Fruit trees

Feeding the pears in the spring: when and how to feed

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Trees, as well as their owners gardeners, need a balanced diet. Providing them with substances necessary for growth and fruiting is not such an easy task, because it is necessary to take into account the type of tree, its stage of development and time of year. Fertilizer applied at the wrong time can reduce to “no” all the efforts of the gardener and the strength spent on cultivating the garden for several years. Experienced fruit lovers know that too early or, on the contrary, late feeding with one or another compound can reduce the yield or make the fruit tasteless.

General principles of fertilization under pears

Top dressing for pears and for apple is not much different from each other, since both of these species belong to the same family. These fruit beauties just like people prefer healthy separate meals. At the same time, in spring, filling the soil with nutrients can be considered as a breakfast for a tree, providing it with energy for the whole summer. Summer dressings are a multi-course meal that will serve as a source of nutrients for the formation of ovaries and fruits, and autumn dressing, as well as a dinner for a person, will provide the tree with a supply of nutrients for a long period of hibernation. This scheme has been used successfully throughout the world, and it has never failed.

Pear: dressing and care (video)

What exactly is feeding a pear orchard in different periods of time:

The thoughtless introduction of additional dressing, even with the knowledge of this principle, can lead to adverse consequences, including the death of a tree. In all important moderation and accurate compliance with instructions.

Spring dressing - norms and terms

The first fertilizer nitrogen fertilizer, some gardeners spend on snow crust, so that when it thaws nutrients immediately go into the soil. Whether it is possible to feed a pear in this way is a big question, because only nitrogenous fertilizers tend to “erode”, losing most of their useful qualities. It is much more reasonable to deposit urea or carbamide into the soil in the form of a solution or under digging, embedding the granules to a depth of at least 5 cm.

When choosing a method of introducing nitrogen should pay attention to the condition of the soil and the presence of precipitation.

  • With increased humidity and during rains, you can scatter them on the soil surface and slightly dig up it.
  • In dry weather and no rain, fertilizers are diluted with water and poured onto the soil surface or into specially prepared “mines” for fertilizers.

It is recommended to use nitrogen fertilizers in the form of granules or powder (commercially purchased), as well as organic matter for the spring dressing of pears.

All nutrient solutions for pears with nitrogen must be prepared shortly before using them. Ideally, the time interval between the dissolution of fertilizers and their ingress into the soil should not exceed 12 hours.

Feeding pears in summer: ways and means

Summer feeding is carried out from the last decade of June. At this time, the pear is already fading, and its growth is already quite well marked. At this time, it is allowed to continue feeding trees with nitrogen fertilizers, but by the non-root method. The concentration of the solution may be higher than with the spring application. This will also contribute to the protection of plants from fungal diseases.

Since mid-July, phosphate and potash fertilizers are being introduced into the soil, but not earlier than 15 days after the last foliar application. To fill the necessary elements in this period use:

  • potassium sulfate
  • phosphate flour,
  • superphosphate.

Also popular are complex fertilizers: nitroammofoska, ammophos, nitrophos, and others. Also, trace elements are added to the solutions. In general, the standards for the use of these compounds are:

  • phosphorus-containing substances - up to 300 g per bucket of water,
  • potassium salt - up to 100 g per bucket of water,
  • boron compounds - up to 20 g per bucket of water,
  • copper preparations - up to 5 g per 10 liters of water,
  • products with magnesium - no more than 200 g per 10 l of water,
  • zinc sulfate - up to 10 g per bucket of water.

A mixture of these minerals and trace elements can be applied to the soil, but a more noticeable effect can be expected from foliar feeding, in which the pear crown, along with skeletal branches and shtamb, is sprayed with the prepared mixture.

Autumn feeding pears

Autumn dressing pear orchard is carried out in stages. From mid-August, nitrogen-containing fertilizers are completely excluded, while the volume of potassium and phosphorus is increased. To thoroughly prepare the trees for the winter, you need to prepare a solution of 10 liters of water, a tablespoon of potassium chloride and 2 tablespoons of superphosphate. The resulting solution is poured into the barrel circle at the rate of 10 l / sq. m. of the area bounded by the projection of the crown on the soil. Additionally, it is applied up to a glass of ash per square meter of soil for digging to a depth of at least 10 cm.

When not to feed a pear garden

Overfeeding pears is not so difficult, and it is important for gardeners to notice signs of overdosing with minerals and trace elements in time. Thus, with an excess of nitrogen, trees grow throughout the summer, increasing large volumes of green mass to the detriment of the strengthening of wood and the budding of flower buds. But an oversupply of trace elements, phosphorus and potassium can lead to a deterioration in the absorption of other substances, which inevitably leads to a change in the color gamut of the leaves, deformation of the fruit and the deterioration of their taste.

