The quantity and quality of the harvested crop, the taste and size of the heads depend on the correct planting in the spring harvest of the onion sets. This process consists of several stages, which include: preparation of the site for planting, selection of varieties of onions, processing of seed, planting at a certain time and according to the scheme, as well as caring for crops. Errors or ignoring the requirements of each stage can negate all efforts and affect the quality and quantity of the onions grown.
How to plant a bow set
Onions have a biennial vegetative development cycle. For the first year they are grown from seeds of chernushki onion sets. In the second year they plant him to get full heads. There are methods of growing high-grade onion from seeds during one season. But the cultivation of onion seedlings has its undeniable advantages over growing from seeds:
- the crop ripens much earlier
- plants form a more powerful root system and suffer less from drought,
- plants grown from sevka are stronger and less susceptible to the negative effects of weeds.
The size of the harvest depends not only on the labor invested. Without knowledge of the characteristics of onion turnips, it is impossible to get a good result: onions can be shooed, intensively increase the green mass without developing heads, the crop can destroy diseases and pests. All these problems can be avoided if you choose the right place for the beds, prepare the planting material, disembark it at the right time, adhering to the correct planting pattern.
Choose a bow fit open, well lit, ventilated area. This will relieve your crops from powdery mildew. Onions prefer fertile soil with a neutral or slightly acid reaction. If the soil is sour, add slaked lime, dolomite flour or wood ash. Areas with high groundwater levels are not suitable: excessive moisture causes rotting heads.
Observe crop rotation. It is preferable to plant onions after tomatoes, zucchini, cucumbers, legumes. It can be returned to its original place in three to four years. Onions get along well with carrots: they mutually protect each other from pests.
Site preparation for planting begins in the autumn: dig a bed on a bayonet with a simultaneous weeding out and adding organic and mineral fertilizers. Manure, humus and compost make the rate of 5 kg per 1 square. meter. During the winter, fertilizers will have time to decompose.
It is categorically forbidden to bring in organics in the spring, as it causes the intensive growth of greenery instead of the formation and growth of bulbs. Loosen the bed and start planting.
The quality and quantity of the grown crop directly depends on the type of vegetable crop selected. If you don’t grow your seed yourself, purchase it at company stores, from proven vegetable growers, and when buying online, give preference to major online stores with a good reputation and lots of positive reviews.
According to gardeners, The following onion varieties have worked well:
- early - Stuttgart Riesen, Carmen,
- mid-early - Centurion, Sturon,
- mid-season - Shetana, Rumba.
Preplant onion set-ups start in 2–3 weeks. At first, search the bulbs, discarding the injured and sick. The rest is sorted by size, dividing into small, medium and large fractions. They are planted at different times. It provides friendly shoots and facilitates the care of plants.
Special preseeding treatment of onions prevent them from bolting and the development of diseases:
- Bought sevok warm for several days at a temperature of 35-40 degrees. To do this, place a container or a canvas bag with planting material near the heaters. Store your own onion set at a temperature of 18-23 degrees. In this case, it does not need to warm up.
- On the day of planting or the day before it, soak the sevok in brine. It will save him from diseases and pests. Prepare a saline solution at the rate of 10–15 g of salt per 1 liter of warm water. Place planting material in it, remove it in 3-4 hours and lay it on paper in one layer.
- Disinfecting effect has soaking sevka for 2 hours in a strong solution of potassium permanganate (4 g per 1 liter of water) or for 15 minutes in 1% solution of copper sulphate.
Onion sets ranging in size from 1.5 to 2 cm are planted, when the soil warms to 8-12 degrees. It is important not to miss this moment, as the earth dries quickly, losing moisture collected after the winter. But it is also impossible to hurry: when landing in a cold land, the bow is arrowed.
A small set of arrows does not form, so it can be planted early. He is not afraid of spring frosts, and the cold does not affect the size of the crop. But too shallow seed size of 5-6 mm less nutrient reserves, because it has weak seedlings, it grows worse, and the bulbs are formed smaller.
The optimal size of onion sets is 1.0–1.7 cm. Early planting contributes to the development of the root system. In addition, a well-rooted onion less damage the onion fly.
The bed cleared of weeds should be loosened and leveled. To make it easier to plant, lightly roll the soil surface.
- Using a chopper or a flat-cutter, make grooves 4–6 cm deep with 20–25 cm row spacing.
- Plant the bulbs uphill down, keeping an interval between them of 6–8 cm. The depth of planting of the onions depends on the size of the seed. If it is too deep, the onion head will form an elongated one. With a slight deepening of the root system of plants develops poorly, and this is fraught with a decrease in yield and deterioration of the taste of onions.
- Sprinkle over the grooves with a set of 2 cm of humus or soil that has been planted.
- Water and grind with sawdust, straw or peat.
The first shoots of onions will appear in 10–15 days.
Planting care is easy: weed the weeds, loosen the soil, preventing the formation of a hard crust, and keep it moist.
The soil should not be too wet, but drying is unacceptable. Therefore, water the beds with onions 1-2 times a week with no rain. After irrigation, loosen the soil between the rows. This should be done after the emergence of shoots. Loosening is very important for the development of plants: it saves moisture in the soil, opens the access of oxygen to the root system.
Be sure to remove weeds from the bed. They can create excessive moisture and increase the risk of fungus. Weeds must be removed when they reach 3-5 cm in height.
You can not make top dressing, but if the plants develop poorly and they have pale leaves, feed any nitrogenous fertilizer:
- Organic - dilute in a 10-liter bucket of 1 cup of urea and mullein. On fertilizer 1 square. meter beds spend 3 liters of solution
- with mineral fertilizers - take 30 g of ammonium nitrate, 40 g of superphosphate, 20 g of potassium chloride in a bucket of water. For 1 square. meter beds enough 1−2 liters,
- folk remedies - a solution of ammonia. It is a nitrogenous compound, therefore it is used simultaneously as a source of nitrogen and as a means to repel pests. Prepare a solution at the rate of 3 tbsp. spoons of ammonia on 10 liters of water. Consumption - up to 2 liters per 1 square. meter.
