at least 15 cm,
- For convenience, small seeds are mixed with sand and sown, keeping the intervals between grains of 3-4 cm. You can also sow a solid line - the "groove" method, and after emergence of seedlings thin them out,
- Top landing sprinkled with soil and compacted palm or wide board.
It is recommended to cover the bed with a film to preserve soil moisture and prevent weed growth. In the conditions of warm weather and preliminary preparation of planting material, the first shoots will appear already on the 10-12th day. After that, it is necessary to remove the covering material, since the young greens easily withstand short-term frosts.
Watering carrots in open ground
Watering carrots requires special attention when grown outdoors. Lack of moisture can lead to the death of young plants. An oversupply of watering also has its drawbacks: the fruits outgrow and lose their taste.
Watering is recommended 1 time in 5-7 days, using 3 liters of fluid per square meter of beds. It is necessary to check how deeply the soil is moistened (not less than the length of the root crops).
Watering carrots in open ground
- After thinning, the amount of water is increased to 10 liters per square meter.
- When carrots form leaves, root crops begin active growth, then the rate of water increases to 20 liters per unit area.
- 2 months before harvest, the frequency is reduced to 1 time in 2 weeks.
It is recommended to stop watering carrots for 10-20 days before harvesting - this stimulates the stretching of root crops in length. For the procedure it is necessary to use only warm distilled water (ideally - thawed). Watering is recommended in the late afternoon, then the sun will not leave burns on the green.
When sowing, it is often not possible to accurately calculate the distance between the grains, and small seeds fall alongside. When seedlings are too close, thinning is necessary.
Thinning of carrots in open ground
The procedure is carried out on days 12 and 22 after germination. Small and weak plants are removed, if this is not done - the roots will be frail and thin.
Loosening and weeding
Procedures are carried out immediately after thinning.
Loosening the soil with your fingers around the carrot
- Weeding free of sunlight access to green bushes,
- Loosening will contribute to better nutrition of the fruit.
If the soil is not loosened, the roots grow small and crooked.
Top dressing carrots in open ground
Growing carrots, top dressing is carried out 3-4 times for the entire growing season.
- The first procedure is carried out with the appearance of 3-4 leaves on sprouts. To do this, use a solution of ammonium nitrate (30 g per 10 l of water).
- The following carrot feeding is carried out in 3-4 weeks using superphosphate (30 g per 10 l of water).
- Fertilizing carrots in June is necessary, since during this period the root crop grows especially rapidly and takes in juice. For feeding you can use wood ash (glass per square meter) or potassium sulfate.
- The fourth procedure is performed at the time of ripening of the root (usually in September, but the time may vary depending on the variety). You can use any fertilizer from those that were used earlier, especially boric acid (a tablespoon in a bucket of water) is particularly well suited.
Fertilizing carrots folk remedies is very popular among experienced gardeners. There are many recipes, many of which include yeast, nettle, and ash. One of the most interesting infusions is prepared using all three components.
Cooking top dressing for carrots in open ground
Recipe for a triple fertilizer for carrots
The tank is almost completely filled with nettles and filled with water by ¾ volume. For more intense fermentation, yeast or yeast is added to the barrel. Potassium-rich ash will only complement the nutritional formula. The mixture is periodically stirred and soaked in the sun. For top dressing, 1 l of the resulting liquid is diluted with 10 l of water. The average consumption of fertilizer - a bucket on the garden.
Secrets of the cultivation of carrots and good harvest
Compliance with a few simple nuances will greatly facilitate the cultivation of carrots in the open field in the suburbs.
Gathering a great harvest of carrots in the open field
- You must follow the rules of crop rotation,
- The seeds that you procure yourself, before sowing, it is recommended to disinfect in 1% iodine solution,
- Give preference to proven and disease resistant varieties,
- Buy seeds and seedlings from trusted companies
- When purchasing new varieties on foreign sites, first check them for germination, and when sowing in open ground do not allocate more than 10% of them for them,
- Spend prophylactic spraying drug "Baikal" or nettle infusion from pests and diseases.
Good soil and seed preparation will ensure good germination. And the right farming practices and carrot care in the open field will provide you with a good and high-quality harvest.
General tips on growing carrots
There are no strict restrictions on the landing dates. If carrots are grown as a vitamin supplement to the table, then it should be sown as early as possible. Seeds can be sown when the ground temperature at a depth of 2–5 cm approximately + 4–5 ° C. When sub-winter sowing, growing conditions are as close to natural as possible.