It is quite difficult to establish exactly why such metamorphoses occur in pears — due to an overabundance of minerals or a lack of trace elements in the soil. Normalizing the condition of trees is almost impossible, which in most cases ends in uprooting them. Feeding a pear orchard should be regular, generous and varied. However, one should not forget about moderation, because an extra “tidbit” can be destructive for a tree.

Features fertilization

The basis of competent care for pear orchard included regular soil fertilizing. Optimally feed trees every year in spring and autumn. Spring fertilizers help the trees to become stronger, stronger, more resisting various diseases and pests, and, of course, to give a full tasty harvest.

But it is not worth making thoughtless fertilizers into the soil, thus it is possible only to harm the fruit trees, which will affect their health and fruiting accordingly.

The number and recipe of dressings depends on several of the most important factors:

  • tree age
  • the appearance and health of the tree,
  • soil composition.

Many gardeners determine the need for feeding the soil as follows: if the tree has slowed down in growth, then the soil is depleted. It is considered normal if a pear grows more than 40 cm during the year (this is for adult trees) and 20 cm for seedlings and annual trees.

Types of fertilizer for pears

The basics of applying feedings:

  • fertilizers based on chemical compounds begin to be applied to the soil no earlier than after 2 years of tree life,
  • it is desirable to bring organic top-ups no more than 1 time within 3 years,
  • fertilizing trees with mineral fertilizers is carried out annually.

Before fertilizing, it is recommended to dig a trench near the fruit tree, the depth of which depends on the volume and composition of the fertilizer. But phosphate-potassium fertilizer is better to mix with the soil and sprinkle the resulting composition of any organic matter.

When a pear needs extra nutrition

If the tree grows in comfortable conditions, then it does not need excessive and frequent enrichment of the soil. Fertilizers are applied every spring to stimulate crop yields and activate the protective forces of agriculture.

But it also happens that external changes indicate that the pear needs additional care. Leaves on a tree are not necessarily lethargy indicating a deficiency of nutritional components, the same symptoms appear on a tree if the soil is oversaturated with organic or mineral compounds.

How to determine the composition of fertilizer required for the tree?

  • Underdevelopment and deformation of the leaves indicates a lack of nitrogenous compounds in the soil.
  • If the leaves on the tree brighten and do not grow to their size (smaller than they should be), then this is also a symptom of a lack of nitrogen.
  • Soil saturation with nitrogen affects the pear, it becomes weak, sluggish, unable to withstand the onslaught of severe frosts.
  • Phosphorus deficiency is detected if the lower part of the leaves near the tree begins to fall. The need for phosphate fertilizers is also indicated by slowing the ripening of the buds and slowing down the leaves in development.
  • The lack of potassium is due to the lethargy of the leaves, the appearance of brown spots on their surface, early drying and falling off.
  • If there is not enough calcium in the soil, then the leaves on the pear become blotchy, and the parts of the tree die out.

Early feeding

In early spring, the pear needs nitrogenous fertilizers. Appropriate formulations should be applied to the soil when the air temperature has stabilized (the probability of frost has disappeared), and swollen buds have begun to appear on the pear.

You can choose the following options for feeding:

  • Saltpeter. To prepare the solution, you need 2 tbsp. l main ingredient to mix thoroughly in 5 liters. water. The prepared composition is applied in the form of root feeding.
  • Bird droppings. Preparation of nutrient composition: 1/2 kg. poultry litter mix thoroughly in 10 l. warm water. Allow the solution to infuse for 24 hours, then pour the near-barrel portion of the pear.
  • Urea. Preparation: in 10 l. water dissolves 50 grams. urea. The resulting composition is used as a root feeding.

It is not recommended to mix the dressings with each other. It is necessary to bring in the soil only one version of the presented fertilizer. Otherwise, you can provoke a tree burn and a soil oversaturation with nitrogen.

Top dressing at the time of flowering

When the pear begins to bloom intensively, top dressing is brought in specially dug trenches. At a distance of about 60 cm. A shallow trench will be dug out of the tree, and additional fertilizing will be made into it (at least 40 liters of prepared nutrient composition is needed per tree).

Options for feeding pears during flowering:

  • Urea. Preparation of solution: in 10 l. water mix 300 grams. active ingredient.
  • Superphosphate. Cooking: 10 liters. liquid take 100 grams. active ingredient.
  • Cow dung Preparation: mix 10 liters. fluid and 5 liters. organic fertilizer.

Last spring feeding

Saturation of the soil after pear blossom is aimed at enriching the soil and stimulating the fruiting of the tree. As fertilizers you can use:

  • Nitroammofosk. Cooking: 10 liters. liquid take 50 grams. active ingredient.
  • Siderata. Green siderats buried in the soil to a depth of 15 cm.

