About tasty and healthy Oriental dried fruit - dates, everyone heard. And not only heard, but also regaled them. Muslims, they are candy. In the markets and in the shops you can see a wide selection of these dried fruits, but still some are interested in where dates grow, in which countries? Let's try to trace what kind of fruit, on which tree it grows?
What are dates?
Dates are called edible fruits of a tree called date palm. They have long been used by people as a high-value food product. On sale you can get them in the form of dried fruits. Countries with a hot climate grow different varieties of palm trees for industrial scale. In dried form, they get a sweet-pleasant taste. We offer to get acquainted with this delicacy, to find out what kind of fruit - date, where it grows.
Date Palm Description
So, date palm. She is a representative of trees or squat shrubs with feather-split leaves. Almost all species of this plant have one stem, but there are exceptions with several. Date palm is a huge tree, striking many tourists visiting hot countries. This tree has a straight and thick trunk up to 80 cm in diameter, which can reach a height of 20-30 m. There are no branches on this trunk, only on the top grows fifty feathery large leaves, the length of which can reach six meters long. Near the base of the trunk there is growth, which serves as material for reproduction. It is important to note that the date palm is not a tree, although we call it so, but a perennial grass with a strong root system. As well as the grass, it does not have trunks, branches. She only has stems. Every year they dry up, they are cut, and a new stem grows from the center again.
Date palm is a typical plant in the dry tropics. It cannot be called a weed, it grows very slowly at night, and during the day the leaves are occupied by photosynthesis. The age of this plant can reach one hundred years. Today in the world many squares are occupied with date palms; this is the most ancient cultural plant. The dates were eaten by more primitive people. Then you will know the continents, where dates grow.
Flowering and pollination
Date palms live harems because dioecious. From the base of the leaves grow inflorescences. On some palm trees, they are female, on others - men. These inflorescences are very large, like a panicle. To provide cross-pollination of flowers, one male is planted on 20-100 female trees. Paniculate inflorescences consist of small yellow flowers. The flower has a cup-shaped cup, 3 petals. There are 6 stamens in the male flowers, in the female there are 3 pistils and 6 stamidoniums. Only one pistil after dusting gives fruit.
Inflorescences contain many flowers. Up to 2000 pieces can be counted on one palm tree. Fruits develop only in female inflorescences. Today dates of noble varieties are obtained by artificial pollination or pollinating female inflorescences. For this, male inflorescences are cut off, and pollen is shaken from them over flowering female panicles. One more variant of artificial pollination is possible, when a male panicle is suspended in the crown of female inflorescences. Then you will learn not only where dates grow on the tree, but also about their useful qualities.
Date palms begin to bear fruit in the fourth year of life. Fruits from 5-6 years old plants are used as marketable products. At this age, palm gives 8-9 kg of fruit. The yield of a 15-year-old tree is 50-80 kg. Improved varieties of palm trees can produce up to 150 kg per tree. If palm trees are tightly planted, then a collection of 12-17 tons per hectare is possible. An indicator of 5 tons per hectare is indicated as the average global gross collection. The date palm can bear fruit abundantly for 60-80 years.
What do the fruits look like raw? They are a berry-shaped cylindrical drupe, it has a fleshy pericarp and a cutinized skin of amber, reddish or even darker color.
Countries where dates grow
Where is the birthplace of dates? In our article, you can learn not only useful information about date palms, but also see their photos. Where dates grow, it is also interesting to many readers. Originally date palms grew in North Africa and the Middle East. More than 6 thousand years ago this culture was ennobled here. Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia - the leaders in the cultivation of dates.
Many countries today are interested in planting date palms. They can be seen in Iraq, Algeria, Bahrain, Iran, United Arab Emirates, Syria, Tunisia. In some areas of Mexico, Australia also grow this culture. Date palms are also found in the state of California (USA). The leader in the export of dates is Saudi Arabia. Large date plantations are growing in Israel. They even grow there along the roads.
Date palm varieties
Over the last century, more than 1500 varieties of date palms have been bred. Each variety has its own characteristics according to the conditions and territory of their growth, according to endurance, taste, size and chemical composition of fruits. What are the most popular varieties of dates?
Dates grow on Iraqi monastic lands Dairy. They are distinguished by long and thin fruits with a very dark color and soft pulp. It is worth noting that only Iraqis have learned how to grow this variety.
Another popular date palm is Bahri. Its fruits have a cylindrical shape, light amber, sometimes dark brown color when ripe. These dates have a thick texture and rich taste. For transportation and storage of fruits provided low temperature.
Another popular variety is widespread in Iraq - Halavi. The fruits of these palm trees are slightly below average. The peculiarity of the Halavi variety is that during ripening the dates can dry, therefore the plant requires a lot of moisture.
In Algeria and Tunisia, a variety of dates is common. Deglet Nour. They are grown in oases. This variety is also growing on California plantations in the USA. Deglet Nour is very fruitful variety, but does not like rains, high humidity.
Egyptians loved the variety Hayani. These dates do not export, they are sold immediately fresh after harvest. Such a date palm is very hardy, adapted to the cold climate.
The Arab market of Saudi Arabia and Iraq is filled with dates Kadravi, having a great taste. Americans and Europeans are not very fond of this variety because of too dark color. These palms are rather stunted.
In Libya, valued variety Saidi. Its fruits are soft and sweet. Saidi date palms need extremely hot weather.
And what kind of cultivated in Europe? Palm trees are common here. Seyer. From the orange-brown flesh of these dates make syrup. Palm trees grow in the Middle East Zahidand Algeria Turi.
Where do dates grow in Russia?
Many people wonder if dates are growing in our country? Yes, indeed, we have an area where they feel comfortable. Those who have been to Sochi, on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus Mountains, could see date palms there. It is worth noting that here they are not so abundant fruit as in their native tropics. The nearest country near Russia, where the cultivation of dates is established, is Turkmenistan.
Use of dates
Dates, like adults and children. The delicacy is not only tasty, but also healthy. If sweets and ordinary sweets only destroy the gums and tooth enamel, then the dates strengthen them. They contain all the most important vitamins and minerals. Niacin and pantothenic acid are also present. These substances are very beneficial for the skin and hair, benefit the eyes and the liver. Potassium and magnesium contained in them, are the prevention of heart disease. Dietary fiber (fiber), present in these dried fruits, improves digestion. They help reduce cholesterol and stabilize blood sugar levels. Dried dates contain a high concentration of antioxidants.
Differently they are also called "bread of the desert". The big advantage of dates is that they are not treated with sulfuric acid, like other dried fruits. For example, among the Chinese there are many long-livers whose food is based on dates. They not only increase the longevity of a person, but also make him resilient, strengthen the liver, kidneys, heart. Dates stimulate the nervous system, help the body fight infections, including viral ones. These dried fruits prevent diseases such as: hypertension, anemia, breast and lung cancer. They are able to calm cough and accelerate the excretion of sputum.
Taste fresh dates
Many tourists visiting restaurants in Egypt could taste fresh dates there. It should be noted that they are moderately sweet and have a crunchy texture. They taste slightly astringent. Muslims eat fresh dates during the month of Ramadan, when you need to start a meal with a handful of such fruits. Fresh date is a common fruit that is less sweet than dry.
