Magnolia is a tree with incredibly beautiful flowers that will decorate your garden, make it bright and expressive, filling it with alluring vanilla-lemon scent. And do not be afraid of her possible capriciousness: I will try to dispel all doubts and share the subtleties of growing and caring for magnolia.
Magnolia - a tree with incredibly beautiful flowers that will decorate your garden
The symbol of virginal purity in China, magnolia is in high esteem here as well. Her extraordinary beauty and intoxicating aroma has long been admired.
The unusual beauty and delightful aroma of magnolia has long been admired.
In the middle lane, it begins to bloom in April, when most of the trees are not even covered with leaves. Apparently, therefore, huge flowers cause surprise and delight. Although magnolia is appreciated not only for beauty. Essential oils are contained in its leaves, flowers, fruits, and even bark. — unique antiseptic for hypertension, rheumatism and diseases of the digestive system.
Magnolia (after the famous botanist P. Magnol) is one of the most prominent representatives of the Magnolia family, which numbers over 70 species. Its luxurious trees with a wide pyramidal or spherical crown can reach 5-8, or even 20 m in height. Depending on the variety, the flowers can be white, pink, purple, red and even lilac. However, only a few of 120 varieties can be grown in the middle lane (the rest are really capricious and simply will not survive our harsh winters): Magnolia kobus (Magnolia kobus), magnolia star (Magnolia stellata) and some of their hybrids. Later we will analyze them in more detail, but for now let's discuss the nuances of growing this amazing plant.
Before you start planting magnolia, you need to choose the seedling
Place for landing is determined in advance, given that the magnolia:
- prefers areas protected from winds and drafts,
- It does not tolerate heavily limed soils: in them the roots barely develop and may die. If the soil in your area is exactly like this, mix it with sour peat, it will lower the pH,
- grows poorly and on heavy, wet and sandy soils.
The best place for planting will be sunny, in the southern areas - a slightly shaded area with light fertile soil.
About landing dates Most gardeners agree that planting magnolia is better in the autumn, when young saplings are stunted, as if "hibernating." Autumn planting should be done in mid-late October, when there is no severe frost yet, and unbearable heat is no longer.
Regarding spring planting, opinions diverged. Some gardeners believe that young magnolia saplings, like most trees, can be planted in spring - in April. The latter insist that even small return frosts can inflict irreparable damage on trees that have already started to grow, after which rehabilitation will be long-lasting and most likely ineffective. To listen to such contradictory opinions or not is up to you. But consider whether the risk is justified: because a seedling correctly planted in the fall will almost 100% take root.
Choosing a place, we begin to prepare the landing hole. Please note that the size of the pit should be three times the volume of the root system of the seedling.
- After removing the required amount of soil, mix it with rotted compost.
- If the soil is too dense, add some sand.
- Having prepared the earthen mixture, we install the seedling in the planting pit, in no case undermining the root neck, and pour it into the mixture so that a small hole forms around the tree.
- Then slightly compacted ground in the hole and thoroughly watered.
- As soon as the water is absorbed into the soil, the near-barred circle is mulched with peat / sand or covered with coniferous bark.
How to grow magnolia from seed?
Magnolia seeds sow better immediately after picking berriesin the autumn, since it is rather difficult to keep them until spring. Since the seeds are covered with a very dense oily shell, they must first be scarified, that is, mechanically destroy the shell (file or prick). After scarification, the magnolia seeds are washed in a mild soap solution to remove the oily layer, and rinsed in clean water. Sowing the seeds to a depth of 3 cm in boxes with a universal substrate, they are removed in the cellar until spring. In early March, the seed boxes are moved to the windowsill, they are constantly monitored so that the substrate does not dry out, and they wait for the emergence of seedlings.
Growing young magnolia seedlings at first will not be very fast: in the first year of their life they will reach about 20-50 cm. Only after a year can the seedlings swoop down and plant on beds with light peat soil.
Propagation of magnolia by layering and cuttings (vegetatively)
Vegetative propagation of magnolia is better in the first years of life, so it will grow very quickly.
Magnolia is easily propagated by layering.
Magnolia breeds easily layering. For this spring it is enough to bend down, sprinkle with soil and pin a part of a low branch, and after 1-2 years powerful roots are formed on this branch. After the formation of roots, the layers are neatly separated from the mother plant and “relocated” to the nursery for rearing.
There is nothing difficult in magnolia breeding semi-woody cuttings, but the success of the experiment is guaranteed only if you have a greenhouse. Well, or its smaller version - a mini-greenhouse with a lower heated soil. Only in a mini-greenhouse you can regulate the temperature and humidity of the air, which is extremely important when multiplying magnolia in this way.
The best time for breeding magnolia cuttings - the end of JuneIt is at this time that it is actively growing. Cuttings are cut from young plants, 2-3 leaves are left in the upper part of each, and the lower part is treated with any root stimulator. Then they are planted in a container with a sandy substrate (pure sand or half mixed with perlite / peat), which must always remain moderately wet, cover with a lid and provide a temperature regime of +19. +22 ° C. Lower / higher temperatures and drying of the substrate will lead to the death of the cuttings. The cuttings of almost all magnolias begin to take root after about 7-8 weeks, with the exception of only the large-flowered magnolia cuttings, which take about 4 months to root. In the open ground rooted grown seedlings are planted only a year later.
Magnolia is rightly considered not particularly demanding in the care of the plant. But still some attention will be paid to her.
Magnolia is very demanding on soil moisture, especially in the first three years of life.
Magnolia is very demanding on soil moisture, especially in the first three years of life. Therefore, it is necessary to water it often enough and plentifully, and in extreme heat - to prevent the soil from drying out. Not only watering, but also mulching helps preserve moisture: it perfectly warms the roots (which is especially important in winter) and serves as a source of nutrients, at the same time improving the soil structure and significantly reducing its drying.