But do not overdo it with top dressing, otherwise the onions will actively grow greens, and the formation of the heads will slow down.
Fertilizing organic matter with its aroma can attract planting pests, in particular, onion flies. To protect against it pollinate plants with a mixture of lime and tobacco dust.
You can not tear off the onion feathers on the greens - it will slow down its development, attract pests and reduce yields.
Knowing the subtleties of preparing planting material and performing agrotechnical measures in time, it is easy to achieve high and stable yields.
Terms of spring planting onion sets
Real summer heat for growing onions is not necessary: an adult onion normally tolerates even heavy frosts. Therefore, it is planted very early, so that by the onset of a long daylight day it has already taken root and grows. It is a large amount of sunlight that is required in order for the bulbs to ripen well, and then go on time to rest and be kept for a long time.
At the same time, planting sevok immediately, as soon as the snow melts, too risky. The bulbs planted in the cold land go to the shooter in large quantities, and it is not possible to get a quality crop of onion turnips. The best thing is to choose the moment when the soil warms up to about 10 o C, but do not tighten it longer. Since there is no reason to look back at the possibility of frosts in the case of onions, it is at this point that it is worth finding time to plant the onions on the turnip. As a rule, in most climatic regions, the landing time for planting falls on certain days of April or the first half of May.
Those gardeners who compare their plans with the lunar calendar can rest easy: there are not so many forbidden days for planting onions (these are only the days of the new moon and the full moon). And if you choose the best days, you should know the following. If the onions are grown to produce a feather, then the optimal dates are those in which the night light is under the signs of Water. If the plans are to produce high-quality onion, planting sevok should be while the moon is under the signs of the Earth.
For example, in 2018, the best days for planting onion sets were considered to be 5–8, 20–24 April, and 4–6, 8–10, and 20–24 May. However, depending on the region, dates may vary slightly, and next year there will be a completely different picture with the position of the heavenly bodies. In the published lunar calendars you can find the best days for planting certain crops.
Dependence of the landing period on the region
In general, if we consider the entire territory of our country, the optimal time for planting a seed plank to receive turnips is about a month and a half. So, in the very south, these works begin in the last days of March and end in the first decade of April. In the middle lane, in particular in the Moscow region, such work can begin in late April and finish by mid-May.
The northwestern regions (for example, the Leningrad Region), as well as the Urals and Siberia, are very heterogeneous in weather: in some areas and by the end of May, the soil may not be completely thawed. It happens that the onion planting is postponed until the beginning of summer, but they are mainly trying to cope with this work by the beginning of the last decade of May.
Soil selection and preparation
Onions grow well only on light soils, but not quite on sands: light loams or sandy loams are optimal. He is also very good at planting on black soil. Even close bedding of groundwater is not a hindrance, as long as it does not include wetlands. The soil for onions should be moderately wet and in no case acidic. In the case of increased acidity, it is necessary to preliminate using chalk, hydrated lime, dolomite flour, etc.
Under the bow should be allocated areas that are well lit by the sun: even the shadow of fruit trees or a fence will adversely affect the yield. Onions are very good at higher doses of fertilizers, but this should not be fresh manure: in this case, an excellent feather will grow, but the onion, although large, will not be able to be stored for a long time. But for the year, under previous cultures, the introduction of manure is justified. Onion beds should be located away from the trees so that they are constantly illuminated by the sun.
The beds for planting onions are prepared in the fall, while there is time. Under the digging with the removal of weeds, a half-liter jar of wood ash and up to 80 g of a pant are put on 1 m 2 of at least one and a half buckets of humus or good compost. In the case of clay soils, up to a bucket of river sand is added at the same time. In spring, before the surface loosening of the soil, it is advisable to add another handful of rooms per square meter. After this, the bed is leveled and tamped a little.
Where does bow onion come from? It is grown from seeds, the so-called Chernushka, just the majority of summer residents do not think about it. The point is not very simple, so most often sevok buy in the market or in the store. The easiest way is, of course, to buy sevok in the spring, since its winter storage should be carried out in certain conditions: in a small layer at a temperature of about -2 ° C or, on the contrary, in a room, but not hot. But storage at 0 ... 14 ° C is fraught with the fact that the semen, planted in a vegetable garden, enters massively into bolting.
The sevok bought in spring is sorted out in advance, discarding all dried, bare, damaged bulbs. It is better not to plant, and those who managed to germinate during storage. The most valuable is the 1st grade sevok: these are onions with a diameter of 15–22 mm and a mass of about 2-3 grams. Larger sevok goes on a feather: it often arrows and does not form a commodity bulb. Small sevok, with a diameter of onions about 1 cm, it is best to plant in the winter, around the end of September. Before planting, it is better to select the largest sevok and plant it separately, on a feather: the best bulbs will grow from a medium-sized planting
Soaking onion set before planting
After the bulkhead, the selected good seaws are freed of excess clothing. That husk, which is poorly kept on the bulbs, at this time it makes sense to remove. Soaking onions before planting is highly desirable, especially if the soil in the garden has already begun to dry quickly, and the rains are rare. Sevok is kept for 1-2 hours in water with a temperature of 35–38 o C. Soaking is often accompanied by pre-fertilizer, adding trace elements to water or simply potassium permanganate at a concentration of about 1 g / l. Some lovers do not remove the onions after cooling water, keep it in it for up to two days. Soak sevok possible in any convenient bucket
Experts advise soaking in a different way, but in this case, care and attention are needed. Immediately before planting the garden, the onions in the bucket are filled with water at a temperature of 65–70 ° С. Maintain it at this temperature for only two minutes, and then quickly cooled with cold water. It is said that after such a treatment, the onions will not exactly shoot, but it is impossible to sort out the temperature of the water and the time of soaking, otherwise sevok can be destroyed.
