Any summer resident wants to grow and gather strong, healthy vegetables, fruits and fruits, but the conditions in the garden beds are far from ideal. Copper sulfate, the use of which has long been proven effective in horticulture, is one of the most well-known fungicides that counteract pathogenic fungi.
The experience of using copper sulfate in horticulture and horticulture is more than a century. During this time, other chemically active compounds have appeared, but copper sulfate is in demand today. Thanks to copper, this compound not only protects plants from dangerous diseases, but also has a beneficial effect on crop quality.
Precautions when using copper sulfate in horticulture
Mindless use of copper sulfate can lead to accumulation of copper in the fertile soil layer and water, burns and damage to the tissues of the plants to be treated, as well as undesirable consequences for human health.
Therefore, it is important to adhere to:
- dosage of copper sulphate recommended for spraying trees in spring,
- terms of processing of those or other garden crops,
- safety measures when working with chemicals, that is, use personal protective equipment.
Before working with the bluestone gardener need to take care of the presence of glasses, a respirator or cotton-gauze dressing, gloves, work clothes and easy-to-clean shoes. The solution is prepared in a separate container that does not have contact with food and drinking water.
During the treatment of trees with copper sulfate in the spring or with other ways of using the fungicide, it is monitored so that there are no unprotected people and animals nearby. To eliminate the dangerous evaporation of a chemical, it is used at air temperatures below +30 ° C.
Terms of processing garden copper sulphate
The effectiveness of treatment with copper compounds depends on the following instructions, the choice of dosage and the correct period of use. When to spray trees with bluestone in spring, summer or autumn?
Copper sulphate solution is an active chemical liquid with a drying and even burning effect. Spraying it on the leaves and young shoots will not only protect against fungi, but will also damage the plants. In addition, copper sulfate acts only on disputes, without affecting the overgrown mycelium. Therefore, copper sulphate is an excellent preventive measure and medicine for garden plantings at the first signs of damage.
The drug should be used for prevention. This is facilitated by the processing of the garden with copper sulphate in early spring, when the leaves on the trees and shrubs have not yet developed, or in the fall, after their abscission.
At the same time, pristvolny circles are irrigated with copper sulphate, which helps to get rid of spores of fungi that accumulate in the surface layer of the soil and with wind or water droplets transferred to plants.
On green leaves, copper sulphate and preparations based on it are used carefully for treatment and prophylaxis, until spores from the affected cultures spread to healthy plants.
Ways of use of copper sulfate in gardening
Instructions for the use of copper sulfate in horticulture describes the drug as a crystalline powder of blue or blue color, which, with a long stay in the air, becomes less intense, but returns if the copper sulfate, dissolving, comes in contact with moisture.
The most widely used tool is:
- affordable, effective antiseptic,
- fungicide for the previous planting preparation of tubers, seeds, processing of trees and shrubs,
- preparation for improving the quality of soil with a low concentration of humus and copper deficiency.
On soils with a high content of sand, on peat bogs and other areas where plants suffer from copper deficiency, the preparation in powder form can be applied in early spring and before winter.
Copper sulphate is consumed at the rate of 1 gram per square meter, pre-mixed with a small amount of substrate. On cultivated soils, a means, in order to avoid accumulation of copper, is introduced at intervals of 4–5 years, in parallel with a crop rotation.
The use of copper sulphate in spring gardening is not limited to powder. The soil is disinfected using a solution in a concentration of 5 grams of product per 10 liters of water. This measure helps to protect annual crops from Fusarium, various types of rot, black leg.
At the height of the growing season, that is, in mid-summer, if the plants show signs of chlorosis and growth inhibition, the soil under them is watered weak, about 1 gram of copper sulphate per 10 liters of water, with a solution.
High concentration. 100 grams per 10 liters of water, copper sulfate defeats the causative agents of moniliosis, scab, blast, anthracnose and powdery mildew, coccomycosis, wilting and a number of spots. The active fluid perfectly disinfects damaged areas on the trunks of fruit and ornamental crops. In this case, the scope of use of copper sulfate in horticulture covers:
- stone fruits, including plums and cherries, apricots, thorns, cherries and peaches,
- pears and apple trees
- fruit bushes, for example, all varieties of currants, raspberries and gooseberries,
In late autumn, a solution of 50 grams of copper sulphate in 10 liters of water is sprayed with roses. Seedlings are disinfected by immersing the root system in liquid once. The same procedure, but twice weaker solution, is subjected to seedlings of garden strawberries and other green plants, and the chemical activity of the liquid is reduced by the addition of additional components.
Before you breed copper sulphate for its use in gardening, you need to take care of a sufficient amount of funds.
The average consumption of mature trees is 10 liters. Dwarf, young specimens and tall bushes require up to 2 liters, and 1.5 liter of liquid goes to ordinary bushes. During the processing of the plants, it is ensured that the solution does not fall only on the visible parts of the trunks and branches.
Description and chemical composition of the drug
This inorganic chemical compound is also called five-water copper sulfate. When the dosage is observed, the agrochemical has a beneficial effect on plant organisms. If you use it in large quantities, you can cause serious harm not only to plantings, but also to human health.
The composition is toxic, belongs to the 4th class of danger. If the substance accidentally gets inside, irritation of the mucous membranes occurs. It can also penetrate through the skin into the body during the reverse absorption of sweat. If the powder turns out to be on food, the likelihood of food poisoning, and with a fatal outcome, is high.
The chemical compound on the market is represented in the form of a blue powder or triclide transparent crystals of bright blue color, containing 24% copper. Among the physical properties inherent in this drug contact action, emit:
- metallic taste
- high degree of absorption
- no smell
- the ability to quickly dissolve in alcohol, water, and in solutions of sulfuric acid with a high concentration.
In addition, the substance decomposes at a temperature of 100-250 degrees and is weathered in air. 35 ml of liquid with a concentration of 5% is a serious threat to human health - this is a lethal dose.