In spite of the fact that the magnolia cultivated by us (cobus, stellate and their hybrids) is winter-hardy, shelter will not prevent it. After all, even small return frosts can harm one-year shoots and flower buds. To avoid freezing, just wrap the trunks in 2 layers of sacking. But remember: it should be done very carefully, magnolia has very fragile branches! The tree trunk also needs shelter, only it must be covered in late autumn, after the soil freezes slightly: only in this way will they not be able to equip their homes with a mouse in the shelter.
If it was not possible to avoid a small frosting, and the tops of the branches did freeze, it is necessary to prune the branches to healthy wood, and cover the cut areas with garden pitch. In addition, it is necessary to cut off all damaged, dry and intersecting branches inside the crown. But formative pruning magnolia is not needed.
Fertilizers and fertilizing
Although magnolia is very responsive to fertilizing, it is not recommended to feed her in the first 2 years of life. But the three-year-old magnolia saplings already need additional nutrients, so fertilization will be very useful. Fertilizers need to be from early spring to late August. Nitrogen, which increases the tendency of the plant to freeze, can be used only until mid-July.
Fertilizer can be prepared by yourself using 20 grams of ammonium nitrate, 15 grams of urea and 1 kg of mullein, diluted in 10 liters of water. Fertilizer consumption under 1 tree is 40 liters.
You can use the solution and complete mineral fertilizer “Kemira-Universal”, for the preparation of which in a bucket of water I dissolve 1 tbsp. drug. There are also a number of fertilizers created specifically for feeding magnolia: for example, AGRECOL "For magnolia".
And remember: everything is good in moderation. This is also true for fertilizers, the surplus of which can only harm the plant. If an overdose does occur, which can be determined by old leaves drying at the end of July, try to remedy this with abundant weekly watering.
Rodents and moles can cause magnolia to cause irreparable harm. The former gnaw the root collar of the plant and its roots, and the latter undermine the roots. And if you find that the trunk is damaged, treat the wounds with a 1% base solution.
Rodents and moles can cause magnolia irreparable harm.
The spider mite can also do much harm, which is activated during drought. The pest feeds on the lower part of the leaves, completely sucking the juices from them, which leads to their death. How to cope with a spider mite using simple folk remedies, you can read in the article What are the folk remedies to combat spider mites and shield? and in the article Proven folk recipes for harmful insects.
Types and varieties of magnolia
Magnolia can be deciduous and evergreen. The first responds to changes in temperature only by changing the timing of flowering, and the second is not capable of withstanding great frosts, therefore it is cultivated in the middle zone only in greenhouses with a certain temperature regime.
Among the 120 varieties of magnolia, there are not too many winter-hardy and relatively winter-hardy varieties. So, to winter hardy varietieswhich can be grown without problems in the middle lane include:
- magnolia cobus (Magnolia kobus),
- star magnolia (Magnolia stellata),
- hybrid magnolia star and bus - Magnolia Lebner.
K relatively winter-hardy, in which only a part of flower buds will freeze in frost, garden forms Ash and Sulanja.
Magnolia Kobus (Magnolia kobus)
Magnolia trees of the Kobus variety reach 8–12 m in height and are distinguished by an unusual crown, which in the first years of life has a pyramidal shape, changing with a spherical shape with age.
Magnolia Kobus is rightly considered the most enduring and unassuming in the care of the variety, but it is extremely rarely cultivated here. And the thing is this: it takes about 30 years from the seedlings to the period until the tree pleases with its color. Although those who can wait will be rewarded a hundredfold: in addition to the fact that the magnolia of the Kobus variety is undemanding in its care, in April-May it will delight you with incredibly beautiful white flowers with a purple base. With the arrival of autumn, dark green leaves turn yellow-brown and fall only towards the middle of autumn.
More often the tree, less often - a bush, up to 5-6 m high, with spherical or oval crown, star-shaped magnolia in width reaches 4,5 and even 5 m. During flowering Magnolia stellata exudes a very pleasant, enveloping and lasting fragrance.
And magnolia stellate blooms before the rest - in March-April, after which the whole tree is covered with dark green leaves up to 7-10 cm long, which by the autumn become bronze-yellow.
Magnolia Lebner (Magnolia x loebneri)
Magnolia Lebner is a hybrid of magnolia cobus and stellate, which took the best from its parents: the stamina and beauty of the crown of the first and the enchanting scent of the second.
Magnolia Lebner - a tree with a rounded crown, reaching a height of 9 m. The fragrant flowers Magnolia x loebneri, white with a slightly pinkish tinge, bloom in April, and the green all summer leaves, like the magnolia star-shaped, turn yellow in autumn. bronze color.
Magnolia Xulange (Magnolia x soulangeana)
Most often in our markets Magnolia Sulange.
It is a 5-10-meter tree, in April-May covered with a solid carpet of fragrant pink-purple flowers with a diameter of 10-25 cm, which resemble tulips. The dark green leaves of Magnolia Sulange become dirty-yellow by autumn.
Magnolia Ash (Magnolia macrophylla ssp.ashei)
One of the most beautiful and hardy deciduous magnolias - Magnolia Ash - will delight you with rapid flowering already at 2-5 years of age.
Ash tree magnolia in height reaches 5 and sometimes 7 meters and almost never suffers from return frosts. And the thing is that it blooms much later than other species - in the middle, and sometimes closer to the end of May. In addition, flowering lasts much longer than that of early flowering. Huge white with a cream shade flowers reach a diameter of 25, and sometimes 30 cm, and the amazing leaves of a tropical species in length reach 50-70 cm.
In this article I tried to uncover all the secrets of growing magnolia. But maybe for some of you they are not at all news, and the magnolia has long been growing in your garden? Share your impressions of growing this miracle tree, I will be very grateful to you for this, because there is nothing more valuable than your own experience!
Varieties and types
Magnolia Kobus tolerates frosts, which is a huge plus in our area. It reaches a height of 10-12 m. At the beginning of its growth it has a crown in the shape of a pyramid, which eventually becomes spherical. Until the end of summer, the foliage has a dark green color, which with the onset of autumn turns into a yellow-brown shade. Fall foliage occurs closer to the middle of autumn.
Growing this variety is considered quite difficult, for the simple reason that from the time of planting the seedlings (or seedlings), until the first flowering can take about 30 years.
