The yew plant is evergreen and perennial, belongs to the Tisov family. Traditionally, the tree grows in Western Europe, Asia, the Caucasus and beyond. However, if you know all the details of planting and care, then the tree can be grown successfully in the Moscow region and in other regions of central Russia.
A berry yew is a tree or shrub that tends to grow slowly. And only at the age of 10 he grows up by 10 meters. But since this tree is a long-lived, it can grow up to 20 meters in favorable conditions. With proper planting and proper care, it will bear fruit every year. The period of fruiting begins at about 20-30 years.
The description of the plant is as follows:
- yew loves moisture
- grows well in the shade
- planting should be carried out on fertile soils.
The flesh of the berries of the tree is often pecked by birds, they also spread the seeds of the plant over long distances, so that it grows in different countries. But the needles and bark of the tree are poisonous. They contain such substances.like taksin and ephedrine, capable of causing poisoning. And the more years the tree, the stronger the effect of the poison on the body of people and animals.
In the conditions of ornamental gardening, berry trees should be planted in places that are shaded by large trees. It is amenable to cutting and is able to form shoots all its life.
Blooming forms in the fall, but the yew blossoms in the spring, when the air is already warm, it usually happens in April.
Description of varieties
- Elegance is a perennial evergreen shrub with a beautiful shape. At the age of ten, he grows only a meter. Crohn at this time grows in diameter and a half meters. The branches of the tree are sprawling and completely covered with pine needles. The needles have a green-white color with a yellow tint, their length is up to 2 cm. The first six years, growth is slow, and then the increase is up to 25 centimeters up and the same in width. All parts of the shrub are poisonous.
- Baccata is a spherical evergreen coniferous bush, the needles are rather thick, and the branches grow neatly and densely. The average height of the bush is 15 meters, width - about 10 meters. The length of the needles is 2-3 cm, on the outside they have a dark green color, and on the lower side they are light green. The plant develops well and grows in the shade, and with good lighting, unpretentious in terms of care.
- Samergold - the average height of about a meter, the crown in size is the same. Crescent needles up to 3 cm long, has a yellow tint, which in summer becomes golden. The bush itself is poisonous, it develops best in the shade, tolerates winter well and is unpretentious in care.
- David is a perennial evergreen tree up to 2 m high and up to 80 cm wide. Oblong and pointed needles up to 3 cm long. The ornamental plant, shoots at a young age are yellow-green, grows well on rich and moist soil, as well as on dry, and even in the sun. Can live up to 1000 years.
- Repandance is an evergreen perennial ornamental plant, it has sprawling and branched shoots growing sideways, parallel to the ground level. Crohn asymmetrical, but fluffy and dense. The needles of yew trees have a soft green tint and are very soft, growing thickly along the length of the branches. This type of plant loves bright areas and sufficient lighting, but in the shade it will be dim and lose its decorative effect.
- Fastigiata - after 10 years of growth, the tree grows to a height of 1.5 meters. Its shoots grow up and branch well. The shape of the crown is kolonovidnaya, key branches hard, but the side - smaller and soft, needles growing thickly. The needles are medium in size and have a dark green tint. It is best to plant in fertile moist soil. It is recommended to warm the yew for the winter, as this variety loves heat.
- Krzysztof - this variety was bred in Poland and is slowly growing. For 10 years, grows only 1.2 meters. It has straight solid shoots that grow vertically, respectively, the crown represents a narrow column. The needles are medium and have a green color and yellow edges, which gives this variety additional visual appeal. Can grow in the shade and in the sun, unpretentious in the care.
- FastigiataAurea is a perennial and evergreen tree, the crown in shape is a narrow column. It grows slowly, and young shoots are equipped with yellow needles, which over time becomes green, yellowness remains only at the edges. It grows well in partial shade.
When planting a berry yew, the root neck should be placed at ground level. In Europe, this tree is very demanding on the humidity of the environment. It is better to plant it entirely in shady or protected places, especially when it comes to central Russia. Yews are very afraid of burns in the early spring.
The preferred soil for planting is wet and rich. Trees have a superficial root system and are able to tolerate transplant well, even after many years.
It is best for planting to choose a place in view of the type of tree. So, most varieties love shadow, but there are also such that in such conditions become faded.
The soil for planting should be of the following types:
You can not plant a tree in acidic or sandy soil, requires good drainage and the absence of groundwater. The landing process is as follows:
- dig a 70 cm hole
- mix soil with lime, sand and humus and pour the resulting mixture into the roots,
- charcoal can be added,
- After planting, water the plant with a solution based on mineral fertilizers.
As a rule, it is not necessary to water the yew, but in case of severe drought you should water the ephedro about once every two weeks. For this purpose, warm the water and use it to irrigate the entire plant, starting with its crown. The procedure must be performed in the evenings. Also an important part of care is the periodic loosening of the soil under a tree and bushes.
Do not forget about feeding yew. It needs annual application of mineral and organic fertilizers. In the spring, after digging, it is necessary to introduce humus or compost so that the added substances can penetrate into the root system to the maximum. But in the summer you need to fertilize the tree twice with a solution of mullein.
