Today, gardeners have few or no previously known varieties of plums and other stone fruit crops. It is not surprising that the owners of household plots are interested in Peach Plum, a description of the variety, a photo of the plant and its fruits, as well as features of cultivation.
First of all, this variety of homemade plum attracts the attention with large honey-colored fruits with a bright red-pink blush. The original look not only predetermined the name of the variety, but also became the cause of a common misconception. Many people mistakenly believe that the plant is a hybrid of peach and plum.
Stone-seed cultures are perfectly amenable to interspecific crossing, giving fruitful offspring with one or another features of the parents. However, peach plum only remotely resembles a velvety southern fruit, as evidenced by a detailed description and photo of the plant.
Peach Plum Sort
Despite the spectacular appearance, excellent dessert qualities and rather large fruits, the plant cannot be classified as new. The first peach variety was described in 1830. Until today, it has not reached the place where the first seedlings were grown, nor what varieties were used for breeding. It is obvious that the culture is of Western European origin and more than a century ago it was called the Red Nectarine or the Royal-Rouge variety.
Now, when selection has stepped far forward, this species is rarely found in plantings. However, in Soviet times, the variety was recommended for cultivation in the southern regions, which included the republics of the Transcaucasus and the North Caucasus, Moldova, partly Ukraine, as well as the Kuban and Stavropol. To the north, due to the low winter-hardiness, the plants were frozen out, not giving the desired harvest.
If the planting and care rules are followed, Peach Plum forms medium or tall trees with a well-leafy crown of medium density. Young saplings, compared with already fruiting plants, show high growth rates, which slow down by 5–7 years. It was at this time that the first ovary appeared on the bouquet branches.
At first, fruit trees yield unstable crops, but gradually the indicators level off and increase. At 15 years of age, the plum of early ripening period provides up to 50 kg of massively ripening, almost non-falling fruit. Depending on the region and weather conditions, fruit picking is carried out from the second half of July to the second decade of August.
Judging by the photo of peach plum, the plant has large oval leaves with a blunt, barely visible tip. The leaf plate, unlike peach, nectarine and apricot, is slightly pubescent, as are the young shoots of this year, as well as dense short petioles, on which the ovary is firmly adhered. The edges of the sheet are noticeably jagged.
According to the description of the variety and photo of the Peach Plum, it has large, round or ovate-oval fruits, slightly crushed at the top. On average, the weight of one plum with a thick, durable skin, on which an inconspicuous seam is located, is 45-50 grams. However, it is not uncommon when the mass of the fetus in warm years and with sufficient food reaches 70 grams.
Plum color depends on weather conditions. The basic color of the bluish wax coating of the skin is greenish-yellow. But, if the fruit was sufficiently in the sun, a bright pink-red blush is formed on its sides, which can cover almost the entire surface.
The ripe, ready to eat plum has an elastic, juicy flesh of beautiful golden hue. The stone is small, flattened, easily separated, which, together with decent taste, indicates the value of the variety. Fragrant sweet and sour plums can be successfully used fresh and as a raw material for making jam, jam, stewed fruit and other culinary products.
Due to the dense skin and the ripening of plums of the Peach variety, they are easily transported and stored for a short time. The only drawback of the crop is low winter hardiness, which does not allow growing a variety without risk even in the Central Black Soil Region.
Plum Peach Michurin
Obviously, knowing the southern plum plum and wanting to get a more cold-resistant variety, in 1904 I. Michurin set about creating a similar variety of his own selection. As a basis, the scientist took a white plum stone, brought from Reshetnikov's Samara farm. When the seedling began to bloom, it was pollinated by the American variety Washington. The plant, called the Peach Plum of Michurin, first bore fruit only in 1921.
The fruits of this culture have a round or round-oval shape. On the skin yellow with a dull greenish tinge you can see:
- shallow seam
- bluish wax bloom, easy to wash, when the plum falls into the hands or when in contact with other fruits,
- pale reddish blush reddish, less pronounced than the varieties of plum Peach.
The weight of harmful plums is 35–45 grams. Under the thin skin lies sweet, containing up to 11% sugar and very little acid, juicy pulp of excellent taste. Fruits are mainly used in food fresh, but can be an excellent raw material for processing into culinary dishes and for fruit preservation.
Compared to the southern relative, Michurin plum has a lower yield. Up to 15 kg of sweet dessert fruits can be collected from an adult tree with a thick crown and a height of up to 3-4 meters. At the same time, the period of fruiting begins 1-2 years later, and the harvest is not in July, but in August and early September.
Despite the existing disadvantages, the Peach Michurin plum is more winter-hardy and can stably bear fruit in the Voronezh, Kursk, Belgorod regions and to the south. A little to the north, for example, in the Tambov region, plants often do not ripen and young shoots freeze out, which reduces crop yields and calls into question the feasibility of growing a variety.
Features of planting and caring for plum Peach
Like all stoneseed crops, the plum needs good care, which begins with the selection of a site for planting.
For rapid rooting and successful growth they find a sunny, wind-protected area with light fertile soil. It should be borne in mind that the plant is well related to irrigation, does not tolerate the proximity of groundwater.
However, the biggest drawback of this fruit crop is its low resistance to cold. First of all, young saplings, which should be sheltered for the winter, suffer from frost. It is good if the tree has natural protection from the wind, for example, a building wall, a fence or a hedge. Photo of plum Peach and description of the variety say that the ovary is formed on small bouquet sprigs. If the plant perezimuet well, in the spring it will please lush flowering.
But do not wait for a bountiful harvest, if not in advance to take care of planting varieties that can pollinate these fruit trees. The varieties of Renklod and Vengerky that bloom at the same time as Peachkovaya, as well as the variety Anna Shpet and Mirabel Nancy can be considered pollinators of the plum variety Peach. Pollinating trees should be nearby, accessible to bees carrying pollen from one plant to another.
Before you buy a sapling of this tree, every summer resident should read the description of Peach Plum.
Plum Peach is a low tree with a medium-thick crown and smooth-bark. Saplings develop rapidly. The first harvest will appear in 5-7 years, but it will be unstable. Peak yields will come only 15 years after planting and will be about 50 kg per tree. It is then that the gardener will be able to experience all the delights of cultivating this variety.
