One of the most beautiful forest plants - May lilies of the valley. The description of this delicate white flower is often found in poets and novelists, it is painted on the canvases by artists. It has many popular names: bunny ears, wolf violet, silversmith. The flower grows in deciduous and pine forests, creating extensive white-green meadows during the May flowering period.
Lilies of the valley. Description of the species
Forest lily is a perennial herb. The area of its growth is practically the whole territory of Europe, Siberia, the Far East, as well as the Japanese islands. True, some experts rank Japanese and Far Eastern flowers as another subtype.
According to the botanical classification, the May lily of the valley belongs to the class of monocotyledonous plants, and the lily family (Convallaria belonged to it earlier) has recently been replaced by the family of asparagus. The main reason is the discrepancy between the fruit of this flower and the characteristic species for the family. A true lily fruit has a box, and a lily has a berry.
Reproduction in nature
Reproduction takes place with the help of the root system. The roots are very thin and quite long. Possessing a large ability to branch during growth, the root zone of a konvaliya can quickly form a single glade from one planted bush. At the same time, where lily of the valley grows, other herbaceous plants are practically absent, as it completely displaces them. Life expectancy is more than forty years.
From the root starts to grow an escape from two leaves, enclosed in a rosette. The leaves are elongated and pointed at the tips, juicy, bright green. In the root area are framed with small scales. In the first year after the appearance of the leaves of flowering does not happen. A flower appears only in the second or even third year.
Lilies of the valley have gentle white, fragrant flowers. Appear depending on the place of growth in May or June. First, a thin green arrow, a peduncle, begins to grow from a sheet rosette. On it gradually appear small green buds that form one-sided loose floral brush. The flowers themselves have the shape of a six-toothed bell white. The plant blooms for a long time - 2-3 weeks. After flowering, fruits are tied in the form of an orange-red berry. They reach full maturity by early September. Lily of the valley berries are poisonous.
Variety of varieties
Convalia is a fairly popular garden flower. It has been cultivated since the 16th century and by now quite a lot of varieties have been developed. They are distinguished by a rich color of the flower, for example, the variety Rosea has a delicate pink bell, as well as the number of flowers on the peduncle, for example, in the variety Flore Plena there are a very large number. In addition, there are lilies of the valley, which remain beautiful even after the end of flowering. For example, Convallária Albostriata has large green leaves with white veins. They are widely used to decorate flower beds, which are located in the shade.
How to grow it in your own garden?
In nature, lilies of the valley grow in the forest, in the meadows and forest edges. How to grow lily of the valley in your garden? The planting of this flower is made in autumn, but it can be planted in spring. For planting is selected shaded area of the garden. Since the flower is propagated by the root system, this method is more preferable. However, it is permissible to plant a flower with the help of seeds.
Where does lily grow? It can grow on almost any soil, but is poorly accepted in wetlands. When planting, the embedding depth of the root process is also taken into account: it should not exceed three centimeters. Also, it is not recommended to thicken the planting - this can lead to the defeat of seedlings with gray mold.
Plant care is simple. Lilies of the valley, the description of which characterizes them as shade-tolerant and frost-resistant plants, like abundant watering and periodic fertilizing with mineral fertilizers. It must be remembered that konvaliya can quickly multiply. Therefore, the plantation, where the lily of the valley grows, must be cleaned and thinned at least 1 time in 2 or 3 years. Otherwise, flowering may stop.
Lily of the valley is a medicinal plant. In all its parts contains a large number of cardiac glycosides, which are characterized by high cardiological and biochemical activity. These are mainly convallotoxin and convallozide. In addition to good therapeutic properties, they are unstable, therefore, do not accumulate in human organs and tissues. Therefore, the extracts obtained in the processing of plant materials are used in medicines for the treatment of heart diseases. In addition, konvaliya has a good sedative effect, therefore it is often prescribed in herbal collections in combination with valerian, motherwort, hawthorn and their analogues.
How to collect and dry this medicinal plant?
Lilies of the valley, a description of the pharmaceutical properties of which confirms that it is a valuable medicinal plant, are harvested in almost all regions. For this, almost all of its ground part is used. The exception is the lily of the valley berries. They are poisonous and are not used in traditional medicine.
The main time of preparation falls on the period of active flowering. It is better to do it in dry weather after the dew has come down. Since the flower is under the protection of the state, there are strict rules for its collection. It is forbidden to pluck the plant so that the root system is not damaged. It can only be trimmed with a knife. At the same time, the height of the left stem should not be less than 5 cm. If flowers are being prepared, not the whole brush is cut off. From the bottom flower you need to surround at least 3 cm. If lilies of the valley are going in the forest, it is forbidden to cut off all the plants in the meadow. Allowable cutting at the rate of one plant per square meter.
The description of the drying method is very simple. The grass is laid out for drying on the day of gathering, preventing wilting, since all its useful substances are lost. It is better to do this in specialized electric dryers. In their absence, dried in well ventilated areas until ready. After stored in canvas bags in a dry dark place.
Classification of lily of the valley
The first description of the lily of the valley as a kind belongs to Linnaeus. In the XVIII century, the plant was attributed to the lilies and was named Lilium convalium, which in Latin means “Lily of the valley”. Then, scientists have repeatedly changed the affiliation of a culture to a particular section of the generally accepted classification.
At the moment, lilies of the valley, like other plants well-known to gardeners, for example, kupena, poultry lamb and polyantes, belong to the extensive Asparagaceae family (Asparagaceae). The modern name of the flower has also changed.
Lily of the valley today became known as Convallaria or Convallaria. In the people lily of the valley is also known by other names, for example, forest bell, mayan or forest lily, smooth, young, meadow meadow, dog tongue or hare ears.
Although officially only botanists recognize the European variety Lily of the Valley, the populations growing in the north and east of Asia, as well as in the North American continent, are increasingly recognized as independent.
At the same time, differences in the appearance of plants are minimal, however, the considerable distance of habitats and the lack of communication between them is a good reason for talking about the presence of three, and sometimes even four species of lily of the valley:
- May lily of the valley (C. majalis), which lives almost everywhere on the European continent,
- lily of the valley Keizke (C. keiskei), growing in the Far East, in China and Mongolia, and also found in the west of Hindustan.
- mountain lily of the valley (C. montana), occupying wooded areas in the eastern United States,
- Transcaucasian lily of the valley (C. transcaucasica), growing in the Caucasus, Transcaucasia, including the territory of Turkey.
Where grows lily of the valley
Lily of the valley is unpretentious, we have excellent adaptability, therefore, managed to get along in a variety of climatic zones and natural conditions. At the same time everywhere the plant:
- shows high shade tolerance,
- prefers nutrient rich soils
- poorly tolerated drought.
In nature, lily of the valley can be found in deciduous and mixed, less often in pine forests. The rapid development of the aerial parts and flowering occur at a time when the soil is still filled with melt water, the foliage on the trees and shrubs has not yet fully opened, and the grass has not risen. In such conditions, wintering rhizomes provide perennials with everything necessary for growth. And in just a few years a dense curtain appears on the site of just a few outlets of smooth, oblong-elliptical leaves.
Given the ability to seize new territories, in the gardens where lily of the valley grows, the area for it must be strictly limited. Otherwise, the plant may for several seasons supplant other useful crops.
Despite endurance and adaptability, all wild species of lily of the valley are threatened with extermination. The reason lies not only in the beauty of flowers and strong aroma, but also in the beneficial properties of the plant. Therefore, in Russia, and in a number of European countries and in the US state of Kentucky, the species is taken under official protection.
What does lily of the valley look like? Description
Blooming lily of the valley is well known to many. However, a perennial herbaceous crop is not only elegant flowers, bells and leathery smooth leaves.
Most of the plant, namely the branched powerful root system, is hidden shallowly beneath the ground. Due to the horizontal light brown rhizomes and numerous small roots extending from them, lily of the valley:
- it winters well and even when the ground freezes, it quickly recovers,
- one of the first to wake up with the onset of spring heat,
- successfully propagated vegetatively.
