To date, there are about 200 varieties of black currant. Such a variety appeared due to the hard work of breeders. It is sometimes difficult even for experienced gardeners to figure out which one is better. What a currant to plant on your site and how to choose the seedlings, try to make out in more detail.
How to determine the best varieties of currants?
The benefits of currants have long been known, so many gardeners plant this plant in their plots. To determine which of the varieties is better, you can use a simple algorithm. The plant must have the following qualities:
- high yield
- resistance to various pests and diseases,
- fruits should be large and tasty.
Varieties resistant to diseases and pests
The most reliable varieties in terms of endurance are those that are well tolerated by frost and drought, as well as resistant to various pests and diseases inherent in currants.
In areas where there are early frosts, and in the summer season dry weather keeps, it is recommended to plant varieties that are able to withstand natural disasters. These include such types of currants, as:
Currants should be well adapted to the region where it is grown, then the yield of the plant will be high.
Shrubs can be affected by kidney mites or powdery mildew. To have a good harvest in your area, it is best to choose the following varieties for planting:
Particular attention should be paid to the Pygmy variety. Currant stands out among many other very sweet taste. Berries plants are large, despite the name. The plant is recommended to be planted in areas of the Far East, the Urals, Western and Eastern Siberia.
The currant variety Pygmy was bred at the Research Institute for Horticulture and Potato in Yuzhnouralsk by plant breeder Ilyin VS. He has established himself well, and therefore enjoys a certain demand among gardeners.
Description Pygmy variety
Considering the variety of currant Pygmy, the description should begin with the appearance of the plant:
- The bush is medium in size, can reach a height of about 1.5-2 m.
- New shoots of light green and pink-green hue, have an average thickness.
- The leaves are large, five-lobed, wrinkled. Possess a rich green color.
- Petioles long, medium thickness. Like young shoots, are painted in a light green or pink-green shade.
- Inflorescences in the form of tassels. Each of them can ripen up to 10 currant berries.
- The flowers have a pale pink or yellow-pink color.
- Berries are very large plants. Their weight can be 5-7 grams.
- Fruits are black, shiny. Have the correct rounded shape. The seed content in the berry is minimal. The skin of the fruit is very thin.
Currant Pygmy (photo above) is great for making compotes and jams. Often berries are harvested for the winter: dried or frozen. But the most beneficial substances are found in fresh fruits that did not respond to any processing.
Pygmy - currants, which does not apply to early varieties. The ripening period begins in the middle of the season and lasts for 2-3 weeks. Depending on the region where the shrub grows, the interval from flowering to the appearance of ripe berries can be 30-45 days.
Currant Pygmy, the description of which we are considering, bears fruit from late June to mid-July. With one bush you can collect a decent crop - from 3.5 to 5.5 kg. Fruits the plant once a year. The variety is self-fertile, so you can get stable, good harvests every year.
The main advantages of this currant are:
- resistance to frost and drought,
- good fertility
- sweet taste and size of berries,
- ability to resist anthracnose and powdery mildew.
Although the plant has a small drawback - currant has only a slight resistance to the pest of the bud mite and to the disease Septoria.
How to choose seedlings for planting?
When choosing a material for planting, you need to carefully consider the plant rhizome. It is best to buy two-year-old seedlings, since their root system is well developed and consists of several stiff processes, 15-20 cm long. It is also important that there are a large number of thin roots that resemble threads. It is also worth paying attention to their color.
A healthy rhizome has a yellow-brown tint. But if the dirty-brown color prevails, this indicates that the plant is frozen, diseased or overdried.
When buying planting material in a pot, you should still see the root system, for this, ask the seller to pull the seedling out of the container. If the soil is tightly braided with filaments, this indicates that the currant will start well and will be able to develop quickly.
If you want to plant a healthy plant, remember: there should be no spots on the leaves, buds and branches, as this may mean that the seedling is affected by fungus. There should also be no signs of wilting.
How to care for shrubs?
Pygmy is a currant that does not like windy and shaded areas, therefore, when choosing a place to plant it, you need to take these features into account. The ideal time to disembark is the beginning of autumn. The first thing to do is cultivate the soil. After digging, we remove all the roots of weeds and loosen the soil. Next, prepare the hole with a diameter of 60 cm and a depth of 40 cm.
To prepare fertile soil, you will need:
- superphosphate - 200 g,
- potassium sulphate - 60 g,
- 1 compost bucket
- 0.5 liters of ash wood.
In order for the plant to grow quickly, we make a small slope of the seedling when planting, not more than 45 degrees. After that, currants need to be watered and trimmed branches, leaving about 3 buds. The next stage is soil mulching under a sapling. For these purposes, suitable peat or sawdust.
To increase yields, experts recommend planting several varieties of currants in one area.
Watering the plant is very important, especially it is necessary when the ripening of the fruit begins. The site is filled with water at the rate of 30-50 liters per 1 m 2. You also need to make watering in the fall, when fertilizers are applied.
Plant nutrition is produced in the 3rd year after planting. In the spring, before flowering, currants fertilize liquid mullein. Ammonium nitrate (20-30 g) is applied when the plant has faded. In autumn, the soil under each bush is fertilized with a prepared compound, which includes:
Pygmy Grade Reviews
For their characteristics, high marks from experts received currant Pygmy. The plant reviews are positive, as the variety has established itself as one of the best and sturdiest. Large sweet berries contain a lot of useful substances, which also gives rise to positive statements of people who have chosen this plant. Currants can be grown in regions where there are early frosts, as this variety is resistant to frost.
Description of a grade of currant Pygmy
The variety Pygmy was bred by breeder Ilin V.S. during his work at the South Ural Scientific Research Institute of Fruit and Vegetable Crops. To do this, the varieties Seedling Dove and Bredthorpe were crossed. Since 1999, the variety has been included in the State Register and allowed to grow in the Volga-Vyatka, Ural, and Far Eastern regions, as well as in the regions of Eastern and Western Siberia.
The plant itself is a medium-sized weakly spreading shrub. The shoots are medium thick, straight, green in color. Single buds, brown, oval-shaped. The leaves are large, five-lobed, wrinkled, with teeth along the edges. The flowers are small, pale pink color.
The berries are large, round shape and bright black. The length of the brushes is average, they range from 5 to 10 berries.
Currant variety Pygmy on the bush
The advantages of this variety:
- High yield. Up to 6 kg of berries are harvested from one bush. When grown on an industrial scale, the yield can reach 22.8 tons per hectare.
- Very large and sweet fruit. The weight of one berry reaches 8g. The variety is considered to be dessert, and has a score on the sweetness of the fruit 5 points.
- Long term fruiting. Berries ripen unevenly, so the crop is harvested from 3 weeks to 1.5 months.
- Self-fertile variety, consistently yielding annual yield.
- Winter hardiness Suitable for growing in regions with frosty winters, can withstand temperatures as low as 35 degrees.
- Resistant to diseases such as powdery mildew and anthracnose that are common in currants.
Among the shortcomings can be identified only susceptibility varieties Septoria and kidney tick attacks.
The variety Pygmy is unpretentious enough to care; it does not take much effort to grow it. But, like all fruit crops, the beginning of fruiting and the yield of a plant directly depends on the proper planting of the seedling.
Selection of seedlings and planting rules
When buying a black currant seedling, pay attention to the following details:
- Age. Suitable for planting annual and biennial seedlings.
- Root system The roots should not be dried and damaged.
- Branching. The better the branched bush, the faster it will take root.
It is possible to plant a currant both in the spring, and in the fall. Spring planting is better to start as early as possible after the thaw, in late March or early April, depending on the climate. The main thing is to have time to do this before budding starts, otherwise the plant will be hard to take root. But still, autumn planting is more preferable, from late September to early October. If you have time to plant currants two weeks before the onset of cold weather, she will have time to settle down and get strong enough for the winter.