Initially, this variety was intended for planting in the southern regions of the country, but breeders brought frost-resistant varieties. The plant tolerates frosts, but in the winter, especially in the Moscow region, it is better to hide it. Film, stalks of sunflower and corn, straw, burlap are ideal for harboring. The roots need to be insulated with organic matter.
- The leaves of the plant are oval, jagged at the edge, slightly pubescent.
- The flowers are white.
- Berries grow on thick short petioles.
- The fruits of culture are large. The mass of medium specimens reaches 40-50 g, and the large reaches 70 g.
- The berries are round or oval, flattened at the top. From the lack of heat the fruits will be dense and tart.
The color of the fruit depends on the type of culture. The main color of the peel is honey (yellow-green). But the plum growing on the sunny side is red. The skin is thick, with a blue patina, covered with white dots. The bone is oval, flat and rough, it is easily separated from the ripe pulp.
The flesh is yellow, firm and dense, to taste - juicy, with a sourish flavor, extremely fragrant. In the northern areas the taste becomes tart. Fruit at room temperature lasts up to 4 days, in the refrigerator for up to a month. Harvest is best to recycle immediately.
On a note! Purpose fruits universal. Berry is suitable for jam, jams, pies and flavored plum compote.
The plant blooms late, and the fruits appear early - since mid-July. The berries are well attached to the tree and a little showered. This culture is resistant to the fungus, especially to the polysigmosis to which the stone fruit is exposed.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
- early maturation
- attractive fruits,
- high yields during the period of regular fruiting,
- the versatility of the use of fruits
- large fruits,
- high taste,
- resistance to diseases and pests.
The main disadvantage is the average frost resistance / winter hardiness. Culture requires increased attention to itself during the winter and frost, it must be covered for this period. The disadvantages include self-infertility, the culture requires planting near a pollinator plant.
Having planted a plum of this variety in their plot, any summer resident will be satisfied when he gathers a rich and sweet crop.
Peach Plum Description
Peach plum and its subspecies, Michurin plum, are universal varieties. They can grow in the southern, northern regions:
- Krasnodar region,
- Stavropol region,
- Voronezh region,
- Kursk, others.
The height of the peach plum tree is on average 3-4 m. Young plantings grow quickly. The shape of the crown is rounded, similar to an inverted cone. It is of medium thickness, but with age it becomes more magnificent. The leaves are large, oval. The fruits are big. Their weight can be from 50 to 70 g. Plum is round, slightly flattened at the top. The skin of the fruit is thick. Their color smoothly shimmers from yellow-green to purple. The flesh is tender, juicy. The fruit is fragrant. The bone inside is easily detached.
Advantages and disadvantages of the Peach Michurin variety - table
- regular high yield - up to 50 kg of fruits can be obtained from 1 adult tree,
- early ripening (July),
- resistance to fungal diseases, in particular to polysigmosis, and to pests,
- good taste, attractive appearance and transportability of fruits,
- low shedding of ripe fruit.
- late entry into fruiting (by 5–6, and sometimes by 7 years),
- low frost resistance
- demanding of soil conditions
- self-infertility varieties.
Pollinating varieties for skull fruit Peach plum
If you are going to plant a peach plum, make sure that the pollinating varieties are planted nearby.
It is important to select for the peach plum the same skoroplodnye neighbors, so that the flowering period coincides, which is necessary for over-pollination.
The best grades for pollination of the peach plum:
- Hungarian home,
- Mirabelle Nancy,
- Anna Shpet,
- Hungarian Azhanskaya,
- Renklod Altana,
- Greenclare green.
Alycha varieties Lama and Kuban comet can also become a pollinator for Peach Plum.
Planting rules seedlings
Plum requires a fertile soil with a neutral reaction, good breathability and sufficient moisture, but without stagnant moisture. Planting is carried out by 1-2-year-old seedlings with a well-developed root system, whole and smooth bark and live buds.
Plum trees are planted in the Middle zone both in spring (April) and in autumn (mid-September - October). Autumn planting should be done 1–1.5 months before the soil freezes. If the spring is late, seedlings take root hard, get sick and grow poorly.
You can plant in the spring, even those seedlings that you purchased in the fall. To do this, in the winter they need to prikopat and cover with spruce branches, then sprinkle with snow to ensure a normal wintering. At the end of the cold weather, after snow melting, it is necessary, without removing the seedlings from the prikop, to check their condition for damage by rodents, breakage of branches. Sapling should be dug out in the spring right before planting (during the period of bud swelling).
Spring planting is carried out at the beginning of the swelling of the kidneys. It is impossible to take trees for planting with full-blown leaves - they are likely to die.
Plums should be planted in sheltered from the cold wind, well warmed by the sun places (for example, on the south side of the fence). Do not allow shade plum other trees. The lack of light immediately reflects on the state of the leaves and fruits: the leaves become pale, and the fruits become worse colored and lose their sugar content.
Plum tree requires a certain space, so it is planted at a distance of at least 3 m from other trees.
A landing hole 40–50 cm deep and 65–70 cm wide should be dug in advance (best in the fall, but not less than 12–15 days before planting). In the center of the pit they drop a peg in such a way that it enters solid ground by 15–20 cm and a nutrient mixture is poured around it for 2/3 of the volume of the pit. Soil mixture to fill the landing pit are from:
- fertile soil,
- 10–25 kg of rotted manure or humus,
- 0.1–0.2 kg of ammonium nitrate,
- 0.2–0.3 kg of potassium chloride,
- 0.5 kg of superphosphate.
In addition, it is recommended to add coarse river sand and some gravel or broken brick - this improves drainage conditions and increases the heat capacity of the soil. Lime should not be added to the pit, as it can burn the roots. If liming of soil is required, it should be carried out in advance, introducing 0.5–0.8 kg / m 2 of lime under the digging.
The sequence of planting plum peach:
- A plum seedling is placed near a peg on a cone of soil mixture, spreading roots along it.
- They cover the roots with soil, while at the same time slightly priming the soil with their hands. It is important that the sapling retains its upright position, and the root collar remains 4–5 cm above ground level. Deepening the root collar affects the development of the tree.
- Form the hole and water the tree 3-4 buckets of water.
- Tie a sapling to the stake with a loop in the form of a figure eight.
For the garter is better to use a soft material, such as a rag harness.
How to propagate plum Peach shoots? If desired, this is easy to do yourself. Plum root shoots should be taken from fruit trees. It is best to use shoots growing along the border of the tree trunk and well lit by the sun. Plants of 1-2 years of age are dug in the fall (September - October) or in the spring (before bud break).