3 reasons to sow carrots before winter
In the fall, the seeds undergo vernalization, and the next year there is an opportunity to harvest several weeks earlier than during spring sowing. But this method has a disadvantage - such carrots can not be stored, it is intended for use or processing.
Vernalization - the inducement of seeds or plants to growth and more intensive development through a short exposure to low positive temperatures.
Spring sowing is recommended to be carried out immediately after the snow melts, the soil should have a maximum of moisture. If the roots are planned to be stored all winter, then the sowing begins in the second half of May. Of course, these calendar dates are very conditional, for each climate zone there are different requirements and limitations.
Sowing carrots in spring
Carrot Seed Technology
It is necessary to sow in a moist soil. If there was no rain for a long time, and time is running out, then from the evening the beds should be plentifully watered, and in the morning before sowing to fluff. Next, the process is performed according to the following algorithm.
Step 1. Make grooves on the beds. The depth is 2–3 cm, the distance between them is 25–30 cm. The grooves can be made with a simple ripper, a wand, etc. In a damp earth they will keep well and will not fall asleep ahead of time. If the bed is very wide, then make grooves in half on one side, and then on the other. So it is easier and faster, and the earth will not be rammed once again.
Step 2. Carefully sow the prepared seeds in the cut grooves.
Practical advice. Try to choose calm weather. Seeds of carrots are very light and can be carried by gusts of wind throughout the bed. In such cases, finding out where the grooves were is very difficult.
Glued to paper seeds
Pre-glue the seeds to the rolls of toilet paper - monkey labor. It is much easier to weed them then, than to choose and glue the seeds. Very economical plant growers can purchase coated seeds. The producer packed each seed into a separate helium envelope containing water and nutrients. Due to this, the seeds became large, they can be sown strictly according to the distance, the subsequent weeding is not required.
Step 3. After sowing the grooves, you need to close the ground as soon as possible, this will prevent the soil and seeds from drying out. If the bed is wide - divide it into parts.
Very important. To speed up the emergence of shoots and improve the germination of the grooves need to tamp. This can be done by hand or by any elementary device.
What does ramming give? The earth fits more closely to the seeds, they do not dry out, the conditions for the emergence of seedlings become favorable. But there is one condition - if the soil has sufficient moisture. A rammed earth gives away moisture much faster (that is why the top layer is fluffed up), if there is no rain after sowing for several days, be sure to water the bed abundantly.
Important. Watering should be done only by sprinkling; it is prohibited to pour water directly from a hose. The strong stream of water will wash small carrot seeds to the surface. Most of them will not rise, and the rest will grow over the entire area.
Watering is necessary from a watering can, so as not to erode the soil and seeds
Weed control can only begin after the emergence of carrots, otherwise there are great risks to damage them. Perennial weeds have a very developed root system and, when removed from the ground, will certainly damage the delicate carrot roots. Now it remains to wait for seedlings and continue agrotechnical methods of cultivation.
Weed carrots can only sprout it
Important. Garden beds with carrots should be watered abundantly every day until resistant plants appear. How to find out the optimal amount of water per bed? Very simple. Water the usual amount of water on the ground, make a hole and look at how deep the water has leaked. We guarantee that you will be unpleasantly surprised. After normal watering, moisture will leak to a depth of about 1–2 cm, it is very little. Watering is necessary until the earth becomes wet to a depth of at least five centimeters. It takes a lot of time, be prepared for difficulties or make automatic watering.
Shoots carrots have one unpleasant feature - uneven germination. All seeds were prepared exactly the same for sowing, simultaneously sown at the same depth, and the difference in the emergence of seedlings can reach a week. Even experienced gardeners cannot explain this. But there is nothing terrible if there are empty sections on the grooves. This is not a marriage during sowing, it is such a feature of the plant, with time and shoots will appear here.
The first thinning and weeding should be done as soon as the height of the seedlings reached 2–3 centimeters. During this period, it is already clearly seen where and in what condition the cultivated plants are, and where the weeds begin to clog the bed. Pull out the sprouts one at a time, try to make a flat sowing line. Расстояние между оставшимися ростками моркови примерно сантиметр, больше не надо. Все равно обязательно придется делать второе прореживание, во время которого расстояние будет устанавливаться согласно требованиям агротехнологии.