Sizes of ripe berries of Pygmy currant
Place for planting shrubs should be well lit and protected from strong winds. Currant roots can easily withstand temporary overwetting from melting snow or heavy rains, but it will not grow on swampy soil and with a high location of groundwater. And if the soil is acidic, then it must be lime.
Planting currant seedlings includes such activities:
- 2 weeks before the estimated planting date, dig for the currant pits up to 40 cm in depth, and up to 60 cm in width. Instead of several pits you can make one long trench. Since the currant variety Pygmy is compact, the plants can be placed at a distance of 1-1.5 m from each other.
- When, after a couple of weeks, the land has settled, fill the hole for 2/3 with fertile soil mixed with fertilizer. You can use humus (8 kg), superforfate (200g) and potassium sulphate (40g).
- Place the seedling in the hole at an inclination of 45 degrees, the root neck at the same time goes into the ground by 5-8 cm. Thanks to the inclined planting, conditions will be created for the growth of roots and shoots from the buds in the buried part of the stem.
- Straighten the roots and cover them with earth. In the process of falling asleep ground, shake the seedling so that no voids form between the roots.
- After planting is complete, water the bush with 10 liters of water and mulch the soil under it with peat or humus. After 3 days, repeat and watering, and mulching.
- For rapid growth of the bush, its shoots can be cut to third.
The Pygmy variety does not require much care, but this does not mean that you can forget about the plant before the harvest begins. The most basic care measures are still necessary for him.
Rules for the care of black currants
Shrub care is the following:
- Fertilization. The plant consumes most of the nutrients in spring and early summer. Fertilizers should be applied to the soil in the fall and during digging in the spring, at a site of 1.5-2 m around the trunk. Soils of medium fertility require such doses of fertilizer per 1 square meter:
- For plants up to 3 years old - organic (5-6 kg), urea (15 g), sulfuric acid potassium (12 g), superphosphate (50 g),
- For plants from 4 years: organic (5-6 kg), urea (22 g), sulfuric acid potassium (15 g), superphosphate (50 g).
- Soil care. Implies its maintenance in a state, loose and cleared of weeds. In order not to harm the roots, you can loosen the ground at 8 cm near the bushes and at 12 cm in the aisle. To reduce the number of treatments allows soil mulching with peat, humus or manure. Land under the mulch longer retains moisture and friability.
- Watering. It is necessary, especially if the dry period fell during the formation of the ovary. In the case of a dry autumn, before the onset of frost, it is also necessary to water the shrubs (up to 5 liters per 1 square meter), because overdried soil can provoke freezing of bushes in winter.
Diseases and pests of black currant
The grade Pygmy is steady against the majority of diseases of currant. The only disease that needs to be protected is septoria, another name is white spot. This is a fungal disease, the symptoms of which will be the appearance of specks on currant leaves up to 3 mm in diameter.
Ripe currant Pygmy ready to harvest
At first they are completely brown in color, then turn white in the center, and remain brown only at the edges. The fruits of the plant can be covered with small spots. With a strong defeat, all foliage can fall completely on a currant.
To combat the disease, the bushes and the ground beneath them should be plentifully sprayed with blue vitriol or nitrafen. It is important to do this before the bud start in spring. Well in such cases helps and Bordeaux liquid, which is diluted in the amount of 100 g per 10 liters of water. She needs to process currants immediately when the first symptoms appear, and a second time 10 days after harvesting.
Of insect pests, the Pygmy variety is most susceptible to kidney mites. This is a small insect 0.15–0.3 mm long, hibernating in the currant buds. In the spring, after awakening, the females lay larvae in the kidneys, which, as they grow, spread to the whole plant. Damaged buds cannot develop, and the sprout, if it grows from them, will be mutated. In addition to reducing the number of shoots and reducing yields, the pest is also dangerous with the ability to tolerate viral diseases.
Pest control measures:
- Boiling water. The safest and most effective way. All larvae die from boiling water, and the plant itself is not harmed. Just do not need to pour 100-degree boiling water over the bush, the water should cool down a little while you bring it to the garden and pour it into the watering can. For efficiency, tie the branches to make the plant more compact. The method can be used only until the kidneys awaken, otherwise they may be harmed.
- Manual removal of affected kidneys. The method is painstaking, but safe. Kidneys with mites will be swollen and more round. It is better to carry out such sorting in the autumn, because in spring it is easy to confuse an infected kidney with a bud with a nascent shoot.
- Colloidal sulfur. It is dissolved in water in an amount of 10 g per 1 l of water. Shrubs are processed at the beginning of the flowering period and immediately after its completion. This method is suitable for critical situations when there is a question about saving the life of a plant. Such processing may spoil the harvest, but it will recover next year.
- Crop. The most cardinal way. If the insects cannot cope with other methods, then it remains only to cut the bush under the root in the fall and wait patiently for the plant to grow again.
In order not to have to use such extreme measures, you need to take care of your currant. Plants that are regularly fed, pruned and prophylactically treated will be highly immune to diseases and pests.
The benefits and taste of black currant Pygmy are worth it to make a little effort to care for her. With proper planting, the plant will stably bear fruit for at least 10 years, and with regular care of growing conditions and protection from pests, the fruiting period can be extended even up to 20-25 years.
Description of the popular variety of black currant Pygmy
Black currant Pygmy is a relatively recent success of specialists from the South Ural branch of the Research Institute for Horticulture and Potato, located in the Chelyabinsk Region. A new hybrid was obtained as a result of the inter-pollination of seedlings of the Scandinavian variety Bredthorp and the well-known Russian gardeners with the experience of the pigeon seedling. Pygmy, not yet celebrating the 20th anniversary, has already won the people's love.
This is primarily due to the taste of berries. They are very sweet. For black currants, even unnaturally sweet. Usually characterized by a bright or mild piquant sour, which in Pygmy in principle is absent. Even the fastidious gourmets do not appreciate the taste of berries less than 4.7–4.8 points out of 5. And children simply enjoy eating Pygmy currants, not thinking about grades. In addition to excellent taste, there is also a pronounced "currant" aroma. The skin is thin, not rough, there are very few seeds in the pulp.
Other features also attract attention. Adult bushes produce very abundantly, each summer bringing up to 6.5–7 kg of berries, comparable in size to cherries. The average weight of one currant is about 5 g, the maximum is 7–8 g. The berries ripen with tassels, each with 8–10 pieces.
The pygmy has ripened in the last days of June or in the first decade of July. It depends on how warm and sunny the beginning of summer is. Период сбора урожая растягивается на довольно продолжительное время — от 20–25 дней в областях с умеренным климатом до 40–45 в южных регионах. Смородина созревает несколькими «волнами».
Сорт не нуждается в опылителях и не «отдыхает», плодоношение ежегодное. But experienced gardeners note that other varieties planted in a row with Pygmy have a positive effect on yield. The best option - Treasure, Egg, Bagheera, Lucia.
Pygmy is suitable for cultivation not only in the Central region and the Volga region, but also in the Urals, in Siberia, and in the Far East. Shrubs, without prejudice to themselves, endure long frosts when the temperature drops below -30–35ºС.
The bush will not occupy much space on the plot. It is quite high (about 2 m), but compact, the crown cannot boast of spreading and thickening. This Pygmy can be easily identified by a light pinkish shade of bark on the branches and glossy bronze buds.
The advantages of the variety
Why do gardeners often choose the Pygmy variety? They appreciate:
- Taste and appearance of berries, consistently high yield and annual fruiting. Currant does not shrink even as the bushes "grow old".