- 15–20 cm recede from the stem and carefully dig up the roots.
- The maternal root is chopped so that the section of the horizontal root is 25–30 cm long separated from the tree.
Fertilizer and soil care
For the full use of the soil in the garden between young plum trees, you can plant currants or gooseberries. By the time the plum enters fruiting (in 6–7 years), the shrubs will have given up the harvest and can be removed, and put honey plants or strawberries in their place.
It is possible to contain the soil of the stem near the black steam, in this case, 2-3 times a month, weed out and loosen the soil. If you leave the soil with natural souring, it takes 3-5 times per summer to mow the grass, which is recommended to leave in place as mulch.
From the third year, urea is started to be introduced (in the spring, under digging) at the rate of 20–25 g per 1 m 2 of the trunk circle. If plum fruit is regular and abundant, the tree should be fertilized annually. In the fall, it is recommended to add 10–12 kg of organic matter (manure or compost), 55–60 g of simple superphosphate, 20–25 g of potassium salts, or 0.2–0.25 kg of wood ash per square meter of the tree circle.
At the age of 15–20 years (maximum fructification) the amount of organic matter introduced into the soil in the fall is increased by 1.5–2 times, and the dose of mineral substances remains the same.
After fertilization, the soil of the circle wheel should be dug up immediately (at the periphery, the digging depth is 15–20 cm, near the bust - 10–12 cm).
In spring and summer, the plum may need additional feeding. It is especially useful to give a tree organic or mineral fertilizers before flowering.. For this, chicken manure or manure is diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 9, such a solution is made of 5–6 buckets per 1 tree. If you use mineral fertilizers, take potassium nitrate (1 tablespoon per 10 liters of water), top dressing is made at the rate of 2–3 buckets of solution for 1 young tree or 4–6 buckets for adults. To apply fertilizer, cut around the perimeter of the trunk circle ring grooves with a depth of 15–20 cm.
Если год неурожайный, осеннее внесение удобрений нужно отменить, а на будущий год провести только летние подкормки, так как лишние минеральные вещества провоцируют избыточный рост побегов и снижение закладки цветочных почек.
Если кислотность почвы на участке повышена, следует каждые 3 года известковать её. This is done by scattering crushed chalk, dolomite or other limestone materials (0.3–0.5 kg / m 2) and then digging. You can combine liming with the introduction of phosphorus-potassium fertilizers.
Plum requires uniform soil moistening. Plum roots are located in the top layer of soil, so the tree reacts painfully to drought. For young trees, 5–6 waterings in summer are required (2–4 buckets per tree) and then moisture-charging watering in autumn (6–8 buckets of water per 1 tree) to ensure normal wintering.
Fruit trees are watered 3-5 times per season. Especially high need plum water in the spring, during the growth of shoots and flowering, and in the summer, during the formation of ovaries and fruit growth.
With a lack of moisture, the growth of shoots weakens, the ovaries begin to crumble, the fruits shrink and fall. Therefore, in the summer in hot weather, it is imperative that the plum be watered at the rate of 4–6 buckets per 1 tree.
After watering the ground is mulched with a layer of peat.
Excessive watering is as dangerous as drought: it can provoke fungal diseases of the fruit, autumnal growth of shoots, and even repeated autumnal flowering. All this weakens the tree and reduces its winter hardiness.
Pouring water directly under the trunk is not recommended, because the suction roots of the plum tree are located at the periphery of the crown. Therefore, the grooves for irrigation should be cut along the outer edge of the circle of the trunk. You can apply sprinkling.
Pruning and shaping the crown of a young tree
Pruning in the first year after planting should not be carried out, because in nurseries the roots of seedlings are quite pruned and additional pruning of branches slows down the restoration of the root system.
Young plum trees (3–4 years after planting) grow intensively - the annual growth of shoots can be up to 2 m. This should not be allowed, and after reaching the length of 35–45 cm, summer pinching should be carried out. Otherwise the crown will form too elongated.
To form a plum crown, the leader form is most often used with a central conductor and several main branches arranged in 2 tiers. Each tier consists of 3–4 branches, and in the upper tier between the branches of the first order there should be a distance of 45–60 cm. When the tree reaches 2–2.5 m in height, the central conductor should be cut to the side branch. When forming the crown, it must be remembered that the height of the trunk affects the winter hardiness to some extent. Since Peach Plum is not very winter-hardy, its shtam should be formed low (20–30 cm).
Pruning is carried out in autumn or early spring (March), but after particularly cold winters additional sanitary pruning may be carried out in May, and removal of diseased branches during the entire season as needed.
At the age of full fruiting, it is necessary to regularly thin out the crown from thickening growth and improperly growing branches. Also required every year to cut the root growth, which weakens the growth of the tree. The cutting is done at the very base of the overgrowth at least 3-5 times per summer. Bare roots need to be covered with earth.
Old trees with a weak growth should be subjected to rejuvenating pruning, removing growing branches that are close to each other and weakened.
In April - May, it is recommended to clean and heal wounds, and in the summer - to fill the hollows with a mixture of sand and cement.
A variety of pruning can be considered thinning of the fruit. It is carried out with excessively abundant harvests in order to exclude the shallowing of fruits and ensure their normal palatability. The first thinning is performed at the formed bone, when the plums become the size of a hazelnut. When the fruits are doubled, thinning should be repeated, leaving a distance of 6–8 cm between them.
Preparing for the winter
Unfortunately, Peach Plum does not belong to winter-hardy varieties and can freeze in the conditions of Central Russia, and generally it does not tolerate frosty winters. Therefore, to protect the tree must necessarily be insulated for the winter. To do this, the trunk and the main branches are tied with lapnikom, burlap, roofing felt, reed or other similar materials (they also serve as protection against rodents). The stem close to the trunk is covered by a 25–30-centimeter layer of sawdust or peat.
With severe frosts, it is possible to produce smoke, which, with prolonged exposure, raises the air temperature by 3-4 ° C.
In winter, one should be wary not only of freezing, but also of decay, when the bark and cambial layer die off at the bottom of the trunk. Such damage occurs during frosts when deep loose snow falls (starting with a thickness of 15–20 cm), under which the temperature is close to 0 o C.