Практический совет. Прореживание, как и прополку, лучше делать сразу после дождя. Если осадков нет, а растения перерастают, то нужно обильно их полить вечером, а утром на сырой грядке выполнять запланированные работы.
The second thinning should be done after a small root crop and a real carrot tops appear. Thickened plants - the reason for lower yields, some vegetable growers do not know this and are trying to leave as many plants as possible. Such an approach can only increase the amount, but not the total weight of the roots. In addition, the yield of food products from small root crops is very small, it is long and hard to clean them.
Carrot Cultivation and Care
Carrots have good natural properties of protection against pests and diseases, with most of them cope on their own. Only carrot can cause significant harm, the plants need to be helped to fight it. There is a large selection of fairly effective chemicals to combat this pest in real time. But you can use them no later than two weeks before eating root vegetables for food. A carrot from the beds of the hostess used for cooking long before the final harvest. Some of them carry out thinning of plants in this way right up to the moment of mass harvesting.
Ash as a means of pest control
There is an equally effective, but completely harmless way to combat carrot spot - ordinary ash, obtained after the combustion of firewood. Keep in mind, not black coals, and fluffy almost weightless gray ash. Pour it into a gauze bag and gently squeeze it over the garden bed with carrots. Do not overdo it with the dose, ash - a very aggressive chemical compound (alkali). In addition to pest control, it is used as an effective natural fertilizer. Ash, by the way, scares away not only carrot flies, but also many other pests, including aphids.
Diseases and pests of carrots
As for moles and mice, it is useless to fight them. Most modern ultrasound devices are great at dealing with money in your wallet, their effectiveness in the beds is zero, you can believe experienced plant growers. What to do with them? Nothing, in a year they will leave your site for the carrots for them is not the main food product. As soon as the moles in the site are “cleaned up” of any bugs, the whole family will immediately move to another place.
As with all root crops, the amount of moisture has a direct impact on yield. The root system of carrots is quite branched, water can reach from a depth of up to 40 centimeters. Such features of the plant structure put forward their requirements for watering - this should be done rarely, but to a great depth. The top layer of the earth perfectly protects the leaf from drying out, it gives a dense shade, the sun does not get to the surface of the bed. Watering depth of at least ten centimeters. Check it is necessary with the help of ordinary pits. Do them in the garden with a wand and see how deeply the water has leaked after watering. Not enough - repeat watering with more intensity.
It is recommended to remove the carrots in the dry period, if you dig it out after the rains, then there will be problems with storage. To facilitate the removal of plants from the ground, it is recommended to dig them up along a row with a bayonet spade. Do not use forks, as some advise. Forks do not lift the ground and do not facilitate the cleaning of the root crop.
It is better not to trim the tops with a knife, but to unscrew. This popular method completely eliminates damage to the upper part of the root with a knife, increases the storage time of the crop. The tops are turned off very easily, and in time the process is much faster than working with a knife.
Storing carrots in a sandbox
Carrots need to be stored at a temperature of + 5-7 ° C, humidity of at least 90%. To prevent evaporation of moisture can be folded roots in plastic bags with small holes, boxes of sand or raw sawdust. By the way, the use of sawdust was the most effective method. Even next summer, the skin on carrots is smooth, the fruit is not wrinkled and not dried. The difference from fresh - the presence of a small number of small white roots. If the air in the cellar is too dry, it is recommended to moisten the sawdust periodically with water.
Preparatory work for planting carrots
Before you start planting seeds, you need to find the right place on the site:
- It should always be in direct sunlight. Carrots don't like shade
- You can not sit on the place where a year ago grew parsley, celery, dill, parsnip,
- Carrot feels good after potatoes, tomatoes, cucumbers, onions, garlic, cabbage,
- It is good if there where carrots grow 1-2 years ago manure was introduced into the soil,
- The soil should be fertile, loose, waterproof, light. It is still carefully digged in the fall, and it is necessary to plow it in the spring,
- Need to pre-clean the place of weeds.
Selection and preparation of seeds
The choice of varieties will depend on when they plan to harvest. So, for receiving "puchkovy" carrots use early ripening varieties. They are not afraid of cold, which may return. But these varieties are not suitable for harvesting for the winter.
If the carrots are planned to be stored for some time, then select those species that have a long ripening period.