- The ability to adapt to a wide range of adverse weather vagaries. Without much damage to itself, the pygmy endures harsh winters, heat and drought, prolonged rains in cold summers.
- Resistance to many fungal diseases characteristic of berry bushes. In particular, those who grow Pygmy are not familiar with problems such as powdery mildew and anthracnose.
- Self-fertility. The presence of pollinator varieties increases yields, but even without them, fruit will be abundant.
- Universality of fruits and health benefits. Berries are suitable both for fresh consumption, and for baking, all kinds of desserts, home canning. Pygmy has a high content of vitamin C, PP, micro- and macroelements needed by the body, 85–90% of which are stored in currants, even with prolonged heat treatment.
- Unpretentious care. Knowledge of any specific agrotechnical techniques from the gardener is not required. Pygmy grow under the force, even a beginner.
The only drawback is the need to regularly take preventive measures and fight septoria. Of the pests of particular danger kidney currant mite.
How to plant culture
Black currants are best planted at the very beginning of September, even in regions with a temperate climate. For the time remaining before the frosts, the bushes will have time to adapt to the new conditions of existence and accumulate enough nutrients for wintering. In a subtropical climate, the landing can be moved forward a month. Plan it so that 5-6 weeks remain until frost.
The best option for planting - seedlings 2 years of age. Their root system is developed, fibrous, the roots are about 15–20 cm in length. Shoots are no shorter than 35–40 cm, with growth buds.
Pick up for a black currant Pygmy smooth open area, well warmed by the sun. In principle, the crop tolerates light partial shade, but with such an arrangement, the berries shrink, the crop is reduced. At a short distance, there should be some kind of obstacle - without casting a shadow, it will protect the bushes from sudden gusts of wind.
Any soil is suitable, except for very light sandy, marshy and overly acidic. Fertility and good aeration can be created in the preparation of the planting pit.
Pygmy loves moisture, but not its stagnation. Therefore, immediately exclude lowlands, in which spring melt water stays for a long time, and cold moist air accumulates the rest of the time.
Planting several bushes at once, it is better to arrange them in a row, leaving between the seedlings about 2 m and about 2.5 m between the rows. Thickened plantings are difficult to care for, they almost inevitably become infected from each other, and the plants do not have enough nutrients.
The selected area is being dug up, at the same time getting rid of weeds, stones and other debris. A landing pit is prepared about a month before the proposed planting of Pygmy seedlings. Too deep a hole is not needed - the roots of black currant are located quite close to the surface. Enough 40–45 cm deep and 50–60 in diameter.
That ground, which is removed from the pit of the first, folded separately. This is the most fertile layer. To the removed substrate add 20–25 l of rotted manure, a glass of simple superphosphate (or half double) and 2 tablespoons of potassium sulfate. In addition, 0.5 kg of dolomite flour or one-liter jar of wood ash is added to the acidic soil.
The finished mixture is poured back, forming a small hill at the bottom. Before planting, the pit needs to be covered with something waterproof, so that the rains do not erode the ground.
Planting seedlings in the ground
The procedure of planting a sapling Pygmy in the ground is nothing complicated:
- A couple of days before the procedure, the roots are placed in water at room temperature with the addition of any drug that stimulates root formation - Epin, Effecton, Heteroauxin, Kornevin, potassium humate. It is also useful to throw quite a bit of potassium permanganate into the container in order to destroy the existing spores of pathogenic fungi, viruses and bacteria.
- When several hours are left before the landing, the roots are coated with a gruel made from fresh cow manure mixed with powdered clay.
- Pour 3-4 liters of water into the pit and wait until it is absorbed.
- The seedling is placed on the hill of the ground at the bottom at an angle of 45º, gently correct the roots so that they do not bend upwards. The pit is filled up with small portions of the remaining soil, periodically compacting it with the hands. Be sure to bury the root neck - it should go into the soil by 5–8 cm. If the lower buds are covered with earth, this is normal.
- Having reached the top, the substrate is again tamped. Stepping back from a sapling of 35–40 cm, they form a shallow watering groove. As much water is poured into it.
- The dried up soil in the near-wheel circle is covered with crushed straw, freshly mowed grass, dry leaves, and peat crumb. The shoots present on the bush are pruned, leaving no more than three buds on each (the height of the stumps is 7–10 cm).
How and how much to water
With a shortage of moisture, the black currant Pygmy shrinks, the berries dry out and fall off. Especially bushes need watering during the formation of ovaries and ripening berries (end of May and all of June). When the currant begins to change color from dark red to black, watering is stopped so that it does not crack. Another necessary procedure is the so-called moisture-charging watering. In the middle of autumn the bushes are abundantly watered (approximate rate - 60 l).
Substrate under currant bushes need to be moistened to a depth of 35–40 cm. Further, the root system does not reach. If the weather keeps up, 30–45 l of water every two weeks is enough. When it is especially hot, black currants are watered twice a week. Will help hold moisture in the soil mulching.
Determine that the time has come for regular watering is easy. Dig the soil at the roots to a depth of about 25 cm and try to squeeze it into a ball. If it crumbles, pour currants.
The best time for watering is after sunset. Prepare the tank in the morning. During the day, the water will settle and heat enough. Water should be poured into several shallow grooves arranged in concentric circles. The latter should correspond approximately to the diameter of the crown of the currant bush. Another good option is sprinkling, imitating natural rainfall.
When to fertilize and which ones
If all the necessary fertilizers in the right proportion have been applied to the pit before planting, the next year you can refuse fertilizing, with the exception of nitrogen-containing fertilizers in the spring. A tablespoon of carbamide or ammonium sulfate crystals is spread evenly under the currant or dissolved in a 10-liter bucket of water.
Black currant bushes Pygmy need 3 feedings per season. Culture gratefully responds to both mineral and organic fertilizers, so choose what you like best.
The first time the plant is fed during flowering:
- 40-50 g of urea in dry form or as a solution. For bushes older than 5–6 years, the rate is reduced by half and introduced in two steps with an interval of 7–10 days.
- A solution of fresh manure or litter. 10 liters of water - respectively 0.5 liters or 100 ml.
- Nitrophoska, Azofoska or Diammofoska - 30 g in dry form. Then abundant watering.
The second feeding is at the moment when the fruit ovaries have formed (the first decade of June). You can take:
- Potassium permanganate (5 g), boric acid (5 g), copper sulphate (30 g). Each substance is diluted separately in a liter jar, then everything is mixed in a 10-liter bucket and topped up with water. Liquid sprayed leaves.
- 20 g of superphosphate and 10 g of potassium sulfate per 10 liters of water (watering).
- Infusion of any fresh greens (you can use weeds, the best option - nettle and dandelions). Raw materials are crushed, add water, cover the container and expose to heat. After the appearance of the fermentation smell, the product is mixed and water is poured in again (1: 5).
- Any complex fertilizer designed specifically for currants or other berry bushes. Nitrogen in the composition should be about half as much as phosphorus and potassium.
- Potato peel (1 cup). Not just received and thrown on the ground, but washed, dried and ground.
- Fresh pressed (1 kg) or dry powdered (10 g) yeast. Briquettes are crushed, filled with warm water (10 l), left for 2–3 hours, periodically stirred. The powder is poured in boiling water along with 50 g of sugar, the same volume of water is added after a couple of hours.
The last time fertilizers are applied about a month after the end of fruiting. At this time, flower buds are laid for the next season.
- Under the bush, rake 5 liters of dung or compost, to which is added superphosphate (50 g) and potassium sulfate (20 g). Fertilizers can be replaced with wood ash (about a liter).
- Any complex fertilizer containing phosphorus and potassium, but without nitrogen (AVA, Autumn).
- Dolomite flour - at intervals of two or three years, 300-400 g per plant.