How to choose?
To choose high-quality dried fruits, look closely at them. They should be with dry and dark wrinkled skin. Light dried fruits indicate that the fruits were not quite ripe. About overdrying of the product says excess wrinkles. Carefully look at whether there is any foreign formations on the skin, mold, plaque. It is worth noting that dates can be of different varieties.
Finkovo palm tree at home
Decorative date palm is not difficult to grow out of the stone in the pot. Naturally, such a tree will not give fruit, because for pollination we need two trees of different sexes. Housewives use such palm trees as a houseplant with feathery, beautifully curved leaves. It is necessary to stick the fetal bone in the ground and water, as in 2-3 months shoots will appear. Leaves in such a date palm can appear in three or even five years. First, a kind of arrow appears from the trunk, which gradually turns into a leaf. The decorative qualities of such a plant are worth all the effort you have spent.
How and where do dates grow in nature?
The historical homeland of culture is the Middle East, North Africa, the Canary Islands. Today the plant is cultivated in different countries with hot climates. The leader in the cultivation of dates is Saudi Arabia.
In Russia, date palms are grown on the Black Sea coast. However, they do not give high-quality fruits, so they can only be considered as ornamental plants, and not fruit-bearing.
Date palms, under normal growing conditions, bear fruit for up to 80 years. The fruits are collected in large clusters. The most productive varieties of culture allow to get from one tree to 150 kg of dates.
Growing at home
If you want to have a date palm at home, you don’t have to buy a plant. It is enough just to grow a date from a bone obtained from dried fruit. In order for a houseplant to be healthy and have a beautiful appearance, we must remember the basic rules of agricultural engineering. Their violation for an adult plant is undesirable, but not very dangerous, but young dates with improper care die very quickly.
How to sprout a bone date?
The stone needs to germinate correctly, and it is not enough just to place it in the ground and wait for germination. For planting the stone is suitable only if the dried fruit did not undergo heat treatment.
- It is best to plant the plant in the winter - in this period, in natural conditions, date palms begin active vegetation, as it is summer in the southern hemisphere at this time.
- Stone should be soaked in warm water for 2-3 days. For this, dishes with it are placed in a warm place (you can near the battery). Water should be changed every day. You can also soak a bone in well-soaked cotton wool, but it is less effective.
After the end of soaking on the bone, 3-4 punctures are made and they are again placed in water for 4 days. This will stimulate germination. As soon as the bone swells - you can plant it.
The bone is not buried deep - no more than 5 cm. It is better to sprinkle it not with soil, but with peat. This will provide the most comfortable conditions for germination. Plant a bone in a pre-moistened substrate. After planting, watering is not carried out until the soil dries. Germination occurs better if greenhouse conditions are created, for which the pot should be tightened with a plastic transparent bag. To remove it for airing is necessary for 5-10 minutes at least than once a day.
Date palm transplantation is carried out as it develops and the pot grows. The substrate for transplanting is needed the same as for planting. It is also necessary to transplant a plant if initially several seeds were grown at once in a single container. In this case, the transplant is carried out at the moment when a strong leaf with a length of 4 cm has formed on the shoot.
- Since the roots of the palm tree are long, the pot will need a deep one. The width of it is not important. At the bottom, a drainage layer is made of broken brick or expanded clay.
- Transplantation is carried out by the method of transshipment, which reduces the risk of damage to the root system. If rotting roots are found at the time of transplantation, they are pruned.
Frequent transplants have a negative effect on the date palm, and therefore the capacity for it is taken with a margin. The maximum frequency of replanting a tree is once a year.
How to care for a palm tree at home?
Despite the fact that the date palm is particularly unpretentious, care for her need the right. In nature, plants are much stronger than those that are grown in a pot and can tolerate adverse conditions without damage. Domestic copies of such resistance have lost.
- After germination, the plant requires abundant watering with warm water. However, it is important to ensure that water does not stagnate, as this will cause spoilage. Water for irrigation defend 2-3 days at room temperature. Whenever possible use rain or thawed liquid. Needs daily spraying.
- In winter, for a date palm, it is necessary to lower the temperature to 15–18 degrees, which will provide it with a rest period over the biological cycle of the growth band, and not of the natural nature.
- The plant needs high-quality lighting for 10 hours a day, but it is important that it does not fall into direct sunlight. They will lead to burns and its possible death.
- Top dressing is carried out during the growing season 1 time per month, alternating mineral and organic fertilizers. In winter, the palm is not fed.
- To maintain a beautiful appearance, the leaves are wiped with a damp cloth.
Possible problems with growing
The main problems that can arise when cultivating a date palm in the home are attacks by its pests: scutes, thrips. In this situation, help special preparations for the protection of indoor plants.
Another problem that a florist can face is waterlogging of the soil and plant rot. Palm in this situation gives off an intense smell of rot. If the plant remains living roots, then you can save it by stopping watering until the moment of complete drying of the soil.
The fact that the palm tree receives less moisture, they say the darkening ends of the leaves. To fix this problem is easiest.
If you have a place in the apartment and desire, you can easily grow an exotic beauty from a stone. The date palm in a pot looks elegant and can become an interesting green decoration of the house. Knowing on what dates grow, you can immediately decide whether you need a palm tree at home or not.
Countries of date palms
This plant is native to Asia and Africa. It is known that already in the 4th c. BC e., the Arabs, the inhabitants of ancient Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), have already actively used the fruits of dates in food, as well as for medicinal purposes. The plant is also mentioned in the Bible and the Koran. The Bedouins build houses from their trunks, and cover the roofs with branches.
Palm branches feed horses and camels, and make various wines and sugar from juice, in a word: date palm - indispensable for life in North Africa and Asia.
Dates are grown and exported in industrial quantities such countries as: Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Bahrain, Iraq and Iran, the United Arab Emirates, Syria, Oman and Sudan.
The leader in the export of fruit is Saudi Arabia.
Spain - the only country in Europe where dates grow well and bear fruit.
Today you can see these powerful representatives of the flora in countries such as: USA (California), Mexico and Australia.
How dates grow in Israel
In Israel, as you know, they grow some of the best dates in the world. It's all about the right environmental conditions and the right, professional approach to this case.
The ancient Romans and Greeks described dates growing along the Jordan River and the Dead Sea, but later, in the Middle Ages, for unknown reasons, this tree disappeared from the territory of the state. Only in the 50s. 20 in. израильские представители тайно встретились в Сирии с арабами, занимающимися выращиванием фиников, и переняли у них знания и секреты, необходимые для ухода за пальмой и ее плодами. А также приобрели несколько саженцев, которые переправили контрабандой.
Now Israel is one of the main exporters of dates in the world.
Top-quality fruit is sold as a whole, and some of the worst make excellent sweets, such as candy, candies, jams etc. Also make a variety of spices from them.
Here, all trees (grown for industrial purposes) are pollinated by hand: pollen is collected from males, and each branch of female palm trees is pollinated by special cars.
Also, thinning of dates is obligatory, it is necessary so that the fruits are as large and high-quality as possible. Thinning is also done manually - each branch is inspected and the necessary number of shoots is left, removing all the rest.
Varieties of dates grown in Israel
Basically, they grow three kinds of dates:
- "Majul" - which means "king" - this name is quite justified by its popularity and the quality of the fruits.