It is worth paying attention to the preparation of seeds - this will get rid of defective ones. You must do the following:
- Pour the seeds with warm water for 10 hours. That which emerges can be safely thrown away,
- Then the seeds are laid out on a damp cotton wool or cloth and left at a temperature of +20 to +24 degrees for several days.
So carrot wakes up faster.
The bed before sowing is necessary to loosen and make shallow (up to 2 cm) furrows. The width of such grooves should be no more than 5 cm. They are moistened and carefully seed to a depth of 2 cm.
The distance between the furrows - 25 - 30 cm.
But carrot seeds are very small, so sowing them is difficult. You can use these methods:
- Sowing with sand. Mix the seeds with 1 cup of sand,
- Planting along with radishes or lettuce. These plants sprout faster and will show the cottagers location of carrots,
- Liquid sowing. Germinated seeds are mixed with paste, which is prepared from potato starch. Then gently poured out of the kettle directly on the garden bed.
From above the seeds are covered with a mixture of peat and sand.
Conditions for growing carrots in open ground
Carrots require attention to themselves during their growth. So, we must immediately pluck the weeds, not giving them the opportunity to grow. Follow the need for the soil. It must be constantly loose, otherwise the plant will be ugly.
After the appearance of the first two true leaves, the rows of carrots are thinned. The distance between the vegetables should be at least 3 cm. When two more sheets appear, this figure is doubled.
It is necessary to water carrots a lot and carefully at all stages of its growth. What does moisten the soil is necessary for the entire length of the root. Thus, an adult plant is watered in such a way that the soil is wet up to 30 cm deep.
The root crop is fed only two times. The first - 3 weeks after the emergence of shoots. The second is when two more months pass.
In the bucket of water, you can add one of the following preparations:
- Tablespoon nitrofoski,
- 2 cups wood ash,
- A mixture of 20 g of saltpeter, 15 g of urea, double superphosphate.
You can feed the plant and a solution of boric acid.
Pests and diseases
Very fond of this plant carrot fly. To find out that the root crop was populated by insects can be on twisted sheets. The fly settles in dense thickets, highly moist beds. Get rid of the insect with chemicals.
Most often, carrots suffer from phimosis or alternariosis. In such cases, the vegetable is treated with a 1% solution of Bordeaux.
Neighbors carrots in the garden
You can plant carrots with such plants:
You can not plant carrots with dill.
To achieve maturity, carrots can be selectively pulled out for human consumption. So other plants in the garden will be more spacious.
You can start harvesting depending on the variety:
- Early - in June
- Mid-season - in August,
- Later - in the second half of September.
Pull carrots for tops, cleaned from the ground and inspect. Whole varieties set aside for storage, damaged - for processing.
Storage for the winter
Store carrots in the basement or cellar in wooden or plastic boxes in several layers. Each layer peppered wet sand. Plants should not touch each other.
You can make glazing with clay. To do this, the latter is diluted with water and dipped carrots. Plants spread on the grid to the liquid glass.
You can pour the root with crushed chalk and stored in onion peel.
Easy and affordable to plant carrots.
It is recommended to thin out carrots for 12 and 22 days from shoots.
Most often the seeds are mixed with sand, they do not stick together and fall more evenly in rows,
When, after a long dry period, abundant and frequent watering begins, the root crops crack,Caring for carrots in the open field and proper watering of the carrot beds.Carrots are the favorite culture of all gardeners. For the harvest to be rich, you need to properly plant and properly care for the carrots! After the first shoots appear, we recommend weeding the planting. This should be done approximately two weeks after planting seeds in open ground. Repeated weeding is carried out approximately twenty to thirty days after the first weeding.
The use of special growth stimulants (Silk, Epin) for seed treatment will increase their germination. It is necessary to act according to the instructions attached to the chemicals. As a rule, the seed treatment process takes no more than twenty hours.
At the edges of the garden you will land a radish, it will quickly rise, marking carrot rows, and you can begin loosening the rows between rows (carrot loves frequent loosening). It is also very useful to plant onions in the carrot beds, because its smell drives away the carrot flies, the most dangerous pest of carrots.
Growing carrots: planting seeds and care in the open field - Onwomen.ru
- Keep the seeds in the room, periodically gently stirring them,
Video about the preparation of carrot seeds for planting
Seeds are not buried deep in the ground - by 1.5 - 2 centimeters, lightly rolled and covered with film or non-woven material to keep the soil moist. The seedlings appear after 3 - 4 weeks, and if the seeds were soaked - 1 - 2 weeks earlier. In order for the carrot to grow large, it is not possible to delay the thinning. Between individual plants leave at least 3 cm.