Black Currant Pruning
The first time currant Pygmy cut even when planting. In the future, the procedure is carried out twice a year - in the spring (until the leaves appear) and in the fall (when they fall off). The maximum berries bring shoots at the age of 2-3 years. All branches older than 5 years are harvested.
Every 7–8 years, the plant needs a radical rejuvenating pruning. Clean everything except well-located shoots no older than 2 years. From them leave 15–20 cm. It will help to increase the life of the Pygmy bush from 12–15 to 20–25 years.
No less important is the sanitary pruning, in the process of which they get rid of broken, sick, frozen, deformed, branches located too low. Also cut off the shoots growing deep into the bush, thickening crown.
Shape a bush like this:
- 1.5 years after planting in the spring, 3-4 strongest shoots are left, the rest are cut off at the root.
- The following year, as many as one of the annual shoots are left, the existing ones are shortened by a quarter. They remove all the new twigs growing down, leaving 3-4 directed upwards, located at approximately equal intervals.
Next, do the same, not forgetting about sanitary pruning. The optimal shape of the plant reaches 5 years. The adult bush of Pygmy is 12–15 branches at the age from a year to 4 years. The oldest branches should be 1–2 fewer, annual ones - the same number more, the rest - approximately equally.
Experienced gardeners recommend the following method to increase yields: in the middle of summer, all the young processes on the oldest and annual branches pinch all the young shoots, removing 1–2 buds. This stimulates the shrub to further branch out.
Do I need preparation for winter
The Pygmy variety is positioned as frost-resistant, but it is better to insure and provide shelter for the bushes, especially if meteorologists promise a harsh and little snowy winter.
In autumn, the soil under the bushes is cleaned and gently loosened, breaking up large clods of earth, and the latter is plentifully watered. Pristal circle is covered with peat chips or rotted compost. At the base of the shrub to create a hill height of about 15 cm. The total thickness of the mulch layer is 7–8 cm.
The branches are neatly tied in several pieces. In young shrubs they can be bent to the ground. The entire structure is wrapped or covered with several layers of burlap or any other air-permeable material.
Table: ways to combat diseases and pests and their prevention
- As soon as the soil thaws sufficiently, it is loosened and treated with Nitrofen (2 g / l).
- Unbroken buds, fruit ovaries and after-shrubs are treated with Bordeaux liquids (8–12 g / l).
- Having discovered a disease in the summer, they use Oxyh, Kaptan, Abiga-Peak, Skor, Previkur.
- In the middle of autumn, if the bushes are badly damaged, the soil is watered with a solution of Rovral and Trichodermin (5–7 l per adult bush).
- If you come across rust every year, on the 10th of May and 2 more times, with a break of 8–12 days, sprinkle currant with HOM, copper or iron vitriol (1.5–2% solution).
- In the autumn, the substrate under the bushes is loosened and watered with Topaz, Skor, Mancozeb.
- Folk remedy is a mixture of tobacco crumbs infusions from personally grown leaves and garlic (poured a glass of strained liquid into 5 liters of water) with the addition of 10–15 g of ground pepper.
- If there are few such buds, in spring and autumn, cut them with a well-sharpened clean knife or shears, wipe the cut with a 3% solution of ferrous sulfate and powder with crushed chalk, activated charcoal.
- Before flowering, currants should be powdered with colloidal sulfur or Sulpharide and twice with an interval of 1.5–2 weeks, apply acaricides - Nissor, Oberon, Neoron, Envidor, Omayt.
- The currant that has been hatched is treated with more toxic drugs - Phosphamide, Rogor, BI-58.
- If the dimensions of the bush permit, it is wrapped as tightly as possible into a plastic film and burn a piece of sulfuric checker under it.
- Folk remedy - spraying unblown buds with garlic extract (200 g of chopped raw material per liter of warm water, ready in a day).
- All prematurely blackened berries should be immediately removed from the bush to prevent the larvae from leaving them.
- Blooming flowers and fruit ovaries are sprayed with Fitoverma or Agravertine.
- After harvesting, the bushes and the soil under them are treated with Ambush, Etafos, Aktellik.
- In early April, the thawed soil is watered with a 0.1% Hexachlorane solution.
- Opened buds for prophylaxis are treated with infusions of ash, tobacco crumbs, mustard powder, onion peels. Processing can be repeated no more than 4 times with an interval of 5-7 days.
- Effective insecticides - Kinmiks (for unblown flower buds), Lepidotsid, Bitoxibacillin (only formed fruit ovaries).
- It is useful to place the currant bushes next to the planting of tomatoes, the smell of their tops scares the butterflies.
- Since the caterpillars are striking due to their coloring, they can be assembled by hand or shaken off on the paper or cloth spread on the ground in the morning.
- Only newly formed buds, blooming buds are sprayed with Inta-Vir, Iskra-Bio, Karate, Decis, Kinmiks or folk remedies - an infusion of ash, dry mustard.
- When preparing bushes for winter, carefully clean the garden under them and mulch with something prickly - chopped straw, needles.
- All suspicious annual shoots pruned. Having discovered the moves, they are looking for a place where healthy wood begins. To be safe, remove an additional 5-7 cm. The remaining branches are cut strictly to ground level.
- The soil under the bushes is loosened regularly during May-June and sprinkled with ashes or tobacco chips at least once a week.
- Before flowering, shrubs are sprayed with Fitoverm, Agravertin, while also processing raspberries, which the pest does not disdain either.
- Adult butterflies are scared off by the elder, nasturtium, marigold, and calendula planted next to the currant. A bird cherry, on the contrary, attracts.
- In order to scare away adult individuals, a tree trunk is poured over with an infusion of wood ash, dry tobacco leaves, and sprinkled with crushed chalk.
- Before the leaves appear, the bushes are sprayed with Kemifos, Aktellik, Kinmiks. If necessary, the treatment is repeated for fruit ovaries.
- In autumn, the soil under currants is watered with a solution of Karbofos, Trichlormetaphos, Fufanon. Similarly, the use of chamomile extract, walnut shells, garlic arrows, yarrow and black henbane (the latter is very poisonous).
- Before the appearance of buds, currant bushes are sprayed with Nitrofen (3% solution) or soap-ash extract.
- Folk remedies cope well with a small number of pests - an infusion of any greenery with a pungent smell, tobacco crumbs, citrus peel, baking soda.
- Plant spicy aromatic herbs next to the currant to attract natural enemies of aphids - ladybirds.
- Effective insecticides - Rovikurt, Karate, Inta-Vir, Vofatoks, Decis. Sprayed unblown leaf buds, processing is repeated after 8-12 days and in early June.
Recommendations for the collection and storage of berries
Black currant Pygmy need to be collected immediately, as the berries fully ripen. Overheating, they peel off branches and rot, attracting harmful insects.
Crop is removed in warm dry weather, not too early. Wait for the morning dew to dry. Black currant is not stored for too long, and wet berries generally do not stay more than a day.
To minimize possible damage, remove the berries with whole brushes, folding them into small baskets, boxes lined with soft material from the inside. Желательно, чтобы тара была плоской и широкой — так верхние ягоды будут меньше давить на нижние.
В домашних условиях время хранения смородины Пигмей составляет 2–3 суток. Для того чтобы съесть или переработать ягоды, этого вполне достаточно. Но если есть желание сберечь их на более длительный срок, нужно воспользоваться одним из следующих вариантов:
- Хранение в холодильнике. The less time it takes between removing the currant from the bush and putting it in the refrigerator, the better. Most modern models have a special compartment for vegetables and fruits. Open bags or berry containers are placed there. It is not necessary to wash it and tear off the stem. Cover the container with a damp cloth and keep away the ethylene-emitting apples, pears and bananas. So you can save the harvest for 13-15 days.