- Hai'an date dates are incredibly tasty and beautiful fruits. They are not fully matured and stored in special freezers at a temperature of minus eighteen degrees, where they ripen. These fresh dates have a yellow color and become brownish when dried. Very tasty and sugar in any form. Begin to harvest in mid-September at night (due to strong heat), from two nights to six in the morning.
- Barchi dates - fruits of this variety also have excellent taste, fresh yellow, can reach the size of a small apple.
Where dates grow
Date palm grows in North Africa, Saudi Arabia, Israel, Egypt, Southeast Asia. These trees grow for a long time and are able to bear fruit for 60-80 years. In height reach 15-20 meters. Decorate the landscape and create a unique local flavor.
Fruiting begins at 4 years of planting. Increases to 6 year of life of the tree. The highest yield is reached by year 13. And does not decline for many decades. One tree gives up to 150 kg of fruit.
The tree is used by man completely. The leaves go to the roof of the roofs, weaving ropes. Young shoots and leaves are used in food. Bark and wood is used as a building material.
Carried palm trees around the world. But the greatest yields are in places of traditional growth. The largest suppliers of dates are Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq and Israel.
It is grown as a houseplant in countries with a harsh climate and cold winters.
Composition of dates
As part of dates, a large amount of carbohydrates. Contained carbohydrates contain natural sugar, which is a source of energy for the body. And fully absorbed by them. The fruit is rich in minerals of copper, iron, manganese, zinc, phosphorus, potassium. Contains 23 amino acids and vitamins A, B1, C, B2, B6. A large amount of dietary fiber helps to absorb all that is beneficial and prevent the development of cancer. Fluoride is good for teeth, and selenium helps strengthen the immune system and reduces the risk of heart disease.
They have few calories. One fruit, on average, contains 23 calories. Low calorie and high content of nutrients makes dates useful delicacy, which can be used even during the diet.
Harm to dates
Dates, of course useful, but can be harmful in some cases. So, these fruits should be used with caution to people with diabetes. They are able to raise blood sugar. Eating them, track blood sugar levels.
High sugar content is also harmful for obesity. Despite their beneficial properties, obese people should avoid eating them.
Do not eat them in case of exacerbations of stomach diseases. Strengthening intestinal peristalsis with a large number of dietary fibers, they can aggravate the situation and provoke a new round of disease.
A large consumption of fruits every day can lead to headaches, high blood pressure, impaired liver function, and spleen. So the daily rate should be no more than 10 pieces.
The harm of dates also lies in the fact that they are hard and long digested by the body. Do not use before bedtime. It is best to eat them for breakfast or lunch.
You can not combine them with citrus and tomatoes. Mixing up with the acid in these products, carbohydrates are destroyed and cause damage to the body.
Harm dates for the body, with their proper use, is minimal. Properly eat them, given the contraindications, enjoy the taste of healthy fruit.
How to choose dates
We rarely find fresh dates. Most often on sale there are dried or in syrup. On the surface should not be mold or too dry places. The fruit must be fleshy, dense, shiny. But too much shine is alarming, as it is given to the product with the help of chemicals.
Too sticky skin indicates that it is watered with sugar syrup. This is done with a lost crop in order to process it quickly and increase shelf life. Such dates are less useful because they contain real sugar.
Dried dates, with loss of moisture, lose their attractiveness. They get darker and frown. Often such pods turn black and dry.
It is best to buy dried dates. Their surface should not be too sticky and shiny. Fruit to have flesh and not be very dry. There are fruits with bones and without. Depending on the variety, their size and color differ. The color varies from light brown to dark, with a slight blackness.
In any case, buying, feel. Elastic, without unnecessary bruises, cracks, not overdried and shiny worthy to take a seat on your table.
After purchase, store in a tightly closed jar in the refrigerator. Before use, rinse or rinse with boiling water. The sticky surface collects garbage, attracts dirt and bacteria.
It can be stored for a year without losing its nutritional properties.
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How to choose dates
Hello. Announcement for today: why dates are useful, how to choose dates correctly. In ancient times, dates were the main Bedouin food. When going hiking, they took 2 bags of dates instead of food.
Nowadays, dates will help students during the exams, when there are heavy mental loads or athletes during the period of active physical training. The reason - a large amount of potassium, which improves the cardiovascular system.
For the best demonstration I will try to accompany the descriptions with images.
The most useful dates are those that were dried directly on the trees or were laid out for drying in the fields in the sun.
1. Take a look at the photo. The skin at dates in many places burst, rose. Some believe that this is a sign of extreme ripeness. BUT. You know how omnipresent fungi! Consider that they are already inside. And it is not uncommon when some worms settle there.
Why does the peel break? The conditions of transportation or improper storage are simply not met, and perhaps the dates have undergone accelerated drying, during which the date dries quickly and unevenly: the skin first dries and bursts.
I ask you to focus on the smell of dates, do not hesitate to smell them: if they emit a slight smell of gasoline or other unnatural chemical smell, this means that dates dried using gasoline burners or other chemicals.
Often they are fumigated with sulfuric anhydrite. It is used to neutralize dates from all sorts of nastiness. Anhydrite, turning into another chemical. substance that causes inflammation of the stomach lining and increases acidity. In large quantities causes diarrhea, nausea and discomfort in the abdomen.
Diligent manufacturers indicate on the packaging this substance as E220.
But there are dates in which the skin has moved, but not cracked. This means they were dried already overripe. They are less tasty and healthy than ripe.
I think you will make your own conclusions about the quality of such dates.
2. Often you choose very soft dates: they are crushed in the hands, like clay. Mistresses say that such dates are easy to grind.
Such softness is due to an excess of moisture. And we all know that moisture is an excellent breeding ground for mold fungi, and this is already dangerous for our health, because fungi secrete mitotoxins (they damage the liver, weaken the immune system).
3. Lazy sweet teeth love to buy pitted dates. A few words about such dates.
Immediately: the integrity is broken (the bones do not disappear!), And a holy place is never empty. Anything can be got in them. Often, to erase mold, dates are smeared with glucose syrup, which gives a glossy shine.
4. If we see sugar crystals on the surface, then we have candied dates.
Many shout: "Hurray!". Here it is a beautiful sweet fruit. But! The shelf life of any dates - 9 months. And the crystallized surface may mean that the dates were just stale, that they were last year’s.
In addition, the sugar on the surface will tell you that since it is outside, it means the date is empty and not sweet inside.
There is one more minus: sugar outside can mean that dates were transported or stored in conditions of high humidity. I will not risk buying such dates.
5. Brilliant dates attract the largest number of buyers.
What, the dream came true "idiot" and we found what we were looking for? Ha! Most of the glossy dried fruits on our market are watered with glucose syrup to give a presentation. This syrup is harmless and is used as a preservative, but the surface becomes sticky and attracts dirt, dust and insects, such as flies. If you decide to buy such dates, we advise before use to hold them for 2 hours in water and rinse.
6. How to determine if the dates are watered with syrup or is it their natural appearance? For this you need a plastic bag. We stretch it with both hands to the sides and cover the dates on top.
If the dates are stuck, then they are watered with glucose syrup.
What should be an ideal, quality date?