In cold weather, basal dressings are poorly absorbed, so it is better to use spraying the lower part of the tree trunk with the following compounds:

  • 1% urea solution (1 liter of liquid and 50 g. of active substance),
  • boron solution (10 liters of liquid and 15 grams of the main ingredient).

The need for autumn dressing

If spring fertilization is aimed at the formation of normal fruiting and stimulation of pear growth, then autumn dressing helps trees to overwinter and not suffer from various diseases and pests.

It is necessary to fertilize pears in the fall after full harvest, when the foliage on the trees is already 30% yellow. Top dressing is carried out in the basal way, by mixing the active ingredients with the soil.

Variants of autumn dressings:

  • Urea - 10 liters. liquid 50 gr. active ingredient.
  • Iron vitriol - 10 liters. water 5 gr. main component.
  • Potassium chloride - 10 l. liquids and 150 r. active substance.

Saplings and trees of the first year of life do not need autumn top dressing. Adult pears are sufficient to provide nutrient compositions every 2 years.

Mineral fertilizers

Mineral fertilizers are applied in spring and autumn. In this case, the number of components varies in mass depending on the time of year.

This element is necessary for increasing the green mass. Pear will not be able to form enough foliage for photosynthesis. Young shoots without nitrogen are formed in insufficient quantities. But an excess of an element is as harmful as its deficiency. The pear overfed with nitrogen becomes a tasty prey for aphids: its juice is especially sweet due to non-persistent sugars.

And overfed pear more often is affected by fungal diseases. Therefore, when applying fertilizers to the soil is required to comply with the rules.

The element is necessary for the full ripening of pear fruit. The main part of the fertilizer is phosphoric anhydride (up to 20% by weight). It is absorbed only with a sufficient amount of moisture in the soil.

The necessary element for making autumn and winter podzimnyh pear. Potassium salt (potassium chloride + sodium chloride) is added in the spring before and during flowering to form a large number of ovaries. Disadvantage: contains chlorine.

The lack of magnesium in the soil causes a slowdown in pear growth. The industry produces water-insoluble fertilizers (vermiculite), which, when applied and subsequently irrigated, enrich the soil with magnesium. Magnesium is part of potash fertilizers. Magnesium sulfate, soluble in water, is popular with gardeners.

Complex fertilizers

The industry produces complex mineral fertilizers. They contain nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus in the quantities required by plants. Autumn fertilizers do not contain nitrogen (or contain, but in minimum quantities). They are much more convenient to use: you do not need to mix the ingredients, just feed them according to the instructions.

Manure and humus

For dressing pears, manure of herbivores is used: goats, cows, sheep, horses, rabbits. Pork manure is used as a last resort (due to the omnivorousness of the pigs). It is a valuable source of nitrogen, which is in an easily digestible, that is, chelated form. But fresh manure to make a pear can not be due to the large number of weed seeds and aggressive environment.

After purchasing fresh manure, we recommend:

  • lay the raw material on a sheet of metal or plywood,
  • form a cone
  • cover with a film or iron from rain and drying,
  • every six months to remove the film and turn over the manure,
  • moisturize if necessary.

In this state, manure is aged for 3 years. During this time, the raw material decomposes and turns into humus. That it should be made under the pear.

Bird droppings

This is a very aggressive feeding. Fresh bird droppings brought under a young pear can burn the root system of a tree. Bird droppings are collected and dried, then poured into bags and stored in a cool dry place.

Before using a glass of dry raw material is stirred in a bucket of water and infused for a week. Then, before use, connect a liter of infusion with 10 liters of water and feed the trees.

Wood ash

This is an affordable and effective means for fertilizing pears. The composition of the ash include: potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese. But keep in mind: feeding with alkaline reaction when combined with water. Therefore, some gardeners use ash to deoxidize the soil.

It is recommended to apply sifted kiln ash to fertilize pears. Application rate: a liter jar under 1 adult plant. It is important to remember: ash reduces the effectiveness of nitrogen fertilizers, so at the same time feeding them a pear is not worth it.

Bone flour

Bonemeal is the main source of phosphorus for pears. Additional components of the fertilizer are:

The advantage of fertilizer is chelation (availability for pear) components and low cost.

Nitrogen source for pear. Main advantages:

  • chelation (plant availability),
  • ready solubility in water,
  • excellent result foliar dressing.

It is important to remember: spraying in early spring with a solution of urea of ​​increased concentration not only nourishes, but also protects the plant from pests and delays flowering.