- Frost. The berries are sorted out, separated the stalk, washed and dried well. Then placed in a freezer that is configured for fast or “shock” freezing. The finished currant is laid out in special hermetic closable bags or containers and cleaned for permanent storage. Shelf life, in principle, is not limited, but much of the benefits and taste disappears after about six months. Thawing and freezing the product can not be re-frozen.
- Drying. In its dried form, Pygmy becomes even sweeter, if at all possible. Dried berries as a natural way, spreading out in a single layer, strung on a thread and hanging from the ceiling, and in ovens and electric dryers. Ready-made berries are stored in a dry, cool place away from strongly smelling foods, by packaging into bags of air-permeable material. Dried currants are not liked by everyone, but they are as good as they are in fresh berries.
- Home canning. Any black currant Pygmy billet has an excellent taste. A sugar can be put even less than when using berries of other varieties. The currant remains freshly ground with sugar, but it should be stored in the refrigerator for maximum benefit.
Gardeners reviews about the Pygmy variety
I am delighted with the black currant varieties Pygmy! Previously, he had no idea that a currant could be so sweet. Large, sweet berries, fruitful variety - what more could you want?
Pygmy variety is really great. For a decade of cultivation, he has not lost interest in him. Seedlings of this variety are very easy to distinguish from other varieties. Of my 80 varieties, only Pygmy has bronze buds in early spring. Prior to their blooming, the buds are as if sprinkled with bronze powder.
Pygmy is not inferior in size to Yadrenya (at least in Karelia), and in taste, resistance to diseases and pests are a cut above!
Pygmy planted recently, a new sapling. Berry is sweeter Gross and large. While the bush is small, I do not collect buckets, but still ahead.
In my ranking of varieties of currants with very large berries Pygmy takes the first place. Its fruit reaches a weight of 7.7 g - larger than a cherry! But what is most striking, with its gigantic sizes, currants have excellent taste - they are sweet, fragrant, with a thin skin. In addition to this, the variety is very fruitful, giving up to 6 kg of berries from a bush. And it is winter-hardy, self-fertile, resistant to powdery mildew and anthracnose.
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The popularity of the Pygmy variety is not surprising if you evaluate the characteristics of the complex. Excellent taste of fruits and yield indicators are successfully combined with cold-resistance, resistance to many common diseases of berry bushes and the lack of difficulties associated with growing.
Pygmy - mid-season variety, which was bred in Russia recently. The term of ripening of berries depends on growing conditions, quality of care and ranges from 1 to 1.5 months.
The currant bush is distinguished by a rather large height — about 1.5–2 m. The plant is rather compact, not very leafy and spreading. Young shoots with a pinkish tint, deprived of the edge. Leaves are saturated green color with a glossy surface.
Currant berries have a round shape, black color and rather large size (with a two-ruble coin). The weight of one berry can reach 3 g. The fruits have a currant aroma and a delicate, unusually sweet taste.
Among the advantages of the variety, gardeners note the following features of Pygmy black currant:
- excellent yield - up to 5-6 kg of excellent fruits can be collected from one bush,
- excellent winter hardiness
- unusual pleasant taste of berries
- high resistance to insufficient moisture,
- self-fertility - the variety is able to produce crops annually and is fairly stable,
- universality - it is good both fresh and as an ingredient for cooking compotes, jams, as well as freezing (due to rather dense and juicy fruits that retain their shape after defrosting).
Council If you want to replenish your supply of vitamin C in the winter, be sure to freeze at least a small amount of black currant. It is not only rich in vitamin C, but also capable of preserving almost all of its stock for several months.
Features of growing and care
It is necessary to seriously consider the selection of a site for planting this variety, since the quality of the fruit will depend to a greater extent on this. The soil on the plot should be necessarily lightly acidic, with a sufficient amount of sunlight. Good berry development is unlikely in marshland and on the ground with a soil over 1.5 m.
The optimal period for planting currant seedlings is the end of spring or mid-autumn, when the temperature is still above + 5 and already below +25 (in this temperature gap, the currant root system is most active).
Prepare a plot for planting, carefully digging it and loosening the soil. Dig a hole about 40 cm deep and about 0.5 m wide. Add fertilizer complex in the form of potassium-phosphorus mixture with the addition of compost and mix it with the ground. Dip the seedling root in a clay mash, dip it in a hole and cover it with a layer of soil.
Fill the pit completely with soil and form a hole. Then pour it with water at the rate of about 7 liters per bush and grumble with sawdust. Immediately after planting the seedling, it is necessary to prune the currant branches: leave only a few of the strongest ones.
During active growth of currant, the plot will need regular loosening, after which the soil must be mulched so that the root system does not come out. In addition, you should take care of high-quality watering (it is better to carry out the currant bushes sprinkling).
One cannot call Pygmey currant varieties too dependent on fertilizers; nevertheless, it is worth making organic fertilizers (before flowering begins) and nitrogen fertilizers (after flowering).
Do not forget about the annual pruning of currant bushes after harvest - by the end of autumn. This will strengthen the plant before hibernation and ensure its rapid flowering in the spring. In general, the Pygmy variety is considered an excellent option for cultivation in the open field. Be sure to try to plant it in your garden. Good luck!
Description and characteristics
"Pygmy" - middle-ripe variety, with berries of medium and large size and not too voluminous bush.
The black currant bushes “Pygmy” do not take up too much space in the garden, as the bush is not sprawling. It is not too thick with lateral branches, the height of an adult plant reaches 1.5-2 m. Young, not lignified branches of this variety have a pinkish color of shoots. The leaves of the "Pygmy" are powerful, large, strongly corrugated, bright green. The upper part of the sheet plate is shiny. The buds are located on the branches in staggered order relative to each other. Blossoms "Pygmy" imperceptible, pale inflorescences with tiny flowers. On the berry tassels of this variety is from 5 to 12 berries.
The berries of this variety are medium and large, located on a green long stalk. The mass of berries from 2.5 to 7.5 g. The color of the fruit is black, brilliant. Taste is sweet, juicy berry. The skin is dense, not prone to cracking. The berries have a pronounced currant flavor.
Disease and Pest Resistance
- This pest lives in the kidneys of currants, its presence causes swelling and further death of the kidneys.
- You can fight this pest with the help of the treatment of infected bushes in late February or early March.
- Processing needs to be carried out still on snow, but before blooming of kidneys.
- For treatment, you can use drugs such as "Nitrafen" (300 g of the drug per 10 liters of water) or colloidal sulfur (100 g per 10 liters of water).
- Before spraying, you need to manually tear off tick-borne kidneys, they can be easily distinguished from healthy buds in terms of volume - they are usually twice as large as healthy ones. If there are too many infected buds on a branch, then such a branch is separated from the bush with the help of a garden pruner and taken out of the garden area.
- A small pest settles on the leaves and young shoots, feeds on plant sap, which weakens and dries currants.
- It is necessary to start a preventive fight against aphids even before the buds are dissolved. To do this, carry out early spring processing of the berry with a solution of "Malathion" (30 g of the drug per 10 liters of water) or liquid potassium soap (30 g of soap per 1 l of water).
- In the process of vegetation, traps of yellow color are placed under the currant bushes, with a solution of soap and water poured into them. Not bad, they also recommended themselves as a repeller for aphids laid out on the ground under the bushes sheets of food or technical foil. Its brilliance scares the females of these insects.
- Strongly affected by aphids branches are cut and destroyed with the help of fire.
- This is a fungal disease, with it on a diseased plant young shoots, fruits and leaves are covered with white bloom.
- It is difficult to cure a diseased plant, therefore regular preventive treatments are needed.