Preventive treatment of sev of diseases and pests
Even if in the process of soaking do not add trace elements to the water, it is better to use the simplest chemical preparations before planting onions in the garden. At least, often gardeners soak sevka in a solution of complex mineral fertilizers. To do this, for example, a spoonful of azofosca is dissolved in 10 liters of water and bathed in this solution sevok 8-10 hours. Even this elementary procedure increases resistance to disease.
Slightly more serious chemical used to prevent fungal diseases is copper sulfate. A teaspoon of the drug is dissolved in 10 liters of water and kept in it for 5–10 minutes. Chlorophos (2 g / l) is more efficient, but less safe: after such a bath that lasts up to 30 minutes, the bulbs must be rinsed in water and dried slightly. Chlorophos is effective against many sores and insects, but it should be handled with care.
The best means of preventing the attack of pests, especially onion flies, is the solution of birch tar (the concentration of the solution is a tablespoon per liter of warm water). In this solution, sevok hold for 20-30 minutes. More serious chemicals in personal farms are undesirable.
Pruning onions before planting
Regarding the trimming of an onion, it is worth saying that, firstly, no trimming of a set before planting it is not mandatory. If the onions were soaked according to the rules, then in the garden he would have enough strength to penetrate the husk, and the feather would rise perfectly. Secondly, the pruning itself, which is sometimes used, only pushes the bulb to the beginning of growth, but does not affect the subsequent life of the onion at all. Well and, thirdly, if there is a desire to help the bow, then you can cut only a dry tip at the very top and, moreover, the dried part of the bottom.
It is strongly not recommended to touch live, wet tissue of the bulb when pruning: these inexperienced gardeners only weaken sevke. After removing the entire top of the bulb, cut "live", the leaves, of course, appear, but the bulb will be sick for a long time and is unlikely to give a good harvest.
Planting process step by step: the scheme
The onion planting plan can be chosen by the gardener himself, relying on the geometric dimensions of the bed, but, in principle, everything is very simple here. The most commonly used ribbon scheme. Between the rows they maintain a distance of about 20 cm, and between the bulbs in the rows - depending on their size. The smallest onion (measuring about a centimeter) was planted out every 5–6 cm, the largest - up to 10 cm. There are a variety of onion planting schemes, but in any case it is placed quite tightly.
Sevok is planted to a depth of 3-4 cm. Approximately it looks like that the very tip of the neck of the onion is barely visible above the soil surface. If some of them are not visible at all, it’s not scary, but the bulbs shouldn’t stick out of the ground. При слишком мелкой посадке растущие луковицы будут почти полностью вылезать из земли, что остановит их рост при наступлении слишком сухой и очень жаркой погоды. If, on the other hand, excessive seeding is slowed down, the growth will also slow down, and at the end of the garden season, the bulbs may not have time to mature properly, which will lead to poor preservation of the crop.
The technology of planting sevka in a previously prepared bed is as follows.
- With any suitable tool (it is possible to carry out the corner of the chopper), shallow grooves are carried out according to the desired scheme, usually every 20 cm and better, if in the west-east direction. For marking the grooves, gardeners often make convenient devices themselves.
- If the soil is heavy, river sand is laid in the furrows with a layer of about 1 cm, and wood ash is lightly poured over it. Some gardeners who did not cultivate the bulbs before planting watered the furrows and a weak solution of Fitosporin. If the soil has already dried up, the grooves just need to be watered.
- Sevok through optimal distances planted in the prepared grooves, slightly pressing it into the soil (outlined roots should try not to damage). The depth of planting is chosen such that after filling the tops of the tops of the bulbs only slightly rise above the ground. In the soft earth sevka pressed slightly: so that the bulbs firmly kept in it
- Planted sevok zasypayut soil, after that the land in the garden is leveled, for which it is convenient to use the usual rake.
- Landing gently and abundantly watered with water from a watering can with a strainer. Landing should be thoroughly soaked with water.
Up to the growth of greenery with plantings, it is not worth doing anything unless the weeds start to run amok. They need to be carefully pulled out manually, the hoe comes into operation after the rows are designated.
Antecedents and Compatibility
It almost doesn’t matter to Luka what grew up on a bed before it, so long as the soil remained fertile. The best previous vegetables for onions are cucumbers, tomatoes, cabbage, or potatoes: these are the crops that use fairly large amounts of fertilizer. For various reasons, it is undesirable to plant onions after carrots, radishes and sunflower. Well, following the rule of alternation of crops, after all types of onions, as well as garlic.
There are almost no undesirable neighbors for onions either. Only legumes (peas and beans) are considered as such, and the onion itself is not the best neighbor for any kind of cabbage. But not only the best, but also an obligatory neighbor for onions is carrots. They mutually protect each other from pests: first of all, from onion and carrot flies. Excellent neighbors for all types of onions are also potatoes, cucumbers, tomatoes, beets. Onions with carrots - classic neighbors in the garden
Summer residents, holding the site not to provide themselves with vegetables, plant a small amount of onions: stocks for the winter are made in the autumn on the market. But even a small garden bed, which is obligatory in any garden, must be planted on time and correctly. It is not difficult to do this, but in the summer at any time there will be greens and a few bulbs at hand.
Selection of planting material
Planting onions begins with the selection of a variety, the assessment of planting material and its calibration. If the landing heads are harvested independently, then the calibration is carried out even in the autumn, and the bulbs selected for sub-winter planting are immediately planted.
You should know that the size of the head depends on when and for what purpose the onion is planted:
- a small sevok with a diameter of 8–15 mm is recommended for podzimny sowing, although it does not give an arrow, but planted in the spring, does not grow into a large turnip,
- average sevka with a diameter of 15 - 21 mm is universal, suitable for sowing in spring and autumn, does not have an arrow and gives a good harvest of a large turnip,
- A large seam with a diameter of 21–25 mm during spring planting is quickly arrowed, therefore such heads are used for growing on a feather both in open ground and at home,
- Vegetable growers with a diameter of 25–30 mm are called “sampling” and are used only for obtaining early greenery in greenhouses, greenhouses, open ground and on the window sills of the house.