Copper sulphate is produced under industrial conditions as a consequence of a chemical reaction. Due to the high absorbability of the substance, upon absorption of the liquid, copper sulfate pentahydrate forms crystals. The chemical formula is CuSO4 5H2O, in which the connection of one salt molecule with five water molecules is noted.
The shelf life of copper sulfate is 2 years. But you need to store it in a dry place. If, because of the humidity, he got into lumps, before using them, it is enough to dissolve them with warm water. The shelf life of the working solution can vary from 3 months to 1 year.
Use and application in gardening
Copper sulphate is actively used to treat many diseases of fruit trees, vegetable and ornamental crops, and grapes. For processing plants it is convenient to use a special device - an atomizer. Apply vitriol in horticulture to combat late blight, rot, mildew, scab, phyllogistic disease, antroxnosis, shrinkage, curl, black cancer, and powdery mildew.
The drug shows its effectiveness against pests: moths, scythos, suckling, tick, caterpillar, raspberry beetle, gall midge, tsvetoeda, glass. For each type of treatment requires its own concentration: for roses, it should be a 1% solution of copper sulfate.
In order for the treatment of stands to be as effective as possible, it should be carried out twice, keeping the interval between the procedures at 3 weeks.
In the autumn, activities are held after the foliage has completely subsided, and in spring - before bud break. It is not recommended to use the drug more often, because it accumulates in the soil and will further inhibit the growth and development of plants.
In case of excessive norm of copper in the earth and tissues of plantings, the probability of disturbance of biological equilibrium is high, which can provoke negative consequences not only for the future harvest, but also for human health. The optimal indicator of the content of a chemical substance in the soil is 2-3 g per 10 sq. M. m
This agrochemical shows good results as a top dressing. Copper sulphate is often used as one of the active ingredients in such well-known mixtures as:
- Bordeaux (copper sulphate and quicklime),
- Burgundy (copper sulphate with soda),
- Cupronaft, which requires competently applying this fertilizer.
If you compare the Bordeaux liquid with a mixture of sodium bicarbonate and copper sulfate, the latter has a low degree of efficiency and can cause burns on the leaves of plants, and besides it sticks poorly.
Use in spring
It is recommended to spray wood of fruit trees and bushes with a 1% working solution prepared at the rate of 10 g of the preparation per 1 l of water. Treat plants with copper sulfate need to the first leaves. Irrigation is carried out at a temperature of +5 degrees.
For processing the roots of seedlings before planting use a 1% mixture. First, the roots are immersed in a container with a working solution for 1 minute, then washed under running water or, for lack thereof, soaked in three waters for 2-3 minutes each. To speed up the germination of seeds of cucumbers, tomatoes and other crops, they are kept in a 2% mixture. The same solution is used for spraying potato tubers from late blight.
The grapes are processed in 3 steps: before the formation of buds, before the flowering phase and after it ends. To do this, dilute the blue vitriol (300 g) and quicklime (300 g) in 10 liters of water. Spraying is carried out from the root and ends with the tip. To protect the strawberries from powdery mildew, scab and rot use a mixture of copper sulfate and lime (1: 1).
The soil is disinfected no more than 1 time in 4-5 years. Disinfection is done a month before sowing, using a 2-5% solution. Consumption rate per 1 square. m is 10 liters of working fluid. In the spring, vitriol processing is carried out with a composition of 1% before the formation of the first ovaries. This technique will protect them from damage by fungus, mold and rot.
Use in summer
In the garden and horticulture applied copper sulphate to protect plantings from various pests. In the summer, processing is carried out at the stage of the formation of the fruit. For these purposes, use:
- Working solution 0.5-1% when spraying apple, apricot and pear. Such processing can destroy the colonies of small insects - aphids.
- Liquid 1-2% save fruit trees from the onslaught of the May beetle.
- A similar dosage will be required to preserve shrubs (raspberries, currants) from spotting on leaves and aphids.
- For irrigation of grape bushes prepare a working solution of 2-5 g of funds and 10 liters of water. Due to the effects of copper sulfate, foliage will not fall prematurely, it will also become a reliable barrier against the development of putrefactive processes, anthracnose and many other diseases. Repeat the procedure after 3 weeks.
It is allowed to sprinkle horticultural crops 2-3 weeks before picking up the fruit.
As a fertilizer, copper sulphate is used mainly on poor soils, where there is a lack of nutrients, as well as on sandstones, peatlands. The drug is used at the rate of 1 g per 1 sq. Km. m
Use in the fall
Gardeners and gardeners contribute agrochemical to prepare plants and soil for winter. The dosage for each type of procedure is different:
- For spraying vines, it is necessary to dilute 5% of the working fluid and to process the vine after the foliage has fallen. Copper sulfate also has a positive effect when transplanting this culture. To do this, its roots are immersed in a container with a 1% solution and incubated for several minutes.
- Upon completion of the collection of strawberries bushes should be treated with a solution prepared from 3 g of the drug and 10 liters of water.
- How to cultivate the land before planting, so it should be done after harvesting, scattering copper sulfate at the rate of 1 g per 1 sq. Km. m
- Before shelter for the winter of rose bushes should be spraying 3% of the composition.
Tillage with copper sulphate allows to produce high-quality disinfection and destroy harmful insects in the soil.
Harm to man
This aggressive chemical compound can cause blindness if it gets into the eyes if handled carelessly. The products of its burning are also of great danger, despite the fact that copper sulphide belongs to highly inflammable substances. In the process of heating, the formation of toxic gases, which provoke poisoning. If you do not know what is the harm to the human body from copper sulphate, you can significantly deteriorate health, and in 30 ml is fatal.
What is bluestone in gardening?
The landowner is constantly faced with difficulties that arise due to poor ecology, frosts, drought or too wet weather in summer.