Star magnolia - presented as a shrub or as a tree, 4-6 m high and 4-5 m wide, with spherical or oval crown shape. Flowering begins in March or April and is accompanied by a persistent pleasant aroma. Foliage, 6-10 cm long, has a dark green color that, closer to the autumn, takes on bronze-yellow shades.
Magnolia Lebner - This is a hybrid of the two previous species, which combines a beautiful crown and a sweet, delicate aroma. The tree reaches a height of 8-9 m and has a round crown. White flowers with a light pink tint bloom closer to April. Bright green leaves, only in autumn they change their color to bronze yellow.
Magnolia Sulange - The most popular and most often used species for growing in harsh climatic conditions (cold winters). The tree grows to a height of 6-10 meters. Flowering occurs closer to the month of May, when the entire tree is covered with unusually colorful, delicate, purple-pink flowers. With the onset of autumn, the dark green foliage begins to turn yellow.
Magnolia Ash - very resistant to frost species, which first begins its flowering as early as 2-4 year of life. This majestic beauty rises to a height of 5-7 meters. It blooms closer to the month of May, and therefore does not suffer from frost, which can suddenly descend in April.
Less winter hardy varieties and magnolia species
Magnolia bare - this species is common in central and southern regions of China. Flowering magnolia bare is one of the favorite plants of the Chinese. This is a tall bush or tree reaching a height of ten to fifteen meters. The flowers are white, slightly creamy, cup-shaped, up to fifteen centimeters in diameter. The winter period tolerates normal, freezing was not observed.
Magnolia lilium color - grows in the central and western regions of China. There, this blooming magnolia is found in wet lowlands along mountain rivers. Magnolia liliacevet grows a large shrub or low tree.
Flowering occurs from May to July, flowers narrowish-shaped. Which are directed upwards and are not widely disclosed. The flower has six petals - inside is white, and outside is raspberry-purple. In the harsh winter frosting of annual shoots was observed. This magnolia is best planted in places protected from the northern winds and with moderate humidity.
Magnolia is obovate - grows in Japan and is found in the Far East of Russia, in the Kuril Islands. In nature, flowering magnolia - is a tree reaching up to thirty meters. She has very large leaves, reaching one meter. During the period of growing frost damage is not detected. This magnolia prefers partial shade and rather wet soil.
Magnolia of Kyuvenskaya — гибрид магнолии иволистной и магнолии кобус. Растёт магнолия кьювенская деревом. Цветки около десяти сантиметров диаметром, колокольчатые, белые с приятным запахом. Цветение происходить в период апреля мая до распускания листьев. All parts of the plant smell like anise. It is quite winter-hardy and fast-growing species.
Magnolia planting and care in the open field
The landing site should be protected from drafts and strong winds, be in a sunny, slightly shaded area in the afternoon. The soil should not contain limestone. If it is still present, you can lower the pH by adding a little sour peat.
Young saplings are planted in the fall, this period is favorable because there is no longer a strong heat, and there is still time before the frosts. As for the spring planting, there is a high probability of unexpected frost that will result in the death of the seedling.
The pit for planting should be three times the root system of the seedling. Mix the ground from this pit with the compost, and if the ground is too dense, you can dilute it with sand. Putting a young tree in the hole, not below the level of the root collar, we fall asleep on top of the prepared mixture. Then lightly trample down (so that the tree does not fall under its own weight) and thoroughly moisten. After the water is absorbed, the area around the tree is mulched with peat.
Watering the most important item in the care of magnolia, especially for young specimens (from one to three years of age). Soil moistening should be abundant and frequent, and on dry days it should also not allow the soil to dry out.
Mulching will help to retain moisture in the soil after watering. In addition, mulch also protects the roots in the winter from freezing.
Young trees (up to 2 years) do not need additional feeding. But the three-year-olds can be fed. Fertilizers are made only in the period from the beginning of spring until the beginning of autumn.
You can use ready-made complexes of mineral fertilizers, where the dosage is indicated on the package, or you can prepare it yourself: dilute ammonium nitrate (20 g), urea (15 g) and mullein (1 kg) in 10 liters of water. Considering that about 40 l of liquid are spent on one tree. Fertilizers are applied once a month, instead of the usual, planned watering.
There are cases that there is enough fertilizer in the soil and the addition of additional additives can lead to an excess of. This can be determined by the fact that the leaves began to dry ahead of time (for example, in the month of July). You can try to remedy the situation by stopping feeding and increasing the dose of weekly watering.
Magnolia in winter
Despite the fact that the considered types of magnolia are winter-hardy, shelter for the winter will not be superfluous. For example, you can wind young shoots and already appeared buds with sacking, in case there is a high probability of frost returning. This should be done with extreme caution, as the branches are rather fragile.
Preparing for wintering is carried out in late autumn, and consists in sheltering the base of the trunk, the part that is closer to the ground. At the same time using all the tighter burlap. The main condition is that it is necessary to wait until the earth freezes a little, only after that you can start to shelter. And all because otherwise in this shelter can create their own housing mouse.
Magnolia from seeds at home
Considering that it is rather difficult to preserve seeds, they are sown immediately after harvest - in the fall. Since the seeds have a fairly hard oily shell, a scarification procedure will be required - the destruction of the shell by puncture.
Then they are washed in a weak solution of soapy water, which allows you to get rid of the oily layer, and then rinse in clean water. Now you can sow to a depth of no more than 2-3 cm in boxes for seedlings using a universal substrate, and put them in a cellar or a dark, cool room before spring, when they need to be put on the windowsill, and periodically moistened to prevent drying out.
The first year of life seedlings grow very slowly, so they begin to dive only a year later, when they reach a height of 40-45 cm, after which they can already be planted in open ground in light soil with peat. Do not forget that it is best to land in the fall.
Magnolia breeding cuttings
It is carried out only in greenhouse conditions where the lower heating of the soil is guaranteed, otherwise the cutting will not take root. It is best to choose a time for this type of breeding at the end of June. Cut the cuttings in such a way that each has 2-3 leaflets, process the slice by any means stimulating rooting.