In winter, it is recommended to warm the root system of the yew by sprinkling peat or leaves, which need to be dug over in the spring. But it is not necessary to do this, since most varieties of this crop can tolerate winter well and frosts up to 25 degrees.
We must not forget in the regular pruning of trees and bushes. This is not particularly difficult, since the first 5-7 years of life development is rather slow. However, from the first year of growth it is necessary to form a crown as part of the care. To strengthen the branching, you need to trim the upper parts of the shoot. In order for the crown to be thick, it needs to be done on a regular basis. But be sure to consider the features of the yew variety. When you want to prune a plant for 3-4 years, be sure to read the description of the variety and the requirements for caring for it.
Description of coniferous plants
The yew is a tall coniferous tree, covered with soft flat green needles of about 3 cm. The plant is from southern Europe, but grows in the Crimea, on the South Kuriles, in Kaliningrad and the Baltic States. You can grow it almost everywhere, but the natural habitats of yew are considered protected. Because of the high quality and beauty of wood, it has been cut down for many years, so now the tree is rare. They grow slowly, but are able to exist up to 4000 years.
Some types of yew are evergreen, so the needles of a green color can accompany you all year round. In the middle or closer to the end of spring, green lumps appear on the length of the shoots, which in autumn turn into fruits covered with a scarlet bell-shaped shell.
All parts of the plant, especially the “leaves” and young twigs, are poisonous because they contain the alkaloid taxin. Enjoy the beautiful plant on the site, but do not taste it!
The yew berry (Taxus Baccata) also carries the name ordinary, or European. It mainly grows in Western Europe, but rarely occurs in its natural environment. The area spreads from Ukraine and Belarus to Asia Minor, Syria, the mountains of Algeria. In nature, it can reach a height of 14-20 m, the shape of the crown is unevenly rounded. The most common species in the culture, but young shrubs can burn in the spring sun. The yew berry includes several grades:
- Taxus baccata Elegantissima. One of the dwarf varieties of yew berry, covered with green foliage, which turns yellow after the growing season. Without clipping has the shape of a vase. Frost-resistant variety that requires light shade, under good conditions, the annual growth of 10-14 cm,
- Taxus baccata Goldener Zwerg. The mini-variety has the shape of a narrow column, the needles are green and turn yellow after vegetation. Fully frost-resistant, annual growth can be up to 5 cm
- Taxus baccata David. Another mini-variety that has a narrow columnar shape. The needles are green, turning yellow after the growing season. Requires a small shade, annual increments of about 4 cm,
- Taxus baccata Fastigiata Micro. The micrograss, which has a very narrow vertically elongated crown, shoots are covered with short green needles, which turn yellow after vegetation. For this variety, a small shading is desirable,
- Taxus baccata Summergold. Creeping dwarf variety, also yellowing after the growing season. Differs in the increased frost resistance, demands shading in the place of landing. Growth per year can reach 15 cm.
Another species - Canadian yew (Taxus Canadensis) mainly lives in the eastern mountains of North America. It is a creeping shrub, usually not more than 1 m in height, but it can spread up to 3-4 m in width. It is considered the most frost-resistant and least decorative, in winter time the needles take on a reddish tint.
The short-leaved tis (Taxus brevifolia) lives in the west of North America, in the south in the mountains at an altitude of about 2000 m, in the north along the banks of water bodies and in the lowlands. Usually it is a multi-trunk bush with a height of 10 m on average with a crown in the form of pins, and under unfavorable conditions it begins to climb. The shell, which covered the seeds, bright scarlet.
Norway yew (Taxus cuspidata) mainly grows in the Far East, for which it is also called “Far Eastern”. The first name is derived from the thorns at the ends of the needles. It has a dense spreading crown, on average reaches a height of 10 m, but under unfavorable conditions it creeps. This kind of cut down for the furniture industry because of the light red or pink wood.
These are not all types of yew trees, they count 8, but the most common among gardeners and designers were mentioned above.
This yew is considered to be the best plant for the formation of figures in landscape design, as the haircut provokes the growth of side shoots and the figure becomes more outlined. But this design will create only in areas with warm climates and weak frosts in winter. Basically yew is used to create the above-mentioned figures - balls, pyramids, hedges along the tracks.
The tree is best combined with rhododendrons and conifers with a different type of foliage - juniper, thuja, Japanese quince, pine. Fern and yew are also perfectly combined in landscape design, then the plot brings a forest atmosphere. The yew can also act as a background for rock gardens, a basis for topiary thanks to decorative needles.
In order to grow a yew in his summer cottage, it does not take much effort, but the shrub needs regular attention. First of all, find a place for the constant growth of yew. In the future, planting trees is possible, but it provokes a slowdown in growth. The older the pet, the less desirable the transplant. So, the place should be bright, but not under the direct rays of the sun, since in the spring the tops and young twigs often burn. Place the tree must be protected from the wind, so that the yew abundantly fruited and retains the decorative appearance.