Climate changes that occur very quickly, adversely affect the general condition of the trees. Plant immunity is reduced, and they become susceptible to infection by pathogenic fungi or harmful insects. Experienced gardeners know that in order to maintain the garden in a fruitful and healthy state, you need to constantly monitor the trees and in time produce chemical treatment of plants. The most famous and affordable tool for processing the garden - copper sulphate.
I was able to get rid of ARTHROSIS AND OSTEOCHONDROSIS PER MONTH! Operations are not needed. Read more here.
The use of this tool can bring great benefits to plants in the garden. If copper is contained in sufficient quantities in the soil and in the plant itself, then its resistance to virus infection increases significantly.
Plants grown on peaty, sandy soil that does not contain black soil, suffer the most from a lack of copper.
Tip! It is recommended to process garden trees and shrubs with copper sulphate solution twice a year: in spring and autumn. It is best to perform the procedure in a warm period when there are no leaves on the branches.
In the autumn period, the treatment is carried out after the trees lose foliage, and in spring, when the buds are just beginning to swell. The use of copper sulfate solution is often not desirable, since copper accumulated in the soil in large quantities can be an obstacle to the growth and development of trees and shrubs.
A large amount of this chemical element contained in the soil and plant tissues can cause disruption of biological equilibrium, which can then harm mature fruits and affect human health.
Important! On 10 square meters of land, the maximum value of the copper content of 2-3 grams.
Copper sulfate is an integral part of known processing mixtures, for example:
- "Burgundian liquid",
- Bordeaux mixture.
It is necessary to carefully monitor the application of these fertilizers.
Types of solutions depending on the concentration
- Burnout solutions. The content of copper sulphate in the composition of such a solution is about 3-5%. For its preparation it is necessary to dissolve 300-500 grams of crystalline powder in 10 liters of water. Use the mixture obtained in extreme cases to eliminate mold in the construction or disinfection of the land. The soil treated with this solution is not recommended for growing for at least a year.
- Therapeutic and prophylactic solutions. The volume of copper sulphate used for the preparation of therapeutic and prophylactic solution is 0.5-1% of the total mass. It consists of a mixture of 50-100 grams of copper sulphate dissolved in 10 liters of water. The solution is used to combat diseases caused by fungus or transferred pests, as well as to protect wounds and cuts through which the tree can become infected with microbes.
- Solutions for fertilizer and fertilizing. В растворах для удобрения, которое используется для подкормки деревьев и кустарников, содержание меди около 0,02-0,03%. Для изготовления такой смеси потребуется растворить 2-3 гр. медного купороса в 10 л воды.
Как разводить состав?
Изготовление смеси с медным купоросом для обработки садовых растений происходит в два этапа:
- Manufacturing stock solution using copper sulfate. For the preparation of the mother liquor from copper sulphate, it is necessary to take the container, which later will not be used as a dish for food. In 1 liter of water must be dissolved 100 g of copper sulfate. Water for the preparation of the mixture using warm, about 50-60 degrees, for better dissolution of the powder. The mixture should be stirred to obtain a homogeneous composition. The resulting 10% solution is not suitable for use in gardening. Uterine mixture before use must be diluted with water to a concentration of copper sulfate - 1 or 1.5%.
- Dilution of the stock solution to obtain the required concentration. It is best to dilute the mother liquor in one container, in which, in addition to the mixture, water of 7–9 liters is added Garden plants are recommended to process the resulting solution from a spray or spray manually.
Watch the video! How to dissolve copper sulfate
Application in spring
Trees and shrubs are best treated with the composition in the spring. Since plants need a maximum copper content during the flowering period, it is at this time that metabolic processes in plant tissues are at the peak of activity.
Copper sulfate treatment in spring is much more efficient than in the fall, as trees and shrubs can absorb a large number of trace elements before fruiting. Do not spray the flowers, leaves and fruits of plants, because they can cause burns, which causes a solution of copper sulfate. For humans and animals, the composition can be dangerous, since it contains a small percentage of sulfuric acid.
Recommendation! It is best to alternate garden processing by applying copper sulphate solution and other chemicals that contain iron sulphate.
Treating trees and shrubs with a mixture containing copper sulphate is sprinkling the branches and soil under the plant. The preparation of the solution is best carried out immediately before spraying, since the copper sulphate crystallizes quickly in cold water. The most effective is the treatment of healthy plants that are not yet infected with fungus.
Less commonly, a solution of copper sulphate is used to fertilize the soil and pickle fungi before planting vegetables. It is recommended to carry out such processing before planting onions, carrots, garlic, radish and other vegetable crops.
Summer residents use copper sulphate solution with a concentration of 0.2% for spraying potato tubers before planting. This procedure can significantly reduce the risk of late blight.
After spraying a solution of copper sulfate on potato tubers, the quality of the crop is significantly improved - the sugar and starch content increase. Tomatoes and potatoes are the two most susceptible cultures of the fungus, so sprinkling with a mixture of copper sulfate, for these vegetables, is a must. The areas where these vegetables are planted should be changed to prevent the accumulation of copper in the soil.
Experienced gardeners soak the seeds in a solution of copper sulphate before planting to protect them from diseases and to accelerate the emergence of the first shoots. Among experts there is an opinion that such procedures can be dangerous to human health, as copper does not have time to be removed from the plant and dissolve in the ground.