The aboveground part of the plant consists of shortened shoots and rosettes of leaves. Moreover, the lowermost, undeveloped leaf plates are often located under a layer of soil. As they grow, real leaves appear. At first they are rolled up into a dense tube, which gradually rises above the ground and opens. Broadly smooth leafy plates are painted in saturated green color, have longitudinal venation and pointed tips.
When two or three leaves are fully formed, the development of the bud begins, turning into a slender flowering shoots, bearing immediately from 6 to 20 round buds. Plant height depends on the type and variety. Wild plants, as a rule, are more modest than garden specimens, and European lilies of the valley, not exceeding 15–20 cm, are lower than their Asian and Transcaucasian counterparts, growing to 30–50 cm in height.
Since flowering occurs on the buds laid back in the previous season, its opulence depends on the quality of care and the growth conditions created for the lily of the valley.
In wild and many cultivated varieties, perianth-flowers have a simple, resembling a miniature bell-shaped form. Inside the rounded calyx, from 4 to 9 mm high, there are six stamens and a short pistil.
The first lilies of the valley open at the bottom of the stem, then comes the turn of the middle and upper buds.
Depending on the climatic and weather conditions, this can happen from the second decade of May to June. On average, flowering lasts from two to three weeks.
How lily of the valley breeds
If the weather is not too hot, white fragrant bells cover the entire brush and do not fade for a long time, making it possible to form a lot of ovaries. When lilies of the valley bloom, the air is filled with an incredibly strong fragrance. It is the smell that attracts a lot of bees and other pollinators to flowers.
The success of insects leads to the appearance of rounded berries, as they ripen, increase in size and change color from green to brown, and then, by the middle of summer, to bright orange or red. Inside the fruit is divided into three chambers, containing 1–2 large seeds.
Berries do not hurry to fall off and often become food for birds and rodents. Due to this lilies of the valley successfully appear where previously this plant has not been encountered. However, this method of reproduction is hardly suitable for those who want to see the flowers of the lily of the valley not in the photo, but in their own garden.
If lily of the valley is grown from seed, the plant will bloom only after 6-7 years. Therefore, flower growers prefer to use vegetative propagation of the culture using root cuttings.
After transfer to a new place, a strong Delenka with leaf buds rooted quickly rooted and, with proper care, after 1-2 years, will delight you with fragrant flowers, bluebells.
Types and varieties of lilies of the valley with photos of flowers
Graceful fragrant flowers have long attracted the attention of man. Long before Linnaeus, the lily of the valley was known to the peoples who inhabited the modern countries of Europe, Russia, and Asia. This is evidenced by the mention of plants in the legends of the ancient Romans and Germans, Slavic tribes, as well as the use of culture for medicinal purposes.
From the XVI – XVII centuries, when the fashion for bouquets and the decoration of costumes and hairstyles with flowers arose in France and other countries, lilies of the valley turned out to be very useful. Not only did they perfectly cut themselves, but they also served as a natural flavoring, a kind of perfume that masks unpleasant odors.
The demand for flowers turned out to be so great that the plants from the forest moved to the gardens and flower beds. Thanks to a careful selection, large-flowered varieties of Convallaria grandiflora appeared already then. These plants are distinguished by slender peduncles towering above the green foliage and bearing up to 20 large white buds.
Another achievement of breeders is the appearance of lilies of the valley, the flowers of which are painted not in traditionally white, but in pale pink or lilac shade. The photo gives a visual representation of what Lily of the Valley looks like. Convallaria Rosea.
Unwilling to dwell on the result, enthusiasts of this amazing spring crop created a group of varieties of Convallaria Prolificans with terry corolla. The brushes of these plants look especially magnificent, while retaining both firmness and a wonderful aroma.
No less in demand among lovers of garden flowers are lilies of the valley with original foliage. These are variegated forms, the leaf plates of which, depending on the variety, are decorated with strokes, stripes or strokes of contrasting tones.
Garden lily of the valley varieties Hardwick Hall stands out with leaves with a broad, non-uniform border of yellow color.
Lily of the valley plants Albostriata are doubly decorative during flowering, and after it remain incredibly attractive thanks to bright leaf plates covered with longitudinal stripes of a yellow shade.
More gold highlights on the leaves of the Aurea variety. On some leaf plate greens, color remains only in the form of thin strips, the rest is painted in milky yellow tones. Light, as in the photo of lily of the valley flowers, can be shoots bearing flowers.
Using lily of the valley in May
In the garden lilies of the valley are actively used for landscaping areas under crowns of trees and tall shrubs. May flowering allows you to revive the territory, while large plants have not yet entered into full force.
A perennial groundcover culture does not require special care, it easily overwinter in the European part of Russia, it is perfectly combined with such popular species as aquilegia, irises, flowering a little earlier than scilla. At the same time, by the middle of summer the decorativeness of the lilies of the valley falls. To maintain the freshness of the foliage, the plant is watered, and experts recommend cutting the remaining flower stalks with the resulting berries so as not to weaken the flowering next year.
Lilies of the valley can be grown in indoor conditions, as well as to achieve the early appearance of flowers by planting healthy rhizomes stored in the pot in the pot.
If lilies of the valley are collected for a bouquet, it is better to give preference to brushes that have not fully opened. Cutting is carried out in the morning or evening when there is no direct sunlight. Because of the strong smell of flowers lily of the valley should not be left in the living room, especially in children's and bedrooms.
Features lily of the valley
These flowers are a perennial herb.. This seemingly fragile plant on a thin stem is very resistant to changes in weather conditions and temperature changes. The flower is spread over the territory of countries with a temperate climate, prefers moist shady terrain.
When describing, a dark green stalk dotted with white small bells and a large, flat, smooth leaf appear immediately. The height of the flower does not exceed thirty centimeters, and a thin horizontal rhizome allows it to firmly hold in the soil. A few basal leaves and a flower arrow appear above the soil. The leaves have an oblong ellipse shape, painted in bright green. Flower arrow ends with a brush of small bells. On one stalk blooms from six to twenty flowers. There are several subspecies of lilies of the valley, which differ in size and color of flowers. Окрас колеблется от молочно-белого до светло-сиреневого. После периода цветения на стебле появляются круглые красно-оранжевые плоды.
Начинает цвести растение в начале мая, период цветения длится двадцать-двадцать пять дней. Оно устойчиво к влаге – может долго не увядать, находясь в воде. Поэтому букетами цветов часто украшают жилые комнаты. Аромат растения нежный, но хорошо ощущаемый. It is necessary to have vases with its bouquets in ventilated rooms, as their smell can cause migraines in sensitive people.
Where do lilies of the valley grow? The flower distribution area covers all countries of Europe, the Caucasus, part of Asia and North America. This shade-loving plant prefers to grow in coniferous, deciduous or mixed forests. You can see the meadows and edges, littered with white bells. A fertile, well-moistened soil is necessary for good flower development.
On untouched by human habitats lily of the valley grows rapidly and intensively. The plant has long been home, gardeners have learned to cultivate it many years ago. Were obtained new varieties, characterized by larger or double flowers, as well as their color.
A plant that lives near human settlements is almost constantly destroyed. This is due to its frequent collection as a medicinal raw material and due to trampling during frequent visits to forests by people. That is why the flower was listed in the Red Book.
Description of varieties of lily of the valley
Scientists share a flower into several subspecies.. Among the most popular are three varieties:
May lily of the valley - It is a perennial plant with three to six leaves and white small flowers. On a thin stalk there are up to fifteen snow-white bells with a pleasant strong aroma. This is the most famous species of lily of the valley, which is common both in the wild and in cultivated gardens. It is used for medicinal purposes and perfumery.
Flowers can be seen in well-lit forests. lily of the valley. This plant is widely distributed in Asia and the Far East. The flower grows mainly near the moss or felling. What does lizard of the valley look like? Unlike the May variety, Keizke has larger milky-white flowers and almost the same length of a pedicle. The flowering period of the plant begins a little later - in late May or early June.
Mountain flower variety occurs most often in the countries of America. Features of the description of this subspecies - many large dark green leaves and unusual shape of the bract. At the same length of the pedicels, white elongated flower buds appear, which open into a wide bell. In the Caucasus, you can find the mountain of Transcaucasian lily. This is a rather rare plant variety, featuring very large and wide white flowers. The Transcaucasian variety prefers to grow in the shade of bushes and in open glades. Blossoming weakens in bright light. This subspecies easily take root in home gardens.