- The first treatment is carried out in early March (before bud break) with the help of the drug Nitrafen. Diluting the drug with water, it is necessary to strictly follow the proportions indicated in the abstract.
- A week later (in mid-March), a secondary treatment is carried out with a soap-soda solution (40 g of soda + 40 g of laundry soap per 10 liters of water).
- Soap-soda sprays are repeated during the summer: immediately after flowering and twice more with an interval of 14 days.
Anthracnose and septoriosis
- This is also a fungal disease: spores of fungus-pathogens, getting into a suitable environment, begin to actively develop and infect nearby branches, leaves and neighboring plants.
- Anthracnose appears as a placer of small dark brown specks, up to 1 mm in diameter, located on the leaves. Over time, the leaflet is swollen with tubercles in places where anthracnose spots appeared.
- Septoriosis causes currant to appear on the leaf blades of round or angular spots (up to 3 mm), the spots initially appear brown, a little later their middle area brightens, and a burgundy border appears on the edge of the spot.
- To combat these diseases can only be through prevention.
- In order to prevent the disease, in the middle of May (before flowering) the bushes are treated with a one percent solution of copper sulfate or Bordeaux mixture.
- In autumn, under fallen bushes, all the fallen leaves are collected and burned (or removed outside the site). This is done so that the fungus does not overwinter in plant debris.
- This is a viral disease: infected bushes change the color of flowers from pale white to pale lilac, the petals of round flowers become elongated and look like terry from a distance.
- On infected peduncles, almost half of the flowers fall off, never forming an ovary. In the process of growth, few of the ensuing berries take on an ugly shape and grow into small ones.
- To prevent currants from curbing in the early spring, the bushes are sprayed with a solution of water and the Nitrafen preparation (50 g of the substance per 5 l of water).
- An aqueous solution of colloidal sulfur (50 g of the substance per 5 l of water) is also suitable for the prevention of terry.
- Already diseased bushes are dug up with roots and removed outside the garden, after which it is desirable to burn them.
One of the valuable characteristics of the Pygmy currant is its high resistance to fungal diseases (anthracnose, powdery mildew), but the gardener is still worth the preventive treatment of the bushes.
Garlic extract for processing currant bushes
How to cook:
- Garlic is divided into slices, peeled from the skin and ground in a meat grinder or in a blender to the state of a homogeneous slurry.
- A container having a volume of at least 3 liters is taken, and a tight-fitting lid.
- 2 liters of water are poured into the container and brought to a boil.
- Milled garlic is added to boiled water, mixed and removed from heat.
- A saucepan with a future garlic tincture tightly covered with a lid and left to insist for 14 days.
- After 2 weeks, a concentrated garlic tincture is ready for use.
How to apply:
- Matured garlic concentrate is diluted in 10 liters of water.
- For spraying currants take a half-liter jar of already diluted infusion and add water to the bucket (10 l).
- Garlic processing for currants can be carried out every two weeks - it is absolutely harmless to people and insects and protects berry bushes from diseases and pests.
Currant pests that hibernate under the bark and in the kidneys can be controlled with «boiling soul»:
- To do this, choose a time when there is still snow in the garden, but spring is not far off (middle or end of February, the first decade of March).
- To treat one bush boil 10 liters of water.
- The boiled water is poured into a garden metal watering can and quickly (until the water has cooled) pour boiling water over the currant branches.
- This is a very effective method, long proven and well-established among gardeners. If you hold this event on time, subsequent chemical and biological treatments from the kidney tick may not be necessary.
Video: spring processing of currants with boiling water
Drought resistance and frost resistance
This variety for almost two decades of testing in the gardens of Russia showed excellent frost resistance. The plant endures frost free down to -20 ° C. Currant "Pygmy" not bad tolerates long periods without watering, sometimes it is enough rain. Additional watering is usually required by the plant in dry years.
Ripening period and yield
"Pygmy" is mid-season variety, the first berry brushes begin to ripen by the end of the first decade of July. Fruiting usually lasts 30-35 days. This variety is fruitful: 3 to 5 kg of berries are harvested from one adult bush. "Pygmy" does not need growing near varieties of pollinators, as it is a self-fertile variety. It is this quality that is the key to high annual yield.
At low positive temperatures (from +13 to +15 ° C), the harvest can be store for a month. Transportability in currant “Pygmy” is not bad - dense, not bursting skin allows transporting berries in long distances in specialized trays.
How to choose seedlings when buying
Laying the berries, the gardener needs saplings of good varieties. The most reasonable way is not to buy seedlings on the market from random sellers, but to give preference specialized nurseries and well-established private breeders. Specialized farms will provide complete information about the characteristics of the plant, about how to care for it, as well as show photos of berries, bushes and leaves. It is necessary to buy seedlings in early spring (even before blooming of buds on currants) or in autumn: in October and early November. What to look for when buying blackcurrant saplings:
- Seedlings should be annuals, their height should be no higher than half a meter.
- The bark on the seedlings must be uniform and free from damage.
- Young bushes should not be blooming leaves.
- Special attention should be paid to the root system: the roots must be elastic, strong and not weather-beaten.
- When transporting over long distances, the root system of purchased seedlings is wrapped in a damp cloth. A polyethylene film is on top of the fabric, the second layer, this will prevent the moisture from evaporating from the fabric, which means that the roots will remain wet until they arrive at the landing site.
- If, however, the roots on the sapling have dried up (regardless of the reasons), the gardener should lower the plant into the water and leave it in that position for two or three days. Drinking moisture, currant root system will restore the turgor and will be suitable for planting in open ground.
Time and landing scheme
When and how to plant
- It must be remembered that currant is a cross-pollinated crop. Despite the fact that the variety "Pygmy" is self-fertile - it will be able to show the highest yields only by recapturing with currant bushes growing nearby. Therefore, it is advisable to plant the plant in group plantings (2-5 currant bushes).
- If the planting of berry bushes occurs in early spring (before bud break), the air temperature by this time should be from +5 to +10 ° C, the soil should be dried. Autumn berry laying is carried out throughout October and the first decade of November (weather permitting).
- After selecting the location of the future berry, the gardener conducts preliminary preparation before planting: digging planting pits 30–35 cm deep and 30 cm wide.
- Между посадочными ямами оставляют расстояние в полтора-два метра, так как взрослый смородиновый куст занимает определённый объём в пространстве, и это нужно учитывать заранее.
- На дно посадочной ямы укладываются удобрения (половина ведра перегноя, 200 г суперфосфата и 60 г сернокислого калия), засыпается лопата верхнего грунта, всё это тщательно перемешивается.
- Before planting, the roots of the seedling are lowered into a clay mash, and the branches of a young bush are cut with a secateur. 2-3 buds are left on each branch, everything else is cut off. This procedure is necessary in order for the young bush to be well branched in the future, but not thickened.
- A bucket of water is poured into the landing pit and the moisture is allowed to soak into the soil.
- Sapling set in the planting pit vertically or at an angle of 45 degrees and straighten the roots.
- The roots of young currants gently fall asleep previously removed from the pit soil. The top layer of soil is slightly tamped, while forming a small depression in the radical layer of the future bush. This is done in order to further currants easier to water and feed liquid fertilizers.
- Planted plant is watered in a soil recess at the trunk.
- Further, the near-stem circle is mulched with organic materials (sawdust, mowed grass, crushed leaves of non-fruit trees). Mulching will help retain moisture in the soil, which means that it will be possible to water the berry in two times less.
Basics of seasonal care
A gardener will be able to get stable annual yields of currants only under the condition of preventive and curative treatment of bushes against pests and diseases, competent spring pruning, additional feeding and watering.
Currant variety "Pygmy" is drought-resistant, but this does not negate its need for moisture. The plant is especially vulnerable to drought during flowering, it can cause shedding of flower stalks.