How to use copper sulfate depending on the type of plant and disease
- Spraying of stone trees (plum, apricot, cherry, cherry plum, cherry, peach), as well as pears, apples, quince is made with a treatment-and-prophylactic solution with a 1% concentration of copper vitriol. One tree requires from 2 to 5 liters of water. The treatment should be carried out in order to prevent and prevent the occurrence of such diseases: spotting, coccomycosis, fruit rot, fidlostikoz, klyastersporoz, drying out,
- Shrubs with berries: gooseberry,currant, barberry - susceptible to the occurrence of anthracnose and septoria. Plants are treated with a therapeutic and prophylactic solution with a concentration of 0.5%. On one bush requires 1.5 liters of the mixture,
- Roses and barberries - ornamental plants. These species are prone to powdery mildew, rust and black spot. For spraying these species, a therapeutic and prophylactic solution with a concentration of 0.5% is used. 1 bush will need about 1.5 liters of solution,
- For disinfection of the roots of seedlings of fruit and berry crops, subject to the appearance of powdery mildew, anthracnose and root rot, a therapeutic and prophylactic solution with a 1% concentration is used. It is recommended to soak the roots in containers with a solution for 3-5 minutes, and then rinse with water,
- Mustache strawberries prone to the spread of powdery mildew, immersed in a solution with a concentration of 0.02-0.03%, after three minutes they must be washed with plain water,
- Vegetable seeds, which can become a victim of fungi that hibernate in the soil, are soaked in a warm solution with a concentration of 0.02-0.03% for 10 hours. After the procedure, the seeds must be washed with plain water.
- For processing Luke and garlic from Fusarium, also used a solution with a concentration of 0.03-0.05%, in which the bulbs are soaked for 2 hours.
Useful! The main signs of a lack of copper in young plants are twisting foliage, chlorosis, a large number of bushes without shoots. Trees and shrubs are treated with a solution with a concentration of 0.02-0.03%. 2-3 liters of solution are required per plant.
Consumption depending on the age of the tree
- For processing wood, which is not more than 3 years old, it is best to use no more than 2 liters of solution,
- If the tree was planted 3-4 years ago, then the solution consumption per 1 unit is 3 liters,
- For trees that grow in the garden for about 4-6 years, you need 4 liters of composition,
- For the treatment of trees older than 6 years, 5 liters of copper sulfate solution are used.
Danger to humans
Important! A dose of copper sulfate 30-50 ml is deadly to humans.
The substance can be absorbed when the sweat is reabsorbed, therefore during processing it is necessary to use personal protective equipment. It is necessary to avoid getting the solution on the mucous membrane or in the esophagus.
Chemical contact with eyes causes blindness. The substance is not flammable, but its products of combustion are very dangerous for human life. The gas that is released when copper sulphate is heated causes severe poisoning. Copper sulfate has a fungicidal action by which effective removal of mold is carried out.
How to apply in summer and autumn?
In the summer should not be processed with a solution of copper sulfate. At high temperatures, above 30 degrees, spraying is also not recommended. This method of treatment is used only in emergency cases, when the seedlings appear pronounced signs of a lack of magnesium:
- low growth rate
- dying off of the upper shoots.
In the summer months, tomatoes are infected with gray and white rot, potatoes - late blight, and cabbage - black leg. You can determine the presence of the disease by the following features:
- cabbage - the appearance of black rot,
- Tomatoes have a small amount of flowers and shoots.
It is in such situations that the solution of copper sulfate, having a concentration of 0.2%, is necessary for saving the crop.
It is necessary to carry out the procedure of treatment with copper sulphate solution no later than a month before the collection of the first ripe fruits.
In the autumn period, treatment with copper sulfate is carried out after the trees have completely dropped the leaves, while the air temperature remains above zero. These conditions must be observed to avoid chemical burns.
Treating trees and shrubs in the fall completely eliminates insects and fungi. You should also spray the land on which the leaves are dropped. Because it is there that many pests form a place for wintering.
Copper sulfate is an effective means to combat diseases and pests of garden and vegetable crops. The main thing to use means according to the instruction and to adhere to all safety rules.
Watch the video! Copper sulfate application, properties, dosage
Copper sulphate: application in gardening in spring
Science has proven that the above means perfectly fights fungal formations and all sorts of diseases. To do this, spray the above-ground part of the plant, or place the culture in the solution before planting. In addition, with the help of a substance a late autumn processing is carried out after the final foliage discharge. At the vegetative stage, vitriol destroys putrefactive processes, insect pests, and diseases represented by spots on the foliage and stems.
It is important to consider one feature: the treatment can be carried out twice per season with a pause of 20 days. It is necessary to have time to carry out the event three weeks before the harvest.
As for spring processing works, they are started after a significant increase in the average daily temperature, for example, when the average mark reaches 5 degrees. During this period, many garden crops begin to move away from winter, but the pests that live in them are still asleep. Before you begin spraying, need to get rid of all the garbage, including:
- fallen leaves
- frozen branches,
- and the old bark.
The first procedure is carried out before the period of development of the kidneys. This is due to the fact that in such a part of the plants there are often leaf weevil larvae that can damage the leaves even before they are born.
Repeat the action begin after the appearance of the kidneys, but before the blooming of flowers. At this stage, it is necessary to reduce the concentration of the solution in order not to harm fragile flowers and fruits.
In the summer The level of minerals and beneficial microorganisms in the soil is growing rapidly. And along with it, indicators of fertility and growth of grown crops. However, if summer is very hot, and precipitation is rare, long exposure to ultraviolet radiation leads to the destruction of the soil and the destruction of many beneficial bacteria. Also, the decomposition of trace elements and minerals, which is extremely dangerous. If you do not solve the problem, the lack of water and burning sun rays will begin to kill green spaces. A similar effect is observed during the summer treatment of plants with vitriol; therefore, it cannot be used during this period.
Even a small dose of a substance can destroy the cultivated crop, while irreparable damage will be caused to the substrate, since its fertility will be very low for several years. In order to prevent this kind of consequences, it is necessary to exclude this tool from summer fertilizers.
In addition to spraying the soil and young shoots in the spring, gardeners practice and autumn processing copper sulphate. Its purpose is to reliably protect the soil composition and plants from harmful insects that can winter in fallen leaves or tree bark. The procedure can be started only after the final collection of leaves, otherwise its effectiveness will be low.