How to grow a forest lily of the valley in a garden flowerbed
For the first time cultivate a wild flower began five centuries ago. First, the plant began to breed gardeners in Germany, and later it began to appear on the backyards of other European countries. The aroma of lilies growing in the garden attracts a lot of bees, which greatly improves the yield of garden shrubs and trees. It is growing at home that saves the plant from extinction in the wild.
Before planting in the garden, you must make sure that the plant does not harm anyone. Cats and small children can suffer from poison, which is contained in all parts of the flower. Toxins harm the digestive, circulatory and nervous systems. First of all, you need to prepare the soil for the plant. A shaded area is selected, shielding it with a decorative barrier. The flower grows quickly and can take a fairly large area in a short time, so you should fence a flower bed with garden stones or bricks.
Planting lily of the valley involves pre-tillage. It must be drained and treated with organic fertilizers. Cool moist, slightly acidic soil, prepared a year before planting a lily of the valley, will be the ideal habitat and development of the flower. Planted cuttings need at least twenty centimeters from each other. Sprouts with a rounded top bloom in the first year.
Immediately after planting, the plant must be watered abundantly. The soil should always be wet, as the flower almost does not tolerate drought. At the end of the summer, the plant is fed with liquid mineral or organic fertilizers, and in the rest of the year, rotted compost is used. The soil on which the flower will grow, must be cleaned of weeds and constantly kept in a loose state.
Lily of the valley resistant to low temperatures, for the winter it does not need to be warmed. In the spring it is necessary to clean the plant from wilted and dry leaves. At one place the plant will bloom for at least ten years, but if necessary, it can be transplanted every two to three years. It depends on how much the root system develops. The plant propagates by segments of the root, which are planted in the ground in autumn or spring.
The plant is subject to some diseases. Fungal disease in the form of vegetable rot can strike the leaves and flowers of the plant, spreading at an incredible rate. Fight against this disease is necessary with the help of fungicides. The red border and the wounds on the leaves of the lily of the valley are a sign of gluosporia, and the yellow spots cause a dendronem. These diseases subside when using fungicides.
The leaves must be treated with insecticides to get rid of sawflies - parasites that gnaw leaves. It is impossible to cure a plant from nematodes - microorganisms that infect the root system. It is possible to prevent disease by treating the soil before planting the lily of the valley with nematocides or by planting several bushes of marigolds nearby. The flower with the affected rhizome must be removed immediately, otherwise it will infect other plants in the flowerbed.
Using lily of the valley
Flowers, leaves and rhizomes of lily of the valley are used in several spheres of human activity:
- in medicine,
- in perfumery and cosmetology,
- in ornamental gardening.
The flower is used as a medical tool for making tinctures and mixtures.. Problems with the circulatory system, vascular diseases, arrhythmia are treated by taking tinctures from the plant. Ointment and medicinal oil, made from lily of the valley, are used externally in the treatment of minor burns and shallow wounds. Fever and cramps are cured by applying tea from the flowers of the lily of the valley. It also has a sedative effect. It is necessary to carefully use drugs prepared on the basis of the lily of the valley, as an overdose can cause poisoning.
The aroma of lily revered by many perfumers, but extracted it exclusively by synthetic means. The distillation method is complicated by the fact that the plant contains too little essential oil. Professionals in the perfume business assure their clients that the smell of lily of the valley gives confidence, sobering the mind, allows you to think creatively and become more assertive. Flower water based on lily of the valley is used in cosmetology.
Gardeners have long deduced different varieties of lilies of the valleywhich are popular with clients of floristic studios and amateur flower growers. What are the new varieties of lilies of the valley?
A bouquet of spring flowers, presented as a gift, is able to awaken tender sincere feelings and give a light mood. The exquisite aroma of lily of the valley will fill the room, bringing to life the joyful notes of spring and rebirth.
The origin of the word lily of the valley
There is information that since the plant was classified as Monocotyledons, the kingdom of Lily, the scientist Karl Linney called it Lilium Convallium. Translated, it means "the lily that grows in the valley."
There is no consensus about the origin of the name of the flower. Some scientists claim that it came from Polish, in which the name sounds like "lanuszka" because of the similarity of the pointed leaves with deer ears. Others compare it with the combination of the words "incense" and "breathe" due to the smell of flowers. Therefore, one type of lily of the valley was called fragrant. Another group of scientists believes that the name came from the fact that the petals of the plant are completely smooth, so it was called “smooth”. May lily of the valley was bred in the 15th century. This flower has many varieties.
Flowers lilies of the valley - perennial. Their structure is complex. Flowers have a developed root system, consisting of thin roots. Leaves with small scales, located in the rhizome, give rise to new roots, which grow from the axillary buds of these leaves.
3-5 vertical scaly leaves usually grow from a vertical root. They are painted in green, brown or purple. From the top of this rhizome, several basal oval-shaped sheets grow. The leaves of the flower are large, smooth, bright green in color, at the tops they are sharp.
Between the leaves that are in the top of the plant, a single bud grows. From it forms a stem, which reaches 15-30 cm in height. The rhizomes of the flower form the leaves annually, and blooming lilies of the valley every 2-3 years. For the first time they bloom at 7 years of age. Reaching 12-13 years, the plant can not form a flower stem. Over time, the rhizome simply rot.
At the beginning of May a brush is formed in the middle of the stem, on which up to 20 flowers are tilted, tilted in one direction, and the stem is twisted in a spiral. Perianth white or light pink. It looks like a small bell with 6 short stamens, on which anthers are located. Also, these plants self-pollination occurs. The classification of lilies of the valley is wide enough. Each type has its own characteristic.
Period of flowering and smell
Lilies of the valley blossom not for long. This period takes a maximum of 20 days. About how it looks lily of the valley you can already speak at this time. First lower flowers bloom, followed by upper ones. Flowering time depends on natural conditions. Flowering begins in spring in mid-May and ends in mid-June. By this time, flowering darken. In the inflorescences begins to form the ovary, from which then develops a large dark red berry. It is called the fruit. The size of this berry is 6-8 mm in diameter. In each of its three chambers there is 1 or 2 seed. Ripening berries ends in mid-July. They are food for some birds and animals, although they can be very poisonous to humans.
The smell of flowers is fresh and tart. The finest aroma of this plant is often used in the perfume industry to create the most exquisite aromas.
The medicinal properties of lily of the valley as a medicinal plant have been known for a long time. In medicine, use the stems, flowers and leaves that are collected during the flowering period.
Drugs based on lily of the valley have a choleretic effect and are used to relieve inflammation in the biliary tract and liver. Lily of the valley is used in the treatment of poor blood circulation and some heart diseases. The most common diseases that are treated with drugs based on lily of the valley are:
- hypertonic disease,
- swelling of different origin,
- some types of allergies.
Despite all the benefits of lily of the valley, there are certain contraindications to its use, when funds based on it should be taken very carefully. These contraindications include: diseases of the cardiovascular system, problems in the gastrointestinal tract, chronic liver and kidney diseases. Also, these drugs should be used with caution in children and pregnant women. In any case, it is better to consult a doctor before taking any medication.
Scientists believe that the genus Liliaceans is monotypic, that is, it consists only of a single species - the May lily of the valley. Some species are different from it. These features are caused directly by the place of plant growth.
These are the main types of lily of the valley, depending on the geography of their growth:
- May lily of the valley. Especially common in Spain, Portugal, Germany, Italy, Greece, Poland, Ukraine, Belarus. It is also found in Russia and the South Caucasus. In nature, found in all types of forests. Radical sheets oblong, pointed at the ends. The stem reaches a maximum height of 30 cm. The inflorescence consists of small flowers that resemble bells in appearance. The number of flowers on the stem reaches 20 pieces, they are white or pinkish in color.