For spring planting on a turnip, only medium sevok is suitable, and on a feather - large heads. At this fact you need to pay attention, if the bulbs are bought in the store or with the hands.
See that the planting material is approximately the same size. Check the heads for the presence of mold odor and dampness, the skin should be dry and evenly colored. The presence of dark spots is a sign of diseases and damage by pests, and regrown roots and feathering feathers indicate improper storage of sevs.
Preparation of bulbs for planting
Before planting the bulbs need preparation, consisting of warming up and soaking. Warming up will definitely need the purchased planting material, since it is not known how it was stored. Self-made heads are heated only if they were kept at a low temperature. If the storage temperature is maintained at +18 - + 22 ° C, warming up is not necessary.
The easiest way to warm sevok is to scatter in one layer on cardboard boxes or wooden boxes and place them near radiators for 48 - 96 hours.
The second method is to warm the bulbs with water heated to a temperature of +55 - + 60 ° C. This is done immediately before landing. The bulbs are kept in hot water for no more than 3 minutes, then the hot water is replaced with cold water and then it is drained again.
Next is the soaking of onion sev in nutrient and disinfecting compositions, the algorithm of actions is as follows:
- Soaking in saline solution (25 g of salt / liter of water) for 4 hours against an onion fly.
- Soaking for 2 hours in a strong solution of potassium permanganate against diseases.
- Soak in a solution of nitrophoska, ammophos or any complex fertilizer for 4 - 8 hours.
After treatments with salt and potassium permanganate, the bulbs are washed several times. Disinfection with potassium permanganate can be replaced by soaking in a solution of copper sulfate for 10 minutes. After soaking in the nutrient solution, the bulbs are immediately planted.
The life cycle of onions
Representatives of the genus onions of the subfamily of the Amaryllis family of onions are widely represented in the Northern Hemisphere. Including they grow in a wild state in a forest, forest-steppe and steppe zone of temperate climate. This means that many onion plants winter in our nature, and we grow a species that dies in winter.
Onions come from Central Asia and the Middle East. He came to Russia as an agricultural crop from Europe.
Why do we not grow our own species of onions? The explanation is simple - they do not form such a large onion that can be stored for a long time in suitable conditions. Our wild onions have everything, but it is difficult to stock them, because in the absence of a large meaty onion, you only have to consume green leaves, which can only be prepared in ice cream or pickled form.
Onion has a two-year life cycle. In the first year, it germinates from the seed, forming a small bulb. After that, the onion leaves for winter rest.
Since there are no winters with severe frosts in the natural onion regions of the onion, the small onion waits at rest for a short period of cool winter, and in the spring it begins to grow actively again.
In the onion life cycle, these onions act as an intermediate link, since they cannot adequately realize the last stage of the life cycle - the reproductive. The resources of a small onion are not enough to ensure the growth of leaves, flower shoots, inflorescences and seed ripening.
Many gardeners, probably, noticed that the so-called arrow, that is, floriferous shoot, grows very quickly. It is thick, and by the time of flowering is also very dense.
If onions are allowed to flowering, its bulb will quickly decrease in size, acquiring a thick and dense stem inside. And here the gardener has to choose - flowers with seeds or a juicy fleshy onion.
When is the best time to plant?
It is difficult to name the exact dates of planting bulbs of the same year, since everything depends on the climate of the region. In addition, winter planting is possible in some regions.
When planting onion sets in open ground, everyone decides on the situation, but there are a number of signs of a general nature. Sevok can begin to land, provided that:
- the soil is completely thawed (at least the top layer is 20 cm),
- the temperature does not begin to prevail below 10 degrees,
- the likelihood of severe frosts (down to - 5 degrees) is reduced to zero,
- by the time active onion growth begins, frost on the ground is no longer predicted.
In the middle zone of the European part of Russia, the landing time of planting is in the range from the end of April to mid-May. Of course, it is possible to plant also later - at the end of May, on the eve of the snowy cherries. At this time, the earth is already completely warming up, so that the bulbs will fall into a very comfortable environment.
However, late planting can result in low yields, since the onion leaves will have little time to form the nutrient reserve in the bulbs.
In the southern regions of the country, landing dates may shift by a whole month. For example, in the chernozem zone of Russia, sevok can be planted in early April, and even sometimes in late March.
But in the vast expanses of Siberia and the Far East, the limiting factor is the late descent of snow and the slow thawing of the earth. So, on average, planting here is possible in periods from mid-May to early June.
Despite its southern origin, onions can withstand weak frosts well, provided they do not last long. However, damage to the bulb by frost can affect its further growth. It may be affected by fungus or bacteria.
If the onions are grown on greens, then it is enough temperature in the range from +10 to +17 degrees. For the formation of a good bulb requires a stable temperature above +20 degrees.
Before winter, plant onions only in short winter conditions with slight frosts. The most important condition for successful wintering seeding is a weak freezing of the soil.
When winter plantings should follow the following rules.
- It is best to plant small bulbs. In wet and cold conditions of the topsoil, they will not lose moisture. When stored in air, such bulbs usually dry out by spring.
- Landings are carried out 15 days before the first frost.. During this time, the small onion will have time to adapt and take the first roots.
- Winter plantings can be successful not only in mild winter conditions.. In order for the onions not only to survive the winter, but also quickly grow, they need soil with a large amount of organic matter. To do this, in the beds under the winter onion you need to dig in not only humus or manure, but also a large amount of dry grass, leaves, sawdust and other long-lasting organic matter. This will create a loose soil structure, reduce the degree of freezing, provide a constant influx of nutrients from decaying organic matter.
If you decide to plant onions for the winter in areas of risky farming, then it should be covered with foil, dry grass, peat. Landing implementation methods.
How to plant onion sets?
In order to ensure a good harvest, it is necessary to take into account the needs of the culture. All types of onions, including onions, are very demanding on illumination. Onion beds should be located so that the sun shines on the plants at any time of the day.