During flowering

During this period it is useful to give a liquid dressing. It is good to fertilize a pear with urea solution: a half-glass on 10 l of water. Liquid dressing is useful to combine with irrigation: first, how to moisten the tree trunk, then make a solution.

Foliar top dressing

It is useful to give it to young trees that have not yet built a strong root system. Fertilizers (nitrogen, phosphorus, potash) are diluted in water and sprayed on the pear leaves.

It is important to remember: spraying should be carried out in dry, overcast (or after sunset), windless weather. If it has rained within 3 days after top dressing, it should be repeated.

Summer feeding of fruit trees

Summer feeding is necessary to continue. They are carried out during the fruiting period, ending the moment of picking the fruit.

In June, the pear ends flowering. At this time, it is useful to feed it over the sheet with a solution of nitrogen fertilizers: urea, green fertilizer. The color of the infusion should be light, like weakly brewed tea. In July, the fruits begin to begin to set. К подкормкам по листу следует добавить опрыскивание раствором фосфора и калия.

В августе, через 2 недели после последней внекорневой подкормки, рекомендуется внести в грунт смесь фосфорных и калийных удобрений. Почву в приствольном круге прорыхлить. In order for the fruits not to crumble, it is recommended to feed them with a solution of phosphorus-potassium fertilizers every 2-3 weeks. Such nutrition is necessary for pear for ripening high-quality fruits.

3 weeks before the expected harvest, it is recommended to stop feeding. It is necessary to obtain organic fruits.

Basic rules for autumn dressings

In the fall, after harvesting, the tree requires nutrient replenishment. Fertilizers should consist of phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen. But phosphorus and potassium make up 1 parts, and nitrogen - ¼ parts by weight.

All components in a dry form are mixed and scattered around the perimeter of the barrel circle. Moreover, the main number should be placed on a circle, which is a projection of the crown on the ground. After that, the soil is loosened to a depth of 7-10 cm.

How to fertilize a pear tree before winter

Pear care involves a podzimny feeding. Without it, the tree will not tolerate the winter. The purpose of fertilizer: to feed the plant, but to prevent the growth of green mass. The shoots will not have time to mature and die, and the tree will spend strength on their growth. Fertilizer should be applied in late September - early October. The composition of phosphorus and potassium with the addition of calcium and magnesium make around the perimeter of the trunk circle. Then they dig up the earth.

Top dressing after landing

A simple but time-consuming event will help the young pear to get well accustomed and begin to bear fruit sooner. And the gardener will be released from planting trees for the next 3 years.

Before landing it is recommended to make a landing hole. With the planned placement in the spring it is prepared in the fall. If the gardener wants to plant a pear in the fall, the pit needs to be prepared in the spring. How to proceed:

  1. Dig a hole 70 x 70 x 70 cm in size. Lay out mature compost or humus with a layer of 10-15 cm at the bottom.
  2. Remove the soil mixed with phosphorus, potassium (1: 1), manganese, calcium. Fill the pit with this mixture.
  3. Smooth and compact soil. Put a sheet of plywood or linoleum on top (to prevent soil erosion).

Before planting, dig a well of such size that the pear root system fits. Then they dig in a peg for tying and lower seedlings into it. The soil around the compacted form a groove for the flow of water and water planting.

Tips for novice gardeners

Beginning gardeners should remember the basic rules of pear dressing:

  • it is impossible to grow a good harvest without dressings,
  • fertilizer failure is just as dangerous as overfilling,
  • for a plant it is important to receive a full complex: mineral fertilizers and organic,
  • should not be neglected micro and macro,
  • to obtain stable yields, it is important to give foliar fertilizing to the tree,
  • The amount of fertilizer depends on the age of the pear.

If the rules of fertilizing are observed, the gardener will always receive a stable harvest of tasty fruits.

Spring feeding of fruit trees

In the spring, until the buds appear, it is necessary to prevent fungal diseases and spray the stem and shoots with a solution of copper sulfate. Suitable chemicals that are designed specifically for fruit trees.

Next comes the turn of feeding. To increase the growth of shoots and stimulate the tree to grow foliage, we need nitrogen. The mineral form of nitrogen fertilizers gets into the plant tissue most quickly. Saltpeter or urea is used.

The granules are dissolved in water according to the instructions, they dig up the soil in the area of ​​the near-circle circle and pour it over. You can make nitrogen foliar way. Absorption of substances occurs sheet plate, but this should be done when the leaves are already blooming. This provides additional protection against pests.

In order for nitrogen to be well absorbed, it must be applied along with phosphorus and potassium, that is, use a complex mineral fertilizer: azophos, azofoska, nitrophoska. A young tree develops a root system, which absorbs nutrients and delivers them to the shoots and leaves. Fruiting will depend on the state of the roots.