- Lily of the Valley Keizke or Far East. It lives in forests, where the soil is covered with moss, in abandoned clearings or meadows. The plant can be found on the territory of Transbaikalia, in the Far East and Primorye, Sakhalin and Kuriles, in North China and Japan. It is considered a type of May lily of the valley. Base leaves scaly, brown or purple. The height of their stem is only 18 cm. The number of flowers in the inflorescence is no more than 10, since in diameter they reach 1 cm.
- Mountain lily Distributed in North America. This plant has an excellent developed root system and a low stem. Root leaves are large: 20 cm long and 5 cm wide. In the inflorescence of this species from 5 to 15 flowers. By the end of the summer large red berries ripen on the plant. These are three-chamber fruits with a diameter up to 9 mm in which there are seeds.
Under natural conditions, lilies of the valley grow in Europe, Asia, China, Japan, and North America. Deciduous, coniferous, mixed forests and meadows located near the rivers will be most suitable for their existence. Because of poaching, lily of the valley was entered into the Red Book.
Starting from the 15th century, gardeners made lily a cultivated plant and developed many of its varieties. The most common of them are:
- Albostriata - thanks to the bright stripes on the leaf surface, this species continues to please the eye even after flowering.
- Aurea is a variety characterized by yellow color sheets.
- Aureovariegata - leaves of this variety are covered with longitudinal stripes of yellow color.
- Flore Plena - he has coronoid-shaped flowers and resembles terry. The inflorescence consists of 10-12 such flowers, the plant height can reach 15-25 cm.
- Grandiflora - lily of the valley with white pearl flowers and large leaves. It has a very pleasant smell.
- Hofheim - the leaves of this variety are beige edging.
- Prolificans - blooms long and smells great. Differs in a low stalk.
- Rosea - the color of the flowers of this variety is pale pink. On one brush grows to 10 flowers.
Where better to plant lilies of the valley
Lily of the valley - a herbaceous plant that is not too dependent on natural and weather conditions, but very afraid of drafts. It grows well in the shade, but if the darkening is too strong, the lily of the valley may not bloom.
Lilies of the valley love moist neutral soil that is rich in organic matter. Place for planting these flowers need to prepare in advance. The soil should be processed approximately 30 cm deep. In the spring, the necessary area must be dug up. At the same time it is possible to add such widely used fertilizers to the soil:
- 200 grams of lime,
- not less than 10 kg of humus,
- 40 grams of potassium sulfate,
- 100 grams of superphosphate.
A prerequisite for planting is that after preparing the soil it is necessary to constantly ensure that the soil is not overgrown with weeds over the summer.
What time to plant lilies of the valley
The best time to plant is the very beginning of autumn. Before planting cuttings, the soil is necessarily loosened. Lilies of the valley are planted with a distance of at least 10 cm, while sprout a couple of centimeters sprinkled with earth. Immediately after planting, the entire area must be watered well. During the first frost period, it is desirable to cover the area with mulch, which will help to save seedlings.
If the plants are planted in the spring, they will be sick and most likely they will not bloom in the first year. Land for lilies of the valley must be prepared in the fall. It should be promulgated beds with seedlings to protect them from various negative influences of the external environment. They are covered with a thin layer of ordinary humus, and covered with a film at night to protect them from frost.
Lily of the valley reproduction
In gardening, there are many varieties of lilies of the valley, which can be grown from seeds at home, for example: asparagus lily of the valley. The only drawback of artificial varieties is low frost resistance. Breeding species can also be diluted from seeds, but more often they use the method of breeding from rhizomes. Seeds are sown at the beginning of autumn, then by spring they will already sprout.
The separation of the root system can be practiced both in autumn and spring. For this breeding lilies use rhizome pieces, where there are buds and roots. The diameter of the shoots and the presence of buds depends on the age of the plant. If the height of the spine exceeds 6 mm, then flowering can be expected in the first year after planting.
Lilies of the valley unpretentious flowers, they do not require special care. Is that in summer you need to make sure that the earth does not dry out under them, otherwise the plants will bloom badly. After watering, you need to loosen the soil and remove the weeds. Lilies of the valley have the ability to grow rapidly. To keep this process necessary to protect the garden fence. At one place flowers can grow up to 10 years. If they grow together with other colors, it can negatively affect them.
The first introduction of organic substances into the soil under the lilies of the valley can be made within 30 days after planting. During this period, mineral fertilizers can not be applied. For 2-3 years lilies of the valley fertilized with organic substances containing nitrogen. Нужно это для улучшения декоративности цветка. Такую процедуру лучше проводить в середине весны. Именно в этот период начинается закладка почек цветов. В итоге цветки получаются крупнее.
Иногда ландыши могут поражать некоторые болезни и вредители. Если их поражает серая гниль, избавиться от нее можно с помощью фунгицидов. Появляется она в основном при сильном переувлажнении или засорении клумбы. Если ландыш поражает нематода, такой цветок необходимо сразу уничтожить. Лучше всего его сжечь.
Description of lily of the valley
May lily of the valley (Convallaria majalis) - perennial herb with a creeping branched rhizome and thin roots in the nodes. The underground rhizome is not thicker than a goose feather; it bears near the top several pale small lower leaves half-hidden in the ground.
From the tops and lateral branches of the rhizomes depart shoots, consisting of 3-6 vaginal leaves. The leaves of the lily of the valley are basal, long-petiolate with an oblong-elliptical pointed leaf plate, thin, integral, bright green, gray-gray from the upper side, and shiny from the lower side.
The floral arrow of the lily is smooth, trihedral in the upper part, 15–20 cm high. The perianth is snow white with six dents slightly bent. Inside the flower, the pistil is surrounded by six stamens on short threads attached at the base of the perianth.
The plant has a strong but pleasant aroma, and it blooms from late May to June.
Fruit - juicy trehgnezdya spherical orange-red berry, ripens in August and September.
Attention! The whole plant of the lily of the valley is poisonous, it contains konvallotoksin - poison of plant origin. Lily of the valley berries have the highest concentration.
Application of lily of the valley
Lily of the valley preparations have long been used in traditional medicine in the treatment of various heart diseases. Lily of the valley infusion, mixed with motherwort or valerian, helps in the treatment of atherosclerosis and diseases of the thyroid gland. Lily of the valley is used as a means of cleansing the blood and promotes urination. Outwardly used infusion of lily of the valley with eye diseases in the form of lotions.
Lily of the valley is used in acute and chronic heart failure. If you compare the drugs of lily of the valley with other heart medications, the first ones act faster, but their action also passes quickly.
Tincture of lily of the valley. Take a glass jar with a narrow neck and fill it up to the level of three-quarters with lily of the valley flowers. Next, pour the 90th alcohol up to the top. The bank needs to be closed with a lid and left to infuse for 14 days. After this, we filter the composition, press the flowers and throw them out. Take this tincture of 10, and you can and 15 drops three times a day in the presence of heart weakness, seizures or symptoms of fever.
Collection with lily of the valley with myocarditis. To prepare it, you need to take 5 grams of lily of the valley flowers, 10 grams of fennel fruit, 15 grams of mint leaves and 20 grams of valerian. Now take 2 tablespoons of the mixture and pour 500 ml of boiling water. Strain the broth and take 50–70 ml three times a day.
Infusion with glaucoma. We take 1 teaspoon of lily of the valley flowers and mix with half a glass of fresh nettle leaves, add 20 grams of water to this collection and leave for 10 hours to infuse. After infusion, add another 5 grams of water. This mass must be applied to the affected eyes.
Contraindications to the use of lily of the valley
You can not eat the flowers and fruits of the lily of the valley, as this will lead to poisoning, which means nausea, tinnitus, vomiting, palpitations, etc., will be more frequent.
Lily of the valley drugs should be taken only on prescription and under his supervision.
When do lilies of the valley bloom?
Flowering period Lily of the valley is quite short and lasts only 15-20 days. The lower flowers bloom before the upper. The start time of flowering depends on the ambient temperature. Usually lilies of the valley begin to bloom in spring in early to mid-May and finish flowering in mid-June. By this time, the inflorescences with a length of 4 to 9 millimeters and a width of 3 to 7 millimeters begin to darken. Soon in each flower appears ovary, from which the orange-red berry develops. FetusLily of the diameter from 6 to 8 millimeters has an almost round shape and a three-chamber structure. Each cell contains from 1 to 2 spherical seeds. The formation of the berries ends by the beginning of July. Ripe fruits can stay on the plant for a very long time. They are included in the diet of chipmunks and birds, although for human and many animals all parts of the lily of the valley are very poisonous.