7. Meet our little doll.
Perfect date: matte, without glossy shine and glucose syrup (does not stick to the package), without sugar crystals, without cracks on the skin, it has a bone, it is elastic and a new sign - it has a tail that says its threw off his hands that he did not fall to the ground.
Sometimes you can find premium dates: they are sold directly from the native twig. This is the highest class when choosing dates.
But do not fall for the marketing ploy: often put a plastic stick in the package (in the photo on the right). This is not our case.
That got to the end. I hope our advice will help you. Bye everyone.
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How to choose a good and quality dates?
Dates are a delicious and healthy sweetness. After harvesting, the fruit is dried. At the same time, they are often treated with additional means to preserve the appearance. How to choose dates, so that they are useful for the body? There are several nuances that need to be considered when purchasing. About them described in the article.
Before you learn how to choose dates, you should examine their useful properties. A high-calorie product is about 220 kcal per 100 g. It is recommended to be used in case of diseases of the heart, blood vessels, and also in diseases of the stomach. Dates are useful for colds. They are valued for the absence of cholesterol.
Fruits can not be consumed only with diabetes, as they have a high glycemic index. The rest of the people are not contraindicated, you only need to comply with the measure. A couple of fruits are enough per day for the benefit.
But, besides useful properties, there are also contraindications:
- Fruits are rich in sugars. Healthy people need to eat them in moderation so as not to cause diabetes.
- Dates are a product with a high energy value, so their excessive use causes harm to obese people.
- If you eat a lot of fruits of date palms, it can cause inflammation in the digestive tract. Therefore, the risk of such diseases to use the product must be carefully.
- Do not combine dates with citrus fruits in one dish. It can cause an upset stomach.
- Contraindications include individual intolerance.
How and where do dates grow?
In North Africa, fruit serves as a substitute for bread. Date palms have leaves like ferns, fruits grow in large clusters. Usually ripe berries have a brown-red color, but they are yellow, gray-blue, brown.
The pulp is fibrous, sweet. When ripe, the clusters are cut and dried in the sun. So it turns out all known dried fruit. They are brought to Russia from Israel, Syria, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Sudan, Morocco, but Saudi Arabia is considered the leader.
Recommendations for choosing
How to choose high-quality dates will help simple tips:
- It is necessary to pay attention to the color of the fruit. They can not be light, greenish. Quality products have a uniform dark color.
- It is important to check the integrity of the packaging. It should be tightly closed, free from damage. In this case, the fruits are stored much longer, besides the product will be fresh.
- An important role has a general view of the product. Dates should not be firm, it is important that they do not shine.
- How to choose dates? Peel should not be cracked if there was a natural drying. And this defect appears when drying in the oven to speed up the process. They are suitable for consumption, but the taste is not the same as that of a properly prepared product.
- Make sure the product is fresh. It should not have a fermented smell and a wrinkled look. Such signs indicate impaired storage.
- Fruits should not stick together. If sugar crystals are present, the dates are treated with syrup for extra sweetening.
- How to choose good dates? Fruits should not be fat. They have no stickiness and slippery, they are pleasant to the touch and non-greasy.
- It is advisable to choose the fruit with a stone. They are subjected to minor processing, therefore, are considered useful.
If you are interested in how to choose dates, then you should consider the above nuances. Quality products will be tasty and healthy. Products are sold on the markets and in stores, both in bulk and in packages.
You need to know not only how to choose dates, then how to store them. They need a cool room, so it is better to place them in the refrigerator. In this case, the container should be tightly closed so that no foreign smell can penetrate.
If it is necessary to keep dates for a short time, they are left at room temperature. The main thing is that they are not affected by the rays of the sun.
Keeping Fresh Dates
Such products are stored in the refrigerator. Pre it does not need to be washed. Fruits are put in a paper bag or wrapped in paper. For fresh food, a temperature of 0 degrees is sufficient. Such conditions are usually on the shelf under the freezer. Чтобы вся партия не сгнила, нужно ее регулярно проверять. Если она перед отправкой в холодильник была прекрасного качества, то можно хранить около 2 месяцев.
Room temperature is suitable for them, since they are processed under special conditions by pasteurisation. So that the products do not dry, it must be wrapped in paper or a package. Then it should be placed in a dark, cool place where there is no light. Shelf life is usually on the package. It is believed that they can lie for a long time, it is desirable to use them throughout the year.
What is treated?
To determine which dates to choose, you need to know about their origin, method of production. The best is the product that matured naturally. In this case, it dries on a palm tree. To speed up the procedure, heat treatment is performed in chambers and furnaces.
Products may be soaked in sugar or glucose syrup. Such a product will not be harmful, but there is little benefit from it. With syrup, the dried fruit becomes sweet and high-calorie. Sulfur dioxide is rarely used. How to choose dates without processing? Usually this is stated on the packaging.
Before use, products are washed. This must be done, as it is not known exactly where and how they were processed. Clean, warm water is required. You can soak the fruit for 20 minutes, then drain and rinse again. Even if the product is not processed, it does not hurt to rinse to clean it from dust and dirt.
Dates are used in pure form, with water, tea and other drinks. They also prepare different dishes. The fruits are used as a basis for sauces and gravy. They are used to make salads, stews, pilaf. Of them are preparing tasty and healthy drinks.
Dates as a means of care
In dates there are many valuable components for outdoor use. They are known in the world for their excellent effect on the skin, the extract remarkably rejuvenates it at the cell level.
Date stones are used to make face masks. To evaluate their properties, you need to grind a few, mix with olive oil until smooth. After this tool is applied to the skin of the face, and then it needs to be washed off. The results are noticeable almost immediately. If you perform the procedure regularly, you can achieve a clean, smooth skin.
Date broth is used for prolonged coughing. To prepare it, you need 6-7 fruits that need to be poured with milk (1 cup), boil for 10 minutes. After cooling, the drink can be consumed and the fruits eaten. Do it better at night.
In case of constipation, the following composition is useful: 10 fruits should be cut, butter (0.5 tbsp) should be heated, add black pepper and then mix everything. Eaten all on an empty stomach.
There is a recipe for getting rid of anemia and fatigue: 10 dates, ginger (0.5 tbsp. L.), Cardamom, saffron. In a glass dish, mix everything up with shake. It must be removed in the shade for 14 days, and can be used in the morning. With insomnia and neurosis, dates are eaten with milk.
Thus, dates are valuable products. In order for them to bring the maximum benefit to the body, it is necessary to choose them correctly. Therefore, the above recommendations are sure to come in handy in that they care about their health.
How to choose dates: useful tips
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Dates known to mankind for 6 thousand years. Since ancient times, people consume the fruits of palm trees with pleasure, and the passage of time only helps in this. Today, you can meet on sale dates, coated with sugar glaze or chocolate, evaporated, dried, dried, canned. This diversity encourages many people to look for information that will help you choose the right dates.
Use and storage of dates
- Many people do not attach importance to the fact that all dried fruit must be washed before consumption. On the surface of such products accumulates a fairly large number of harmful bacteria.
- Another thing, if you were collecting fresh fruit from the trees. Dates are subject to industrial processing. Fruits collect dirty hands, dried in the open air among the dust. Dates sometimes trample and collect shovels.