Cultivation and care
Winter hardiness for central Russia is low. This is due to the fact that the variety has a long growing season, the foliage stays on the branches for a long time and the shoots do not have time to ripen to frost. However, in comparison, for example, with Renklodami, it is more frost-resistant, therefore, it should be given preference in such areas as Voronezh, or Kursk.
The hybrid does not belong to skoroplodny - the first harvest will have to wait a long time, 7-8 years after planting. According to reviews, the variety sometimes affects fungal diseases, so trees must be monitored and regularly treated with fungicides.
Peach Michurin is propagated in nurseries by grafting on winter-hardy stocks and selling ready-made seedlings. They can easily be bought in garden centers, nurseries and online stores. Some experienced gardeners plant cuttings into the crown of the plum trees already present at the site. This greatly approximates the fruiting variety.
For landing Peach Michurin choose protected from cold winds and fully lit places. Lowlands and flooded areas are not suitable for this. The pits are dug spacious, not less than 70 centimeters wide and 60 centimeters deep, and a peg is driven into the bottom, to which, then, for sustainability, a eight-planted tree is tied up.
Pour a little usual on a layer of the fertilized soil, and already on this mound spread the roots of the seedling. Falling asleep the underground part of the tree, watering and tamping around the stem, closely monitor the position of the root collar. When planting, it should rise, taking into account the subsequent shrinkage of the substrate.
In spring, the plant is cut to form a crown, then this operation is repeated annually. Plums gratefully respond to care - watering, feeding, thinning, processing.
Peach Michurin was intensively used by domestic breeders in further research and practical work. On its basis, other varieties have been developed, for example, the famous Rossoshanskaya large-fruited. The variety is widespread and over the past decades it has collected a lot of positive reviews.
Some gardeners are still not clear whether the described hybrid and ordinary Peach is one variety. In most sources, the country of origin of the latter is France. This is an earlier maturing form, it ripens in late July - early August. Therefore, despite the similarity of the appearance of the fruit, it is quite possible to distinguish them from Peach Michurin.
Peach plum Michurin
In 1904, I. Michurin began to develop a new variety of Peach Plum. The task was to bring a cold-resistant variety. Michurinsk plum has both advantages and disadvantages. The benefits include frost resistance of the plant. The disadvantages include reduced yield. The yield of Michurinsk Peach Plum comes 1-2 years later. Harvested in July and August.
The fruits of this variety have a rounded shape. In appearance it resembles peaches. Plums are yellow with a greenish tint.
Pros and cons of peach plum
Among the advantages are the following parameters:
- Early ripening of fruits.
- The fruits have a sweet taste. Juicy flesh with easily separated bone.
- Fruits have a large size and attractive appearance. They look like peaches.
- Abundant harvest.
- Increased resistance to diseases and pests.
The branches are able to break due to the abundant amount of fruit. Required install supports under the branchesso that they do not break.
The disadvantages include the following parameters:
- Low frost resistance.
- Self infertility.
- In cold regions, the amount of yield decreases.
Peach plum is a self-fruitful variety. To obtain high yields, it is necessary to use pollinating plants. The following varieties are used as pollinators:
- Cherry plum.
Landing should take place on a protected from the wind plot of land. It is advisable to choose well lighted area. An adult tree will need room to grow. Within a radius of 5 meters there should be no other trees and structures.
Landing hole prepared in the fall. Planting a tree occurs in the spring. Should be planted when the frost completely subside. The depth and width of the landing fossa is 50-70 centimeters. A pail of organic fertilizer is poured at the bottom. Fertilizer consists of compost, humus or manure. You should inspect seedlings before planting. The plant should not contain signs of the disease. The seedling must have a developed root system.
Used for landing sapling age 1-2 years. The landing procedure is as follows:
- Ash or dolomite flour is poured into the prepared pit. These additives are mixed with humus in the fossa.
- Further, a peg is driven in to hold the seedling.
- In the hole is set plant. Free space is covered with earth. The earth is poured into the hole for 5-10 centimeters to the ground level.
- After planting, watering is carried out. For watering enough 1 bucket of water.
- After watering, the last 10 centimeters of the ground layer are covered.
- The ground around the sprout is slightly compacted. After tamping again watered.
Peach plum does not tolerate winter frosts. Spring has to remove dried branches. Small trees for the winter are covered with polyethylene. It is allowed to use a sacking as a heater. Also, corn stalks, straw and sunflower stalks are used as insulation. Gardeners do not recommend using synthetic materials. Synthetic overlaps wood access to oxygen.
An adult tree is much harder to protect from frost. In this situation, the following protection methods are used:
- The trunk of the tree is wrapped in polyethylene or burlap.
- Plum crown covered with polyethylene.
Organic fertilizer protects the root system in the winter.
Yield and fruiting
Peach Plum - skoroplodnaya. The first fruits are harvested 5-6 years after planting. Stable crop variety gives the fifteenth year of life. Up to 50 kg of a juicy sweet harvest is collected from one tree. Plum Michurin spices a little later: the fruits ripen by the end of August. The collection of yellow fruits occurs at the beginning of autumn.
Choosing the right place
Plum Peach prefers a sunny place, protected from drafts. It is better to choose the south side of the garden plot. The closest landing, buildings should be located from the tree at a distance of 5 m or more. Plum likes space. Its root system will develop rapidly. Other plants should not interfere with it.
When planting Michurin plum in the northern regions, care must be taken to ensure that the place is the most illuminated and windless. The variety tolerates cold, but additional measures to protect the tree will make it more resistant to a changeable climate.
Creating favorable conditions for the growth of peach plum begins with the process of planting. Of great importance is the choice of location, soil. The grade loves the fertile, not overmoistened earth. The level of groundwater should be checked. The uncomplicated sequence of planting of seedlings contributes to the rapid growth of the tree, good harvest:
- The hole for the stalk must be at least 50 cm deep, 70 cm in diameter. It is prepared in the fall.
- Part of the soil from the pit is mixed with compost, coal and other fertilizers.
- At the bottom of the hole set a stake with a length of 1 m. A sapling is tied to it. This will provide additional fixation, resistance to winds.
- The roots of the cutting straighten. They should be at a distance of about 5 cm from the bottom of the hole.
- The young tree begins to fall asleep with the previously prepared earth, tamping every new layer.
- Landing watered with two buckets of water.
Peach plum care measures do not require a lot of effort, time and resources. Simple recommendations can be easily implemented even for a novice gardener:
- Regular watering. During the flowering period (May-June), fruit ripening (August-September) needs thorough soil moistening. After watering the soil loosened.