As for the soil, it should be slightly acidic or alkaline, the soil should be light and nutritious. To do this, you can mix peat, clay, sand and coniferous forest land, it will provide additional intake of nitrogen and trace elements. So it's time to plant a young tree in the chosen place. It is better to do it in the period from late August to October.
- At the bottom of the dug pit poured a drainage layer of fragments of brick and sand.
- A finished sapling with a clod of earth in which there was a yew tree is placed in a pit about 70 cm deep.
- All fall asleep with prepared soil mixed with mineral fertilizers, the root collar is left at ground level.
After planting, water the plant, and then moisten the soil as needed. Yew loves moisture only during the period of active growth, in general, it is a drought-resistant plant. Care is the timely watering (about once every 2 weeks with the moistening of the crown) and the addition of nutrients. Watering is better in the evening, then the whole night the yew will be in moisture, and in the morning the soil around the soil is loosened for better air penetration and is mulched.
In late autumn, the soil around the tree is mulched with sawdust, peat or fallen leaves, a layer is 10 cm. The crown itself is wrapped with a rope and a spanbond, this will protect most of the seedling from freezing. Trees with a free-form crown tolerate winter better, with pointed and pyramidal trees often freeze tops.
With the arrival of spring, it is better to cover the crown for the first time from the bright sun, so that the young shoots are not burnt. Also use special mineral fertilizers, then the shoots wake up faster.
Tees tolerate even a strong haircut, so you can easily create shapes from it. Do not bother with complex outlines, it is better to choose something simple - cones, pyramids, balls, hedges. Pruning triggers the growth of lateral shoots, so after it you will notice how the crown becomes thicker. With proper care, you can get high beautiful trees.
It is very simple to decorate a garden with the help of a yew berry; you need only a little attention when growing and creating haircut. Surprise guests with the original decor of the site!
Description: varieties and varieties of yew berry
Yew berry is a unique coniferous culture:
- there are no bumps growing on it
- wood does not produce tar with a characteristic odor,
- the wood does not rot, does not sink and has a strong bactericidal effect.
- height - usually about 1 m,
- crown shape - oval, thick, has several tops,
- needles - up to 3.5 cm, flat and soft, dark green or yellow-green,
- in autumn, the branches are covered with bright scarlet berries,
- root - powerful and branched, able to drown out neighboring plants.
It is possible to pick up a suitable grade of a yew even according to a photo. Most requested:
- David. Kolonovodnoe tree up to 2 m in height with yellow needles. Loves the abundance of light, otherwise unpretentious in the care.
Attention! Culture is listed in the Red Book.
Yew berry: planting plants
Varieties of yew berry differ significantly in their liking. However, there are common features:
- For culture, light, nutritious and well-drained soil is needed. The substrate of peat and river sand (40% each) in combination with leaf turf (30%) has proven itself well.
- Acidity is not a fundamental parameter of the soil for the plant. The main thing that it was not sandy.
- Most varieties do not tolerate smoke, gases and heavy deposits in the ground of a big city.
- For the predominant number of varieties of yew, excess moisture in the soil is destructive.
Planting yew berry should be carried out only in spring. Make a hole in the ground about 0.7 m deep. For a single-row hedge, dig a trench about half a meter deep. Between seedlings should be at least 2 m. Place the plant in the hole, prikopite and water.
Care yew berry
This culture belongs to the north, and is generally able to cope with the vagaries of the Russian weather. Caring for her can be reduced to such aspects:
- Regular watering needs a plant in the first 2 seasons. Norm - 6-10 liters once a month for each tree. Your task is to keep the soil hydrated, but not overdo it. For example, do not water the tree if the summer is rainy. And vice versa: in drought, it is better to increase the rate slightly.
- Spray the needles to remove dust. This should be done a couple of times a month in addition to watering.
- The yew roots in the first 2-3 seasons urgently need access to air, therefore it is better to loosen the soil more often. Depth - up to 15 cm.
- In the first year of life in the open field, cover the tree-trunk area of the yew with peat or mulch from chips with a layer of at least 5 cm.
- Young trees should be insulated at the end of autumn with spruce branches. Adult plants do not need such care.
- Since the second year of life in the open field, yew required pruning. In early spring, shorten the branches by 1/3. Also remove damaged and dried shoots. Adult plants pruning more thorough, taking into account varietal characteristics.
Fertilizer and feeding yew berry
In the process of growing the plant requires several fertilizers:
- When landing. Before placing the seedling in the pit, add a universal mineral mixture - 100 g / sq.m.
- Repeated top dressing by the same complex - 70 g / sq.m.
- Annual fertilizer in spring with overheated organic matter - 1 time per season.
- Annual summer feeding with liquid mullein - 2 times a season.
Council Dig the top layer of soil before fertilizing.
Размножение растения на участке
Размножение тиса ягодного в открытом грунте можно осуществить черенками или семенами. Чтобы вырастить саженцы из семян потребуется не менее 1,5 лет. First, find the berries. They need to be plucked in the fall:
- Peel off the pulp. Dry it.