Selection of carrot seeds
Caring for carrots in the open field contains another very important stage - loosening. As described above, carrots without this procedure grows crooked, shallow and ugly. Very often, loosening is combined with weeding or thinning. Weeding is also needed so that strong weeds do not shade sprouts.
Planting seeds in open ground
One of the pests of the vegetable is a carrot fly. In order to get rid of it, it is better to pre-arrange the beds in a windy place; the fly does not like the winds. It is very advisable to plant carrots next to the onions. And so that she does not even look at the carrot garden, it is better to sprinkle the garden with hot pepper, golden or tobacco dust, and mulch with mowed grass or straw.
All of us since childhood, the familiar carrot is not so simple a vegetable in cultivation, it is pleased with a capricious. To get a truly generous harvest, and the crop was preserved without loss, you need to consider some serious points:
Seeds of carrots are very small and before planting should be soaked for a few hours, and then slightly dried. Make the bed comfortable for you and not deep grooves on it. Put the seeds in these grooves and sprinkle on top of the same earth, only so that the seeds are in the ground no deeper than 2 cm, otherwise they will germinate too long. Then pour a small amount of water on it, and you can also stretch the polyethylene on top, so that the carrots grow faster. For the best weeding, when the seeds come up, you can put a small stick near each groove, this is done so that you can see where the furrow goes into which you put the seeds. After the seeds start to sprout, the polyethylene needs to be removed, and when they grow about 2-3cm, make sure to do the first weeding. Watering is necessary as needed, but so that the soil does not dry out. Weeding too, it is imperative that the weeds do not interfere with the growth of carrots. If the carrot has risen very thick, then when it grows up 6-8 cm in height, it is necessary to thin it out, this is done so that the other root crops receive more oxygen and the roots grow large. If you engage in weeding and watering well, you can get a good harvest.
Diseases and pests
If the seeds of carrots are pelleted, they are simply sown in the grooves.
If we take into account these factors, the carrots will be pleased with even and tasty fruits that can be stored until the next harvest. But before planting seeds, it is necessary to prepare the soil.
The bed with carrots should be located on the most sunny place, in shaded places the carrot will grow weakly and will not give a full-fledged vegetable,
Carrot Growing Technology
I start carrot harvesting before the first cold spells, having dug out or carefully pulled out of the ground. This is done in good weather in order to be able to dry in the sun. Small roots are left to eat, and large and dried are removed in boxes and left for storage. You can store in the basement, in the cellar, only to moisture was not. Under such conditions, carrots can be stored until the next season and eat with their own hands all winter.
Oddly enough, carrots are one of the most demanding vegetables. When growing carrots in open ground, it should be borne in mind that it grows best on loose, fertile, medium loamy and sandy soils, well aerated and having an acidity close to neutral pH 6 - 7. Ideal if the soil does not form a soil crust and have good moisture content.
Important! For growing varieties with long roots, the depth of the loose soil structure should be very large.
In conditions of high humidity in the soil and lack of oxygen, root crops with low taste are formed, seed germination decreases, and the risk of fungal diseases increases.
The best predecessors in the cultivation of carrots in the beds: cabbage, beans, grains, onions on a turnip, cucumbers and tomatoes.
Bad predecessors: carrots, dill, parsley, fennel, parsnip, cumin.
Growing carrots monoculture is very dangerous because it increases by several times the probability of being affected by diseases and pests, such as carrot fly, nematodes, alternariosis, aphid. Therefore, it is best to return it to its original place in 3 - 4 years.
Terms of planting in open ground depend on the purpose of cultivation and characteristics of a particular variety. For example, in the case of subwinter seeding, carrot seeds are vernalized in the ground, and in spring, a little warmer, they immediately start to grow. This makes it possible to get the finished products earlier in 2 - 3 weeks. Carrots, which are planted in open ground before winter, are intended for use in the summer and are not suitable for storage.
Spring sowing of carrots for consumption in summer can be done at a temperature of + 8 ° C, as early as possible, in order to use the excess moisture remaining in the soil after winter.
Carrots intended for long-term storage are sown later, from mid-April to late May, depending on weather conditions.