Bury the twigs in a container with sand, with the addition of peat. Constantly monitor the moisture content of the mixture. Cover with a can or cut bottle on top and ensure the air temperature is between 18-22 ° C.
Rooting in this method is observed in two months, the only exception is varieties with large flowers, they rooting occurs no earlier than four months. But in open ground planted only after a year.
Diseases and pests
Various rodents and moles can harm the root system of a tree, some gnaw at the root neck and roots, and the second tear down the root system. If you notice that the tree has been attacked, then you should immediately treat the damaged areas with 1% solution of foundationol.
Another pest is a spider mite, which settles on the lower part of the leaf and feeds on its juice. As a result leaf begins to fade and dry.
There are folk methods of dealing with this parasite: it is necessary to prepare an infusion of 40-50 g of dry leaves (stalks) of tobacco by pouring them with a liter of boiling water. Before use, dilute this solution with another liter of water.
Choosing a place
The right choice of landing site is fully determined by the success of growing magnolia.
The main requirements for the location of the plant are as follows.
- Protection from wind and drafts, especially in the early years.
- Good lighting throughout the day. The southern or southeastern parts of the garden are optimal, but it is important to consider that an excess of sunlight stimulates the plant to early blooming of leaf buds at the expense of flowering. Experts recommend using the existing planting of tall trees - in their light midday shadow magnolia will feel great.
The neighborhood with large trees is especially important for regions with a continental climate: the shade will slightly delay flowering, which will protect delicate buds from spring frosts (the frost itself is not terrible for magnolia).
Magnolia beauty places certain demands on the soil:
- lightness, friability,
- no stagnation of thawed and rainwater, deep occurrence of groundwater,
- slightly acidic or neutral reaction (in its natural form, star-shaped magnolia grows in swamps).
The most practical method of planting magnolias is a sapling purchased in a nursery or grown from a cutting or cutting. Growing from seed is of interest to professionals - the process is laborious, the first flowers on the tree will appear only after 10 years.
Seedlings are selected according to the following criteria:
- height is about 1 m,
- placed in a container or there is an earthen room,
- lack of foliage.
The optimal time for planting is autumn, and not at all because autumn seedlings sell at a lower price. Container seedlings during spring transplantation emit a large number of shoots that do not have time to mature and woody before the onset of cold weather. In the fall, seedlings go on sale in full readiness for winter.
The size of the landing pit should be 2 or 3 times the volume of the container or earth coma. The excavated soil is used as a basis for preparing a soil mixture, to which is added pulverized compost and peat (2: 1: 1), if necessary, a little sand.
The thickness of the drainage layer, laid out on the bottom of the pit, is not less than 20 cm. For the drainage take broken brick, expanded clay or crushed stone, pebbles of unknown rocks.
A 15-centimeter layer of river sand is poured over the drainage and a layer of prepared soil mixture is placed on it.
The transfer from the container is carried out by the method of transshipment. The seedling is placed in the center of the planting pit, carefully straighten the roots. The root neck should be 3-5 cm higher than the ground level.
The pit is filled with soil mixture. Ram very carefully, not hard, so as not to damage the delicate roots.
After planting, the plant is abundantly watered. When all moisture is absorbed, the near-stem circle is mulched with peat. From above spread a layer of bark of coniferous trees. A double layer of mulch will retain moisture in the soil, make it difficult to germinate weeds, maintain the required level of acidity.
Description of the species
The plant is a shrub that sheds leaves for the winter and has a spreading crown with a height and width of up to 3 m. In nature, it can be found on the sphagnum swamps of the Japanese island of Honshu. Due to its small size, compared with other species, the Magnolia Star is suitable for growing in small, even very small gardens. This fact made her very popular in Europe.
The bush does not grow very quickly - over the year shoots add about 15 cm. The leaves are large, fleshy, oblong-oval, with glitter. The main difference of the Star-like magnolia is flowering before other species.
Flowers consist of 15-40 petals, have a very pleasant aroma. In appearance, they resemble a star, for which magnolia and got the appropriate name. Bloom before the appearance of the leaves, in April. This period lasts at least three weeks.
Attention! Since varieties of this species bloom very early, delicate buds can be damaged by severe frosts.
Star of Magnolia is a reddish shade and looks like a cucumber.
How to plant a magnolia
Planting magnolias grown in containers should be planted in late autumn for two reasons:
- Planting container plants in the ground in the spring is accompanied by rapid growth. As a result, a lot of shoots are formed, which by the winter do not have time to woody. This can lead to their freezing, which will significantly weaken the bush. When planting in late autumn, you can choose a magnolia already prepared for winter, which will guarantee a good development of buds in spring.
- Magnolia saplings are quite expensive, and in autumn they can be purchased at a discount.
The place for planting magnolias should be sunny, but due to the abundance of heat leaves can bloom early. Ideally - planting under the crown of a tall tree, giving a light shade in the midday hours. When choosing a place, be sure to take into account that the bush grows strongly with age.
Since, in nature, the magnolia stellate grows in sphagnum swamps, it prefers acidic soil. Some gardeners use acidic sulfur, citric and orthophosphoric acids, and electrolyte from a car battery to acidify it.
Council In order to maintain the soil pH level required for a magnolia, it is recommended to constantly mulch the root zone with crushed pine bark, which can be harvested in the nearest forest.
When planting in the pit, it is desirable to add peat. Deepen the sapling is not worth it. It should be noted that even after container planting, when the roots are injured minimally, abundant flowering can be waited only in a year.
Magnolias are considered to be very unpretentious plants, but to obtain abundant flowering, some nuances are still worth observing.
- Weed control. Magnolia roots are very sensitive to damage and are practically on the surface. Therefore, it is not recommended to loosen the ground and chop the weeds around the plant. In this case, they are better to pull hands.
- Feeding. Magnolia is resistant to pests and diseases, but on alkaline soil it can be affected by chlorosis (iron deficiency). To prevent this, it is necessary to periodically, once a week, conduct foliar fertilizing with iron chelate mixed with acidic mineral fertilizers.