This plant does not like too much moisture. Place under the onion beds to choose on a hill. If this is not possible, then you need to form high beds. It is advisable to do them in regions where the earth thaws slowly. A high bed, especially having wooden boards, warms up much faster, which gives opportunity to land before.
Onion is a plant that prefers soils close to neutral PH values. In addition, the bow does not like heavy soil with a large amount of clay.
The placement of other crops is of great importance when choosing a place for planting a harness. The fact is that onions are badly affected by diseases and pests. The strength of its volatile production is maintained not by many lovers of green mass consumption. Experienced gardeners place crops such as carrots, beets, herbs, and berry crops next to onions.
It is best to place the sevka in the garden in rows at a distance of 20 cm from each other. The distances between the specimens in a row should not be less than 7 cm. Greater compaction of the plantings will lead to their shading and lower yields.
Seed planting care
Usually onions to plant in order to obtain large onions. Green feather is often just a by-product.
In order to get a lot of large bulbs, you need to feed 2–3 times per season. If the soil is fertile with a large amount of organic matter, then you can feed two times at an early stage of growth. Onions grown in poor soil need frequent feeding. Sometimes it is held four times per season.
For a good bulb requires three elements - nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium. Their standard ratio under good conditions is: 1 part of nitrogen, 2 parts of phosphorus, 3 hours and potassium. However, if the soil is poor in organic matter, the proportion of nitrogen should be increased. With its deficiency, the bow very quickly goes into arrows.
For fertilizing, you can use special fertilizers, where the necessary proportions of these elements are already laid. However, you can use a mixture of manure and ash. In a bucket of water you need to stir a liter of cow dung, adding a glass of wood ash there. Thoroughly stir everything, let stand for a day, and then water at the rate of 0.5 l per each bulb. After that, the whole garden should be watered with warm water.
Before planting onions, many gardeners dig rows, and then pour a weak solution of potassium permanganate into them. This is how the disinfection of the soil and its enrichment with potassium and manganese take place simultaneously. However, two weeks after planting it is necessary to feed nitrogen.
How to grow seedlings from seed?
Onion sets experienced gardeners prefer to grow themselves. Moreover, many of them themselves provide products for the entire life cycle of onions. To do this, several copies of adult bulbs are left on the seeds. They are collected, dried and stored until spring.
Before sowing, seeds are checked for germination by soaking. Sowing is done on a bed of ribbons. Each tape contains about 12 lines. The distance between them is 8-10 cm. Seeds are laid in the furrows to a depth of 2-3 cm.
Seeds are gently covered with a loose layer of soil, which is then slightly compacted and mulched.
Sowing stitches is convenient for the care of onions. So it is easier to carry out weeding, watering and feeding.
Usually the onions of the first year are not thinned. However, too tight landing can lead to the appearance of small onions. Watering is carried out only in the first half of summer. In July, the ripening of the bulbs begins, so watering should be done only in very dry weather.
Sevok is ripe when the leaves begin to turn yellow and lay down. In this case, all the leaves are immediately removed, the bulbs are pulled out and laid out in the sun for ripening and drying.
Store sevok need in low light conditions, low moisture, at a temperature of about 10-15 degrees.
With proper storage, the seed is perfectly preserved until the planting period. It is very important to prevent its premature germination, as it weakens, grows poorly and does not form a good bulb.
The technology of onion cultivation in zones with a frosty climate has been developed by many generations of farmers. It manages to grow even in the harsh conditions of the taiga zone of Siberia. This becomes possible with strict observance of the terms of planting and harvesting, and with the proper care of the onions at all stages of its life cycle.
What is onion sets
Onion sets are small annual bulbsthat were grown from seeds. The onion cultivated in our country is a biennial plant. In the first year of planting, onions are produced onion sets, which, depending on the variety, may be spherical or round. Depending on the type of onion can be light brown or white. In the first year of planting, greens grow from the onions and a protective shell is formed. In the second year of planting, the inner plates grow on the head, which gardeners call onions.
Today, in almost any store of garden goods, you can purchase sets, but you can also grow planting material yourself. When buying should pay for the quality of the heads:
- high-quality onions should not have a wrinkled surface
- planting should not show signs of germination,
- no putrid damage should be observed.
Bulb mismatch due requirements means that the supply of nutrients went to the pen, so a good harvest of turnips will not work. The presence of lesions in the future will lead to the difficulty of growing onion heads and the presence of diseases in them.
When choosing planting material do not chase the cheap goods and take discounted material. Хороший лук-севок имеет небольшой размер, хорошую плотность головки, с блестящей гладкой и плотно прилегающей шелухой без наличия повреждений.
Севок прекрасное дополнение ко многим рецептам. Любители лука предпочитают его из-за нежнейшего вкуса и хрустящей луковицы. Продукт содержит множество полезных веществ:
- витамины А, В1, В2, С, Е, К, РР,
- эфирные масла,
- Quercetin, which has a strong antioxidant and anti-cancer effect, and also reduces cholesterol levels,
- significant amounts of potassium and calcium.
The product contains high levels of sugar - 9%, protein - 1.4%.
Is it difficult to grow
Sevok is one of the easiest to grow crops:
- takes root in mixed soil types,
- undemanding to moisture,
- resistant to heat
- does not require protection from the sun,
- does not require complex care,
- has a fast ripening period.
Planting onion sets in the spring
Most suitable month Late spring is considered for planting onions. It is recommended to plant onions in May, since during this period the soil moisture is necessary for the growth of onions. Specific dates when planting material can be planted in the spring depend largely on the climatic zone. In the middle zone of our country, onion sevok can be planted in the spring throughout May. If you want to get greens, you can plant heads in the spring in late April.
When determining the landing date it is recommended to evaluate weather conditions and the degree of soil heating. Haste in planting and planting in cold, cold soil will not lead to the desired growth of the turnip, but to the growth of flower arrows. Only when warm days come in spring, when the soil warms up can the heads be planted in open ground. The optimum temperature depends on the purpose of landing:
- for growing on greens 10—16 ° C,
- for the formation of turnips 16-21 ° C.