- Spend stratification. To do this, store in low humidity and temperature conditions of about +5 ° C.
- A year later, the seeds can be sown in fertile and loose soil, under the film. The soil in the pot must be covered with a layer of needles.
With this care, about 70% of the seeds should come to the spring. Without stratification, seedlings will have to wait at least three years. But instead of this procedure, chemical treatment can be used for seed multiplication: pour for 30 minutes. sulfuric acid, and then intensively wash. It is permissible to use both methods at once.
To get a breeding stalk at the beginning of autumn, find an adult branch and cut it into sections of 15-20 cm. At least 3 shoots should be kept on each branch. Remove the needles from the lower end of the branch and plant it in a container. Soil - peat, sand and chopped coniferous bark. Next spring trees can be rooted. In the open ground, they will grow in 7 years, in a greenhouse - in 5.
Diseases and pests of yew berry
When grown in a sunny place with proper care, the plant has strong immunity to various ailments. Sometimes yew berry disturb insects:
- yew leaves,
- yew undershield.
You can learn them by photo. Folk methods against them are not effective. In both cases, treat the wood with a 2% mixture of karbofos. In the fight against pseudo-shield will help prophylactic spraying nitrofenom before the swelling of the kidneys.
Yew berry: combination with other plants
Depending on the variety, yews can be used to create green hedges, borders, accents in the composition. They also cut out figures from the tree, which then keep their shape for a long time. The combination of yew berry with other flowering crops is almost always advantageous. The tree looks especially good in the company with juniper, western thuja, Japanese quince.
How to breed berry yew
Berry yew is propagated by seeds and by grafting.
Seed propagation is as follows:
- in the fall we gather seeds from the bushes and a tree, when the berries are fully ripe,
- immerse the berries in water, remove the top layer from them and separate the seeds. They need to be dried and sent to a stratification for a year. Without special preparation, seeds can lie in the ground for 4 years, until sprouting begins,
- stratification occurs in rooms with low humidity at a temperature of about 5 degrees,
- if the seeds are warm, germination will be zero,
- after preparation, the seeds should be sown in greenhouses, then they are mulched using needles.
Stratification can also be chemical. At the same time, the seeds are kept for about half an hour in sulfuric acid, then they are carefully washed and sown. This is necessary with the aim of somewhat weakening the thick shell of the seeds, and the sprout made its way easier. Cold and chemical stratification can be combined.
But by cutting the plant multiplies like this:
- choose the right time for grafting. This is usually the end of spring or the beginning-middle of autumn,
- you need to cut the cuttings to 15-20 cm in length on the basis of mature branches, they should be several shoots,
- remove the lower part of the needles and land on the boxes, they are transferred to the greenhouses for the winter,
- Pour the prepared soil into the boxes on the basis of peat mixed with each other, sand and chopped needles bark,
- Stimulate the growth of the roots of the cuttings,
- from cutting in the open ground, the tree will grow in about seven years, and in five, if it was a greenhouse.
Most yew varieties are disease resistant. These or other problems arise with improper care. It is extremely rare on the branches to start a yew galley or a false shield. In order to prevent their occurrence, it is necessary in the spring before the bud breaks to treat the bush entirely with special means.
Berry yew is often used in landscape design.. Many varieties of plants have a high decorative value, and thanks to trimming the crown, you can create different shapes or forms. The tree is often used to create landscape compositions in gardens and flowerbeds, as well as for landscaping squares and streets.
Since the berry yew has a long period of growth, it is becoming less and less in nature due to the fact that once it was spared and used to make furniture and vehicles. Currently, the plant is listed in the Red Book and is considered endangered.
Useful properties of yew berry and its description
Almost all parts of the plant carry substances that are difficult to find in any other plant in such composition and quantity. Seeds contain alkaloids and carbohydrates, and the leaves, bark and wood have an extraordinary variety of compounds unique to medicine: terpenoids, steroids, lignans, cyanogenic compounds, tannins, phenols, vitamins, anthocyanins, fatty acids, higher aliphatic alcohols.
Such a controversial composition is extraordinarily valuable for the manufacture of various medicinal preparations.
The yew is extraordinarily beautiful and decorative, except that it is a long-lived among the trees. Due to the deep penetration into the soil, the tree easily finds water for itself, the trunk can grow up to 2.5 meters, it has a reddish-brown bark, and the dense crown is painted in a bright green color, this combination of shades gives the tree a decorative effect and originality.
Pollination occurs in late spring, after which the seed buds are formed. As mentioned above, the berries, like all parts of the plant culture, carry strong toxins, and only the seed is not the poisonous part.
Growth in yew nature is associated with so many places on the planet. It is found in Europe, and, in all its areas, except the North. Yew in the form of a bush grows in Iran, the African forests, in the Crimea, the Carpathians, in the Caucasus, in the Baltic States and the Kaliningrad region. In Scotland, the oldest among the representatives of this species is the Fortingelian yew. Legend has it that under the shadow of this evergreen, Pontius Pilate was lying as a child.