- Fertilizer. To stimulate intensive growth, the development of the plant in the fall it is fed with manure, mineral additives.
- Crop. The procedure is necessary for the formation of the crown of the plant. It begins to hold from the first year after landing. Annual shoots are shortened by one third.
- Treatment of diseases, pests.
- Preparing for the winter. Temperature changes, cold air lead to burns on the bark of the plant. In order to avoid such damage, the trunk of the plum is whitened with diluted lime. Before the cold it is covered with special material.
Peach plum: the best varieties, planting and care
Peach plum is a variety of fruit that came to us from France. The plant boasts surprisingly large and juicy fruits, but at the same time it is quite capricious. Nevertheless, we grow up this plum readily, besides today there is a large selection of zoned varieties adapted to the peculiarities of Russia's climate, soil, and other nuances.
We will learn in more detail what a peach plum is, find out which varieties are most successful, learn how to grow.
The plant is also called "red nectarine". The variety was first mentioned in historical sources in 1830 in France. Peach plum is a medium-sized tree, rather compact, having a rounded crown of the cone-shaped regular shape.
Crown thickening is medium, which somewhat facilitates the care of a plant, in particular, pruning. The trunk and branches have a characteristic brownish color of a light shade. The leaves are large, oval, covered with a weak down. Color foliage has a ruby shade.
Peach plum blossom begins after other varieties, and the harvest begins to take off in the second half of July. In cooler regions, of course, the harvest dates are later.
Without the presence of suitable pollinating plants near the peach plum crop, there is no waiting, the plant does not possess self-pollinating properties.
The following varieties are suitable as pollinators:
- Anna Shpet,
- Nancy and some others.
The first time the crop is removed after 6 years after planting, but the tree begins to bear fruit steadily only in the fifteenth year of life. With one adult tree is obtained, on average, 50 kg of fruit. The positive point - the berries are not showered, even if fully ripe.
Description of the variety includes the characteristics of the berries: so, the weight of one berry reaches 70 grams. The fruit has a rounded regular shape with a slightly flattened tip.
The skin is thick, with a smoky patina. The color of the berries can be different - often yellow with orange-red patches. The flesh is yellow, juicy, dense. The taste of berries is sweet and sour, very pleasant. If the summer is cool, the fruits become less sugary and denser.
The fruits of peach plum are tasty and fragrant, can be used both fresh and as a raw material for the production of wine, preservation. The berries make wonderful jam, jams, preserves. But throughout the territory of Russia peach plum is not growing yet, it is distributed mainly in warm regions.
Let's get acquainted with the most popular peach plum varieties, find out their features.
One of the highest plum trees, reaches 7 meters in height. The diameter of its spreading crown almost reaches the same figure. In our country it grows only in the south. This variety is the founder of many other plum varieties. It is resistant to fungi, but may be subject to putrid diseases.
Fruits of small size and weight - about 20 grams, have a green-yellow peel with a characteristic patina. The flesh is clear, very tender, juicy and sweet. The taste of this plum is recognized as a reference.
Fruiting begins five years after planting. On average, 25-30 kg of fruits are harvested from one tree, but upon reaching plum 10 years - and 45-50 kg each. Harvesting takes place in late August.
The variety was bred by Michurin in the 19th century. Collective farm plum adapted to the conditions of central Russia, therefore, successfully cultivated in a fairly cool climate. It tolerates frosts up to -30 degrees.
The fruits are quite small, the mass of one - from 15 to 20 grams. The peel has a yellowish-greenish tint with a waxy bloom. The flesh is quite juicy and tender, but slightly sour.
Crop harvested in late August: one adult tree gives about 40 kg of berries, young - about 20 kg. Сорт имеет хорошую устойчивость практически ко всем болезням, кроме грибковых.
Сорт, выведенный на Украине еще в советские времена. Дерево отличается быстрым ростом и усиленной потребностью в обрезке. Неустойчив к сильным морозам — побеги и почки повреждаются уже при -20 градусах.
Плоды молодого дерева весят по 50 граммов, по мере старения их вес уменьшается до 35 граммов. Ягоды имеют плотную кожуру, ярко-алую с дымчатым налетом. The flesh is tasty, honey, has dessert characteristics. Crop harvested in the second half of August
Hybrid variety, obtained by crossing the plum-Scorples and Greenwood. Zoned for central Russia. It tolerates frosts. The tree has a slight height, reaching on the strength of 3.5 meters. But the Tambov variety has a very sprawling crown, which must be taken into account when planting.
Fruits are small - about 20 grams, have an elongated shape and purple skin with a gray tint. The flesh is sour, yellow. Fresh is practically not used, goes to the production of wine and billets. It can be said technical grade.
Crop harvested from the third year of the tree. One copy gives 15-20 kg of fruit. The variety is resistant to all diseases except klyasterporioz.
Belgian variety, obtained by chance by spontaneous mutation of the Green Greenclade. The tree grows medium in size, however, quite sprawling and without pruning - untidy. Frosty winter tolerates poorly, but is highly resistant to moth.
The fruits have a greenish-yellow color with a blush on the sunny side, the correct round shape. The flesh is sweet and tender, has a faint taste of nutmeg. Despite the tenderness, the fruits are well transported and lie for a long time without damage, which makes the variety interesting for industrial cultivation.
The crop ripens in mid-September: 40-50 kg of fruits are removed from one tree. And upon reaching plum for 20 years, its yield doubles.
The variety was bred by Ukrainian breeders in the middle of the 20th century by crossing Peach and Jefferson. The tree grows quite high, unlike other varieties, reaching 6 meters in length. The plant is resistant to frost - can carry up to -30 degrees. By the strong heat, however, the Early variety is also well adapted.
Fruits are large - about 60 grams, but as the tree grows old, the fruits become smaller. The berries are of a regular round shape, slightly flattened laterally, have a yellowish tinge with orange patches.
The flesh is juicy, has a pleasant sweet-sour taste. Crop harvested from late July to the first half of August. Fruits have good keeping quality, remarkably tolerate transportation.
Czech hybrid variety, bred randomly by spontaneous mutation of the green green variety. In our country it is zoned in the Central Black Soil Region. The tree reaches a height of 6.5 meters, has a beautiful regular crown, resembling a round cap.