Before planting carrots, it is advisable to add fertilizers to the open ground: for 1 m 2 0.5 buckets of rotted manure or compost. On heavy loams, you can add 2 - 3 liters of sawdust for looseness. In addition, potash fertilizers, which include wood ash, affect the increase in sugar content in root crops, increase palatability and improve keeping quality.
Important! In no case should fresh manure be brought under the carrot. This will lead to flowering and the fact that the roots will be branched. Do not bend over the stick and with nitrogen fertilizers, as excessive doses will lead to coarsening of tissues, as well as an increase in the content of nitrates.
For planting in open ground on the beds it is necessary to make grooves with a depth of 1.5 - 2 cm, at a distance of 15 - 20 cm from each other. Before sowing, it is best to rub the carrot seed with your hands to remove the bristles. Then the seeds are sown in the grooves and covered with soil.
Important! The soil in the rows with carrots must be compacted: roll it with a roller, board, or simply stamp it with your hand.
At the optimum temperature of +15 + 18 ° C, seedlings appear after 10 - 12 days. A good tool is that carrot seedlings can withstand frosts down to -4 ° C. But prolonged cooling is dangerous because it causes tsvetushnosti.
Care, pest and disease control
Caring for carrots is quite simple, you should only follow simple rules. Due to the fact that carrots are a plant of a long daylight, it cannot be grown in the shade, otherwise the yield and taste qualities will sharply decrease.
В фазе двух настоящих листочков необходимо провести прореживание всходов, оставив расстояние 2 – 3 см между ростками. Спустя 25 – 35 дней, а точнее, когда корнеплоды достигнут размеров 1,5 – 2 см в диаметре, делается еще одно прореживание. Теперь оставляем расстояние 5 – 6 см.
Important! Все удаленные в результате прореживания растения обязательно выносятся с грядки, чтобы не привлекать морковную муху.
Constant care for carrot crops consists in timely watering and loosening of the soil (after each rain or watering).
Important! In the process of weeding carrots root vegetables should be slightly spud. This avoids the appearance of root crops with a green head that tastes bitter.
When nursing, it is best to water the carrots often, but in small doses. Most of all carrots require moisture during the period between sowing and emergence of shoots, as well as during the period of intensive growth of the root crop. It is necessary to water in the evening.
In too dry weather, watering increases the yield and improves the quality of carrots.
2 - 3 weeks before harvest, watering should be stopped, so the roots will not crack during storage.
That's basically the whole care of carrots.
Against pests (carrot flies and aphids), carrot crops are treated with Lepidocid and Bitoxibacillin biologics with an interval of 7-14 days.
Against diseases caused by pathogenic fungi (Alternaria and others), it is possible to spray the crops with "Fitocid", "Trichodermin" and "Mikosan - B". To improve the properties of adhesion of drugs to the green mass of carrots use "Lipos".
The timely use of this biopreparation cocktail will reliably protect carrots from the negative influence of diseases and pests.
How to hurry the shoots of carrots in the open field
Properties of carrots are such that its seeds germinate for a long time, 18 - 25 days. But the emergence of seedlings can and accelerate. Below are some tips for pre-treatment of carrot seeds.
Seeds are poured into a jar of salt water. The solution is prepared in the proportion of 2 tables. spoons per 1 liter of water. All surfaced seeds are thrown away. The seeds, settled on the bottom, put in a gauze bag, well knotted it and washed under warm water. Then immerse the bag in hot water (65 ° C) for 10 - 15 minutes. Take out and at the same time - in the cold. Untie the bag, then sprinkle the seeds in an even layer on a damp cloth and leave to knock at room temperature. When the seeds germinate, they are planted in the ground.
Dry carrot seeds are placed in a cloth bag and buried in cold, wet ground in early spring to the depth of a spade. Before sowing, the bag is dug, the seeds are laid out on a dry cloth, slightly dried in air and sown in the ground.
Seeds are soaked for 10 - 12 hours in warm water. During this time, the water must be constantly changed, and the floating seeds must be removed. Then the water is drained, the seeds are scattered in a thin layer on a cloth or filter paper. All this should be on a platter. Top seeds covered with a wet cloth. The optimum temperature for germination is 20 - 25 ° C. It is important to ensure that the seeds do not dry out. Germination is considered complete when the majority of the seeds appear roots 0.5 cm.
To disinfect carrot seeds, they are tied into gauze and immersed in warm water (38 - 45 ° C) for a day. Hydrogen peroxide is added to water (1 tablespoon per 200 ml of water). Then the seeds are washed, dried on paper and sown in the ground.