Garden forms and varieties of lily of the valley
In ornamental gardening, lily of the valley has been cultivated since the 15th century for the sake of beautiful fragrant flowers. Several garden forms (cultivars) were derived:
- ‘Alba Pleno’, or ‘Alba Plena’ (‘Flore Pleno’, or ‘Flore Plena’) - has up to 12 large white terry flowers
- ‘Albostriata’ - noteworthy leaves with creamy white longitudinal stripes
- ‘Aureovariegata’ or ‘Lineata’, or ‘Striata’ or ‘Variegata’ - with yellow longitudinal stripes
- ‘Berolinensis’ - large-flowered, used for forcing
- ‘Latifolia’ - with wide leaves and pink double flowers
- ‘Grandiflora’ - with large flowers
- ‘Picta’ - with purple spots at the base of the stamens
- ‘Prolificans’ - noteworthy because the pedicels branch to form crowded inflorescences
- ‘Rosea’ - with light pink flowers
Cultivated with 22-24 flowers in the inflorescence ('Fortin's Giant'), with yellow-green border on the leaves ('Hardwick Hall'), with white or golden stripes on the leaves ('Vic Pawlow's Gold'), up to 50 cm ('Victor Ivanovich') and others.
Features of growing lilies of the valley
Location: unpretentious. It feels great among the bushes, in the glades with some shading, with strong - it blooms weakly.
The soil: requires a well-developed, organic-rich soil. Drought-resistant, but on dry soils becomes shallow. At one place it grows up to 10 years.
Care: It is recommended to lay lilies of the valley with rotted manure or compost, and also feed them with liquid organic and mineral fertilizers (in August). During the summer in dry weather it is necessary to produce watering. The area occupied by lilies of the valley is contained in a loose and weed-free state. Lily of the valley - a frost-resistant plant and does not require shelter.
Temperature: Lily of the valley resistant to cold.
Watering: Water regularly regularly to keep the soil moist all the time. Lily of the valley is very moisture-loving and does not tolerate drying.
Repotting: Transplanted to a new location in the spring no more than once every 2-3 years, depending on the degree of development of the rhizome of the plant.
Maintaining appearance: It is enough to remove damaged parts of plants.
The origin of the word "lily of the valley"
This plant was derived from the Latin language, this plant was obtained through the works of the famous botanist and zoologist Carl Linnaeus. Since earlier this flower was attributed to the Liliana family, the scientist assigned him the Latin name “Lilium convallium”, which translates as “lily growing in the valley”.
Despite the fact that the word “lily of the valley” was included in the Russian dictionary in the 17th century, there is still no consensus about its etymology. Some scientists believe that it came from the Polish language, in which the flower is called “lanuszka” because of the similarity of its elongated leaves with a pointed vershinka with the ears of a timid deer. Others link the origin of the name, composed of two words "incense" and "breathe", with the magnificent smell of its fragrant flowers. The last group of researchers is of the opinion that the whole thing is in completely smooth leaves of the plant, and its definition is a modified word “smooth”.
Lily of the valley: description, appearance, characteristics and photos
Lilies of the valley are perennial herbaceous plants that are horizontal, well developed and branched. root system with numerous, shallow, thin roots. The root system of lily of the valley is fibrous, with extended internodes. Scale-shaped leaves are located in the nodes of the rhizome, from the axillary buds of which new roots develop.
From the vertical rhizomes of the lily of the valley grow 3-5 lower scale-like leaves small in size with closed tubular sheaths. They are usually brown, dark purple or light green. For the most part, the lower leaves are hidden in the ground. Also from the top of the rhizome grow 2 (sometimes 3) basal leaves that have an oval-lanceolate or oblong-elliptical shape. The leaves of the lily of the valley are large, smooth, juicy-green, slightly pointed at the tops, and have arcuate venation.
Between the leaves in the apex of the rhizome, one large kidney is hiding, from which a single bud grows stem Lily of the valley height from 15 to 30 centimeters (although garden lilies of the valley can have a height of 50 cm). Peduncle has no leaves, although there are some specimens that have filamentous leaflets under the inflorescences.
Vertical rhizomes of lily form leaves every year, and lilies of the valley bloom every 2-3 years. The first time lilies of the valley bloom in 7 years. In 10-12 years, the plants lose the ability to form a peduncle. Over the years, the horizontal rhizomes rot, and their system is divided into separate individuals.
Above the middle of the grassy stem of the lily of the valley in early May, an aromatic brush begins to form, which includes from 6 to 20 wilted flowers. Lily of the valley has long curved pedicels of membranous bracts. The stem itself is twisted spirally, so the flowers look in one direction, even despite the fact that the pedicels extend from different sides of the trihedral floral arrow.
Six-toothed perianth The lily of the valley, painted white or pale pink, looks like a miniature bell with 6 short thick stamens, at the end of which oblong yellow anthers are located. Column short, with a small tripartite stigma. The tops of the segments of the perianth tightly pressed to each other, in the blossoming flower, they slightly bend, when flowering, they bend very much.
Flowers Lilies of the valley do not have nectaries and attract insects (bees, wasps, bumblebees) with strong aroma and pollen. In the absence of insects, self-pollination can occur.
Photo by Thomas Bresson
Types of lily of the valley, photos and names
Many researchers believe that the genus Convallaria is a monotype, that is, consists of one species (May lily). However, in some classifications, species are distinguished, somewhat differing from the main one by morphological features, which are caused by the geographical isolation of plants. Below is a description of varieties of lilies of the valley.
- May lily of the valley (lat. Convallaria majalis)
It grows in Spain and Portugal, Italy and Greece, Germany, Poland, Ukraine, Belarus and other European countries. In the area of its distribution includes a large part of the territory of Russia, as well as the countries of the Caucasus. In the wild, lily of the valley is found in deciduous, coniferous and mixed forests, as well as on forest edges.
The root system of a perennial plant is branched and consists of a large number of small and thin roots, spreading out shallowly below the soil surface. Two or three basal leaves are shaped like an oblong ellipse with a pointed apex. Stalk of lily of the valley in May reaches a maximum of 30 centimeters in height. The inflorescence consists of medium-sized flowers hung on a long pedicle, resembling a spherical bell in shape, the bottom of which is cut by six cloves bent outward. The number of small white or light pink fragrant flowers in the inflorescence can reach 20 pieces.
Photo by: Ainali
- Lily of the valley (lily of the valley Keisk, far lily of the valley) (lat Convallaria keiskei)
It grows both in light deciduous and coniferous forests with abundant moss litter, on the ground of abandoned logging, as well as on meadows located in the floodplains of rivers. The plant is found in Russia on the territory of Transbaikalia, as well as in the zone of the boundless taiga expanses of the Far East and Primorye, on the Kuril Islands and Sakhalin, in Northern China and Japan. Some scholars believe lily of the valley Keizke subspecies May lily of the valley.
The plant has a long branched rhizome. The lower leaves of the lily of the valley Keizke are scaly and colored in brown or purple. The height of the stem can reach 18 centimeters, and the length of basal leaves - no more than 14 cm. The flowers can reach one centimeter in diameter, their number in the inflorescence ranges from 3 to 10. The bottom of the petals is ovate-triangular.
Author photo: Galina Chulanova
- Mountain lily (lat Convallaria montana)
It is distributed in North America, where it is found only in the middle mountain belt of several states: Georgia, Tennessee, North and South Carolina, Kentucky, as well as in Virginia and West Virginia. Many scientists believe that the mountain lily of the valley is a subspecies of the May.
This is a plant with a well-developed root system and a low stem. Basal leaves of the lanceolate form have a length of up to 35 centimeters and a width of not more than 5 centimeters. The lily of the valley mountain inflorescence contains from 5 to 15 wide-bell-shaped flowers, the length of which does not exceed 8 millimeters. Closer to the fall on the plant ripen reddish-orange berries with a diameter of not more than 9 millimeters, which are three-compartment fruits, which enclose several round seeds.