The fruits are quite large - from 40 to 45 grams. The peel has a light green tint with a red blush. The flesh is tender, juicy, has a great taste.
Altana variety unpretentious, able to grow and bear fruit safely, even on poor, poorly fertile soils. The first crop gives three years after rooting. Initially, yields are weak - 34-40 kg per tree, but over time they reach 80 kg.
Attention: every 4-5 years the tree takes a break from fruiting.
Crop harvested in early August, in cool regions with a delay for a couple of weeks. The variety is resistant to frost, severe drought, disease, pest damage. And unlike many other species, the Altana variety is capable of self-pollination.
The White tree grows up to 4-4.5 meters tall. Fruits turn out an interesting light shade, opaque. The flesh is very tasty, juicy, melts in the mouth, besides a beautiful transparent texture. The crop ripens in late August. The variety tolerates winter frost well, and the tree begins to bear fruit for the 3-4th year of life.
The variety is bred by crossing plums of Altana and Eurasia 21. The tree grows low, with a neat spherical crown. Fruits weighing 25-30 grams, have a red-purple skin and a pleasant-tasting yellow-orange flesh.
The crop ripens in early September: one tree gives 20-25 kg of berries. The grade of a name of Michurin is quite frost-resistant and well transfers transportation.
Bred by crossing varieties Lenya and Yellow Local, zoned for the northern regions of Russia. The tree reaches a height of 6 meters, has a spreading lush crown.
Fruit weight about 25 grams, the shape of the correct ball, greenish skin. The pulp is juicy and has a pleasant sourness. 6-8 kg of fruits are removed from one young tree, 20-30 kg from an adult. Harvesting takes place in late August.
Due to its adaptability to the northern climate, the variety tolerates frosts well, and is also resistant to pest infestation. Minus - the tendency to comeback.
The variety is bred by crossing three varieties of plum:
- Great blue,
- Azhanskaya Hungarian.
The tree grows up to 4 meters, the crown is magnificent, fan-shaped. The variety tolerates frost well, but is unstable to crush and moniliozu.
Fruits are sown by mid-September, the weight of one copy - 55-60 gr. The skin of the berries is purple, dense, the flesh is also distinguished by its density, has a pleasant slightly sour taste and a yellow-orange color.
The presidential grade begins to bear fruit from the fourth year after rooting. Initially, the yield - 12-15 kg per tree, as they grow up - up to 45 kg. In a sunny summer, sometimes the harvest does not have time to ripen.
The variety is bred by crossing four plum varieties:
- Tatar yellow,
- Tern Local,
The tree is low, reaching only 3 meters. The krone is spherical, accurate. Berries weigh 15-20 grams, have a regular rounded shape with one half more than the other. The rind is purple, slightly bitter, which spoils the taste of the fruit. The pulp is grainy, juicy is not different, sweet and sour.
Fruits for the first time in the 4-5th year of life, ripening the crop by mid-September. The variety does not tolerate frosts, as well as drought. In addition, it has instability against asperiasis, rust, and often undergoes attacks by a mucous sawyer.
Peach plum receives enthusiastic reviews from gardeners. Internet users write that the fruits are very tasty both fresh and in blanks. A lot of positive feedback from both amateurs and professional farmers who grow plums for sale. Special attention is given to the appearance of the berries, as the fruits grow large, fleshy, juicy and usually - sweet.
But there are reviews of summer residents and the fact that you have to wait for many years (5-6) until you manage to harvest the first crop. True, this applies only to individual varieties. Another of the negative - weak resistance to frost of some varieties, a tendency to overides in the spring, poor pollinability.
We learn how and under what conditions should be planted peach plum.
Peach plum needs a well-lit area, protected from winds and drafts - the plant is quite tender. Since the crown of most varieties is sprawling, extensive, it is better not to plant this plum near fences and buildings. In the lowlands, landing is also undesirable due to stagnation of groundwater.
In cool regions, it is common to plant a peach plum in the spring - at the end of April-May. In the south, you can also plant in the fall - but only before cold snaps and the first frost so that the tree can take root.
The pit under the sapling is dug out of the following parameters: 70x70x50, where 50 is the depth. Often they make a round hole with a diameter of 70 cm. After digging a peg into the bottom for a future garter of the plant.
In the pit lay the following mixture:
- excavated ground
- compost - 2 buckets,
- granular superphosphate - 150-200 g,
- wood ash - 300-400 gr.
All components before laying must be mixed well. This mixture
Selection of seedlings
Purchase peach plum seedlings only in specialized nurseries. The variety is quite capricious, therefore any deficiency and damage will negatively affect the further development and fruiting of the tree. A healthy seedling should not have flaws, it should have developed roots, several full-fledged fruit buds.
Landing step by step
- The seedling is placed strictly vertically on the bottom of the pit, attached to the peg.
- The roots straighten on the bottom of the pit.
- The sapling is filled with the prepared nutrient substrate, tamping it down during the process. Plum root neck should be located 5 cm above the ground surface.
- After planting, immediately water the plant with two buckets of water.
Consider the main points of care for plum peach.
Peach plum needs abundant watering in the period of active growth and flowering (April-May), as well as during the ripening year (August-September).
Watering should be in moderation, without undue diligence, as waterlogging adversely affects the well-being of the plant. After watering, it is necessary to mulch the root circle with organic matter so that the moisture lingers longer at the roots.
In order for the peach plum to develop successfully and bear fruit, it must be fed regularly. The application of top dressing is carried out once a year in the fall: they feed the plum with manure and mineral fertilizers at the rate of 10 kg of top dressing per 1 m2.
You can not overfeed the plant, since this fact has a negative impact on the ability of the plum to tolerate winter frosts safely.
To begin to form a tree directly after planting, using the rare and long-tier scheme, which is widespread and very convenient for fruit trees.
Every year, the tree is cut in spring and autumn - so gradually the necessary shape is given to it, which contributes to better fruiting. In addition, sanitary pruning is carried out in the spring, when all the branches frozen over the winter, weak and damaged, are removed.
By the beginning of each summer, young growth of the plum is growing vigorously, which must be removed so that it does not take away the nourishment from the old fruiting shoots.
Protection against diseases, pests
Peach plum is prone to quite a lot of diseases and pests. Therefore, prophylactic spraying is usually carried out in advance so as not to lose the crop.