As you see, yew is not just an ordinary plant, it is a unique culture with its own history and legendary past.
Variety of yew berry
The yew family is very numerous and has about 800 species and varieties in its arsenal, but the most famous are the Canadian species, the sharp-pointed species, the berry species referred to in this article and the average. There are also intermediate species. Any of them is able to give the garden plot a unique look, create a living fence, fence, define a recreation area and recreate a paradise. The most popular varieties are: Fastigiata Aurea, short Semperaurea, Repandens, Hicksti, Eleganceissim, Taxus baccata, David, Iglitsa Kolkhi, Fastigiata, Summergold, Repandens. All of these members of the family are extremely attractive, they can be used to decorate rocky hills, ponds, alleys.
How to care for the yew berry and properly plant it
In order for your yarn to grow for a long time and look at everything “100%”, you must provide it with well-fertilized soil.
- The pit should be prepared by special rules and provide it with peat, sand, turfy or leafy ground. On acidity, it should not exceed the neutral pH, on the basis of this, it should be deoxidized, if the acidity level does not meet the requirements. To do this, apply lime, ash, chalk. The size of the landing pit should be at least 80 cm.
- Planting yew berry should be carried out in early spring, and if you decided to plant a whole alley, then you need to keep the necessary distance between plantings, it should not be less than two. The root collar is not buried, but left flush with the soil.
- In the event that the yews land like a hedge, then the landing rules change somewhat. The trench is about half a meter wide in advance. It will be planted from her yew in one or two rows. It is necessary to lay in the pit, along with the components laid according to the rules, and complex mineral fertilizers.
- After planting the seedlings, the ground is slightly compacted and watered abundantly. In general, attention should be paid to the fact that the bushes must be watered abundantly every month during the first two years. At least one plant should leave at least a bucket of water. Care for young stockings requires loosening for the first three years, then these measures are not necessary.
Care, as you can see, is required only at first, until the bush grows a powerful root system, then watering and loosening can be avoided; the plant will be able to find water for itself without your help. Further, only partial pruning will be needed, treatment from pests and diseases, if any of them show shelter for the winter, although many varieties perfectly tolerate frosts down to -25 degrees without a special construction.
How yew berry multiplies
Yis can be propagated with the help of seedlings, that is, from seeds and cuttings. The first method is the longest, and if you have a lot of patience and time, you can use it, but the second method is considered faster and more efficient. In order to carry out the reproduction of yew cuttings, you should take the twigs that grow upwards. Only shoots with vertical growth will grow a normal tree, horizontal cuttings will give low and wide bushes, and not a yew - a candle.
- Preparation of cuttings begins no later than October, but earlier than September, it is useless to take cuttings. In the proposed period shoots gloriously rooted. It is necessary to take cuttings, the length of which is not more than 16 cm, it is better if it will be five-year shoots. The needles are removed from their lower part and then they are landed in special containers. To prepare the soil will require peat and sand in proportions of 1: 2. Boxes can be stored both at home and in the greenhouse, as long as the weather permits. The soil periodically needs to be wetted so that the cuttings can root safely. Approximately in half a year you will be able to get saplings ready for planting.
- Seed propagation will require more time, however, it will also provide the necessary material for planting. Seeds are collected in the fall and immediately sown in prepared boxes of soil. This method has its own complexity, the fact is. That the landing boxes should be stored at a temperature not exceeding +5 degrees. An ideal place would be the basement of the house, where the humidity of the air and the required temperature conditions are constant. Seed material requires stratification and certain storage conditions, and the result will be a meter-long tree in 30 years. So is it worth spending precious time on such a long process that, in truth, is not popular with gardeners.
Based on the duration of growth, seedlings of yew berry, sold in specialized stores are not cheap, so many gardeners prefer to grow it with their own hands and use for this purpose cuttings.
As applied yew berry
- Many preparations are made on the basis of the natural properties of this noble, but dangerous tree. Its application in the field of classical homeopathy is widely known throughout the world. Many pharmaceutical companies use the toxic properties of yew for the benefit of man. On the basis of its needles, tinctures, decoctions, ointments and gels are prepared, which help to relieve pain in the gastrointestinal tract, cough, skin diseases, headaches and rheumatism are treated.
- Yew wood was used in the construction of ships, in the carpentry craft, it does not rot and serves for a very long time, which is why today the yew population is so small.
- For landscape designers, yew is a durable beautiful landscaping element, the main figure in many natural compositions. He is perfectly amenable to pruning and shaping. You can create any figure from a yew: a circle, a cube, a natural sculpture building. It is a beautiful living fence or fence, and trimmed hedges look neat and very attractive.
- In folk medicine, the tree has also found a wide application, but at the same time it requires caution and is used according to a special scheme; otherwise, severe poisoning and a sad outcome are possible. It is used during irradiation and after chemotherapy treatment. A strict scheme implies the use of tincture only with the permission of the attending physician and strictly drop by drop.