- Watering. Magnolia does not tolerate dry soil, so when the soil dries out, they need to be watered abundantly. In addition, the whole season you should try to mulch the soil around the plant with grass, sawdust, etc.
- Crop. The star magnolia does not need pruning. Only periodic removal of dried and unnecessary branches growing inside the bush is required.
- Preparing for the winter. For all magnolias, frost is not as terrible as winter thaws, during which buds can begin to bloom. With a cold snap following, they may die. In late autumn, namely, before the ground freezes, the root zone of the shrub needs to be covered with a thick (30-40 cm) layer of mulch.
Council As a shelter for magnolia for the winter, you can use plants cut in the garden: peonies, perennial asters, etc.
If the plant is young, then it should be completely covered with a double layer of agrofibre, thick fabric or burlap.
Popular Varieties of Magnolia Star
- Royal Star. Shrub up to 3 m. In spring, it is covered with delicate, pure white flowers, the petals of which are arranged in two rows. This variety is considered to be more frost resistant than the wild form and tolerates a drop in temperature to -30 ° C.
- Rosea The spherical crown of this shrub reaches a height of 2 m. The flowers are large, fragrant. They consist of 10-20 delicate pink petals. Winter hardiness varieties is the same as that of the wild ancestor.
- Dr. Massey. Differs in more long and plentiful blossoming. The height of the crown is up to 2.5 m. The variety is characterized by pink-colored buds, which after blooming turn pure white. The flowers are fragrant, semi-double. It tolerates winter.
- Jane platt. It is considered one of the most beautiful varieties of Star Magnolia. Pink flowers with a large number of petals, arranged in 3-4 rows, reach a diameter of 20 cm. Winter resistance is good.
Star magnolia: care and cultivation
Magnolia star (lat. Stellata) - a native of the Japanese island of Honshu. The plant belongs to flowering shrubs with pronounced decorative qualities.
Magnificent, magnificent flowering, unusual crown and foliage - the reason for the continued popularity of the plant. Flowering begins at 5-6 year of life of the plant.
Popular varieties of magnolia stellate
- Royal Star. Magnolia reaches a three-meter height. Abundant flowering. Flowers with white petals grow in two rows. The variety is frost-resistant, able to withstand a thirty-degree cold.
- Rosea. The height of the shrub reaches two meters. The flowers are large with a pleasant aroma and lots of pale pink petals. Frost resistance is low.
- Dr. Massey. The height of the shrub is about 2.5 meters.Flowering lasts longer than other magnolia varieties. Pink buds after blooming acquire a bright white color. The flowers emit a strong aroma, the petals of the flowers are semi-double. Frost-resistant
- Jane platt. The variety is luxurious, large flowers up to 20 cm in diameter. Rose petals are located in 3-4 rows. Frost-resistant
Lighting and temperature. Lighting for magnolia is an important factor in harmonious growth and flowering. The best location for the plant is the southern or southeastern parts of the garden. The place should be sunny with a little penumbra and protection from the wind.
Subtropical temperatures are optimal for shrubs. High adaptive abilities help the plant to adapt to a temperate climate. The bushes do not tolerate the summer heat.
Humidity and watering. Ideal humidity for magnolia should be from 55 to 65%. The conditions of a moderate climatic zone do not allow maintaining the moisture index at this level.
In any case, if the plant is planted in open ground, and not a greenhouse, such humidity is difficult to arrange.
Fortunately, the adaptive abilities of the magnolia are very high, which allows the bush to survive in a more severe climate than the climatic conditions of the motherland. Shrub not tolerate prolonged lack of rain. In the hot, dry period, the plant needs regular watering.
Soil and fertilizer. The magnolia is stellate - rather capricious plant, especially young bushes. The soil for magnolia should be:
- loose, with good water transmission
- having a slightly acid or neutral reaction.
For fertilizing using universal mineral fertilizers. Fertilizers are applied once a month or every other month for the first five years of the plant’s life. Feeding in low concentration is made by watering. If the soil is alkaline, it is necessary to monitor the iron content in the soil. Iron deficiency can lead to chlorosis. It is necessary to feed the plants with fertilizers containing iron chelate.
Pruning. Star magnolia pruning is not needed. Periodically recommended removal of wilted, non-viable shoots.
Preparing for the winter. Before the onset of frost and freezing of the earth, the area around the shrub is covered with a 40 cm layer of mulch. The young bush is covered completely with agrofibre, burlap or just thick cloth. Magnolias suffer not only from frosts, but also from thaws. During the thaw in the winter season, the plant may begin to disperse buds and die during further cooling.
Landing. The best place to plant a magnolia is a sunny spot under the crown of a tall tree, which gives a light shade during the daytime hours. Too open place for ultraviolet can cause earlier swelling of the kidneys.
Planting plants from containers into the ground is recommended in the fall or spring. Autumn is the preferred time for planting. Although the spring and summer period the young plant grows quickly, new shoots do not have time to woody and may not suffer the winter cold.
В посадочную ямку добавляют перегной, перемешанный с песком. Обязателен дренажный слой, который можно создать из крупной щебёнки и керамзита. Магнолия чувствительна к застою влаги. При посадке необходимо учитывать, что куст магнолии каждый год прибавляет в росте, занимая всё больше места.
Breeding. Magnolia propagation is carried out in several ways:
- layering and cuttings,
Seed propagation rarely used. This is due to the fact that this breeding option is a time consuming process, and plants grown from seeds begin to bloom only in the tenth year of life. In order to grow a magnolia from a seed it is necessary:
- in the fall to gather seeds after ripening
- fill the seeds with water for 3 days,
- remove the oily sheath by wiping the seeds through a sieve,
- use a soap solution to wash the seeds, then rinse several times in clean water,
- seeds sown in boxes with universal soil and put in a cool place, such as a cellar, until spring,
- in the first week of March, the seed tanks are transferred to a room with a temperature of +20 degrees Celsius until the first entrances appear,
- seedlings can be planted in the ground only after a year.