Photo by: Kevin Massey
Lily of the valley varieties, photos and titles
From the 15th century onwards, gardeners, inspired by the scent of lilies of the valley, cultivated this plant and brought out a huge number of garden varieties. Among them, the most interesting are:
The variety of lily of the valley, which even after the end of the flowering period, is pleasing to the flower growers thanks to the decorative strips of creamy white color covering the surface of the leaf plate.
Author photo: Natalia Ermolenko
A variety of lily of the valley with yellow leaves.
Lily of the valley with leaves that are covered with longitudinal yellow stripes.
Taken from the site: www.vanberkumnurseryry.com
- Flore plena (Flore pleno)
Lily of the valley with unusual white inflorescences, which consist of 10-12 fairly large double flowers. Plant height 15-25 cm.
Lily of the valley with large white flowers and large green leaves. It has a very pleasant aroma.
A variety of lily of the valley with variegated leaves of yellow-green color.
A variety of lily of the valley, the leaves of which have a beige rim. The flowers are white.
Low-growing variety of lily of the valley with double flowers in white. It blooms for a long time and spreads a wonderful aroma.
Variety of lilies of the valley, known for its flowers, painted in pale pink tones. On one brush grow up to 14 small flowers.
- Viktor Ivanovich
Very tall lily of the valley. Its height reaches 50 cm. On the inflorescence are located from 9 to 19 large white flowers. It blooms for about 20 days, and then the gardeners are happy with bright red fruits.
Properties of lily of the valley, the benefits and application in medicine
Lily of the valley - a medicinal plant, the useful properties of which are known since ancient times. As a medicinal raw material, all above-ground parts of the plant (stems, leaves, flowers) are used, which are collected in the period of abundant flowering.
Preparations made from the lily of the valley are used as cholagogue agents, as well as for the treatment of cholecystitis and the removal of inflammatory processes that occur in the bile ducts of the liver. Lily of the valley is used for the treatment of heart failure and poor blood circulation. With the help of drugs based on lily of the valley, they treat or facilitate the course of many diseases:
- neurosis and insomnia,
- high blood pressure (hypertension),
- some eye diseases
- rheumatic conditions and atherosclerosis,
- certain types of allergies.
Contraindications medication based on lily of the valley
Despite its beneficial properties, it is necessary to use products made from parts of lily of the valley very carefully. Lily of the valley preparations have contraindications:
- acute or chronic liver / kidney disease,
- cardiosclerosis, endocarditis, myocarditis,
- problems with the digestive tract,
- pronounced organic changes in the cardiovascular system,
- myocardial infarction,
- ventricular tachycardia,
- children's age (use with caution).
In any case, before taking medications from the lily of the valley, you should consult with your doctor.
Harm of lily of the valley, poisoning and symptoms
Lily of the valley flowers have a very strong aroma that can lead to a headache. That is why it is desirable to regularly ventilate the room in which there are flowers.
It should also be remembered that the lily of the valley is a poisonous plant. Lily of the valley berries (fruits) are especially poisonous. Therefore, taking medications and tinctures should only be prescribed by a doctor, while strictly following the dose. Symptoms of lily of the valley poisoning:
- dizziness and headache
- severe nausea, which soon gives way to continuous vomiting,
- drowsiness and general weakness,
- decrease in heart rate (bradycardia), up to cardiac arrest,
- flickering before eyes
- loss of consciousness.
When observing such symptoms, immediate resuscitation should be taken. Otherwise, death may occur.
In order to save the life of a person who has been poisoned by preparations made from lily of the valley, it is necessary to immediately call an emergency ambulance. While the medical team is on the way, you should:
- with a weak solution of potassium permanganate (potassium permanganate) or plain boiled water, wash the affected stomach, causing a gag reflex,
- help the victim to take any sorbing drug, which is suitable as activated carbon, enterosgel, polysorb or sorbeks,
- to put a cleansing enema, having achieved a return exit of clear water.
Distilling lily of the valley
Wild lilies of the valley do not tolerate experiments, and garden species (especially large-flowered) are often used for forcing.
Distillation is the agrotechnical methods widely used in floriculture, which are used to make the plants bloom in the off-season for them.
Посадочный материал для этого готовят в середине и конце осени. От верхней части выкопанного корня ландыша отрезают кусочки, у которых хорошо просматриваются крупные верхушечные почки округлой формы. Не стоит нарезать черенки длиной более 5 см. You can store them in a non-freezing basement or cellar, in boxes, in an upright position, sprinkled with sand and covered with a frame. When strengthening frosts make additional shelter from straw. The optimum storage temperature should be at least + 1 ° C.
Before the early (December) forcing out, the sprouts of the lilies of the valley are subjected to heat treatment. To do this, they are wrapped in wet moss and film, then sent for 21 days in a cold place with a temperature of -2 ° C. After “freezing”, letting them move slightly, “warm” for 12 hours in a bathroom, the water temperature of which should be about 30 ° C.
Lily of the valley sprouts are planted in containers with pre-prepared, loose and organic-enriched soil, laid with a layer of 3 to 5 cm. Sprouts should be carefully laid on the bottom, sprinkle with the rest of the soil and slightly level it. Kidney tops should look out of the ground by about 0.5 cm. Depending on the size, from 6 to 12 lilies of the valley can be planted in the container. Saplings well shed with warm water, and then, to maintain the necessary moisture, cover with moss or a layer of peat. The containers are sent for 10-12 days in a dark room, where the air temperature is maintained at 26-28 ° C and the soil temperature is about 21 ° C. Several times a day (2-3 times) it is necessary to spray the lily of the valley saplings with warm water (about 30 ° C) and ventilate for at least half an hour.
From the moment the lilies of the valley germinate, the containers are returned to the bright room and the covering material is removed. The soil continues to be kept moist, the temperature is kept within 30 ° C, but plantings are sprayed less often and air more often. As soon as the lowest bell of the inflorescence is colored, the lilies of the valley stop watering, and the temperature is lowered to 16-18 ° C. In case of early forcing, flowering plants are obtained already on the 22-24 day from the moment of sprouting.
For late forcing in the second half of January, warm baths to sprouts are no longer made. Otherwise, all the forces of the plant will go into the development of the leaves, and flowering will be weak. Lilies of the valley, as in the first case, are planted in containers with ready-made soil or in greenhouses, where the air temperature is at least 25 ° C. In February, it can be reduced by another 3-5 degrees. In order for the flower stalks not to stretch very strongly, the time for darkening is reduced, and in fine days the saplings are shading. All other steps used for late forcing are similar to those used for forcing in December.
It should be remembered that the plant obtained by forcing does not form a new root system, therefore, after withering, it is not used for planting in the ground.
Lily of the valley (Convallaria) is a perennial plant of grass type. Belongs to the family of asparagus, subfamily nolinovyh. Some botanists attribute the flower to monocotyledonous, while others to dicotyledonous.
Botanists argue for a long time about the subtype of this flower and distinguish lily of the valley and Keizke. Differences between species are minimal, so it would not be a mistake to consider it May, since this is its main view.
If you describe the lily of the valley, then you should not forget about its root system, which is very well developed, and also has a lot of thin roots. The nodes located in the rhizome, have leaves similar to the scales, buds, thanks to which new roots appear. If you look at the vertical rhizome of a flower, you can see that it grows from small leaves that have a dark lilac or olive color on the same scaly leaves.
The leaves grow almost from the ground, and a pair of leaves comes from the top of the root. The leaves themselves are very beautiful, green and with sharp tips. One of the leaves has a bud on its top, intended for the stem, reaching 25 cm in length, and those that grow gardeners, the stem reaches half a meter. The plant blooms every couple of years. Flowers themselves appear only in the seventh year, for 10 years the peduncle does not form. After that, 2 - 3 years pass and the system itself falls apart, after which individual plants are formed.
Few will know that, for example, the lily of the valley is the national flower of Finland and is even depicted on one of the coins. And he became the characters in 1967.
The ancient Egyptians long before the birth of Christ bred lilies of the valley, but they did it almost all year round. This is archaeological evidence.