Growing a yew in my backyard is a fascinating and exciting activity. Seeing how your pet grows, you unwittingly join the eternity, history of the Earth, humanity. You understand how human life is fleeting in comparison with some representatives of the plant world, so you begin to appreciate even more every moment that you have been given to live in this beautiful world.
What is yew
Coniferous evergreen yew tree has red fruits that are deadly danger to people and animals. Poisoning a person may have the following symptoms: abdominal pain, vomiting, nausea, loss of consciousness. When ingested poisonous seeds, taxin negatively affects heart activity, stops breathing, and causes severe irritation of the mucous membranes of the digestive tract.
What nutrients does an evergreen tree contain? The seed and fleshy roofs of a plant consist of alkaloids and carbohydrates, and the composition of leaves, bark and wood is endowed with such compounds as:
- terpenoids (taksin),
- steroids (sitosterol, campesterol),
- cyanogenic compounds (toxylline),
- phenols and their derivatives,
- higher fatty acids
- higher aliphatic alcohols.
Yew berry - photo and description
Beautiful plant presented in the photo - yew. Coniferous tree with red berries is a long-lived among the trees. Its roots are covered with mycorrhiza and penetrate deep into the soil. The size of the trunk with brownish-red bark can grow up to 2.5 meters. The dense form of the crown is underlined by a rich green color with a dark shade. The yew tree has single seed buds and is pollinated in the last months of spring. An interesting fact is that all parts of the plant (including yew berries and anther cones) are poisonous, except for the princeman.
Yew berry - where grows
This photo shows a yew plant, the growing places of which are Southern, Western and Central Europe. Bushes can be found in the forests of Africa and Iran, on the territory of the Crimean mountains, the Carpathians, in the Caucasus Nature Reserve, Belarus, Lithuania, Estonia, Latvia, the Baltic States. In Russia, you can find a plant in the Kaliningrad region. One of the oldest European trees is the Poringel yew tree, which lives in Scotland. According to the legends, Pontius Pilate himself rested under the crown of a beautiful tree when he was a child.
Varieties of yew
This family has 800 species, and the most common varieties are: Canadian, spiky, berry, medium. There are interspecific hybrid plants. Below is a list of the most popular species that are used to form magnificent green hedges and living fences in home gardens. Interesting varieties of yew berry that will help create a paradise on your site:
- Fastigiata Aurea,
- undersized Semperaurea,
- Repandens spreads on the ground
- Hicksti (round bush),
- Taxus vacata,
- Colchian Igitsa,
The tree of the Yew family grows slowly and has a thin red-brown bark. The yew berry taxus baccata begins flowering in early spring (March, April). The plant feels great in the shade and prefers a soil rich in nutrients. However, the tree is not too demanding. From too acidic soil, the plant may die. Tees perfectly tolerate severe frost, high humidity, noisy climate of the city and windy weather.
For small ornamental gardens you need to choose a special variety. Tees david is the owner of yellow needles. Fans of creating figures from plants should be aware that David is easily amenable to forming patterns and haircuts. The place to create a composition should be chosen in the sun, because the color of the needles changes from the shadow - it becomes light green. In winter, the plant does not need special care, David is unpretentious and cold-resistant.
Yew berry feasts
The graceful form in the form of a narrow column has a yew fastygiata. The shade of its needles depends on the time of year: the rich dark green needles change the color of the branches to a lighter one. Gardeners should take into account the size of the plant: height is 5 meters, width - 2 meters, so you need to think in advance a place for planting. The variety fruits abundantly with fleshy red fruits. Seeds of park trees ripen in the fall.
Wonderful yew berry eleganticissim at the age of ten has a height of 1 meter with a diameter of one and a half meters! Outwardly it resembles a coniferous ball, has a light yellow color of needles, which whitens in the autumn period. Of particular danger are all parts of the eleganceimma, except prisemyannikov red. Among animals, deer and horses may suffer the most if they use the needles inside. Элегантиссима имеет некоторые отличия от других сортов – его околоплодники выглядят, как бокалы с ярко-красным окрасом.
Тис ягодный саммерголд
Ярко-золотистая хвоя с желтоватыми иголками выделяет тис золотистый среди других собратьев. Благодаря цвету сорт получил название саммерголд, что по-русски значит «золотое лето». Крона тиса имеет забавную форму подушки. Когда возраст растения достигает 10 лет, высота достигает показателя 80 см. The inadequacy of the variety is the inability to tolerate aridity of the soil. Appearance and resistance to frost provided summergold one of the main places on the green areas of beautiful parks, on flower avenues.
Yew berry repence
Decorative yew berry Repandens is widely known among gardeners and landscape designers. It is not high, and in adulthood it barely reaches 50 cm. The arc form of needles looks like an original image. The plant does not tolerate full shading and ceases to grow. To make you happy day after day, he needs moisture, sun or partial shade. Because of the solemn, elegant appearance, berry repaints are used to decorate alpine gardens, pebble gardens, river banks and ponds.