What to make in the summer under the pear

Feeding a young pear in the summer is to feed with potassium and phosphorus, as well as with nitrogen as necessary. Observing the plant, you can determine what the tree lacks.

Video: How to fertilize fruit trees - on the example of a pear

How to feed a pear in the summer, if there is a shortage of substances:

  • if the foliage is light green, nitrogen is needed - urea, ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate,
  • leaves dry on the edge, flowering is delayed - potassium in the form of potassium nitrate, potassium salt or potassium sulfate,
  • leaves are small, change color to blue, curl - need phosphorus - superphosphate.

If pear dressing in the autumn was carried out with organic substances, then in spring and summer it can be fertilized with minerals and trace elements. These mixtures dissolve faster and are absorbed by the plant. Lack of nutrition can be eliminated in 3-4 days. Why it is better to use minerals in spring and summer:

  • no time for decomposition of organic matter,
  • You can choose any composition, because the mineral mixtures are sold in any store for gardeners,
  • cheaper, because you need to feed the whole garden.

You need to know that summer dressing must be done 2: during the pouring of the fruit and during ripening.

The second can be carried out without the participation of nitrogen, as it does not affect the ripening of fruits. During this period, potassium and phosphorus are more important.

Autumn orchard care activities

If anyone thinks that harvesting is the ultimate goal of gardening, then he is mistaken. The tree took all the nutrients from the soil and gave them to the fruit. At the same time weakened and in need of care. It's time to think about how to feed the pear in the fall, so that it will bear fruit next year. In the autumn, vegetative buds are laid for the next season, so the tree needs to be restored and provided with nutrients.

Feeding pears in August is best done with organic matter. for several reasons:

  • During the winter, organic matter is decomposed by soil bacteria and by spring it becomes an easily digestible form for plants.
  • The fertile layer is restored and the amount of humus increases.
  • Organic matter takes time to decompose completely to benefit.

How to fertilize a pear in the autumn:

  • Humus - Mullein or chicken droppings. He must lie down for a year or two so as not to damage them when brought in to the roots of the trees.
  • Wood ash. Contains potassium, phosphorus and trace elements necessary for the tree to grow.

  • Compost - The result of the interaction of organic matter, soil and heat. It takes time to mature: from 9 months to 1.5 years. Not all gardeners can afford to make compost in their area because of the peculiar smell that neighbors will complain about. Compost can be bought off-the-shelf and used as a fertilizer for pears in the fall. Compost digging with the top layer of soil.
  • Green fertilizer or siderata. Applied as a substitute for manure. It is only necessary to sow the siderats under a tree, wait until they grow up, cut off and put them in the soil, then pour it abundantly with water. Humid environment promotes the rapid decomposition of plant residues and the flow of nutrients into plant tissue.

Can be used in the form of water infusion or mulch. Autumn dressing and spraying the pear with siderate infusion will significantly reduce the cost of the next harvest and will enrich the soil with nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus, as well as with trace elements.

  • Bone flour - long-lasting fertilizer, than you can feed a pear in the month of August and forget about feeding for 3 - 4 years. Phosphates, at least, will come as bone debris decomposes.

Top dressing of a pear in the fall fertilizers held in early August, so that soil microorganisms and earthworms were able to partially process organic matter. In winter, their activity is not as active.

Order of work in the garden in the fall

Before feeding a pear, you need to pour it abundantly with water. Autumn watering is the most important, as it provides wintering roots. Moisture evaporates warm the root system and protect it from freezing. An adult tree needs up to 200 liters of water, young saplings 50 liters.

After watering, the soil is dug up and fertilizers are applied, which need to be covered with a layer of soil in order to avoid the loss of nutrients. While the juices are still circulating in the vegetative organs, the tree accumulates nutrients and accumulates them in the shoots, buds and trunk. Next, the dormant period begins and you can begin pruning the branches to form the crown, gathering leaves and burning it to prevent diseases.

Pear - one of the most sensitive trees. It grows well in warm regions and the middle lane, but with high temperature differences it is ill more often. Therefore, fungal and bacterial infections should be excluded from the list of possible problems in spring. Destruction of leaves and dusting the soil with ashes - additional feeding and prevention of disease.

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Feed by all the rules

Only the correct application of fertilizers replenishes the nutrient reserves of the tree and does not harm its health. Seasoned gardeners advised to make feeding regularly, which makes it possible to collect a stable crop.

Some gardeners do not fertilize under fruit trees if they are grown on fertile soil. This is fundamentally wrong! Each soil is depleted over time, the supply of nutrients is reduced. It is necessary to feed the tree, otherwise the lack of useful substances will affect fruiting.