The first year the seedlings grow very slowly, the first leaves appear in the middle of summer. Active growth is observed in the fall.
Propagation by cuttings and layering (vegetative method). The method gives better results compared with the seed method and less time consuming compared with the inoculation method. Reproduction by layings is carried out as follows:
- in the spring they sprinkle earth on one of the lower branches,
- they are waiting for roots for a year or two,
- After the roots have appeared, the plant is transplanted for rearing.
The cutting is carried out in the middle of July. The cuttings are taken from young bushes, in the upper part 2-3 leaves should remain. Cut the cuttings treated with a special root solution.
The cuttings are planted in a container with sand, tightened with a film or covered with a lid. The containers should be located in a greenhouse with a temperature regime of + 19–22 degrees Celsius and a humidity of 65%. The root system begins to develop after 2 months. Planting in open ground is recommended in a year. It is possible to conduct grafting directly into open ground. In this case, it is necessary to arrange a shelter for the plant in order for the cutting to survive at low temperatures.
Reproduction vaccinations. The method of propagation by grafts leads to an increase in the rate of growth, an earlier fruiting, greater plant endurance. Magnolia is planted in the first weeks of spring in a greenhouse or in the open field. Use methods: improved copulation, vpriklad, lateral clearance.
Pests and diseases
Magnolia stellate less prone to disease. In the temperate zone of Russia there are no specific pests and infections that could damage the plant. Most often shrubs threaten non-communicable diseases associated, for example, with the freezing of the ground parts of the plant.
The most crucial time in the care of magnolia is the time until the first flowering. If the magnolia bush has blossomed, it means that the plant has adapted and has enough strength for further harmonious development.
Magnolia star is different fragile, exquisite beauty. Arrangement of magnolia planting and care is not easy, but if you create the necessary conditions, the shrub will delight the owner with luxurious blooms and delicate aroma every spring.
Abundant flowering and frost resistance of magnolia fully depend on the correct care - watering, making supplements and other activities.
Watering needs frequent and abundant (especially young shrubs). In hot weather, carefully monitor the soil moisture, preventing it from drying out.
Top dressing will be needed from 3 years old. Bring them from early spring to mid-August.
The optimal composition of the feed on 10 liters of water:
- ammonium nitrate - 20 g,
- urea - 15 g,
- Mullein - 1 kg.
Each tree requires 40 liters of liquid feeding.
You can use ready-made fertilizers like “Kemira-Universal” (1 tablespoon per 10 liters of water) or special formulations for magnolias.
Magnolia does not tolerate an overdose of fertilizers, reacting to their excess by drying leaves. If this happens, the situation is corrected with abundant watering every week.
Nitrogen-containing dressings are removed from the “diet” from the second half of July.
With insufficiently acidic soil, weekly dressing with iron chelates is recommended. For dressing select compounds containing substances that increase the acidity of the soil.
Tillage in near-ground soil is carried out only when absolutely necessary. Weeds are removed by hand, so as not to damage the delicate roots, located on the very surface of the earth. Looseness of the soil is maintained by maintaining the integrity of the mulch layer, its regular updating.
Forming pruning magnolia is not needed in most cases. But the healthy state of the tree is maintained by timely removal of dried and broken shoots throughout the season. In the spring, be sure to cut frozen sticks, slices covered with garden pitch.
Full shelter for the winter is required for young bushes. To do this, use sackcloth or agoforvolokno folded in two layers. The tree carefully, trying not to damage the brittle twigs, wrapped with a cloth.
Both young and adult plants require warming of the root area. In late autumn, it is covered with a thick (up to 30 cm) layer of mulch. The purpose of the shelter is not so much to protect the magnolia from the cold as to prevent the early formation of flower buds during thaws, followed by return frosts.
Magnolia disease is not affected. From pests in dry hot weather, it can become the target of a spider mite attack. In this case, industrial insecticides are used (“Aktellik”, “Fitoverm”, “Agravertin”) or use folk remedies.
The best remedy against spider mites - compliance with the regime of humidity.
Magnolias often suffer from rodents, which leave damage in the area of the root collar. Moles break through passages under the roots, harming them. It is necessary to apply deterring methods. Damaged places on the trunk are treated with a 1% solution of "Fundazol".
The described rules for growing stellate magnolia are fully applicable to other frost-resistant species.
- Ziebold Magnolia tolerates frost to -36 ° C, blooms in the beginning of summer with white goblet flowers. Perfectly shows its decorative qualities in raw St. Petersburg and in the Far East.
- Magnolia Sulanzha - a hybrid shrub derived from m. Naked and m. Lily-shaped. Goblet flowers bloom up to 25 cm in diameter, the color depends on the variety - from pale pink to saturated terracotta. Grown almost all of Russia.
- Magnolia Kobus - the fastest growing species. Milky-white fragrant flowers up to 10 cm in size open in early spring. It differs from its sisters by tolerance to urban gas pollution.
Growing a magnolia stellate is not a burden. Planting and care rules are clear and easy to follow. The reward for work is magnificent flowering at a time when the garden is not fully awake after hibernation.
Magnolia is a deciduous shrub or tree. The bark is smooth grayish-ash or brown, may be scaly or furrowed. The height of such a plant can vary from 5 to 20 meters. On the surface of its stems are well distinguishable large scars from leaf plates, as well as narrow scars of annular shape from stipules. Kidneys are relatively large. Large leathery whole-leafy plates of greenish-emerald color have a slight pubescence on the seamy surface, and also, as a rule, elliptical or obovate. Fragrant solitary bimepole flowers can be axial or terminal, their diameter is about 6–35 centimeters, and color: cream, red, purple, white, pink or lilac. The composition of the flower includes from 6 to 12 wax elongated petals that overlap each other tiled. These petals are arranged in 1 or several rows. As a rule, magnolia blooms at the very beginning of the spring period, however there are species that bloom in the first summer weeks. This plant blooms so beautifully that every gardener would certainly like to decorate his own garden with them.