Yew berry - care and landing
For better growth of the bush is suitable carefully fertilized soil. Composition for planting may include: part of peat, sand, turf or leaf soil. The acidity of the soil should be weak or with a neutral pH. Planting yew in the autumn is not carried out, the plant is planted in early spring. The indent between future yews should be at least 2 m. The place where the stalk enters the root should be set flush with the top layer of soil, and the planting hole should be dug at least 70 cm in size.
If the reason for planting and leaving the yew is the formation of a hedge, then it is worthwhile to dig a trench of 0.5 meters in advance to plant the yew in one row. If you need two rows, the depth of the trench will increase to 75 cm. The mineral fertilizer complex is introduced into the soil during planting, as well as in spring. The rules of care are as follows: water the bush 1 time, every month, for 2 years. Watering should be carried out regularly, but not less than 10 liters under one plant. Loosening around the bush is necessary only for the first 3 years.
The process of breeding yew is divided into two types and depends on whether you have free time. Suitable for breeding cuttings and seedlings. Summer residents advise choosing cuttings, because seed germination can take a long time. If the branches of the plant are directed upwards, then from the cuttings will be trees with vertical growth. When rooting cuttings from horizontal branches, spreading, wide, low bushes are formed.
Yew - reproduction cuttings
In ornamental shrubs of yew, reproduction occurs by cutting, vegetatively. Not earlier than September, but not later than October, the summer residents start harvesting cuttings. Upon the occurrence of this period, matured shoots will be able to take root. Considered suitable cuttings length of 16-17 cm. For reproduction, you need to take five-year shoots, because the annual branches will be difficult to root. It is necessary to remove the needles at the bottom and place them in the ground with sand and peat (2: 1). Boxes move to the greenhouse or ordinary room. April-May is considered to be the months for grafting.
The plant can be propagated with the help of seeds that need to be harvested in the fall and immediately sown. You can wait for spring to implement spring planting. The method of propagation by seeds involves storing them until spring in places with low humidity at a temperature of +5 degrees. Yew seeds require stratification (imitation of winter conditions) every six months. Seed propagation of yew is not popular. After 30 years, the tree will grow just one meter. This is a long process that requires patience and time.
Application of yew
The plant is not intended for ingestion due to its natural toxic properties, but people still have found use - the use of berry yew in classical homeopathy. Preparations are prepared on the basis of tincture of pine needles, which helps with headaches, chronic laryngitis, coughing after eating, problems with digestion, with painful urination. Broth needles can be applied externally with dermatitis, erysipelas, pustular rash, rheumatism, cutaneous mycosis, gout, for the treatment of scabies.
In ancient times, English bows were made of plants, which were used in battles. The viscosity of the wood made yew the best material in the construction of ships, plumbing, carpentry, because the bark of the tree does not rot and is famous for its durability. The beneficial properties of yew wood caused an incredible demand for a plant on the market and, as a result, complete destruction. Today, the berry yew is distributed as a greening element, serves as an ornamental plant, and is used in figured compositions.
Yew in landscape design - photo
Often used evergreen yew in landscape design by gardeners. Flowering begins at the end of April. The plant can be in the shade, not experiencing a lack of light, can be trimmed, suitable for use as living fences, delicately trimmed hedges. With the help of this shrub your garden will be transformed into a wonderful hall of figured compositions from living plants: exactly trimmed cubes, round-shaped balls and even whole sculptures.
Yew in traditional medicine
At home, you can prepare a tool that will help with tumors after chemotherapy, radiation. To prepare the recipe, you need to find 150 g of dry yew branches with bark and put them in a saucepan or a 1.5-liter bottle. Cover with vodka, tightly close the lid. Insist 2 months in a dark place with room temperature. Do not expose tincture to sunlight.
The plant yew in traditional medicine should be applied on a very strict scheme due to its toxicity. Drops must be diluted in 30 ml of water, drink before meals. If nausea occurs, water should be replaced with infusion of lemon balm or mint. Before use, the tincture needs to be shaken, and the pipette should be changed once a week. Before taking do not forget to consult with a phytotherapeutist oncologist. The regimen of yew tincture is:
- In the first week, drink 3 drops, morning and evening.
- In the second week, increase the dose to 5 drops, take 3 times a day.
- In the third week, drink 7 drops 3 times a day.
- Gradually reach 25 drops 3 times a day.
- Drink medicine for 2 months.
- Start alternating: one month for 10 drops, the next for 25 drops.
Yew berry and its varieties
Yew berry on the photo
Yew berry, or European, can grow in the form of a rather large tree or shrub. The largest yew trees grow in the Caucasus - up to 27 m tall. They have an ovoid-cylindrical, multi-vertex, rather dense crown. The needles are dark green, shiny.
The berry is bright red, surrounding the seed to the very top.
The history of the culture of this yew has a millennium. Currently, he has more than a hundred different forms, many of which can grow with us.