Yields and accelerated ripening can be achieved by soaking the seeds in wood ash (20 g of ash should be infused for 1 to 2 days in 1 liter of water) for 4 to 6 hours. Such processing is carried out for 12 - 24 hours before sowing seeds in the ground.
Varieties: description and general characteristics
The widespread demand for the cultivation of carrots has led to the fact that in each region breeders are trying to bring varieties with certain characteristics that satisfy the wishes of consumers and are adapted to the growing conditions. Varieties differ in the shape and length of root crops, yield, attitude to environmental and soil-climatic conditions, ripening terms, resistance to diseases and pests.
Carrot root has a complex structure: consists of coresmore / less developed and bast (bark, parenchyma).
The length of the root crops that we can meet on the market (commodity) varies in the range of 10–30 cm. The diameter is 3–5 cm. The mass can be 100–300 g.
In many ways, the shape and length of carrots depends on the density of the soil. On sandy loamy soils and peat bogs, the roots are flat and smooth. On dense soils or swimming roots can be shaped pointed and branched.
Among the variety there are 10 varieties of carrots with different features. The three main varieties are with a conical, round and cylindrical root crop.
To sort Nantes include varieties that differ in small size of leaves, in relation to the total mass of the plant, their share is 25%. Root crops have a cylindrical shape with a blunt end, the core is small, rounded, the same color as the bark.
Early and mid-ripening varieties of this variety:
- Royal Forto,
- Crown, Natofi,
- Nantes Kharkov,
- Bright and others
Varietal type Chantenay differs well-developed erect leaves, their share is 40% of the total mass. Root crops have a conical shape with a large core.
Mid-season and late-maturing varieties of this variety:
- Chantenay Skvirskaya,
- Red Giant
- Royal Chantenay,
- Sweet tooth
- Campino and others.
Varietal type Geranda differs in root crops of the cut-off conical form, short. Leaves are upright, medium size. The core of the root is faceted and occupies more than 60% of the total diameter.
The main property of the Geranda type is excellent keeping quality. If you follow the rules for storing carrots, it can last until mid-spring.
Sort Cartel this type has the shortest growing season - less than 100 days. Root crops have a round or round-oval shape with a large core.
Sort Alenka too early, but prone to cracking. Suitable for growing on beam products.
Carrots variety Flakke has the latest maturation period - more than 120 days. The leaves are large, occupying more than 50% of the total mass. Root crops are large, have a spindle-shaped form, the core is round and large, occupying more than 65% of the diameter.
The Queen of Autumn is the best representative of the late ripening varieties of the Flacce variety. Root crops grow large - more than 220 g, but the flesh remains juicy and tender.
Other varieties that are stored for a long time and accumulate beneficial microelements quite a lot:
- Long red
- Autumn red
- Red Giant
- Queen of autumn
- Flyowy and others.
- Biryuchekutskaya 415,
- Vitamin 6,
To obtain super early products such varieties are grown:
Their main advantage in the short growing season is 60 - 75 days. Though tender and juicy and tasty, they are not very sweet, they are stored for a short time, the yield is low. But all the shortcomings go by the wayside, since in such early periods it is impossible to get fresh carrots of better quality.
Sorta Nantes 4 and Nantes 14 even more precocious. The first products can be collected in 50-55 days. But at the same time carrots of these varieties are very demanding on the soil - they should be light.
Medium early variety Chantenay 2461 less demanding on the quality of the soil, the roots are massive, elongated conical shape, weighing up to 250 g
To produce bundle products, early-maturing varieties Tushon, Samson, Amsterdam and Royal Minicure are grown. Root crops completely ripen in 80 - 85 days.
Middle-late varieties: Incomparable, Geranda, Vitamin 6, Losinoostrovskaya-16 have a high content of carotene.
Root Varieties Boltex they have a cone-shaped shape, an orange color, a leveled surface, and grow to 100-160 g, and the taste qualities are very high.
For podzimnyh crops, to be able to get very early production, suitable varieties:
- Moscow winter,
- Nantes 4,
- Losinoostrovskaya 13,
- Chantenay 2461.
Late ripe variety Scarla has a growing season of 140 - 145 days. The roots are intensely orange in color, cylindrical, large, weighing 300 g. The core is as tasty as the pulp.
Late variety Flacoro characterized in that it does not absorb nitrates, while famous for its high yields and the length of the fruit.