The fruit is a collective leaflet of a cone-shaped form, which consists of a large number of two-seeded leaflets. Black seeds have a triangular shape and red or pink fleshy prisymannik. When the leaflets are opened, the seeds hang on the seed threads.
Both shrubs and magnolia trees are very decorative plants. It looks most impressive in the springtime. A blooming magnolia is a most beautiful sight that every person who has ever seen it at least once could not forget. However, magnolia is a valuable plant not only because of its beauty. The fact is that in its fruits, flowers and foliage are essential oils that have a powerful antiseptic effect, they are used for hypertension, rheumatism and various diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
What time to plant
You can grow magnolia is not in every region. When choosing a place for planting it should be borne in mind that this plant is very light-requiring. Choose a well-lit area away from tall trees and provide the plant with good protection from the east and north winds. In a small shade to grow magnolia can only be in the southern regions. The soil on the plot should not be too saline or calcareous, and excessively wet, sandy or heavy soil should not be suitable. The best suited organically weak acid or neutral soil. When purchasing material for planting, it should be remembered that the seedling height should be about 100 centimeters, it should have 1 or 2 buds. It is very good if the seedling has a closed root system, it will completely eliminate its drying out. Magnolia sapling with a closed root system can be transplanted into open soil in spring, summer and autumn.
Most experts advise planting magnolia trees in open soil in autumn in the second half of October. At this time, the sapling is already at rest. According to statistics, almost 100 percent of the seedlings planted in the fall take root. In spring, planting of a seedling in the garden is carried out in April, however, it should be remembered that even small night frosts cause significant damage to the trees that were adopted.
Pruning magnolias in order to form the crown is not produced. Sanitary pruning is carried out only after the plant has faded. In this case, you need to cut out all the victims of the winter frosts and dry branches, as well as those that thicken the crown, do not forget to remove the faded flowers. Places of fresh cuts should be smeared with garden pitch. Pruning in the spring does not produce, the fact is that such a plant has a very intensive sap flow, and the resulting wounds can lead to his death.
Ripening occurs in September. Collect the seed heads and lay them on a sheet of paper. Then the seeds are shaken out and immersed in a container with water, there they should stay from 2 to 3 days. Then they are rubbed through a sieve, so you can remove the seedlings. Next, the seeds are washed in a soap solution, which removes oily deposits from them, and then they are thoroughly rinsed in clean running water. Seeds need to be stratified before sowing. To do this, they are folded in a bag of polyethylene, which must be filled with moistened sphagnum or sand (1: 4). Pack the package on the middle shelf of the refrigerator for at least 20 days.
Stratified seeds should be removed from the refrigerator, put them for a while in a solution of a fungicide for disinfection. Then the seeds are laid in moistened moss and wait until they are nested. If done correctly, the sprouts will give more than half of the seeds. If, however, to neglect stratification, there will be not so many shoots.
Make a groove with a depth of 20 mm and lay in it the seeds that need to fall asleep with a centimeter layer of substrate. This plant has a pivotal root system, so for planting it is necessary to take a high container, the depth of which will be not less than 0.3 m. Transplantation into open ground is carried out after the threat of return frost remains behind, while the seedlings must be gently transshipped in the holes. For wintering, young bushes should be “covered” with dry peat.
For harvesting cuttings, you need to choose young plants, while you have time to cut them before blooming. It is best if the lower part of the cutting is woody, and the upper part is green. The cuttings are planted in the last days of June, or the first - in July, for this they use a greenhouse, since it can maintain the necessary temperature and humidity of the air and the soil. Planting cuttings produced in the sand or a mixture consisting of peat, vermiculite, sand and perlite. The air temperature in the greenhouse should be kept at around 20-24 degrees, in this case, the cuttings will be able to take root within 5-7 weeks. If the cutting is taken from a large-flowered magnolia, then it should be noted that rooting can take 2 times longer. Try to keep the air temperature within the recommended range. The fact is that if it is cooler, the rooting of the cuttings will slow down significantly, and the temperature in excess of 26 degrees can destroy the plant. While the cuttings are in the greenhouse, do not forget to air it systematically, and also make sure that the soil in it is a little damp all the time.
How to propagate by layering
Reproduction by layering is suitable only for shrub magnolias. In spring, you need to choose a branch that grows very close to the surface of the soil. At the base you need to pull the copper soft wire, then bend the branch to the ground and fixed in this position. In that place where the branch adjoins to the soil, it needs to be sprinkled with soil so that the small hillock turned out. In order to approximate the moment of appearance of the roots, it is necessary in the place where the branch touches the ground, make an annular incision on it.
For breeding and sometimes use air layouts. In the last spring or first summer weeks, it is necessary to select a branch and make a circular cut of bark on it, the width of which should be from 20 to 30 mm. Cutting must be done carefully so as not to injure the wood. Next, the section is processed with Heteroauxin, and then the wound is covered with moistened moss and wrapped with cling film, which needs to be fixed below and above the point of the cut. After that, this branch is tied to adjacent branches, which will allow to avoid its injury due to strong gusts of wind. Moss should be a bit wet all the time. To do this several times a month it is necessary to “inject” water through a syringe. Roots should appear after 8-12 weeks. In the autumn, the cuttings should be detached from the parent plant, and grow it in room conditions.
How to care after flowering
Magnolia blooms in spring or early summer. Magnolia, covered with flowers, is the queen among the garden trees. After the plant has faded, it will be necessary to prune it for sanitary purposes. To do this, cut off all the withered flowers, as well as the branches and stems injured and frost-damaged, as well as those that grow inside the crown. The colorless magnolia is also very decorative, as it has beautiful leathery sheet plates.
Preparing the plant for the winter should be done in late autumn. The shelter should be good and reliable, because even if you grow a winter-resistant type of magnolia, it can freeze slightly, especially if the winter is windy and snowless. To exclude freezing of the plant, its trunk should be wrapped with a sacking cloth in 2 layers, while at the same time try to prevent delicate branches from being injured. After the first frost, the surface of the circle of the circle should be mulched.