- Even high quality products need to be boiled over for sterilization. Ready dates are covered with vegetable sugars, to which absolutely everything sticks. If you assume that the fruit has been treated with chemicals, it is better to soak the product in hot water.
- Take the habit of carving the fruit into 2 parts and remove the bone. Make sure that there are no worms in the product, after which you can begin to eat. In most cases, dates are affected by moths.
- In this case, it is worth buying a little more product to eat enough. It is recommended to store dried fruit in a refrigerated chamber in a food container with an airtight lid. Dates are able to absorb foreign odors well. In the freezer the product is stored up to 5 years.
When choosing, pay special attention to appearance. The shell must be whole and matte. Do not abuse the product, so as not to meet with a number of troubles. It is mandatory to heat treat the fruit before eating.
how to keep dates at home
Video: choose dates
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In the world there are more than 450 varieties of dates. They attach great importance to them in Saudi Arabia, in whose territory the sacred for
the Muslims of the city of Mecca and Medina and where thousands and thousands of Muslims make pilgrimages every year. Saudi Arabia is considered one of the largest producers of dates in the world. It grows more than 18 million palm trees, giving 648 thousand tons of crop annually. Here, at the state level, there is support for production
dates The area of date gardens is constantly increasing, organic and mineral fertilizers are regularly introduced into their soil. In general, everything is being done to ensure that the date occupies an important place in the national economy of the country.
This crop has been developed in all regions of the Kingdom. The number of varieties of dates has increased.
Next we give the names and descriptions of the main
varieties of dates grown in different regions of the country:
• As-Sukkari - the best sort of dates. Dates of this variety are oblong in shape, convex in the middle, yellow, very sweet. Possess delightful taste, used at all stages of its maturation.
A possible form of storage is freezing. Dried very soft
• chakra’ is the most common variety. The color of dates is light red. When they are dried, they become dark, closer to black. One of the most important commercial varieties due to high yield, storage, low cost and the possibility of long storage.
• Nabbut Saif - in the initial stage of its ripening dates of this variety are yellow. Then they get a golden hue. And when maturation ends,
turn red. The dates are oblong egg-shaped, convex in the center,
• Khadri - in the initial stage of its ripening dates are dark green. When mature fully acquire a yellow color. Dates are large, oblong, the pulp has a small fibrous,
• Sak’i is one of the very famous varieties. The dates of this variety are large, cylindrical, yellow,
• shishi - in the initial stage of their ripening, the dates of this variety are light yellow in color. When mature, they get an attractive golden color,
• Barchi - dates of this variety are yellow. They are distinguished by a very sweet taste. They have a short, cylindrical, almost spherical shape. One palm tree of this variety is capable of producing about 115 kg of fruits annually, maktumi - the dates of this variety are bright yellow. Possess excellent taste. Very tender and juicy,
Azhva - dates of this variety are egg-shaped. At the initial stage of their ripening, they are red, then they become chestnut-colored. Distributed in Medina. Palm trees of this variety are medium fruiting and bloom during the Hajj period,
Hanizi - this variety has red fruits
Raziz - a variety of soft dates. At an early stage of its ripening, the fruits are yellow. After drying, they acquire a golden color. Palm trees of this variety give a very rich harvest,
• Chalas - dates of this variety at the initial stage of their ripening yellow (apricot) color. When the fruit is fully ripe, it becomes an amber-red color. It has excellent taste. It is consumed at all stages of its maturation,
• ‘Anbar - a variety of soft and large in size (diameter reaches 2.5-3 cm) dates. Fruits are oblong in shape, red. Their production is very limited, and the price is high. This is the Medina variety of dates,
• Shalabi - dates of this variety are very large in size and soft in consistency. Ripe fruit yellow (orange) color. Their price is high due to limited production. Medina variety of dates,
• halvah - dates of this variety are red,
• sullazh - at the early stage of its ripening, the dates of this variety are yellow. Fully ripened fruit amber-golden color. The ripening period is the beginning of the Hajj season. Dates are sweet in taste, produced mainly in Medina,
• Barney — a variety of semi-dry, large dates. Fruits are yellow. Dates of this variety are also produced in Medina,
• ar-Rusanna - dates of this variety are medium in size, egg-shaped. The length of the fruit reaches 3.5-1 4 cm, weight - from 13 to 15 g. Dates are yellow, sweet in taste (even not yet ripe). Have a long shelf life
• nabta ‘ali - fruits of this variety come in medium and large sizes. They have an oblong ovoid shape. The length of the fetus ranges from 3.5 to 4.5 cm, diameter 2.5-3 cm, color - yellow. The palms of this variety of dates are extremely prolific. One tree per year gives an average of 95 kg of crop,
• Dakalat nur is a very rare variety of semi-dry dates. The size of the fruit - from medium to large. The shape is oblong, ovoid. Color - from red (amber color) to salmon, coral. This is a late variety. Palm trees are fertile, one can give in a year from 90 to 120 kg of dates,
• munifi - dates of this variety are egg-shaped, yellow. The weight of one fruit can reach 20 g. Palm trees of this variety are not very prolific: one year it gives no more than 70 kg of crop. Dates ripen in late September
• As-Sibak — a little common variety of dates. Palm trees are fertile, one can produce an average of 145 kg of crop per year. The fruits are large, their weight varies between 19.35 and 19.62 g. They have a cylindrical shape. Color - from yellow to brown and dark brown. The skin is thick, visibly shriveled. Pulmonary fibrous. It tastes sweet, slightly astringent,
• Rasudiyya - this variety is grown on sandy soils. The shape of the fruit is cylindrical, oblong. Length varies between 2.5 and 3 cm, weight 15 g. Color — yellow, orange. This is a variety of dry dates. In a fruitful year, one palm tree can produce up to 200 kg of fruit.
DATE-FAVORITE TREE OF THE PROPHET. TYPES AND VARIETIES. SHOPPING AND STORAGE
Dates of this variety ripen in late August
• As Safavi - this variety of dates is considered one of the best in Saudi Arabia. Fruits of medium size, ovate oblong in shape, reach a length of 3-3.9 cm, 1.8-3.1 cm in diameter. When the dates ripen, they are red, tart and astringent in taste, but after some time become dark chestnut and very tasty. In the dried state, they are pleasant to the taste and smell. Dates of this variety ripen by the end of the season of Hajj. Produced in the Medina area,
• al-’asila - a variety of dry dates grown in regions with sandy and clayey soil. The length of the fruit is 3-5 cm, weight reaches 20 g, the color is coffee-yellow, the shape is oblong-cylindrical. Palm trees of this variety are very prolific, one per year can yes-
vat up to 200 kg yield. Dates of this variety are in great demand abroad, so they are well exported in large quantities. They ripen in late August. These diverse and numerous species and varieties - just a small part of the creations of the Lord - amazed researchers, scientists, specialists in various fields with their many useful and nutritional properties. After studies, studies, analyzes in dates found the content of sugar, water, vitamins, minerals and even vinegar.
And the palm itself also has many useful properties and virtues.
And there is nothing surprising in the fact that after such words of Allah and His Messenger (sallallahu alaiha wa sallam) this blessed, noble tree gained honor and love in all countries of the world, was actively grown, and its fruits became desirable.
a treat for every servant of God. According to the Department of Economics and Statistics of the Ministry of Agriculture and Water Management of Saudi Arabia, the world production of dates reaches 3,219,000 tons per year. The share of Saudi Arabia’s production is 17.6% of the world total.