In February and November, they sprayed with Bordeaux mixture, which protects the plum from most fungal diseases. To protect the plant from marsupial disease, in the spring also spend spraying drug "Cineb."
If the plum has already been sung, to hit the asteroid or moniliosis, the diseased parts of the tree are cut out, and the cuttings must be burned so that the infection does not spread.
Since peach plum is a heat-loving variety, it needs shelter for the winter. Although many varieties are winter-hardy, but in order for the plant to survive the frost guaranteed, in the fall the radical circle is mulched with a layer of organic matter: peat, fallen leaves. It is better not to use sawdust as mulch, as in the spring the roots of the plant start to shed and can rot.
An adult tree is not covered from above, and a young tree can be protected from frost with sacking or agrofibre. It would be nice if from the north side the hedge, fence or building will cover the sink from the wind.
So, we learned what a peach plum is, got acquainted with the conditions of planting and growing this fruit tree. Although the plum is quite capricious, the taste and size of its fruits fully compensate for the efforts, surprising with its sweetness, size and universal application.
Peach Plum: description and characteristics of the variety, advantages and disadvantages, features of planting and care + photos and reviews
Peach Plum - not a frequent visitor to our gardens. Meanwhile, its large beautiful fruits, resembling a gentle peach in appearance, will certainly appeal to gardeners, especially in areas with a warm climate. The variety is not frost resistant, so it mainly grows in the south of Russia, in Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine, Armenia.
Peach Variety Plum Description
The variety has a long history. The first mention dates back to 1830. Bred in Western Europe and is known as Royal Rouge, Red Nectarine.
There is also a plum variety called Peach Michurin. Culture bore fruit in 1921 — almost 100 years after the time when Red Nectarine was first described in Europe. The Michurinsky variety is more winter-hardy, but less yielding.
Peach Plum Tree - Medium Height (4.5 m). Young seedlings are growing rapidly, by 5 years the process slows down. It is at this time that the plant enters fruiting season. The crown is moderately thickened, cone-shaped or rounded, in young trees it is compact, with time it becomes sprawling. The branches are thick, gray-brown, with an edge.
Peach plum fruits are large, round, weighing 50–70 g
The leaves are large, oval, with a blunt tip, jagged along the edges, slightly pubescent. Bloom later. Fruits tied on the bouquet branches.
Plums are large, weighing 50–70 g, round, slightly flattened. The groove is mild. The color of the fruit is yellow-green, one side has a red tint (sometimes the blush covers the whole fruit). The surface is covered with whitish subcutaneous points. Wax bluish color. The flesh is golden-yellow, sour-sweet, dense, aromatic. The stone is round-oval, it is easy to separate. Thanks to the dense skin, plums tolerate transportation.
In regions with a cool climate, the fruits become tart.
What seedlings to take
It is recommended to buy fruit trees in nurseries, where on each seedling there is a certificate indicating the variety and age. You can also get professional advice on planting and caring for a particular variety. It is better to purchase 1-2 year old seedlings. You should carefully examine the tree. It must be grafted - the vaccination site is slightly thickened and is located 5 cm from the root collar, bark without damage. In the spring buds should be greenish, slightly swollen.
If the buds are dry and dark brown, it means that the tree has frozen in winter.
The root system must be well developed, consist of a central root with many branches. If the seedlings are purchased in late autumn, they are instilled until spring. In a protected place of the garden, plants are laid in a groove at an inclination, almost horizontally, the roots and a third of the trunk are covered with earth. For protection from rodents, be sure to cover the spruce branches with needles upwards.
Late autumn seedlings purchased in the garden until spring
The variety does not have high frost resistance, so they plant it in spring, when the earth warms up, but the buds have not yet blossomed. When autumn planting plants do not always take root, it is better not to risk it. In the south of the country can be planted plum in early autumn. Plants with a closed root system are planted all season.
The variety grows well in the southern regions. In the suburbs, this plum often freezes.
Planting pits dug 60 cm deep, 90 cm wide, 3 m apart. The surface layer of the soil is mixed with peat (1 bucket), humus (1 bucket), superphosphate (500 g), potassium sulfate (45 g), ash. The liming of the acidic soil is carried out in advance, adding 500 grams of lime when digging.
- At the bottom of the hill milled part of the fertile land, add crushed egg shells.
Nutritious soil is poured at the bottom of the plum planting pit.
A sapling is installed in the center, the roots are distributed along the hillsides.
The roots of the seedling spread in different directions
Sapling watered with 2 buckets of water
After absorbing moisture, the soil is mulched with hay.
Pristvolny circle must mulch
Secrets of care
In order for the tree to be healthy and the harvest to be good, attention must be paid to care.
Immediately after spring planting, a 1-year-old seedling is pinned to the top, which stimulates the growth of lateral shoots. In 2-year-old plants when planting, branches are shortened by 1 3.
When autumn planting pruning is not done, it is transferred to the next spring.
Subsequently, before the bud break, crown formation is carried out. The most common form for plums - sparse-tiered. Choose 5-7 skeletal branches, located in 3 tiers. Usually these are strong shoots extending from the trunk at an angle of 40–50 ° and growing in different directions. The remaining branches are cut to the ring.
Rows should be located 50 cm: in the lower - three branches, in the second - two, in the upper - one. The center conductor is cut 20 cm above the branches. Annually remove damaged and frozen branches, as well as growing inside the crown.
Plum trees quickly appear, it should be completely cut off the ground.
The formation of a sparse-tiered crown contributes to good light and foliage airing.
A variety of pruning is the thinning of the fruit. Harvesting is carried out at the stage of greenfinches the size of a hazelnut, again - when the fruit is doubled. Plums remaining on the tree will be larger and sweeter.
Video: pruning seedlings
After planting, the seedlings are watered once a week for 2-3 buckets. Mature trees - 5-6 times per season for 4 buckets. Especially the plum needs moisture in the formation of ovaries and the ripening of fruits, the volume of water increases to 6-8 buckets. Before the onset of frost be sure to spend water-charging irrigation to ensure a good wintering.
When drought fruits become small, fall.
Water is introduced into the grooves around the periphery of the crown or using the sprinkling method. After watering the ground is mulched with straw.
Для полива сливы можно использовать дождевание
В первый год саженцы не удобряют, им хватает питательных веществ, заложенных в почву при посадке. Полезно раз в 10 дней опрыскивать деревца в безветренную погоду стимуляторами роста (Эпин-экстра, Идеал).