The plant is able to withstand slight frost and for some time can withstand a decrease in air temperature below 0 ° C. The first green can be obtained after 18-20 days.
Many gardeners when determining a specific date are guided by the lunar calendar. You should not completely trust the leadership of the lunar calendar and when choosing a date should take into account the realities of weather factors.
How to prepare planting material
Some novice gardeners, after planting onions, instead of the desired result, receive a bow that goes into the peduncle. In such cases, they say that "the bow went to the arrow." The main reason for this situation is the non-observance of the temperature regime and storage conditions of the planting material, violation of the rules of adaptation before planting.
When purchasing onions in a store, work on the adaptation of planting material must be carried out. To do this, after buying for two weeks, you must hold the onion in a warm place, for example, at the battery.
Some gardeners, instead of two weeks of storage, make the procedure for a warm bath for onions. To do this, water is poured into a small container at a temperature of 40–45 ° C into which the bow is placed. In such a bath, onions must be kept for 8 hours. As the water cools, it is necessary to periodically add hot water. After keeping the onion in the water for the required time, it should be carefully removed from the water and dried thoroughly.
Further storage carried out at room temperature in a dark place, which will prevent the early germination of the heads.
Immediately before landing it is necessary to do the processing of the heads. During storage, some onions could lose the quality of the material, so you need to remove all damaged materials, onions of the wrong size. Medium sized onions are suitable for planting on a turnip. For growing greens the size of the bulbs does not matter.
Further, with the help of scissors, it is necessary to carefully cut off each bulb of a dry tail from the top of the crown. This elementary operation further promotes faster and better growth.
Do I need to soak the bow before planting
Gardeners in the issue of soaking the onions before planting were divided into two camps. But it is recommended to soak the onions before planting, since in future such a procedure will protect sevka from pests and diseases.
For soaking, it is recommended to dilute the complex fertilizer in warm water at a temperature of 40–45 ° C. The rules for preparing a solution for soaking are always applied to the complex preparation. In a container with a solution, sevka is soaked for 12 hours. After soaking, it is necessary to conduct a protective treatment of planting material. Today there are several ways of defensive processing, so everyone has the right to choose the most convenient and affordable way.
Soaking in potassium permanganate
Potassium permanganate is an effective treatment that can prevent diseases of fungal and bacterial origin.
For protective treatment it is necessary to make a strong dark pink solution of concentrated potassium permanganate. In a container with a solution of onion soaked for 2-3 hours. After soaking the onions are washed under running water.
Soaking in saline and copper sulphate
Salt is an effective remedy against putrefactive processes. The soaking solution can be prepared from salt or copper sulfate. For the preparation of saline 1 tbsp. tablespoons of salt diluted in 1 liter of water. In a container with a solution of onions aged for 2-3 hours.
Copper sulfate allows to disinfect seedlings and protect against the development of diseases. To prepare a solution based on copper sulphate, it is necessary to dissolve 1 tsp of copper sulphate in 10 liters of water. Soak the onions for 10–5 minutes.
Processing onions before planting salt, potassium permanganate and ash
For soaking the planting material according to this method, a solution is prepared according to the following recipe:
- 2 tbsp. spoons of salt
- dark pink solution of potassium permanganate,
- 2 tbsp. spoons of wood ash.
The ingredients are diluted with a three-liter jar of warm water 60 0 C. In this solution, the planting material is soaked for 2 hours.
Birch tar processing
The most dangerous pest of onion is considered to be an onion fly. Treatment with birch tar will avoid invasion of this pest. For processing solution is prepared by dissolving 1 tbsp. l tar in 1 liter of water. Onions are soaked in such a solution for 10-15 minutes. Sprouted onions can be treated with the same solution during the growing season.
Planting onions on a turnip
When planting onion seedlings on a turnip, the following technology must be observed:
- prepare grooves with a depth of 8–0 cm, the distance between which should be at least 15 cm,
- shed each groove with the Fitosporin solution for disinfection,
- in the grooves treated with the mortar we sow the onion sevok at a distance of at least 10 cm from each other, with each head deepening “by the shoulders”,
- sprinkle each furrow on top of the ashes, which will serve as a fertilizer and disinfectant,
- we fall asleep the grooves on top of loose soil.
Planting onions on greens
Many gardeners set a goal inGrow green onions when planting. There is a so-called bridge landing method, which allows you to save space on the plot. The landing principle is a very close and tight planting of planting material on a shallow distance. At the same time, not only a bed can be selected as a landing site, but also a small container with earth.
Such the method is chosen if necessary to save spacewhen you need to get both onion heads and green feathers. In this case, furrows are made and processed as when landing on a turnip, but planting is carried out in a checkerboard pattern. Part of lukovichek will rise on a turnip, and some can be pulled out and use as greens.
How to care
Proper planting and care largely determine the effectiveness of the future harvest. Care is the timely implementation of simple recommendations:
- weeding and removing weeds,
- sufficient watering once a week,
- preventing the formation of a soil crust by periodically loosening the soil between the rows and plants,
- periodic feeding.
During the season fertilizing needs to be done several times. First dressing nitrogen-containing fertilizers carried out in late May. Second feeding spend in mid-June, when onions need ammonium nitrate and potassium fertilizers. Supporters of natural products can use green fertilizers:
Effective feeding is considered a solution.prepared by breeding 2 tbsp. spoons of ammonia in 10 liters of water. The working solution is used only after moistening the soil with ordinary water. The tool effectively fights pests and nourishes the plant with nitrogen.
- for landing on a turnip it is necessary to choose medium-sized heads, since large onions are more prone to marksmanship and it is better to plant them on greens,
- do not plant in cold ground, otherwise the turnip harvest will not work,
- Avoid watering with cold water, as there is a high probability of shooters,
- do not plant onions in place of last year’s planting, as the probability of plant disease in this case increases significantly.