Date Tree Description
Date palms, they are also called "phoenixes" - These are mostly trees, although there are also low shrubs with long and strong sheets of feathery form with spines on the base. The plant belongs to the palm family. They can be with one or several trunks and reach a height of up to 20-30 meters (in rare cases up to 40).
The tree blooms with small yellow buds. These are dioecious plants, they are divided into female and male individuals. On the representatives of males there are no fruits, pollen appears on them, which pollinates females.
Types of dates
The most popular type of dates with edible fruits is finger date (ordinary).
There are approximately 17 varieties of dates, the most delicious and common are "tarlet nur", "majhol", "hiyyan", "Chinese" and "barhi".
The varieties "Robelena" and "Canary" are well suited for growing at home. They are grown only for decorative purposes, and do not belong to the type of finger dates.
In the third or fourth year, you can expect the first fruits, but the full harvest appears for 5-6 years of tree life. At dates, usually a huge number of fruits, there are cases when under their weight, during gusts of wind, even the palm trees themselves break. The tree is a record holder in the number of years and fruits of yield. On average, palm fruit 60-80 years. For 5-6 years, each tree brings up to 10 kg of fruit, and from about the 13th the yield can reach about 80 kilograms, you can even collect up to 150 kg of crop from one tree.
Cultivating dates with their own hands
To grow this plant does not need to make a lot of effort, but a little still worth the effort. For successful cultivation palm trees in room conditions need to follow some rules:
- The soil must be fertile and light, for this it is necessary to prepare a substrate consisting of the following components: sand, turf ground (clay), peat, leaf and humus.
- Stone can be used from fresh, dried or dried fruit, it practically does not affect germination. Israeli scientists even conducted an interesting experiment related to the germination of this plant: during archeological excavations a dried bone of a date was found, which, in their opinion, is about two thousand years old, it was planted and after some time a palm tree sprouted.
- You can grow a date only from the bone. There are many complicated planting options when the bone is subjected to a variety of treatments. However, such “procedures” are not obligatory at all, one can argue about their benefits for the seed itself, as they do not correspond to the natural conditions of germination of the tree. The easiest and most natural way is to plant in the right prepared soil, which is described in the first paragraph.
- In a small container with small holes at the bottom - for the passage of excess moisture, and prepared soil, you need to deepen the bone (in the vertical position, upwards with a sharp edge) of about 1.5 - 2 cm. Then, pour a little.
- Next, you need to put the pot in a well-lit and warm (at room temperature: 20-25 degrees), moderately watered about once a week, and wait for the sprouting palm.
- Approximately in 2-3 weeks (but there are cases when it is necessary to wait 2 months), a sprout should appear.
- Date palms have a very fast growing, strong, powerful and extensive root system. Therefore, it is necessary to replant them in a large pot approximately once a year. After germination, literally in 2-4 weeks, the plant should be transplanted into a medium-sized container (if a date is not transplanted in time, its overgrown roots will strongly intertwine at the walls of the pot, then the transplant will face damage to the root system)
- The plant likes well ventilated rooms (without drafts). And also, despite their natural origin, the phoenixes like well-moistened air, it is advisable sometimes to spray sheets with settled water at room temperature. Under conditions when the plant is standing near the battery, it is necessary to put a small container next to it with water to humidify the air, or, for the same purpose, you can put a piece of cloth moistened with clean water on the battery (without powder and detergents).
- Полив - умеренный (приблизительно раз в неделю, а в летнее время можно немного чаще).
- Могут повреждаться такими вредителями, как: червец (мучнистый), щитовками и клещом (паутинным). При их обнаружении следует сразу обработать листки: это может быть просто обтирание теплой водой, или же водой с небольшим количеством мыла (желательно детского), а также можно купить в магазине специальные химические препараты.
- Sheets of small palm trees are very fond of cats, so it is worthwhile to hide the plant for the first time until the leaves are a little rough.
- Top dressing - in winter, the bush is at rest, so it is better not to fertilize it at this time, but in the autumn and spring, it is advisable to take care of the top dressing, which can be organic and mineral. Organic: humus, compost and bird droppings, mineral: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium. Complex mineral fertilizers containing several useful elements at once are also effective. You can learn how to use mineral dressings in the instructions or from the seller, organic ones are prepared as follows: one tablespoon of fertilizer is added to two liters of distilled and cool water (this way you can fertilize the soil every two weeks, field a moderate amount of this “solution”) .
Useful properties of dates and their application in the food industry
- This exotic fruit contains a large amount of dietary fiber, some of which are soluble and others insoluble, they impede the rapid absorption of sugar, so their glycemic index is low. The use of dates energizes and gives a long-term feeling of satiety.
- Date honey, silane, is very much appreciated and is very popular in the east. To make it, the fruit is peeled and the bone is removed, then the juice is extracted, which is diluted with special sugar water and evaporated until the liquid reaches the consistency of the syrup, then the honey is poured into previously sterilized jars and closed. The shelf life of such a product is very long, and the benefits of eating it are hard to overestimate.
- Natural sweetener is made from dates.
Fruit contains huge amount of nutrients: Vitamins A, B1, B2, folic acid, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, etc. And they also contain a large number of calories - approximately 200 kcal. per 100 g. Many argue that on some dates and water a person can live a very long time.
In cooking, there are a huge number of recipes for cooking various dishes with the addition of fruits of date palm: sweet pilaf, various pastries, sweets, jams, drinks and more.
Use dates to improve well-being and promote health
This fruit is advised to take with many ailments, such as:
- Digestive upset. Fruits need to be eaten in the morning, on an empty stomach - this stabilizes the work of the gastrointestinal tract and eliminates the harmful "representatives" of the intestinal microflora.
- With frequent use of dates improves appetite.
- Useful in restoring vision.
- Fruits should preferably be used for pregnant women, to strengthen the health of the child.
With all the above-mentioned beneficial properties, dates should not be abused. For their beneficial effects on the body, it is enough to eat no more than 10 pieces per day.
Date palm is an inaccessible plant for growing in our latitudes; however, for those who want to bring a little bit of exotic and atmosphere of distant countries into their dwelling, cultivation of a decorative date is ideal!
Date palm is the most important fruit crop of tropical deserts and semi-deserts.
Dates are the fruits of date palms. All numerous varieties of dates represented on the world market belong to the same botanical type - date palmate (real date palm).
The fruits of some other types of date palms are also edible and are used for food by local people in their growing regions, but they are not available on the world market.
Dates - fruits of date palm
This date palm is widely grown in North Africa, Western Asia, Pakistan and in arid regions of India. Small plantations of date palmatous occur on the Mediterranean coast of southern Europe, in the hot arid regions of the United States, in Australia and South Africa. This is one of the few plants that are ideally suited to the hot dry climate of the southern deserts and semi-deserts.
For date plantations choose sunny places with the presence of underground aquifers or with the possibility of artificial irrigation. When planting, seedlings are placed according to the scheme 8 x 8 or 10 x 10 meters depending on the varietal characteristics and soil conditions. As planting material used offspring from adult fruit-bearing plants. Date palm seedlings are very heterogeneous in their economic characteristics and are not used for laying industrial plantations.