- На второй год посадки весной вносят мочевину (45 г10 л воды).
- При вступлении в период плодоношения перед цветением вносят карбамид (45 г10 л).
- When ripening fruits need nitrophoska (3 tbsp. L. 10 l).
- After harvesting, the tree is fed with potassium sulfate (30 g) and superphosphate (30 g), and in late autumn with rotted manure (1 bucket per tree). When feeding, the soil should be wet and loose.
The nuances of fertilizer:
- fertilizers are applied annually; for trees aged 15 years and older, the amount of organic matter is doubled,
- Nitrogen fertilizers are not used in the fall,
- useful before and after flowering fertilize organic plum plum: chicken droppings, mullein (20 kg). Under the tree, you can make 2 kg of ash,
- every 5 years, 500 g of lime, dolomite flour, chalk under digging are brought into acidic soils,
- in the aisle you can plant siderats - mustard, phacelia, winter rye. Mowed and embedded in the soil, they turn into fertilizers and can well replace manure,
- you can feed the plum, especially before tying the fruit, with a bread talker: pour water into a filled bucket filled with 3/4 bread crusts, add chicken droppings, ash and leave for 7 days. The resulting composition is diluted with water 1:10 and after watering make under the tree (8 liters per plant).
Plum is useful to feed herbal infusion
Fruit plums begin to 5-7 year of life. The yield of young trees is irregular, it is collected every year and by the age of 15 it is 50–70 kg per tree. A variety of early ripening. In the south, the fruits ripen in mid-July, in the middle lane - in early August.
Ripe plums are practically not showered.
Maturation goes stages. For transportation the crop is removed in case of incomplete ripeness. For consumption and processing they collect ripe fruits, which are stored for 2-3 weeks in the basement or in the refrigerator. Fresh plum is very tasty. From it you can also make compotes, juices, jam. Frozen plums are used for toppings in pies.
50–70 kg of fruits can be collected from a single peach plum tree
Peach Plum is valued for its spectacular appearance and great fruit taste, high yield and unpretentiousness in care. However, the variety is not frost resistant, so in the middle zone of the country the tree must be provided with shelter for the winter.
- The author: Galina Morgunova
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Plum Peach description with photos, reviews, cultivation, care
Peach Plum (Red Nectarine, Piano Rouge) is a unique creation of French breeders. The first mentions of this variety were recorded in 1830.
Beautiful, large, sweet and sour fruits attract the eye and can not leave anyone indifferent. The variety is not very common in the world and is found in southern Russia, Moldova, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Armenia.
Description varieties with photos
Early variety, winter hardy. The first fruiting plum of this variety comes after 6 years. Bloom later.
The fruits are located on the bouquet branches. The yield is not regular, is recruited every year and by the age of 15 is 50 kilograms.
The harvest of the Peach variety plum is removed from mid-July to early August. Fruits after ripening are practically not showered.
Fruit weight 50 grams (up to 70 grams). The shape is slightly flattened, round or ovoid-oval. Groove mild. The color of the plums is yellow-green, one side has a red tint (sometimes the blush covers the whole fruit). The surface of the fetus is covered with whitish subcutaneous points. Blue wax coating.
The flesh is golden-yellow, sweet-sour, dense, fragrant. In regions with a cool climate fruits have a bitter aftertaste. The stem is thin, short. The stone is round-oval, it is easy to separate. Peach variety plums easily carry transportation.
The tree is low, at a young age rapidly expanding. The krone is medium-centered and not thickened, back-pyramidal or rounded. The final form is acquired by a tree only in adulthood. The skeletal branches at the plum of this variety are thick.
The leaves are dark green, large, of medium thickness, pubescent, oval in shape, with a blunt tip, the edges have bicutralous serrations. The shoots are edged, thick, gray-brown. Petioles short, thick, with an edge, on each petiole there are spherical green glands.
Loves fertile soil. Suffering from lack of moisture.
Plum of this variety is thermophilic and without additional protection of the root part can die during severe winters.
Features of growing and care
For planting plum Peach, a bright, windless place is chosen. The place should be spacious. Lowland and a plot near the fence; Peach plum planting walls are not suitable. The soil should be fertile and moist, but not moist. Excess moisture is detrimental to the sink.
A pit is dug for planting, where 70 centimeters is the diameter of the pit and 50 centimeters is the depth. A meter stake is installed at the bottom of the tying pit, to which, after planting, the tree will be tied up.
A mixture is poured into the pit:
- from the ground
- 2 compost buckets
- 0.5 kilo ash
- 200 grams of superphosphate
When planting a seedling, it needs a little shake, it helps the soil to penetrate deep into the thick roots.
The root neck should be placed above the ground at a height of 5-6 centimeters.
After planting, the right care is needed behind the tree. Since this variety loves moisture, watering is done once a week. When the fruit ripens, the volume of water increases by 2 times.
Planted tree watered with 2 warm water buckets. The most abundant watering for the peach plum is required in May -June, when the fruit is flowering and forming, and in August-September, when the plum is ripening and the root growth is abundant.
After each irrigation, the soil is loosened, this procedure allows you to saturate the plum roots with oxygen.
Then the soil around the tree is covered with a layer of vegetable mulch from sawdust, straw, dry small grass.
For proper growth of the tree and a bountiful harvest, plum must receive a sufficient amount of mineral fertilizers. Top dressing is made in the fall. 10 square meters of mineral fertilizers are taken per square meter. 5 years after planting, the amount of fertilizer increases every year.
In the spring is the formation of the crown. Pruning begins 1 year after planting trees in the ground.
Peach variety is resistant to diseases, pests and competent care and preventive work allows you to grow a bountiful and healthy crop.
For pollination, the Renklod Altana, Hungarian varieties are planted nearby.
Plum of this variety has a universal purpose and its beautiful, fragrant and very tasty fruits, suitable for the preparation of liqueurs, blanks, fresh use and cooking various dishes.
Peach Plum I love in winter blanks. The jam is beautiful and fragrant. I learned about this sink many years ago from my neighbors when I moved to a new district. Planted Peach in her garden. Although I had to wait for the harvest for 6 years, I was pleased with the result and turned out to be just great.
I grow plums for sale and Peach grows in a place of honor. The plum of this variety has admirers, and every year in early August, a harvest is awaited, even more than me. The fruits are large, fragrant, tasty and very beautiful.