On this basis, the first feeding of the pear must be done before it is planted. How? Before planting, seedlings spend tillage, make mineral fertilizers and dig up well. In the future, the introduction of nutrient mixtures carried out twice a season. As a rule, this is done in autumn and spring.

Why feed a pear in the fall?

Autumn feeding of fruit trees is carried out in the area of ​​the tree trunk circle. It allows the tree to store all the necessary nutrients for a long winter. This dressing is done after harvest, when the leaves on the tree turned yellow by more than 30%. Young seedlings feed on another technology. Fertilizers make digging.

Important!Feeding trees begin with the second year of cultivation.

Young pears do not need additional nutrition if the pre-planting tillage was done, and the pit was filled with fertilizers according to all the rules. The supply of nutrients should be enough for a tree for two years.

How to feed a pear orchard in the fall?

In the autumn, fertilizing should saturate the tree before winter, but not cause rapid growth. Therefore, the use of nitrogen-containing mixtures during this period is contraindicated. As a rule, in autumn pears are fertilized with minerals. Of them prepare nutrient solutions that are watered wood.

The recipe of mineral dressing №1

• Potassium chloride - 1 tbsp. lt

• Superphosphate - 2 tbsp. lt

• Water - 10 liters.

All components are mixed in water, the finished solution is carried out watered pears.

Tip!Add 150 grams of ash per 1 square meter for autumn digging. m. soil. Pear is very responsive to such fertilizers.

In the autumn, fertilizing with complex mineral fertilizers is important.

The recipe of complex feeding №2

• Urea - 1 tbsp. lt

• Superphosphate - 2 tbsp. lt

• Phosphate flour - 1.5 tbsp. lt

• Potassium sulfate - 1 tbsp. lt

• Potassium chloride - 1 tbsp. lt

• Wood ash - 500 gr,

• Ammofosk - 3 tbsp. l

Experienced gardeners use peat and humus as an autumn dressing. Winter mulching of the tree trunk with organic matter not only preserves the root system of the tree, but also feeds it. The thickness of the mulch layer must be at least 15 cm.

At the end of the summer you can conduct foliar feeding trees. It will help the wood to mature well and lay new buds for future harvest. For these purposes, use of potassium and phosphorus.

Autumn feeding garden is very important but an oversupply of nutrients is just as harmful as their lack. All substances in mixtures need to be balanced. Calculation of fertilizers is done based on the area of ​​nutrition and the root system of the tree. Saplings from 1 to 4 years old have a food area of ​​not more than 5 square meters. m. For trees up to 8 years, the area increases to 10 square meters. m

How to fertilize a pear in the spring?

With the onset of warm days a gardener has many tasks. Waking up trees need additional food and replenishment. During this period, fertilizers are applied both in liquid and granular form.

If the spring is rainy, then it is better to bring in nutrients for reforging. The granules are buried to a depth of no more than 10 cm. Dry weather conditions oblige the gardener to prepare nutrient solutions with which root and foliar dressings are carried out.

Spring dressings are carried out in several stages:

• before bud break,

At different stages of the development of the tree, he needs a different feed.

How to feed a pear in the spring?

The first dressing is carried out with nitrogen-containing fertilizers, which contribute to the active growth of young shoots. Well proven urea, nitrate, chicken droppings.

Recipes of the first spring dressings

1. 2 tbsp. l nitre diluted in 10 liters of water. The solution is used for root dressings of fruit trees.

2. 100 grams of urea is diluted in 5 liters of water. Nutrient mixture is designed for one tree.

3. 500 grams of chicken manure diluted in a bucket of warm water and allowed to stand for about a day. This solution is watered basal zone.

In the post-flowering period, the pear needs feedings that increase the quality of the fruit. During this period, apply green fertilizer, which is buried to a depth of 10 cm. In addition, it is useful to feed the tree with nitroammofoskoy. It is diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 200, i.e. 1 kg of the drug is needed for 200 liters of water. A pear is poured over with a solution at the rate of 3 buckets on one tree.

When the fruit is tied, the pear is fertilized with phosphorus-potassium mixtures. The lack of these elements leads to the fact that the ovaries shrink, fall off, and the leaves lose their color. If the spring is cold, it is useful to spray, which have a positive effect on plants. The fact is that in cold, rainy weather, the roots no longer absorb nutrients from the soil. You can help the plant with foliar dressings.

Experienced Gardeners Tips

• It is necessary to add organic matter under a pear regularly, as a rule, it is done every three years.

• Do not apply different types of fertilizers at the same time. For each season developed their own feeding. If you do not adhere to this rule, you get a burn of the root system, which will lead to the death of the plant.

• When planting a pear seedling, only mineral fertilizers are put in a hole. Adding potassium or nitrogen drugs causes damage to the root system.