The most interesting varieties of berry yew are:
Tees "Dovastonian" on the photo
"Dovastoniana" - reaches a maximum height of 5 m. The crown is quite dense, spreading. The form is widely known and popular all over the world. It is used in a variety of ways: singly and in groups, including for curly hairstyle,
Yew "Fastigiata" on the photo
"Fastigiata" - has a wide-column-shaped crown, reaching a height of 5 m, quite hardy.
Yew as a hedge in the photo
As can be seen in the photo, this sort of yew of the European species is used for hedgerows and singly
Semperaurea - grows in the form of a dense bush with upward shoots up to 2 m high. The needles are about 2 cm long, golden yellow. The famous and popular form with an unusual color. Used for single planting, hedges,
Yew "Compact" in the photo
"Compact" slow-growing form with an oval or conical crown with raised branches and dark green needles. Good for small alpine slides.
Other species and varieties of yew
Below you can find photos and descriptions of other types of yew tree.
Yew capit on photo
Yew capitate - A tree with bare brownish-green shoots. The bark of the trunks is gray, flaking. He likes friable, well-moistened soils. It is decorative with wide dark green needles, shiny from above, with two light stripes from below. Good cuttings.
Yew spiky on the photo
Yew spiky, or Far Eastern, grows in the mountains of the Far East and on Sakhalin in the form of a high (up to 20 m) tree and spreading shrubs. It has frost-resistant forms capable of transferring the climate of central Russia without damage. The needles of this species are 2-3 cm long and lighter than those of the berry yew, turning brown in the autumn.
For two years, it retains soft-pink berries with a whitish bloom, which cover the seed only up to half of its length.
Yew spiky on the photo
The decorative form of the yew pointed is “Nana”. This is a dwarf plant with a beautiful dense crown and succulent dark green needles. Reaches 1 m in height and 3 m in diameter of the crown.
Yew canadian on photo
Yew canadian frost resistance exceeds all other species. In nature, it grows with a low shrub height of not more than 2 m. The needles are rather short, 1.5-2.0 cm. Bright red berries cover most of the seed. It has decorative forms, very promising for Russia.
The yew average takes intermediate position between a yew peaked and Canadian. Known for its popular decorative forms:
Tees "Hilly" on the photo
"Hilley" - grows in the form of a dense wide pyramidal tree up to 5 m high with a crown diameter of up to 3 m. Very good for cutting, cold-resistant,
Tees "Hixie" in the photo
"Hixie" - reaches a height of 1.5-3 m with a width of just over a meter. The crown is columnar, dense. In popularity is not inferior to the previous form, because possesses outstanding decorative qualities and frost resistance.
Look at the photo - this sort of yew is used both in sunny places and in the shade, including for hedges:
Conditions for growing yew, planting and care in the open field
For ease of care when planting yew should choose the right place. It is advisable to plant a yew tree right where you will shape it. Although it tolerates transplantation well, it reacts to it every time by slowing down its already weak growth rate. The older the tree, the less desirable transplant.
When planting, the size of the pit under the plant should be commensurate with the dimensions of the future tree. Dwarf forms with enough diameter and depth of 50 cm, large - a larger size.
When planting and caring for a yew in open ground, keep in mind that different species differ somewhat in their soil preferences, but a medium substrate can be considered a medium loamy, highly humus neutral or slightly alkaline reaction. A variant of the substrate can be a mixture of garden loam or sod land and humus in a ratio of 3: 1. At the same time add wood ash.
Carefully approach the choice of location. The proximity of groundwater is unacceptable, protection from cold winds by buildings or relief is desirable. In this sense, the western and southern gentle slopes with the accumulation of a large amount of snow are good.
During the cultivation and care of the yew tree, remember that for the first six to seven years the tree grows very slowly. Its growth is significantly accelerated after 7-8 years, when annual growths can reach 15 cm or more upwards and about the same in breadth.
Plant care is to maintain soil moisture and fertility. Drought is watered once every two weeks with krone irrigation. It is advisable to water in the evening, then the plants will be in the humid atmosphere useful to them until the morning. A good technique, as for other conifers, is the mulching of the root zone.
One of the important conditions for growing yew is aeration of the soil. Tees love breathable soils, so loosening should be regular. But you should not do it deeply, but only to destroy the crust that appears.
In autumn, tree trunks are useful to cover with fallen leaves of ornamental trees. A favorable consequence of this technique, in addition to improving aeration and enhancing the activity of earthworms, is the improvement of wintering conditions. Shelter bushes in central Russia is unnecessary, except when too late planting.
A free-growing yew tree often has a sparse, uneven crown. Dense crowns have mostly decorative forms. Meanwhile, both are suitable for a hairstyle equally. From the squat spreading plants can form a "pillow". And vice versa, the aspiring up tree is more suitable for creating vertical figures. Do not get involved in the complexity of outlines. “Pillows”, balls, pyramids or spindle-shaped crowns look no less impressive. The main thing is that the surface of the haircut should be perfectly smooth.
Yew has a high sparing ability, therefore any shortening causes intense tillering. Do not resort to heavy pruning. And then you will be pleased to see how the crown will thicken more and more.