Currants require rare but abundant watering:
- In summer, the bushes are watered once or twice a month.
- Under each bush pours from 3 to 5 buckets of water (30-50 l).
- The stem of the shrub must necessarily be mulched, which will reduce the need for irrigation.
- In the fall (October), abundant water-charging irrigation is carried out. It is carried out after feeding under the bush.
The soil on which the shrub grows requires separate care:
- The soil around the bushes is regularly treated with a ripper (hoe, cultivator) to prevent the growth of weeds.
- Loosening also contributes to the aeration of the soil, its saturation with oxygen. Loose soil near the tree absorbs moisture well from the air.
- If the soil in which the currant grows is heavy, clayey - it needs to be loosened more often, as it is prone to caking and compaction.
- When loosening, the tool should not be buried deeper than 3-5 cm. This is because the currant roots lie shallow (up to 10 cm deep into the soil) and a sharp blade of tools can damage them.
- Bottom circle gardeners mulch using organic materials (sawdust, humus, crushed bark), which gradually decompose, enrich and fertilize the soil.
To currant well fruited, it must be regularly fertilized. Especially important for berry crops fertilizers, in large quantities containing nitrogen. It is nitrogen fertilizers that contribute to the build-up of powerful stem, root and leaf mass. A healthy, well-developed plant without a loss grows a large crop of large and sweet berries. Fertilizers are mineral and organic.
Organic top dressing
Option number 1
- This dressing is carried out in the autumn (late September-October).
- Under each bush 0.5 buckets of well-rotten cattle manure are laid out.
- On top of the manure, 20 g of superphosphate and 20 g of potassium sulphate are evenly crumbling.
- The earth in the near-ground circle is dug up with the turnover of the reservoir so that the fertilizers are embedded in the soil.
Option number 2
- This dressing is carried out in early spring, after bud break, but before the flowering of currants.
- Half a bucket of fresh chicken dung or mullein water is added to the top of the bucket.
- The contents of the container are thoroughly mixed, after which the bucket is placed in a well-lit place for fermentation.
- After 5-7 days, the concentrated fertilizer is ready.
- On 5 liters of water, half a liter of the prepared concentrate is added, stirred and immediately poured into a depression under a currant bush.
Feeding ammonium nitrate
- This feeding give young berries immediately after flowering (every year). For adult currant bushes, starting from the third year of cultivation, such feeding is given during the setting of berries.
- 20-30 g of ammonium nitrate are spread in a pristine circle in a uniform layer, this amount of fertilizer is enough for one bush.
- After making the feeding, the soil is loosened, which promotes the penetration of ammonium nitrate into the soil.
- These supplements are made annually under the berries planted on heavy soils (alumina). For light and fertile soils, it is enough to carry out one mineral feeding in three years. Its time is October.
- Potassium (20-40 g) and phosphorus (30-50 g) are mixed, after which they are evenly scattered on the ground under the bush.
- Close up into the soil at the same time with the autumn digging of the soil.
For adult currant bushes (from 4 years of age) the amount of mineral fertilizers given above is doubled. If the soil under the berry sour, the gardener should add lime to currants (0.5 kg per 1 sq. M of soil surface).
Currant bushes abundantly increase the vegetation mass, therefore, in order to prevent the bush from thickening, leading to a decrease in the quantity and quality of the crop, the gardener must annually prune. This procedure is performed in early spring, before the kidneys swell. A gardener cuts off all dead and damaged branches during the winter, as well as old and obviously thickening shrubs with the help of a secateur. If you do not carry out pruning, the bush will bear fruit on last year's side branches, which are located on the main old (4-5-year-old) branches. This will result in a significant yield loss. How to trim:
- Planting year - on a young sapling, all branches are pruned, leaving 2-3 buds (first-order branches will grow from them).
- The second year - 3-4 shoots of the strongest young branches are left on the shoots grown from the left buds (these will be branches of the second order).
- The third year - 2-3 strong one-year shoots and 5-6 two-year shoots are left on the branches of the second order.
- The fourth year - the crown of the bush should consist of 3-4 branches from each year.
- In the future, each year pruning is carried out so that about twenty branches of different ages remain on the plant, this will prevent the currant from thickening too much.
What to follow when pruning a bush:
- The primary task of pruning is to remove old branches that are older than 5-6 years.
- When pruning, dry, diseased and broken branches are also removed (sanitary pruning is carried out).
- Be sure to remove all the shoots, the growth point of which is directed inside the bush. The lower branches that have dropped under their own weight and lie on the ground are also subject to removal.
Video: black currant pruning
Winter cold protection
To protect the berries from winter frosts, gardeners arrange temporary windproof structures (shields, wickers, fences), and also cover the ground in the root zone of the currant with a thick layer of mulch material that serves as a warm blanket for the roots.
Currant "Pygmy" has good frost resistance, but if you want a gardener, the bushes can be protected from freezing of individual branches with agrofibre (spunbond, nonwoven material). Any of these materials is suitable for wrapping the aboveground mass of a bush. This insulation for branches reliably protects the currants from freezing and, at the same time, allows moisture and air to pass through.
Advantages and disadvantages
Advantages of the variety "Pygmy":
- frost resistance
- lack of care,
- drought resistance
- the possibility of tying berries in a single planting (self-fertility),
- disease resistance (powdery mildew, anthracnose),
- excellent yield,
- sweet and juicy berries.
- susceptibility to kidney mite,
- susceptibility to the disease septoria.
Gardeners reviews about the variety "Pygmy"
Having laid a young berry from the saplings of black currant of the variety “Pygmy”, the gardener will delight his family with large, fragrant berries for many years. Due to its unpretentiousness, currants of this variety will not require a long-term caretaker effort. Once planted, large-fruited currants will decorate the garden for more than ten years. Good harvest to you!
Pygmy - a variety of medium ripening. It was obtained in the South Ural Research Institute for Horticulture and Potato from the crossing of the Bredtorp and Seedling Dove varieties. The author is V. S. Ilyin. In 1999, the Pygmy was listed in the State Register of Breeding Achievements Approved for Use in the Volga-Vyatka, Ural, West Siberian, East Siberian, Far Eastern Regions.
The advantages and disadvantages of the variety
Before you opt for a particular variety, you should explore its features and advantages.
moderate resistance to kidney tick and septoria
powdery mildew and anthracnose resistance
sweet taste of fruit
The grade of a black currant the Pygmy differs in sweet, dessert taste of berries
For the successful growth of black currant seedlings Pygmy should choose the season when the root system is sufficiently active. When the soil temperature is below 3 degrees and above 25 degrees Celsius, the growth of roots slows down considerably, therefore planting is best done in April-May or in September-October. It is recommended to stay on the second version. Before spring, the loosened soil is thoroughly compacted, and the roots begin to grow actively.
Which seedlings to choose?
Preferred for planting will be annual seedlings about 30–40 cm tall, without leaves and any damage on the shoots. Roots must be strong, flexible and sufficiently moist. In case of drying or winding of the root system, it is necessary to place the seedling in a bucket with water 2-3 days before planting.
Important! The roots of a healthy seedling reach a length of 20 cm.
The distance between the bushes
Since the black currant Shrubs Pygmy can reach a height of 2 m, the distance between plantings should be between 1.5 and 2 meters. This will ensure sufficient penetration of fresh air (without strong winds) and sunlight into the bushes. However, it should be borne in mind that the soil should be moistened around the pristvolny circle, therefore currants should be protected from the scorching rays of the sun.
Black currant is a shrub that can self-pollinate, but when cross-pollinated from other varieties gives more ovaries with large berries. Therefore, it is best to plant this garden crop with a small group of two or three plants.