During the chemical attacks of the First World War, lilies of the valley were used as a placebo for those who were gassed.
They themselves are very poisonous, because they are better not to sniff for a long time, but to eat is generally not recommended - at least you can get poisoned.
In France there was a custom where in a public event in the village. If a man invited a girl he liked to dance, he should give her a bouquet of lily of the valley. If she accepted him, it meant only one thing - she agrees to relationships, walks under the moon and in general, the gentleman likes her. And if she did not simply refuse, but tossed under her feet, this meant that the lady despised her cavalier to the impossible.
Interesting facts about this plant can be found on the pages of many old books. For example, in France, as early as the 16th century, there is a very beautiful custom - on the first Sunday of spring, which the residents call “Lily of the Valley Day”, it was customary to give bouquets of lily of the valley or artificially made bouquets to their beloved.
Among the nations of the world one can find many interesting tales, beliefs and legends about lily of the valley. Residents of neighboring countries, such as the Netherlands, argue that if in the garden of the newlyweds to plant field lilies, then they will love each other for eternity. The plant symbolizes the brightest feelings, sympathy.
For many dream-books, seeing this flower in a dream means that a close person is frank with you and does not hide anything. If you see a dry flower in a dream, then it means that you have very high demands on life and on people around you, irritation and discontent. To see lilies of the valley in a dream means sadness and regret for past love. If these flowers dream of a girl, it means that soon she will meet a man who will interest her. And if it was a man’s dream, it promises him success in matters of the heart.
Where did the lily of the valley make up legends. In Russia there was a legend about the princess of the waters of the sea Magus, who fell in love with a simple guy named Sadko and love turned out to be non-reciprocal, because he loved the other. And the princess cried, and tears rolled down over the ruddy and onto the ground. And these tears turned into unusual flowers. Thanks to this legend, lilies of the valley symbolize love, unrequited and sad.
In ancient Rome there was a legend about the occurrence of lilies of the valley. It is the same connected with unrequited love, but this time the lilies of the valley appeared from the sweat droplets of the goddess Diana, who ran away from Faun, unresponsively in love with her.
In England, the appearance of the lily of the valley legends associated with the knight Leonard. Only now this legend has done without love: lilies of the valley began to grow where Leonard killed the dragon.
There is another very beautiful story - the forest bells sprouted from beads the necklace of Snow White, which once burst. Now, Snow White's faithful friends, the dwarves find their way home, which they light up.
This flower is especially loved by the French. They praise the lily of the valley so much that they even organize national holidays in his honor.
Not without lily of the valley and in love traditions. For example, it is believed that if, having received this flower as a gift from a man, a girl pins it to the hair or together, then it is a sign of consent to become the wife of this man. A dropped lily of the valley reports a girl’s refusal.
There is another beautiful legend of a large scarlet berry. It appears in place of the showered petals after the flowering of the May lily. There lived in the world one young man with the beautiful name Lily of the Valley. And Spring gave him an amazing gift - the inexhaustible ability to love life. He was very grateful to her for such a gift. He spoke her many kind words and Spring could not resist him and loved him. But, as you know, Spring is not a constant girl. Giving her affection to all she could not linger for a long time with him. After her departure, Lily of the Valley was inconsolable - his tears turned into beautiful flowers, and the blood of his loving heart gave the berries a red color.
Lily of the valley has several amazing properties. For example, those gathered on New Moon in the early morning will be a sign of passion and ardent love. If you want a man to be more affectionate and gentle, then put next to his bed flowers of the May lily collected on the growing moon. Such a bouquet on the woman will produce the opposite effect - it will become more emotional.
Well, if your task is to add a spark to a relationship, then present the girl with a bunch of lilies of the valley on the eve of a new moon - this will make her more depraved and lascivious.
Let lily of the valley and is a beautiful flower, but he still has really useful properties. It is used in the manufacture of herbal medicines. Also, he was surrounded by all sorts of legends, like other medicinal plants. Among them is the belief that the infusion on these flowers is a panacea and helps from all diseases, which made it a very expensive plant.
What does lily of the valley look like?
This May flower reminds everyone of spring, because its aroma is tightly connected with this time of year. Outwardly, it looks like a fragile plant, but this impression is deceptive: its stalk may well pierce a strong stone or asphalt. One stem carries several bells (from 6 to 20). It multiplies very quickly, and the climate for it does not play a key role - with its ability to take root, it is not difficult.
How many leaves does lily have?
In early spring rose tightly collected leaves of lily of the valley. Curious lovers of the flora are wondering: "how many leaves have lily of the valley?". The plant most often produces two leaves, but in rare cases the lily of the valley can release three leaves. The above-ground shoots of the forest bell have a simple structure: the lower leaves at the base of the shoot, two or three large leaves of the lily of the oblong shape are located near the roots, and between them, at the root is a large bud from which the peduncle grows.
The romantic plant causes delight, legends were always devoted to it, canvases were written about it, poems were formed. The most famous poem was written by the poet Afanasy Fet “The First Lily of the Valley”, forcing the reader to see the beauty and refinement of the forest bell.
May lily of the valley
The most famous and common type of lily of the valley. Mostly grows on the edges of forests of all types. Has a horizontal arrangement of the root system, thin roots are dominated in large quantities. They are located almost without deepening in the ground.
During wintering, only the rhizomes themselves remain in the ground. A pair of leaves, which originate from the root, ends with a sharp end. The height of such a plant reaches 30 cm. The buds themselves are located on a kind of “footboard”, with teeth along the top and bottom. The color of the buds is delicate white, have a peculiar, alluring fragrance. The berries are rather reddish-red color, size 5-9 mm. Blossom in May, and bear fruit in the fall.
Despite its lovely appearance and wonderful smell, it is a poisonous plant: it contains the plant poison Convallotoxin. Even in the form of medications, overdose causes poisoning. Those plants that are not grown in the wild, have many varieties.
Here are some of them:
- Albostriata. This variety is different colors. This is expressed in beige stripes on the leaves,
- Aurea The leaves have a bright yellow color,
- Aureovariegata. Along the leaves of this variety are strips of yellow or sand color,
- Flore Plena. The height of this variety delivers about 25 - 30 cm, and the buds themselves are much larger - 12 pieces on average, compared with the usual ones - they are much larger
- Grandiflora. Differs much larger buds and larger leaves.
- Green Tapestry. Differs in very bright leaves of yellow - light green color,
- Hofheim. The border of the leaves of this variety has a pale brown color,
- Prolificans. Butonov much more than wild lily of the valley. Flowering is about two months, the size of the plant is small,
- Rosea. It is a pink lily of the valley. Butonov is also larger, about 12-14 pieces.
This type of lily grows predominantly in the mountainous regions of North America. It has a developed root component, and the stem itself is much shorter. The leaves coming from the root reach a length of 40 cm, and the width is about 4 cm. The number of buds is different, the variation is from 5 to 16 pieces, a length of not more than 9 mm. Also, in the fall, grow red berries, about 8 mm in size.
Lily of the valley
This lily grows in forests where moss is abundant. Also, it is often possible to meet on the places of felling of forests, on the fields near the rivers. The main halo is Siberia and the Far East. It can be found on Sakhalin, near the Amur River (both from Russia and from China). The rhizome is much longer than the others. Closer to the root of the plant has a brown or green color. The stem reaches 20 cm in length, and the leaves (from the root) reach 15 cm. The buds are much larger than the rest of the lily of the valley, about 1 cm, and their number is about 10 pieces.
Lily of the valley is an unpretentious plant that does not require any special care and constant monitoring.
The only thing you need to watch out for is that when the weather is hot and dry, you need to constantly water the plant, but if you do not do this, the flowering can be delayed or the whole plant will wither.
Also after fertilizer or watering you need to weed around the lily of the valley. Humidity should always be raised. The soil should be rich in organic fertilizers, acidity should be minimal. Before planting this crop, the area where the crop will be sown must be cultivated to a depth of 40 cm. Before planting, the soil must be fertilized with special fertilizers.