Siebold Magnolia (Magnolia sieboldii)
The height of such a deciduous tree is about 10 meters. However, most often this species is represented by shrubs. The sheet plates have a broadly elliptical shape, and in length they reach 15 centimeters. On a thin pubescent peduncle there is a slightly drooping fragrant white cupped flower. Flowers in diameter can reach 7-10 centimeters. This species is one of the most winter-resistant, it is able to transfer short frosts to minus 36 degrees. Cultivated since 1865
Magnolia obovata (Magnolia obovata), or white-colored magnolia
This species comes from Japan and from the island of Kunashir, which is located on the Kuril Islands. The height of this deciduous tree is about 15 meters. Color smooth bark gray. At the ends of the stems are collected leaf plates of 8-10 pieces. The diameter of the spectacular white-cream flowers is about 16 centimeters, they stand out because they have a spicy scent. The length of the saturated red fruit is about 20 centimeters. Such a plant looks spectacular all year round, it is shade-tolerant and frost-resistant, but it is demanding on the level of humidity of the air and soil. Cultivated since 1865
Magnolia officinalis (Magnolia officinalis)
Homeland of this type is China. Это растение считается аналогом магнолии лекарственной, однако его листовые пластины более крупные. Большие душистые цветки внешне схожи с водяными лилиями, однако они имеют более узкие лепестки, заостряющиеся к вершине. На родине данный вид применяют в качестве целебного растения, а в средних широтах его можно повстречать крайне редко.
Магнолия заостренная (Magnolia acuminata), или магнолия огуречная
Родом такое растение из центральной части Северной Америке. Under natural conditions, it prefers to grow in deciduous forests at the mountain foot, as well as along the rocky shores of mountain rivers. This deciduous tree in height can reach about 30 meters. The young plant has a pyramidal crown shape, but it gradually becomes rounded. Elliptical or oval sheet plates in length reach 24 centimeters. Their front side is painted dark green, and the back is painted greenish gray, with short pubescence on its surface. The diameter of the bell-shaped flowers is about 8 centimeters, they are painted in greenish-yellow color, in some cases on the surface there is a gray patina. This type is the most frost-resistant of all. Such a species has a shape with rounded or cordiform at the base of the leaf plates. Canary-colored flowers are not as large as in the main species. In the USA, specialists received hybrid magnolias by crossing a magnolia-lily magnum and a pointed magnolia, they are united under the name of the Brooklyn magnolia.
Magnolia lilia color (Magnolia liliflora)
This type is very popular among gardeners. Presumably the birthplace of such a plant is eastern China, in Europe it turned out to be in 1790. The flowering is magnificent, The diameter of the flowers with a subtle scent is about 11 centimeters, the shape of which is very similar to the lily. Their inner surface is white, and the outer one is purple. The decorative form of this type of Nigra (Nigre) deserves special attention: the outer surface of its flowers is red and ruby, and the inner one is lilac-white, flowering begins in the last days of April or the first - in May.
Magnolia Kobus (Magnolia kobus)
The homeland of this plant is South Korea, as well as central and northern Japan. It came to New York in 1862, and from there it was brought to Europe in 1879. Under natural conditions, the height of a tree may be 25 meters, but in culture it does not exceed 10 meters. The broad leafy plates of obovate form have a pointed apex. Their front surface is saturated green, and the purl is colored a paler shade. The diameter of the fragrant white flowers is about 10 centimeters. The first flowering of such magnolia can be seen only when it turns 9-12 years old. This type of frost, dust and gas resistant. The northern form is a plant with larger flowers, which is even more frost-resistant.
Originally from southeast North America. Slender barrel has a cylindrical shape. Crohn has a very spectacular form. The color of the large glossy sheet plates is dark green. The diameter of white flowers is about 25 centimeters, they have a sharp spicy smell. The fruits are also highly decorative, they are very bright and have a cone-like shape. While the plant is young, it is characterized by slow growth, for example, the annual increment is only 0.6 m. It has low winter hardiness and is able to withstand frosts not lower than minus 15 degrees. This species grows well in the conditions of the city, it is durable and highly resistant to pests and diseases. Main decorative forms:
- Narrow-leaved. Sheet plates are narrower than the main view.
- Lanceolate. The form of foliage is elongated.
- Famous. The leaf plates are very wide, and the diameter of the flowers is about 0.35 m.
- Round leaf. The sheet plates are painted in a very dark green shade. The diameter of the flowers is about 15 centimeters.
- Early. Flowering begins earlier compared with the main form.
- Exon. This tall tree has a crown shape narrow-pyramidal. The sheet plates are oblong and have pubescence on the bottom surface.
- Praterty. The shape of the crown is strictly pyramidal.
- Hartvis. The shape of the crown is pyramidal, wavy foliage.
- Dragon's. Krone lowered very low. Arched branches touch the ground and quickly take root.
- Gallison. It has a greater frost resistance compared to the main view.
Magnolia Sulange (Magnolia x Soulangeana)
This hybrid was born in 1820 thanks to the Frenchman E. Sulange, who was a scientist. At the moment, there are more than 50 forms of such a hybrid, and all of them are very popular in almost every country. The height of such a deciduous shrub or tree does not exceed 5 meters. The length of obovate leaf plates is about 15 centimeters. The diameter of the goblet-shaped flowers can vary from 15 to 25 centimeters, they are fragrant, and in some cases they have completely no smell. They can be colored in various shades from purple to light pink. A plant with white flowers can be seen very rarely. This magnolia is resistant to the adverse effects of the environment and is not demanding on the composition of the soil. The most popular garden forms:
- Lenne. The inner surface of the fragrant flowers is white, and the outer one is purple-pink.
- Alexandrina. Magnolia is about 8 meters high, it is resistant to drought. The outer surface of the flowers is dark purple and the inner is white.
- Rubra (red). The outer surface of the flowers is red-pink.
- Nemettsa. The shape of the crown is pyramidal.
Also, this hybrid has a large number of varieties.
In addition to the above-described species, gardeners cultivate the magnolia of a wolfberry, large-leaved, Lebner, nude, trekhlepestnuyu, or umbrella, etc.