Stepwise landing process
In order for the sapling to take root well and grow in optimally comfortable conditions, it is necessary to take into account all the nuances of planting.
- The soil must be carefully dig, remove debris, weeds and roots of other plants.
- Dig a hole 60 cm in diameter and 40 cm deep. Separate the upper layer from the lower one.
- Mix the compost bucket with 200 g of superphosphate and 60 g of potassium sulfate.
- Pour the fertilizer into the pit and mix with the soil.
- Before planting the roots of the seedling dipped in clay mash.
- Plant currants should be vertical or tilted at 45 degrees. So she will bring more shoots next year.
- Fill the sapling with a layer of fertile soil, and the distance from the root collar to the surface of the earth should be 5–7 cm.
- Trim the branches of the plant, leaving 2–3 developed buds (about 7 cm) to provide better branching for the bush in the future.
- Form a hole around a sapling with a diameter of 40 cm.
- Pour water at the rate of 7–8 l per 1 bush.
- Compress with compost or sawdust with a layer of about 5–7 cm.
After planting, the shoots of the seedling are shortened to 15–20 cm, leaving no more than 3 buds above the soil surface. The weaker the growth of seedlings shoots, the more they need to be shortened
The soil in the hole formed around the bush should be kept loose in order to ensure sufficient moisture and air flow to the roots. The heavy clay soil needs more careful and deep study.
Since the roots of the plant are shallow and there is a possibility of their damage during deep loosening, the soil is mulched with humus layer of about 10 cm. This contributes to saturation of the plant with necessary vitamins and elements, as a result of which it will be possible to loosen the soil less often.
Despite drought tolerance, Pygmy black currant needs watering, especially during the formation of ovaries. Sprinkling is the best method of soil moistening. On 1 square. m need 30-50 liters of water. When dry summer weather bushes plentifully watered at the beginning of each month.
Autumn watering of bushes can be carried out immediately after fertilization.
Despite the fact that the Pygmy is an unpretentious variety, you should not neglect top dressing of the shrub. Nitrogen fertilizers have a greater effect on the yield. With a lack of nitrogen, the leaves become small, pale, the growth of shoots slows down.
Proper shrub feeding is the key to a rich harvest of tasty and healthy berries.
Terms of application
- half a bucket of humus or compost,
- 20 g of superphosphate,
- 20 g of potassium sulfate.
annually in the fall (September-October)
at the main digging
Liquid organic dressing
1 l of fermented chicken manure (1 bucket per 200 l of water) mixed with a bucket of water or liquid mullein prepared in the same way
annually in spring before flowering
pour into hole in the circle
20–30 g of ammonium nitrate per 1 sq. M. m
annually in the spring after flowering, with the formation of ovaries (starting from 3 years after planting)
when loosening the soil
- potassium 20–40 g,
- phosphorus 30-50
Important! Mineral fertilizers need to be applied to the soil every year with heavy soils, and with light fertile soils - once every 2–3 years.
For currant bushes that have entered fruiting season, the amount of fertilizer increases by 2 times. In the case of acidity per 1 square. m soil should be made 400-600 g of lime.
Pruning currant recommended annually. The best time for this event is late autumn (after leaf fall). In addition, in early spring (before bud break), all frozen tops and branches broken during the winter are pruned.
Important! Without pruning, the currant bush will not be able to bear fruit with full dedication, because the main part of the berries is tied up on last year's growths of 4–5-year-old branches.
- After pruning currants during planting, as a rule, the next year 6–7 shoots are formed, of which 3–4 strongest must be left. When removing weak branches, active growth of new ones begins.
- At the age of 3 years, 2-3 annual shoots and 5-6 two-year-olds should be left.
- By the fourth year of the bush's life, its crown should be formed from 3-4 branches from each year.
- In the process of further annual pruning, it is necessary to leave about 20 branches of all ages in order to avoid excessive thickening of the bush. It is necessary to get rid of damaged, dry and diseased branches, as well as branches that are more than 5–6 years old. Shoots that grow inside the bush, as well as sagging on the sides to the ground branches are cut to form the correct crown.
Formation of black currant bush
Protection against diseases and pests
Pygmy black currant must be annually subjected to special treatment in order to prevent and protect against diseases and pests. This will help to avoid damage and death of the plant.
Diseases and pests
Having settled in the kidneys, the mite feeds on them from the inside, causing gall-like growth and subsequent drying of the kidneys.
between the snow and the bud
spraying with nitrafen (300 g per 10 l of water) or colloidal sulfur (100 g per 10 l of water)
Damaged buds are torn off and destroyed, and in case of intense damage, are removed along with the branches.
Aphids damage leaves and tops of shoots, sucking nutrients and juices.
before bud break
spraying with a solution of karbofos (30 g per 10 l of water) or a solution of liquid potash (25–30 g per 1 l)
- pruning and burning of damaged areas of the shrub,
- traps in the form of yellow tanks with soapy water,
- laying out the foil under the bushes to scare away the female aphids.
Fire damage damages berries, and as a result, they quickly rot right on the branches.
spraying with chlorophos solution (20 g per 10 l of water)
It affects the fruits and leaves, as well as young shoots. Manifested in the form of a white plaque with small, glittering in the sun, droplets.
- Spraying with nitrafena solution - before bud break.
- Spraying with a mixture of soda and soap is done 4 times: before flowering, immediately after flowering, and then every 2 weeks.
1. Spraying with 2% nitraphine solution.
2. Spraying with a mixture of 0.4% soda ash and 0.4% soap (40 g / 40 g / 1 bucket of water).
removal and burning of diseased branches during spring pruning
With anthracnose, small brown spots appear on the leaves (1 mm in diameter) with small dark shiny tubercles.
spraying a solution of 1% Bordeaux liquid or copper sulfate
collection and burning of fallen leaves
In septoria, small round or angular spots with a diameter of 2-3 mm appear on the leaves, first brown, and then whitening with a narrow reddish-brown border.
A viral disease that affects bushes, including flowers and leaves. The petals of the currant flowers become narrow, stretched out, acquire a lilac shade, seem to be terry. Ягоды, если и завязываются, получаются уродливыми.
опрыскивание нитрафеном (300 г на 10 л воды) или коллоидной серой (100 г на 10 л воды)
timely destruction of the affected bushes
The black currant variety Pygmy has high resistance to anthracnose and powdery mildew, however it is advisable to carry out timely spraying as a preventive measure.
Important! When processing chemicals should be aware that it can not be carried out during flowering, as this may have a detrimental effect on beneficial insects.
It is recommended that all treatments be discontinued a month before harvesting or use home-cooked products. One of the effective infusions for spraying black currant from diseases is garlic tincture: 300 g of fresh garlic pour 2 liters of boiling water, infuse for 2 weeks. After the specified time, dilute the tincture in 10 liters of water. For spraying a currant bush enough 500 g of the finished solution for 1 bucket of water.
Black currant bushes of Pygmy variety 40–45 days are blooming. The fruits ripen in early July. Harvesting lasts 1–1.5 months.
The yield from one currant bush is 3.5–5 kg. The variety is self-fertile with a high and stable annual yield.
The maximum yield of black currant berries from one bush is 5 kg
Berries are consumed fresh, as well as used in the manufacture of jams, compotes, jams, jelly. Do not lose their beneficial properties when frozen and dried. Fresh fruits of black currant are stored in the refrigerator up to 4 weeks. Transportability is good.
Black currant berries make very tasty winter preparations.
If you want to enjoy the black currant berries that are tasty and healthy for your health, plant a Pygmy variety on your summer cottage. Due to the precociousness, weather resistance and unpretentiousness in the care and maintenance of the black currant Pygmy will appreciate the high annual yields of sweet and large berries.