In the first month and a half the onion needs abundant watering, but 3 weeks before the harvest the plants stop watering, giving the root crop to ripen. Planting onions need to constantly loosen and remove weeds, which not only take food, but also become a source of infections and pests. The fact that it is time to start harvesting is evidenced by a dried root collar.
On a note! When loosening, do not sprinkle root collar and never spud onions! The turnip will stop developing, and the above-ground part of the plant will fall to the ground. The harvest will be spoiled.
When onions are damaged by parasites, Avant, Aktara, Tabazol, Moeed, Muravyin insecticides are processed. For the prevention of fungal diseases in onions, the most common of which is peronosporosis, fungicides Alirin, Thanos, Bravo or Bordeaux mixture are used.
Onions are grown with seeds in order to get a set, from which a turnip is cultivated next year. Seeds are planted before winter or in early spring, while the soil still contains a lot of moisture.
In the spring, seeds are soaked in growth stimulants for a day to accelerate germination. Sow onions to a depth of 2 cm tape method. Care during the growing season is in the thinning, destruction of weeds, watering and feeding. In the middle of summer, sevka is dug out of the ground, dried and prepared for wintering or storage until spring.
The onion, although considered to be a capricious culture, is very responsive to care. If you plant it properly and comply with the technology of cultivation, the result will not take long. Already in July, will gather a great harvest of healthy root vegetables.
When planting onions, planting dates
Huge value is correct, in time, landing. As soon as the frosts end, you need to be ready for an emergency "seed": the soil at this time is saturated with moisture.
As for the temperature, according to the agrotechnical canons of onion sets, it should be planted when the soil warms to 12 ° C (this temperature should be measured to a depth of 8 centimeters). This is the optimal temperature condition for the normal vegetation of this vegetable crop. The correct time for planting a seed set will ensure good root development.
If the fine days have already arrived and the air temperature is getting hotter every day - you can’t rush into planting a bow, the soil is not heating up so fast. And insufficiently heated soil can cause the bow to go not to the feather, but to the arrow.
The delayed planting also adversely affects the plant: the soil is already well warmed up, and the upper layers of the soil begin to dry out rapidly. All moisture accumulated after winter and melting snow will leave the ground. The result is poor root rooting, late shoots, problems with ripening.
In different regions, the soil warms up at different times, and you have to be guided by the annual forecasts of weather forecasters: spring can vary greatly in different years, and the time of planting in the same area can sometimes reach almost a month.
Although Ukraine is not strongly stretched in climatic zones, the temperature regimes (and, accordingly, the warming up periods of the soil) differ in different areas. The last week of April and the beginning of May is the optimal time for planting onion sets in the northern areas:
For a month - from the end of March to mid-April - these terms were shifted in the southern regions, these are Zaporizhia, Odessa, Kherson, etc.
In the rest of Ukraine, gardeners planted onions for the whole of April, focusing on this on soil temperature measurements, weather forecasters and the lunar calendar.
For Moscow region
Vegetable growers recommend planting onions in the Moscow region not earlier than the first decade of May or even a little later, but this year the spring is unusually warm, so it will be appropriate to plant onions in the last decade of April. It is desirable that the soil warms to 12 ° C at 10 centimeters deep.
How to plant onion sets
In order to properly plant a bow-set, you need to know not only the necessary time and temperature conditions, but also:
- the place that this plant loves,
- the nature of the soil
- methods of treating the soil and the bow itself, etc.
Of particular importance is the historical origin of onion culture. Onion’s homeland is Asia, its semi-desert regions with a sharply continental climate and severe winters. This determines the peculiarities of the vegetation of the plant: in the dormant period for onions, the most favorable low temperatures, from 5 to 10 ° C. This contributes to spring flowering onions. If it is necessary to form powerful greens, it is necessary to store the sets at 18–20 ° C.
Which area is needed for normal growth and development of the plant:
- on elevation
- completely open to the sun's rays
- with good ventilation.
Requirements for the soil: light sand, possibly with an admixture of peat. Heavy clay soils and loams are absolutely not suitable, the onions will die in them. The soil must be well drained, the stagnation of moisture leads to rotting of the roots and bulbs. Shading will cause skinny feathers, thin and pale in color.
Because of the weak, grubby root system of the onion, the beds for it must be prepared especially carefully: the soil must be loosened, then leveled and rolled. The prepared beds are “lined up” with a corner of the scoop or with an acute angle of a garden chopper to form a shallow triangular trench. The direction for these lines is west-east.
Too small planting is fraught with the fact that the bulbs "wipe out" of the soil and the plant will die from desiccation. But a deeper planting is not particularly fraught with anything, except that onion heads acquire an elongated shape during growth. Such bulbs are often grown to order for delivery to restaurants: cooks like to use such bulbs whole or cut in half in their dishes.
After the bulbs are pressed, they are sprinkled with earth and level the bed.
Preparation of beds
It is difficult for Sevka to compete in survival with weeds, and it is necessary to fight weeds even in the fall, after harvesting. Immediately after cleaning the site from the remnants of the grown culture, the soil needs to be dug up. Shoots of weeds do not take long to wait, and they are immediately processed on the sheet with Tornado at the rate of 3 liters of an aqueous solution (25 g per liter of water) per hundred. When weed shoots fall, they are carefully selected. But after them the weeds must come up with a later germination - and they need to be dug up.
Fertilization varies depending on the season: during the autumn digging period, phosphoric and potash fertilizers are applied, and for the spring soil treatment - nitrogen-containing.
Preparation of planting for the growing season begins with sorting according to size, with the dried and obviously diseased seed removed. Large and small onions are separated because they need to be sown with a small interval.
- "Trifle" is planted early, as small bulbs, firstly, need more time to turn into a full-fledged onion, and secondly, you should not be afraid of their color bearing, even if strong frosts hit.
- The large onion sets should be planted later, since during a cold snap there is a risk that the plant will “delight” the grower with flowering shoots.
In order to avoid fungal diseases (powdery mildew, peronosporoz), the bulbs should be treated with a weak (pink) manganese solution or vitriol (35 g per bucket of water).