However, you need to have time to carry out a two-time processing of trees and soil for three weeks before the first frost. The solution provides a quick coating of the trunk and the surrounding soil with a small film that guarantees complete protection against pests. In addition, it retains heat until the snow falls, preventing the culture from freezing. At the same time, the plant continues to breathe, receiving a flow of fresh air.
How to dissolve copper sulfate
Many beginning gardeners often face the question: "How to breed a copper sulphate?". Fortunately, nowadays it is easy to find detailed instructions and guidance on this issue. It is enough to visit any gardening resource or forum with real feedback and recommendations.
- So, first you need to take two separate vessels. The first one contains our solution, which is thoroughly mixed with water, taking into account the proportion of 1 part of the substance to 50 parts of the liquid. It is necessary to dilute it before dissolving,
- In another vessel is placed 1 part of hydrated lime, which is re-poured into the first vessel and thoroughly stirred. The result is a highly effective mixture for processing garden crops, which must be applied in 5 hours. Otherwise, flakes of different sizes are formed in the solution, due to which it cannot normally flow through the atomizer.
In most cases, the following recipe is used for gardening: 100 grams of vitriol, 100 grams of hydrated lime, and 5 liters of water. All this is thoroughly mixed and poured into the device for spraying.
What are the mixture based on the solution
Bordeaux mixture includes 100 grams of vitriol, 100-150 grams of hydrated lime and 10 liters of water. All these ingredients are thoroughly mixed and prepared for use. Do not forget that you need to use a ready-made solution within the next five hours.
With the help of a dry Bordeaux mixture, the soil is cultivated around the cultivated crop. Recall the tool consists of 1 part of vitriol and a similar amount of hydrated lime.
Also on the basis of copper sulphate can make Burgundy liquid, with which they carry out an important spraying of the kidneys. Such a solution is prepared from 100 grams of vitriol, 100 grams of soda ash and ten liters of water. Spraying of crops is started during the first three hours. After this time, the solution loses its effectiveness.
If we are talking about the mixture for whitewashing plantsthen it is made from two kilograms of hydrated lime, 400-500 grams of vitriol, 1 kilogram of rich clay and ten liters of water. It is important to have time to whiten the plants before the first snow, choose a quiet windless day. Often, cow dung in the amount of 1-2 shovels per bucket of whitewash is added to the composition. This solution will protect the trees from insects.
The optimal dosage means
- If you intend to spray rose bushes, then the optimal dosage will be 10 liters of solution per 100 square meters,
- When processing currants and gooseberries adhere to a dosage of 1-1.5 liters per bush,
- Garden fruit crops, including cherries, cherries, peaches, apricots and others, are treated with 2-10 liters per tree, taking into account its individual characteristics, namely age and size.
Do not forget that the processing of copper sulfate will be successful in those cases if it is performed in sunny weather with the complete absence of wind. Otherwise, poisonous fumes can poison the body and harm living organisms. Experts recommend starting work in the early morning or late evening. It is important that before this, for 5 hours there was no precipitation, even slight. The solution for whitewashing served in rubber gloves, because contact with the skin is extremely undesirable. Also, the use of a protective face mask that will protect the eyes, nose and throat mucosa from unforeseen penetration of the substances used will not prevent.
Most gardeners and farmers when searching for suitable tools for processing garden trees prefer a more gentle Bordeaux or Burgundian mix. It is known that such solutions act gently, reducing the risk of burns on leaves and other outer parts of plants. In addition, some people use only copper sulphate without other additives.
In this case, it is necessary to prepare a 1% solution of copper sulfate, dissolving 0.1 kilogram of crystals in boiling water, after which the working volume should be brought to 10 liters with cold water.
The first treatment is started in early spring.at the stage of development of the kidneys. Here it is necessary to take into account such factors as air temperature. It is important that it does not fall below five degrees Celsius. With proper care, spraying will be a good solution for destroying larval colonies in the bark that can tolerate the coldest winters.
If we talk about protecting tomatoes from phytophlorosis fungus, then experienced gardeners use a 0.5% solution of copper sulfate in a proportion of 50 grams per 10 liters of water. After that, the finished working mixture is placed under the root. One plant has about 5 liters of solution.
As for tillage in spring and autumn, such an action effectively gets rid of the painful spores causing the development of various infections and fungi, including:
- late blight,
- powdery mildew
- white and radical rot,
Before you begin work, the ground should be carefully dug, cleared from weeds, leaves and dirt. Then prepare a 10-liter solution and dilute it completely with lime. At this stage, 3-5 grams of copper sulfate, a small amount of warm water, and then about 5 liters of cold water should be poured into one container. Slaked lime is carefully diluted in another container, after which it is filtered. In the future, it remains only to carefully pour the solution of copper sulphate into the lime solution, carefully stirring it.
When processing is applied about 10 liters of solution per square meter.
Tilling the soil need to follow several rules и соблюдать следующие меры безопасности:
- нельзя проводить обработку в местах с обильной листвой и другим садовым мусором. Перед действием нужно тщательно очистить участок от подобных загрязнений,
- при выполнении работ нужно избегать контакта с детьми или домашними животными,
- the procedure can be started in the early morning or late evening in calm weather, at a temperature of 5-25 degrees Celsius and the absence of precipitation,
- in the course of processing works it is necessary to use protective equipment, including clothes, points and gloves,
- then you should wash your hands with antibacterial soap and rinse your mouth,
- in no case can the remains of the solution be poured into a river, lake or other body of water,
- during the flowering period, the processing is not necessary,
- apply the solution, or mixtures based on it can be once every five years. If you do not follow this rule, the soil will lose fertility and become unsuitable for further cultivation of crops,
- treatment is started before the onset of winter, after the foliage is discharged, or after the snow has melted, before budding,
- you can only spray trunks, bushes and soil. Flowers and fruits are not amenable to such an impact, otherwise the plant can poison itself and die,
- the ready solution keeps its working properties for 4-5 hours.