• Determine which element is missing a tree can be on its appearance.

• Underdeveloped and faded leaves tell about the lack of nitrogen.

• Excess nitrogen in the soil leads to a decrease in winter hardiness of the tree, poor aging of the bark.

• In mid-September, complete all supplements with the use of nitrogen preparations.

• Flower buds are not laid and flowering is late? This indicates a lack of phosphorus.

• Lack of potassium appears on the leaves, they quickly dry out and shrink.

• Leaf spotting indicates a lack of calcium in the soil. Under a pear regularly contribute ash.

• Ash solution is used as foliar fertilizing pears, which not only nourishes the tree, but also helps in the fight against harmful insects.

• Liquid organic fertilizers are used only after fermentation. Chicken droppings, manure insist at least 5 days.

No matter how useful fertilizing, their use is justified only if it is necessary. The main task of the gardener is to properly use fertilizers and apply them carefully. Excess nutrients lead to diseases and affect yield.

How to plant a pear?

Virtually all pear varieties are photophilous crops, so they need to be planted on flat and sunny areas. If you have a small suburban area, the tree should be planted no closer than 3 meters from the house. The minimum distance between fruit trees should be 5 m.

Planting can also be made in the spring. If you plan to plant in the fall, then the landing pits need to be prepared in the spring. And if you plant a pear in the spring, then the laying of fertilizers in the pits should be made in the fall. Fertilizers are applied in advance to nutritional elements of them managed to fully absorb into the soil and acquire a form that is suitable for plants.

The soil for planting pears must be well drained, but it must also retain a sufficient amount of moisture well. For planting it is recommended to use loamy soils, but with a sufficient amount of humus. For other types of soil will have to lay in the pit of mineral-organic fertilizer for pears.

For Fertile soil fertilizer tab should be as follows:

  • От 5 до 8 килограмм компоста, 50 г суперфосфата гранулированного, 30г калийной соли на 1 квадратный метр. Для плодородного грунта, который обогащен гумусом, удобрения вносятся не в яму, а в перекопку запланированного участка. After you have planted a pear, tree care and fertilizing should be carried out in accordance with the generally accepted scheme for all types of soil.
  • For poor humus loam and depleted soil it is necessary to use the following dressing: 300 g of superphosphate, 30 l bent, 20 l of sand, 50 g of potassium sulfate per planting pit.
  • Fertilizers should be applied to the pit, whose diameter should be about 1 m, and the depth should be 60 cm. First, organic matter must be laid in the pit, and then sand. Mineral fertilizers should be mixed with garden soil, and then lay as the top layer.
  • If we are talking about heavy peatlands and clay soils, fertilizers should be laid in two stages: 400 ml of dolomite flour is diluted in 10 liters of water, and then the solution is poured into a pit, 30 liters of manure must be mixed with 30 liters of garden soil and laid in a planting pit.

The first stage involves making dolomite flour, which must be dissolved in a 10-liter bucket of water, and then poured into a hole under the pear. After that, pour in a few buckets of plain water. The second stage of fertilization should be carried out after one week, making mixture of manure and soil solution.

The dung must also be rotted, as fresh organic matter may adversely affect the health of the pear. After planting the tree, the whole tree trunk must be mulched with a mixture of peat and humus in a one-to-one ratio.

The following mixture of fertilizers is used for sandstones:

  • 30 l bent,
  • 300 g of superphosphate simple,
  • 10 liters of sand
  • 50 g of potassium sulfate per one landing pit.

In general, the fertilizer of sandy and sandy sandy soils coincides with the scheme of fertilization of poor loams. The only difference is the possibility of reducing the amount of sand, which in this case plays the role of a drainage layer.

If you planted pears in the fall, the first dressing should be in the spring after one year, that is, in the first spring, and in the following autumn you should not add any additional dressing.

If the pear was planted in spring, the first feeding of the tree is carried out in the second autumn. Further pear care is very similar to the cultivation of apple trees. The difference is only in the amount of moisture.

The pear root system reacts rather poorly to a large amount of moisture, so experienced gardeners recommend watering young trees by sprinkling, that is, using a shower, sprinkler or watering can for watering. The main advantage of this irrigation is the possibility of combining foliar feeding and treatment of the disease with fungicides.

Pear fertilizer in the fall. How to feed?

Autumn pear dressing must be done in order to replenish nutritional elementsthat were spent by the tree during the growing season. Top dressing is also carried out in order to increase stability during low air temperatures.

The most suitable interval for feeding is the period from late September to November. Fertilizers need to be made by digging in the near-stem circle. The amount of feeding will depend on the age of the pear, respectively, on the size of the root system.

Orientation to determine the time of feeding can be on the yellowing of foliage. If the crown of the tree on one third became yellow, then this suggests that it is necessary to fertilize with fertilizer.