Some gardeners use the following method: water is heated to 70 ° C and poured into a wide tank of sufficient depth (basin, trough). There the bow is filled up and held for at least 20 minutes. Then the hot water is drained, and cold water is poured into the same bowl, in which the onion is about five minutes. Such a "contrast bath", according to the assurances of experienced vegetable growers, completely eliminates the possibility of flowering shoots and the fact that the onion goes into the arrow.
Another popular method is to soak the onion before sowing in saline solution at the rate of a tablespoon of salt per liter of water (take regular, not iodized salt). Before soaking, you need to dry for at least a week and warm up the seams at 25 ° C. An hour later, the onions are washed with salt, after which they are dipped into another solution — dark pink manganese. Two hours later, the onions are rinsed and he is ready for planting.
В регионах с умеренным климатом огородники советуют перед посадкой провести несложное закаливание луковиц: поставить две большие ёмкости, в одной вода холодная, в другой тёплая. Луковицы поместить в сетку так, чтобы они хорошо орошались водой, и поочерёдно опускать на 15 минут то в одну, то в другую ёмкости.
Посадка на зелень
There are two views on how to make onion sets go to the top, not to the spine. The first method is to simply plant the bulbs denser, reducing the spacing between them in rows. Then the bow will go to the feather.
The second method is to trim the tops of the onions. But although such a pruning and stimulates growth in the pen, it is fraught with the fact that pathogens can penetrate into the bulb.
Care for planting onions
Onions are very fond of moisture, so they need abundant watering.
Important! Be sure to take into account the weather conditions!
- In normal weather, standard watering is once every three days (or twice a week) until the first feathers appear, then once a week.
- In dry weather, add the amount of watering, but make sure that the moisture does not accumulate in the soil.
- And in a rainy summer, you need to look at the degree of soil moisture and water as needed.
In July, watering is carried out with less intensity, and three or four weeks before the harvest is gathered, watering stops.
Mandatory agrocultural event - weeding. It also provides the necessary loosening of the soil, which gives the bow an opportunity to breathe oxygen.
For the prevention of diseases, the beds are treated with wood ashes once every 20 days, and when the feather has expelled up to 12 centimeters, it is possible to treat the crops with the following solution: a teaspoon of vitriol and a tablespoon of crushed soap on a bucket of water. Everything is mixed until dissolved, then the onion is sprayed.
How does the bulb relate to air temperatures
The onion is a plant “on its mind”, therefore, if it is stored and grown at the wrong temperature, it can give too small bulbs or even bloom - “go to the arrow”. An explanation for this is to be found in the origin of the plant.
This is a typical inhabitant of the Asian semi-desert, storing water in the succulent leaves of the bulb to survive the driest season. Its life cycle is constructed in such a way that in the first year of life the plant makes as much as possible reserves of sugars, and in the second it blooms and forms a “chernushka” - small wrinkled seeds. But this is at home. In the conditions of the middle band, with a relatively poor sun, for the first year the plant has time to form only tiny onions - sets. The next summer, they get a turnip, a year later - seeds.
The continental climate of Asia is rather severe in winter, therefore the onions are used to low temperatures during the dormant period. They contribute to the complete completion of the physiological maturation of flower buds. This means that if the bulbs were stored at 5-10 degrees, the culture in the spring will bloom. For the formation of vegetative buds, and, consequently, of powerful greenery, higher temperatures are needed - 18-20 degrees. This corresponds to storing the storage in heated rooms, but not near batteries.
Site selection and soil preparation
Remembering about Asia, we select a plot for onions, where we can create conditions close to optimal:
- in any case not nisin or clay,
- sandy loam or, as a last resort, peat,
- a lot of sun,
- good airing
- no fresh manure, just rotted,
- as predecessors - potatoes, cucumbers, peas.
Attention! Make sure that other onions, garlic and carrots do not turn out to be the predecessor of onions.
It is difficult for Luka to survive among the weeds, therefore from the autumn it is necessary to conduct a merciless fight with them. Having dug up the plot, we wait for the weed shoots, treat them by leaves with the preparation “Tornado” (75 ml of the preparation diluted in 3 liters of water for 1 hundred), remove the half-dead plants, wait for the survivors to rise and dig again.
We introduce fertilizers carefully: phosphorus-potash fertilizers under the autumn digging, and everything that contains nitrogen — under the spring one.
Spring planting onions
The onion has a weak fibrous root system, therefore the soil should be prepared ideally for it: it is loosened, leveled and even rolled. On even beds we carry out the cutting of the scoop of the furrow in the west-east direction, leaving 20-25 cm between them.
Onions are planted at intervals of from 8 to 12 cm (depending on the size of the fraction), we press them into the soil so that then at least 3 cm of soil is above them. If they turn out to be higher, they can be pushed out to the surface, which is fraught with death from a lack of moisture. A deeper seal is less harmful, but, as a rule, affects the shape of future heads: they are formed elongated, which, however, like many cooks.
Squeeze onions with earth, sprinkle, level the soil. In the future, take care, as for any crop: watering, protect against pests, remove weeds, feed.
And how to get sevok himself
Funny tiny onion sevka get seeding Chernushka. Coal-black, similar to crushed anthracite, onion seeds are soaked for 12 hours in a solution of potassium permanganate (remember powdery mildew) and in the first days of May are sown on the same ridges as the sevok itself, only buried smaller, within 1 cm.
Popular method of obtaining sevka seedlings. Seeds are sown in convenient containers with soil and kept on the windowsill under a fluorescent lamp. After germination, the temperature is reduced as far as possible, for example, the seedlings are moved to a glazed loggia.
For onion seedlings, waterlogging is dangerous, so it is better to water it with a spray bottle. For open ground, it will be ready with a feather height of 12-15 cm. Planting time is at the earliest as soon as the earth thaws enough to form holes in it for planting.
Cut a plot for your onion in your garden, provide him with proper care - and this doctor will pay back the good from seven diseases: in broth, in a salad, and in a fragrant roast will contribute to the good health of your family.