After sowing, after about a month, you need to re-fertilize the earth with organic matter, but not with mineral fertilizers. A year later, the earth is once again fertilized with organic matter (with nitrogen) in the spring. In the first month of summer fertilized again with organic matter. Only in the third year the lilies of the valley will begin to bloom. This speed up, unfortunately, is impossible.
Lilies of the valley grow very quickly, occupying the largest area of flowering. To avoid this, it is necessary to dig a fence in the ground, for example, from steel. Depth must be at least a meter. In such a fenced area, lilies of the valley will grow for about 10 years. When cutting, it is necessary to remember that this plant will take nutrients from other flowers from the water, which will lead to rapid wilting.
Why don't lilies of the valley bloom?
One of the main causes of this problem is both the lack of normal sunlight and its excess. These flowers should grow in relative shade, so when they are planted, it is important to take into account how much they will spend both in the light and in the shade.
A humid environment is also necessary for normal growth, so they should be watered often. On dry soil, especially on mountainous or stone, the plant will take root poorly, and even in general can fade. For transplants, this culture is good, but it should not be abused.
Since the lily of the valley captures every piece of land, over time the area of planting will increase and you will get a very beautiful flower bed.
Diseases and pests
The main disease of the lily of the valley is considered a parasite, known by the name "Gray Rot." It covers both the leaves and the flowers themselves. If the plants are located close to each other, in poorly ventilated rooms or greenhouses, then a fungus can also be picked up. To avoid this, you need to carefully plant the flowers, avoiding those that are already affected by the disease.
When gray rot appears, it is better not to cut off the affected area, but to remove the whole plant. Of course, now for better protection use special tools - reagents.
Gleosporia is a plant disease. It looks like beige spots with brown edging on the leaves. The main way to avoid damage to other plants is to cut off the problem sheet. As an option to prevent - spraying fungicides.
Insects are pests such as beetles (eating the leaves), sawflies. Also, if the beetle has laid the larvae, they can gnaw and destroy the stem itself, which will lead to the loss of the plant. When a lesion is detected, if it is not critical, you can either not pay attention or remove the plant entirely. Such problems should be prevented at the preparation stage: regular application of chemicals that kill insects. This also applies to the fact that the beetles lay larvae: special means kill the parasites.
Timely and high-quality care for any flowers, including lilies of the valley, is very important. Under the care refers to both watering the plants and their fertilizer, cleaning the soil from the weeds and maintaining distance from the nearest plants. If all this is allowed to drift, then the risk of getting sores on the plant will be much higher. Lack of nutrition is easily noticed by the characteristic yellow color of the stem and leaves.
Planting and breeding
Lily of the valley is a very unpretentious flower, so it will not be necessary to plant any special knowledge or skills. The place in which to plant them should be balanced in terms of shade and sunlight. Размножение происходит как при помощи плодов (ягод), так и при помощи подземных корневищ. Размножение довольно быстрое.
Сажают эти культуры в начале – середине осени.
Почву предварительно вспахивают, добавляя удобрения и создавая перегной. Для посадки необходимы корневища с почками, но подойдут и листики в пучках (зачатки). Делать это нужно таким образом, что бы не допустить перегибов. Если есть ростки, то они должны выступать, а засыпано должно быть не более 2 см. They plant this culture in rows, keeping a distance of 9 - 12 cm. But, by the way, it is allowed to sow in the spring.
Use in medicine
The healing properties of these plants have long been known. They provide more than 30 cardiac glycosides, konvallotoksin, konvallotoksol and others. This is due to the presence of glycosides throughout the flower. The flower contains other elements (calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, cobalt, and so on), which are very necessary. Since it contains essential oil, aspirin, and domestic acids.
The main application in pharmacology on the lily of the valley is that it has a positive effect on diseases of the blood vessels, stomach and others. The blood circulation becomes much better, the work of the heart is normalized, it relieves pain and spasms. Also contribute to the normalization of the liver.
Those drugs that have this herb in the composition have a positive effect, improving the quality of the heart, but reducing the number of beats. Acts almost like an analgesic, relieving cramps and pain. It is used against diseases such as violation of the thyroid, central nervous system and fever.
External use of this plant, most often, to reduce pain in the back and lower back. Collect this material on dry days, but after the dew disappears. Next comes the preparation of the ground part, but the berries do not belong to the blanks. The cut should be at a distance of 4 cm from the surface of the earth.
Drying should be done in a ventilated place, with a temperature of about 45%. Also, drying should be done on the same day, otherwise the plant will gradually die. The fruits themselves, both rhizome and seeds, are poisonous. Therefore, at home, without knowing the proportions, it is better to cook a little more.
Application in cosmetology
Beauticians do not actively apply all parts of the lily of the valley, but rather the lily of the valley oil, which impresses with a fresh, cool, delicate aroma, incomparable to any other. Lily of the valley essential oil is added to cosmetics that are able to restore skin and hair tone, improve microcirculation, strengthen capillary walls, remove congestion.
Oil saturated with cream, balms, tonics and other cosmetic products. The result of applying cosmetics is visible: with oil, the skin becomes softer and well-groomed, beautiful, smooth, clean.
The recipe for a mask for dry hair: mix one yolk, 50 ml of honey, 5 ml of essential oil of May lily of the valley, then put the mixture on the hair, from root to tip, cover the head with polyethylene for 15 minutes. Wash off the mask with warm water and shampoo.
Hair after this procedure gain elasticity and shine. Recipe for dry skin tonic: in 30 ml of freshly brewed green tea add 100 ml of a spoon of aloe juice, 2 drops of lily of the valley oil. This tonic is applied before going to bed on the face, every day.
Scent of lily of the valley in perfumery
Lily of the valley is a very popular fragrance in the perfume market. It has a very delicate and elegant aroma, with notes of freshness and the smell of wildlife. With this fragrance it is very convenient to make different perfumery palettes and compositions.
Unfortunately, so far the natural smell of the lily of the valley has not been received, because all these flavors are a synthetic copy of the original, which, by the way, is not inferior. And the inability to obtain a natural aroma is associated with an extremely low derivative of essential oil from the lily of the valley, which makes it impossible to extract ether from it.
Modern perfumers have learned to deal with the synthesized lily of the valley so much that perfumes with this foundation are in demand in the elite circles of our society!
Application in landscape design
Lily of the valley has become so engraved in the culture of European society, including in Russia, that no park or square can do without this plant. After all, he almost does not require care, and looks very presentable. They are decorated with all kinds of flower beds, interfering with other colors, making intricate patterns and other objects of decorative aesthetic beauty.
Of course, this lily of the valley is not wild and it is specially grown and crossed, getting unusual colors and combinations. For example, pale-violet flowers that can decorate not only public holiday of citizens, but also the leisure object itself, a park for example. But it would seem that only a month and all bloom - and not needed. But it was not there, for almost the whole year it will be beautiful, low and dense bushes, which, as a rule, are lined near sidewalks and paths and create the feeling that everything around is absolutely green!
Planting wild lilies of the valley is very inefficient due to the fact that they are of certain colors, length and nature. They bloom in May, but the garden, artificially grown, can bloom, say, in August. The main thing that would be warm. Yes, and garden is much easier to combine with other plants growing in a flower bed.
Perfectly combined with ferns, when out of season they hide together with him, with peonies, making the visual range of the flowerbeds unforgettable. But it is important to remember that there would not be many flowers in the flowerbed next to the lilies of the valley. After all, these beautiful forest bells grow quite quickly, capturing new territories and even squeeze out other flowers. Therefore, even in parks and squares next to the lilies of the valley there is an underground separation wall, long from half a meter.
And if you plant lilies of the valley near trees, for example, larch or linden, you will get a beautiful corner of living, even wildlife. But if you gave your beloved a bouquet of fresh, freshly picked lilies of the valley, it is better to make sure that there are no other flowers in the vase, otherwise lilies of the valley will deprive them of drinking all the water and poisoning their neighbors with unpleasant smells. From this smell a person may have a headache or he may feel uncomfortable and uncomfortable.
But the best solution would be to make a bed of lilies of the valley at your dacha - because by doing so you will get a beautiful corner of almost wild nature, the crown of which became flowers from the Red Book!