How to calculate the amount of fertilizer?

If you are going to feed pears, you need to be able to dose correctly. mineral and organic fertilizers. An overabundance of any element can lead to the accumulation of harmful substances in the fruit, which may adversely affect human health. An overabundance of chemical elements in fertilizers can also be harmful to the tree itself.

Most often in the instructions for mineral fertilizers are given calculations for fertilizing one square meter of soil. It should be borne in mind that the root system of a tree aged 2 to 4 years old covers an area of ​​about 5 square meters, and the roots of trees of about 8 years old occupy about 10 square meters.

Fertilizers for autumn feeding. How to feed?

If you are going to feed pears in the fall, then gardeners are often faced with a choice: to contribute organic fertilizer or mineral? The task of autumn feeding is to provide the necessary nutrients, without causing the growth of the vegetative mass. This suggests that nitrogen fertilizers are excluded.

Organic fertilizers are fresher, which means they contain large quantities of nitrogen. Based on this, we can conclude that refueling manure or compost in the near-stem circle of pears in the autumn period is not necessary. For fertilizing it is recommended to use mineral fertilizers, which include potassium and phosphorus. But it is also worth noting that for soils with insufficient amount of humus, it is recommended to use organic. How to be in this case? In such situations, the pear must be fed agrochemicals, and then make a mulch of equal parts of humus and peat.

It is necessary to sprinkle with mulch the whole tree trunk circle, the layer of mulch should be from 15 to 20 cm. In addition, the mulch helps the pear to survive the winter frosts. The root system of the fruit tree is very sensitive, its roots can freeze at a temperature of more than -8 degrees. When you sprinkle a tree circle with a mixture of humus and peat, the tree can withstand temperatures up to -20 degrees Celsius.

It is worth paying attention to the fact that the fertilizer in the autumn can be applied to digging, and also can be made with a solution. The solution is introduced into the furrows, the size of which ranges from 20 to 30 cm. The depth of the furrows will depend on the age of the tree.

To fertilize the autumn digging, you must use the following elements:

  • 30 grams of granulated superphosphate,
  • 15 g of potassium chloride,
  • 150 ml wood ash per square meter

Of the above ingredients, it is necessary to prepare fertilizer, which can be either in liquid or dry form. However, if you are preparing a liquid fertilizer, it is necessary to exclude wood ash. Superphosphate and any potassium salt should be diluted in a 10 liter bucket of water.

The solution is introduced into the deep grooves, which are dug in fruit tree circle. Wood ash is laid to a depth of 20 cm in dry form. Before fertilizer application, it is necessary to shed a plant with 20 liters of water per square meter. If, when pressed in the palm, the soil turns into a cake, then the tree has enough moisture.

The last stage before hibernation is trunk protection. This protection involves whitewashing the tree, wrapping the trunk with canvas, which will help protect it from mammals and sunlight. In the finished garden paint for adult trees is recommended to add copper sulphateIt is also possible to use a mixture of slaked lime and copper sulphate for whitewashing. Young trees are painted with chalk.

Surely not many gardeners know that the winter sun can cause serious burns of the trunk. When the ultraviolet rays are reflected from the snow, their action is enhanced and burns the bark of the trees.

Summer and spring dressing, after flowering

During the formation of the fruit pears also need phosphorus and potassium. These elements are responsible for the appearance of the fruit, as well as for their taste. Phosphorus is able to increase the sugar content, prevents the deformation of the fetus.

Potassium can increase the shelf life of fruits. Early and mid-ripening varieties of pears should be fertilized in June or July, after flowering. Feeding late ripe varieties carried out later. The interval between feeding should be at least 3 weeks.

Summer flowering pear after flowering carried foliar way by leaves. If you do not have enough time for this procedure, it is allowed to apply fertilizer at the root, but spraying is more preferable. In the absence of moisture, nutrients are poorly fed to the root system, feeding the tree over the leaves will give a faster effect.

If the summer was cold, spraying can correct this situation. When the air temperature is below 12 degrees, the gentle root system of the fruit tree delivers nutrients much more slowly. The same process causes stagnation of moisture in the soil in too rainy summer. For spraying, you must use any kind of superphosphatewhich is divorced according to the instructions.

The pear very often suffers from magnesium deficiency. Therefore, in spring or summer, as a preventive measure, you can feed a tree on a leaf: 200 g of magnesium sulphate is diluted with 10 liters of water.

It is worth paying attention to the fact that watering a pear with fertilizers is necessary not only when conducting root dressings. If you use spraying, then the pear also needs to be shed before and after this procedure. Abundant watering after autumn feeding can protect the root system from freezing.

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