When and how dates bloom
Date palm is a dioecious plant. Male and female inflorescences are located on different specimens. Date palms are pollinated by the wind. When laying commodity plantations for every few dozen female trees, a male specimen must be planted for cross-pollination. Date palms bloom from February to November, depending on the variety and region. Determine the sex of plants is possible only during flowering. On ripening takes about a year of time.
Male inflorescences of date palms do not bear fruit, but are necessary for pollination
Male specimens of date palm flowers bloom large racemes inflorescences, consisting of small three-petal flowers with numerous stamens. For better pollination, blooming male inflorescences are often cut and hung in the crowns of flowering female trees.
In the old days, cut off male inflorescences were often dried and kept for several years in reserve in linen sacks of linen fabric in order to ensure the harvest of dates even in case of the death of the male pollinator tree.
Male date palm flowers have three petals and several stamens
On the female date palm trees, the inflorescences are also arranged with large tassels, but they look a little different.
Female inflorescence of date palm - the basis of the future harvest of dates
A female date flower looks like a small ball without petals. In case of successful pollination, each such flower-bulb will grow a fig fruit.
Female flowers of date palm trees look like tiny balls without petals
How dates bear
Date palms early in fruiting. The first fruits on female specimens appear already at the age of four. Young palm trees by this time still do not have time to grow a tall trunk, and clusters of dates often turn out to be lying on the ground. On some plantations, such fruit brushes are tied to supports to avoid contact with the soil, but this is not always and not done everywhere. That is why the dates purchased at the market or in the store are strongly recommended to be washed before use, especially in countries with unfavorable sanitary and epidemiological situation.
Date harvesting is done by hand. This is very dangerous and hard work. Pickers climb trees and use special curved knives to cut clusters of ripe fruit, then gently lower them to the ground.
Hand harvesting dates is hard and dangerous work
In the northern hemisphere, the season of dates of dates lasts from May to December. In May, begin to collect the fruits of early varieties in the southern Arabian Peninsula. The main harvest in most countries in North Africa and Western Asia takes place from August to October.
Collecting dates in Tunisia (video)
The adult date palm can simultaneously have from 3 to 20 large fruit brushes. The weight of each brush is usually in the range of 7 to 18 kilograms. The harvest of young trees is small, only 10–20 kilograms of fruit from one tree, but every year everything grows and in 15 years the trees yield 60–100 kilograms of dates a year. The yield of adult palm trees in good conditions can reach 150-250 kilograms of dates from each tree annually. Palm trees produce up to 80–100 years or more, cases of regular fruiting of 200-year-old trees are known.
On an adult palm, several large date brushes ripen during the fruiting period.
A separate fruit of a date is a juicy, fleshy berry with one large seed. The color of dates, depending on the variety, is yellow, orange, red or brownish. The size of the fruit reaches 8 centimeters in length and 4 centimeters in diameter. Each fruit contains one large oblong stone with a longitudinal groove.
In each date there is one large oblong bone.
Different varieties of dates are used in food in fresh or dried form. Fresh dates can be tasted only in the regions where they grow. Dried fruits that can be stored for many months go to the world market. Depending on the variety, they are soft, semi-dry or dry.
The benefits and harm of dates
Dates are a very popular sweet treat that can replace sweets and sugar. They contain a small amount of B vitamins, carotene (provitamin A) and vitamin K. Of the mineral substances, dates are especially rich in potassium, they also contain calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and small amounts of iron, sodium, zinc, copper and manganese. The high content of potassium makes dates useful in cardiovascular diseases. Calorie dates are very high and reach 280–340 kcal per 100 grams of product, depending on the variety.
Sweet high-calorie dates are strictly contraindicated in diabetes and obesity. You should not abuse this delicacy and healthy people.
Sweet and tasty dates - just a popular delicacy, but not a panacea for all diseases
Flooded Internet articles about the mythical super-usefulness of dates have absolutely no scientific basis.
Yes, dates are indeed one of the staple foods of the poor in the tropical desert zone, but this happens only for the banal reason that other agricultural plants in the hot and dry desert climate simply do not survive.
What is royal dates and where they grow
Royal Dates is the commercial trade name for Medjoul date palm fruit grown in many countries in North Africa and West Asia, as well as in South Africa and in the United States. From other varieties of royal dates differ only in larger size and nothing else, their chemical composition is completely identical to other varieties.
Royal dates - fruits of the date palm of the large-fruited variety Medjoul
Other types of date palms, their distribution in the wild and in culture
In addition to the most widely known date palmate, there are several related species of date palms. All of them have large feathery leaves, reaching several meters in length, and are dioecious plants (male and female flowers develop on different specimens).
Finger date (real date palm, ordinary date palm) usually grows 10–15 meters high, sometimes up to 25–30 meters. At the base of the trunks of adult palm trees are formed numerous offspring used for breeding. It is believed that the true date palm has not survived in the wild, and all its numerous specimens, found in abundance in the deserts and semi-deserts of North Africa and the Middle East, are wild descendants of cultivated plants and grow on the site of ancient abandoned oases.
At the base of the trunks of ordinary date palms, numerous scions are formed.
Finger date is very photophilous, perfectly tolerates high temperatures, strong winds and dust storms, often occurring in deserts. It is relatively easy to tolerate salinization of the soil. This palm tree can grow on clean sand and is very drought-resistant, but only on condition that its roots reach deep underground waters, otherwise it needs regular irrigation. In the conditions of a dry climate of deserts and semi-deserts, the date palmate easily maintains short-term frosts down to -15 ° C, but in a more humid climate it dies already at -9 ° C.
A true date palm is one of very few plants that can grow in desert conditions.
The Theophrastus Date (Cretan Date Palm) grows to a height of 15 meters. In nature, this palm tree is found in southern Greece, on Crete and several neighboring islands, on the nearby coast of Turkey. This is the only type of date palm growing in the wild in Europe. The size of the fruits of the Cretan date does not exceed 1.5 centimeters in length and 1 centimeter in diameter, they have a fibrous pulp with a mediocre taste, but sometimes they are still used in food by the local population. This palm forms many basal shoots. Cretan dates withstand short-term drops in temperature to -11 ° C.
Phenicia Teofrasta - the only wild date palm of Europe
Canary date (Canarian date palm) usually grows 10–20 meters high, but in exceptional cases it can reach 40 meters high. This palm tree is endemic to the Canary Islands and is not found anywhere else in the wild. It is widely grown as an ornamental outdoor plant in Southern Europe, Western Asia, on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus, in North and South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, and in the subtropics of North and South America. In temperate countries, it is very popular as a indoor and greenhouse plant. In comparison with the date palmetto, the Canarian date is more resistant to the increased air humidity, which ensured its wide distribution throughout the world. Canarian date palm withstands short-term cold snaps to -9 ° C.
Canarian date is often grown as an ornamental tree in countries with a subtropical climate.
On the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus, Canary date usually blooms in late autumn, but in some years, flowering may begin much earlier, in mid-summer. If in the winter after flowering there was no frost below -5 ° C, then in December next year the fruits will ripen. The mature fruits of the Canarian date are yellowish-brown, egg-shaped, reaching 2.5 centimeters in length and 1.5 centimeters in width. In principle, they are edible, but in practice they are not eaten because of coarse-fiber pulp.