How to prepare a solution of blue vitriol
When preparing the working fluid, it is recommended to use a glass or enameled container, since copper sulphate instantly reacts with the metal. In order for the solution to be effective, you need to know how to dilute the copper sulfate. He does not prepare in advance, otherwise the useful properties are lost. Dissolve the blue crystals better in warm water.
First you need to dilute the agrochemical in a small amount of liquid, and then bring it to a specific concentration (1% or 3%). To prepare a working 1% solution, 100 g of the product should be dissolved in 10 l of water. Before use, it should be passed through a filter cloth. In order to avoid burns on the leaves, freshly sour lime is added to the copper sulphate, and a Bordeaux mixture is obtained.
Copper sulphate (300 g), lime (400 g) and water (10 l) are used for the 3% composition. And for a 1% liquid, you need to take 100 g of copper sulfate, 100 g of lime and 10 liters of water. Processing should be done immediately.
The process of preparation of the Burgundian liquid has the same principles as when breeding Bordeaux mixture. For example, to make a 1% solution, you need a copper sulfate (100 g) dissolved in water (5 l). Dissolve soda ash (40-50 g) and water (5 l) in a separate container. Then combine the two mixtures in the same plastic container.
For spraying trees prepare a working solution using boiling water (over 50 degrees). At this temperature, copper crystals dissolve faster and better. The used container should not be thin-walled, otherwise it may be damaged due to the strong electrolytic properties of the agrochemical. It is more expedient to activate copper sulphate in a water bath. If the liquid remains, it is stored in a glass container up to 1 year in a dark place.
The concentration of solutions
For the disinfection of the land needed 3-5% liquid. It is also used in construction for the destruction of mold and fungus. After processing, plant crops on such soil only next year. A solution of 0.5-1% (a bucket of water and 50-100 g of the product) is used for therapeutic and prophylactic purposes. They are sprayed with fruit trees, shrubs, grapes and other plants from fungal infections and pests.
The working composition of 0.02-0.03% shows its effectiveness as a nutrient mixture for horticultural plants. To do this, dilute copper sulfate in the amount of 2-3 g in 10 l of water.
Rules for working with the drug
When using copper sulfate, be sure to wear closed clothing and use additional protective equipment (gloves, goggles, respirator). When spraying plantings, children and animals should not be near.
Capacity in which the composition was prepared, for security purposes is not recommended for storage of food.
Instructions for use
In the garden and in the garden sulphate of copper should be used in calm and dry weather. Procedures should be carried out before the blooming of flower ovaries. The remedy starts 2 hours after treatment, and the duration of protection is 2 weeks.
Copper sulfate is not recommended to combine with other drugs for the treatment of plantations. When preparing it, it is important to thoroughly stir the agrochemical in 5 liters of water so that it is completely dissolved. Only then can you add the remaining 5 liters of water. In order to avoid negative consequences for plants and future harvest, follow the instructions for the use of copper sulfate. Shelf life means 2 years.
Precautions when working with the drug
To prevent the chemical from getting on the skin and eye mucosa, you need to know how to use vitriol in the garden. Mandatory must be work clothes with long sleeves, a respirator and goggles. If the drug accidentally gets into the mouth, it should be rinsed with water, and if the product is on the skin, it is thoroughly washed.
The reasons for the use of copper sulfate
The reasons for using this fertilizer include the following:
- If used correctly, it is safe. This is due to the fact that it does not give undesirable long-term effects and side effects, and also does not have a cumulative effect.
- It is widely used in the fight against mold and gives positive results in this. It has fungicidal and biocidal effects.
- Resistance does not cause.
- It is a copper-containing micronutrient. Plants need copper ions for the synthesis of important phytohormones.
- Inexpensive compared with synthetic drugs that have a similar effect.
How to breed copper sulphate - instruction
Depending on the purpose of the application and the season in agriculture, copper sulfate is used in different ways. In any case, used copper sulphate solutionbut only varying degrees of concentration:
- Burning out - 3 or 5%. In other words, 300 or 500 grams of a substance is diluted in 10 liters of water. Are treated with such a solution of land or buildings on them in the fight against mold. If you cultivated the land with such a solution of copper sulfate, you cannot do anything on it for 12 months.
- For therapeutic and prophylactic purposes, 50-100 grams of a substance is taken for 10 liters of water. It is used to combat harmful insects and fungal diseases (curl, rot, scab, phyllossticosis, septoria, moniliasis, various spots, coccomycosis, blisters, anthracnose), as well as for treating wounds on branches and trunks of trees and for spraying.
- A solution of copper sulphate, prepared with a calculation of 2 or 3 grams of substance per 10 liters of water, is used as a top dressing for crops. It is used when the plant has symptoms of copper starvation (intensive tillering without the appearance of productive shoots, twisting of the tips of the shoots, chlorosis of the leaves) and for the purpose of prevention.
When it is necessary to carry out the processing of copper sulphate
Therapeutic solution is carried out in the garden in the spring:
- In early spring. When the average daily air temperature exceeds 5 degrees. The soil is watered with a 0.5% solution calculated per 1 square meter of 3.5-4 liters. This is done against black cabbage legs, gray and white tomato rot, yellow roots.
- Shrubs and trees in the garden are sprayed before the buds bud. This is necessary to prevent black cancer and fruit rot, as well as the diseases listed above. Prepare 1% solution.
- The roots of seedlings are disinfected as follows: for 3 minutes they fall into a 1% solution, and then rinsed well with plenty of water. If you do not have a lot of water, you need to rinse the roots for 5 minutes in 3 containers with water.
- Before planting potatoes, tubers are sprayed with a 0.2% solution. This will help prevent the occurrence of late blight.
- To get early shoots, you need to soak the seeds in a warm 0.2% solution. Cucumbers for 10 hours, and the remaining seeds - for 24 hours.