Fruits of canary date look attractive, but not edible because of coarse-fibred pulp.
The rejected date (curved date, wild date palm, Senegalese date palm) comes from tropical Africa, where it is grown almost everywhere. This is a multi-palm tree in height from 7 to 15 meters. Its small fruits are edible and are widely used by local people in African countries in the area of its natural growth. This palm tree is resistant to salty sea splashes and moderate drought; therefore, it is widely cultivated as an ornamental plant in dry tropical regions of many countries of the world. Extreme frost resistance -5 ° C. The rejected date is easily crossed with other types of date palms. By their economic qualities, such hybrid seedlings often turn out to be much worse than the original parental forms.
Declined date - wild African date palm with edible fruits
The forest date (wild date palm, Indian date palm, silver date palm, sugar date palm) hails from India and the neighboring countries (Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka). It grows from 4 to 15 meters in height. Fruits are edible and are widely used in food by local people. In terms of fruit quality, this palm tree ranks second after the date of palmate and is actively grown as a fruit crop in the countries of South Asia.
Forest Date - Indian date palm, often grown on plantations in India and adjacent countries
From the trunks of this palm also produce sweet juice, used to make sugar and palm wine. Forest dates are drought tolerant and moderately resistant to soil salinization. Extreme frost resistance -5 ° C.
The fruits of the Indian date palm are almost as good as real dates.
The date of rock (date of stony) grows to 6, sometimes up to 8 meters high. In nature, it is found in the mountain forests of India and Bhutan. In culture is grown very rarely. Its small fruits with large bones do not exceed 2 centimeters in length. They are edible, but do not have economic value. Extreme frost resistance -3 ° C.
The date of the rock comes from the mountain forests of the Himalayas
Phenicia Robelena (dwarf date palm) grows no higher than 3 meters in height. In nature, found in the forests of Vietnam, Laos and South China. This beautiful miniature palm tree is very popular as an ornamental plant in the tropical zone and in room culture. Dies when the frost is below -3 ° C. The fruits are small, have no economic value.
Patel Robelena - very popular ornamental plant
Marsh date (mangrove date palm, sea date) is a medium-sized palm tree, reaching no more than 5 meters high. Grows in coastal mangrove forests on the sea coasts of India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, Malaysia and Indonesia. The only type of date that can grow on swampy soils. Это очень теплолюбивое растение влажных тропиков, почти не встречающееся в культуре из-за своих специфических требований к условиям произрастания. Плоды очень мелкие.
Финик болотный — растение влажнотропических мангровых лесов
Плоды всех видов финиковых пальм съедобны, среди них нет ядовитых, но многие из них не имеют никакого хозяйственного значения из-за слишком мелких размеров или грубой волокнистой мякоти.
Выращивание финиковых пальм в открытом грунте в странах бывшего СССР
В советское время проводились многочисленные эксперименты по акклиматизации финиковых пальм на территории СССР. However, it was possible to achieve successful growth and fruiting of the present date palm (date finger) only in the dry subtropics of the south of Turkmenistan. All the numerous dates, sold in abundance in the bazaars of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan, are imported goods from more southern countries. In the Black Sea subtropics, date palmate grows poorly and quickly dies due to excessive moisture.
Canary date is often grown as an ornamental plant on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus
More resistant to high humidity of the air and soil, Canarian date is widely cultivated as an ornamental plant throughout the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus in Russia (Krasnodar region), Abkhazia and Georgia. Separate copies of the Canarian date are also found on the Southern coast of the Crimea and in Azerbaijan (Baku, Lenkoran).
In the collections of the botanical gardens of the subtropical zone of the Krasnodar Territory of Russia there are also single specimens of the forest and date declined, but these species have not received widespread distribution.
Planted date palms should be in areas well lit by the sun with protection from cold winds. The soil should be well drained, without stagnant water. Canary dates grow better on soils with a high lime content.
Young plants of date palms are less resistant to frost than adults.
Young plants of date palms often freeze out even during short frosts down to -8 ..- 9 ° C, so they usually have to be warmed for the winter using reed mats or breathable agrofibre. During winter shelter, it is especially important to protect from frost the apical point of growth at the base of young leaves. With significant damage to the growth point, the palm almost inevitably dies. Adult palms are usually more hardy, but at -10 ..- 12 ° C are severely damaged and may die.
In the conditions of Ukraine, any kinds of date palms in the open ground are very short-lived, even with winter shelter.
Growing date palms at home
In room and greenhouse cultures, various types of date palms are often grown. The most popular dates are palmate, canarian and robelen. The last two are more decorative, but beginning flower growers most often experiment with palmate because of the readiness of its seeds (you can sow bones from food dates sold in grocery stores).
How to sow the bones of dates (video)
The first feathery leaves appear in seedlings of date palms 1-3 years after sowing. If at this age the leaves still remain whole, then the plants do not have enough light. Date palms are very photophilous. In the summer you can put them on the balcony or in the garden, it is very useful for them to be in the fresh air. In winter, the indoor temperature should be around + 15 ° C. Watering requires moderate, the soil in the pot should be constantly moist in the depths. Equally dangerous and overdrying earthen clod, and waterlogging. Pots for date palms are preferred high, with mandatory drainage holes in the bottom and a drainage layer of pebbles or expanded clay at the bottom of the pot. Young plants are transplanted every year in spring; adults can be less often, once every 2-3 years. For very large old plants growing in large and heavy containers, it is sometimes recommended, instead of time consuming transplantation, to be limited to a partial replacement of the upper layer of the earth with a fresh one. It is not necessary to spray palm leaves with water, but you should regularly wipe them from dust with a slightly damp cloth or sponge.
Patel Robelena - one of the most beautiful indoor palms with feathery leaves
During my childhood, in the spacious and bright lobby of our school, among other plants, there were several large and beautiful date palms in wooden tubs of about twenty or thirty liters each. I don’t remember that they were even ever transplanted, but we were regularly sent to wipe the leaves while on duty.
My own attempts to grow dates from bones were not very successful: for the first time, just did not sprout (probably the fruits were too old or overheated when dried, they were too suspiciously dry). And the second time, though I managed to wait for the shoots, my dirty omnivorous cat decided that it was such a new cat grass and quickly dealt with palm seedlings.
Do not fool around with the seeds they germinate well. You shove a bone upright into the ground and occasionally water it. It germinates for a long time, it is better to get shoved in the fall and spring to grow. It grows slowly until the palm trees really wait for 10 years. Loves the sun, heavy soils and deep pots, this is important! Afraid of the tick. I don’t specifically recommend to grow it for a long time, but as entertainment it is very fun to put a seed in and see what happens.
I also sown dates. From dried sprout twice as fast as fresh.
My date palm is 1.5 years old, and already three plumose leaves. It's all about the light. This palm tree is very fond of sunlight.
The soil should be wet. The date of overdrying the soil will not tolerate. If it dries, then forever.
For residents of regions with a temperate climate, dates were and remain only a strange overseas delicacy and an exotic indoor plant. Fruiting date palms is achievable only in hot countries with a subtropical and tropical climate, where they are one of the most important crops.