- Pickling pumpkin and tomato seeds, which have hereditary diseases. 10 grams of potassium permanganate, 2 grams of boric acid and 1 gram of copper sulphate are diluted in 10 liters of water. In a solution at room temperature, the seeds are soaked for 15 minutes, and then they are washed well with water. If the water is not from the tap, then make 5 changes of water and each of them for 5 minutes washed the seeds, stirring them continuously.
Early spring in gardening sprouting trees before blooming buds. On 1 tree consumes about 2-5 liters.
- For quince, pear and apple trees, 10 grams of substance is taken for 10 liters of water. They are treated with these trees in the garden from drying out, moniliosis, spotting, phyllostiosis, and scab.
- The same concentrate is sprayed in early spring from curl, moniliose, from various blotches and coccomycosis, a bunch of clyasters, and cherries, plums, peaches and apricots.
- In early spring, in the garden, until the buds start, 1.5 liters per bush are treated with the same concentrate currants and gooseberries from septoria and other spots, as well as from anthracnose.
During the flowering of plants and crops it is forbidden to spray them with blue vitriol.
In the summer, the treatment is carried out as follows:
- When signs of disease appear, shrubs and fruit trees are sprayed with a 1% solution.
- From late blight and copper starvation, potatoes and tomatoes are watered with a 0.2% solution. Per 1 square meter consumes about 2 or 3 liters. Watering these crops should be as soon as signs of the disease appear. After about 14-28 days, you can repeat the treatment.
- Treatment of wounds in shrubs 0.5% and trees with 1% solution.
In the autumn period, spraying is carried out in order to prevent. It is preferable to use copper sulfate treatment. Associated with this preference with the following factors:
- Copper sulphate solution is acidic. Even in medical grade A copper sulphate there is an admixture of free sulfuric acid. When processed in the autumn, chemical burns of fruits, flowers and leaves are completely excluded.
- When flowering plants need for copper, as in the trace element, the maximum. But when the fruit ripens it is almost nonexistent.
- Copper sulfate does not penetrate into plant tissues. Therefore, without affecting the mycelium, it affects only fungal sporangia.
Therefore, if by the beginning of the growing season the plant is provided with copper and protected, then the effect of treatment with copper sulfate will be much better.
All treatments with copper sulphate are recommended to be carried out in windless dry weather at an air temperature not lower than 5 and not higher than 30 degrees. It is better to do this in the morning or in the evening.
How to properly spray
Due to the fact that when working with copper sulfate was noticed reverse suction along with sweat, precautionary measures and special clothing should not be neglected. Do not allow near presence of unauthorized persons, children and animals. In no case should the solution that you have left after treatment should get into the drainage systems or water supply sources.
If copper sulphate solution gets into the eyes, immediately wash them with plenty of water. In this case, the eyes should be open. If copper sulphate was somehow in the human body, then immediately drink 0.5 liters of milk or 3 raw eggs. After that, you should immediately contact a specialist. But aggravating the situation can pumping a person with water with or without potassium permanganate to induce vomiting.
How to prepare a solution
Copper sulfate is not volatile and does not dust. Because of this, it is not necessary to observe special precautions when it is diluted. It will be enough to wear rubber disposable gloves. Royal preparation is prepared in a glass dish. At the same time be sure to mark it, so that in the future in any case not to use it for food. But experts do not recommend using enameled metal dishes. After all, the enamel will just go away.
It is not allowed to dilute copper sulphate in the kitchen and in other residential areas. It dissolves well in water, but if it is diluted at room temperature, it will turn out to be muddy and will have to be defended for a long period (more than a month). This is due to the appearance of an impurity of sulfites.
Copper sulfate must be dissolved in water.whose temperature exceeds 50 degrees. But it is not advisable to use an electric stove and thin-walled chemical dishes for dissolving. And all due to the fact that copper sulfate is a strong electrolyte. So if it spills, then you will not avoid a big accident.
It is best to dissolve copper sulfate in a water bath. The cooled ready solution can be stored in glass bottles or PET for up to 12 months.
A serious disadvantage of copper sulfate is its acidity. It can be reduced by adding to the working solution about 0.5 liters of hot water mixed with 5 grams of laundry soap. Dissolve the soap in hot water until it starts foaming. Such an additive will improve the adhesion of the processing material to the leaves.
But Bordeaux fluid is more effective. It is a mixture of copper sulphate and hydrated lime. It is known in 2 versions: gentle - 100 grams of lime and copper are taken for 10 liters of water, strong - 400 grams of lime and 300 grams of copper sulfate are taken for 10 liters.
Sparing liquid is used when processing during the growing season, and strong - when processing in autumn and early spring. The disadvantage of the Bordeaux mixture is that it cannot be combined with any other drugs and soap. But its substitute with soda ash - Burgundy liquid - is less effective in processing.
In order to process the grapes, it is recommended to use the Bordeaux mixture only in the autumn period. In other cases, it is necessary to use compositions based on iron sulfate.
For the preparation of Bordeaux mixture The required amount of water divided equally into two vessels. Copper sulfate should be dissolved in one container, and milk of lime in the second. The blue liquid, while stirring, is gradually added to the white. After preparation, the material to be treated should be infused for 4 hours. After this time, it should be filtered and poured into the sprayer. Store freshly prepared liquid is allowed no more than 24 hours.
The use of copper sulfate in the greenhouse
You can use this fertilizer in the greenhouse in limited quantity. This is due to the fact that:
- Excessive accumulation of sulfur and copper in the soil of the greenhouse is possible due to the lack of free migration. And this will lead to the inhibition of plants.
- Due to sulfuric acid, soil acidification is possible.
It is because of these two reasons in greenhouse conditions that such fertilizer is used only to disinfect heavily contaminated premises.
But in order to deal with gray cucumber rot, in greenhouse conditions use dry copper sulphate. To do this, take 1 teaspoon of copper sulfate in powder form and mix it with 1 tablespoon of wood ash. This mixture is poured on the sore spots.
Another application of this treatment material is the impregnation of a fungicide during the construction of the greenhouse.
The weather is very important for success after processing. The action begins 4 hours after processing and lasts for about 12 days at an air temperature of 15-25 degrees. If it rains during this period, the effect will disappear. But do not re-process. There may be excess copper in the soil.
Use in the household
The drug is available, sold in any hardware store, cheap. If all the rules are followed, it is safe and environmentally friendly, quite simple to use, has a great experience of use in country affairs, proven by many generations of gardeners.
It is used by gardeners during the entire summer season, but most often it is used in the fall and spring according to the specific dosage. In the fall, the treatment of plants with copper sulphate occurs after the completion of leaf fall. The purpose of the use of substances - the protection of plants and soil from harmful insects.
The drug is effective in pest control:
- a shield,
- leaf weevil.
Pests overwinter in the leaves and bark of trees. Therefore, it is necessary to twice treat the plants and the soil with a gap of three weeks, until it is cold. Copper sulphate covers the plant and the surface of the earth with a thin layer that protects trees from pests and warms before the onset of cold weather, while allowing the bark to breathe freely.
How to breed a copper sulphate for use in gardening
The solution of copper sulfate has a limited period of activity, so it is prepared before spraying fruit crops, processing planting material or green plants.
How to plant a bluestone for spraying trees? The blue powder is dissolved in a small volume of water, and then the liquid, while stirring, is brought to the desired concentration. Treatment should begin immediately.
The best time for spraying is dry, windless weather with moderate cloudiness, closing plants from direct sunlight. It is convenient to carry out treatment in the early morning or in the evening, after sunset.
Поскольку действие медного купороса и препаратов на его основе длится около недели, а для достижения требуемого эффекта должно пройти не меньше 4 часов. Если в начальный период растения попадут под дождь или полив, воздействие купороса снизится.
With a lot of useful properties of copper sulfate, this remedy has a serious drawback - increased acidity. Because of it, the solution burns the green parts of plants, young shoots and roots, therefore the scope of vitriol is very limited.
Lime helps to neutralize the toxicity of copper sulfate. This mixture, dissolved in water, called Bordeaux mixture, has all the antifungal properties of vitriol and, with an average level of toxicity, does not cause serious harm to garden crops. Among the diseases that precede Bordeaux liquid are scab, late blight, mildew, anthracnose, rust and cercoporosis.
- Preparation of tools based on lime and copper sulfate for use in gardening chemicals are mixed separately from each other in plastic or glass containers. Metal dishes are not suitable because of the aggressiveness of the components!
- In a white milk of lime gradually, constantly stirring, pour in a blue liquid.
- In conclusion, the solution is filtered and used for its intended purpose.
For spring application of Bordeaux mixture its concentration may be higher than in summer. Spraying of trees is carried out with a 3-percent solution, and for the treatment of green bushes of roses, strawberries, perennial flowers and shrubs make a sparing one-percent composition.
Slightly less effective is a liquid based on copper sulphate and soda ash. But this mixture is easier to do, drain the two pre-made solution. Its drops on the leaves do not leave marks, and for better adhesion with the surface, you can add milk, soap or wood glue.
At the disposal of the summer resident there are many ways to use copper sulfate in gardening. The main thing is to use this tool wisely, without harming the plantings, the soil, or the people around.
What is useful for copper sulfate in gardening?
The owner of the garden is constantly faced with the problems caused by environmental degradation, alternating abnormally dry and too wet summer, snowless and frosty winters.
Due to the rapidly occurring climate change, the immunity of trees is weakened, they do not have time to adapt and become susceptible to infection by many pests, including pathogenic fungi and harmful insects. Maintaining a garden in a healthy and fruitful condition requires effort on the part of the gardener, so it is necessary to monitor the situation with the trees and produce chemical treatment of the plants in time. One of the most popular and affordable preparations for garden processing is copper sulphate.
For garden plants, this substance can be extremely useful if you choose the right concentration of the working solution. Copper is involved in many redox reactions that occur in plant tissues during carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism. With a sufficient amount of copper in the substrate and in the plant's body itself, its immunity and ability to resist infection by pests increases.
Most often, plants growing on peaty sandy soil depleted in black soil suffer from copper deficiency. Treating trees and shrubs with copper sulphate solution is recommended to be performed twice a year: in spring and autumn. The procedure is carried out at a temperature above zero, but it is desirable that the plants do not have foliage.
In the autumn, the treatment is carried out after leaf fall, and in the spring - before bud break. More frequent use of copper sulfate is not desirable because of the danger of accumulation of copper in the soil, which in the future will impede the normal growth and development of plants. An excess of copper in the soil and plant tissues can disrupt the biological equilibrium, which will lead to negative consequences for both the crop and human health.
The maximum allowable content of copper in the soil is 2-3 grams per 10 square meters.
Copper sulfate is a part of such popular mixtures for garden processing as Burgundy liquid, cuproonft, Bordeaux mixture, and others, therefore, the application of these fertilizers should be monitored.
How to cook?
The instruction for preparing a copper sulphate solution for garden processing consists of two stages:
- Preparation of stock solution from copper sulphate. To prepare the stock solution of copper sulphate it is obligatory to use separate dishes from which people and animals will not drink or eat. To do this, 100 grams of copper sulfate is diluted with a liter of water. Pour the powder granules with water (warm, 50-60 degrees, as the copper sulfate is not the best soluble in water). Stir to dissolve the powder. This will result in a 10% solution of copper sulfate, which is not suitable for direct use in gardening. Next, the mother liquor is diluted with water to a concentration of vitriol 1-1.5%.
- Dilution of the stock solution to the required concentration of the working substance. To do this, pour the mother liquor of copper sulphate into a large container and add water, it can be cold, to the desired concentration (7-9 liters). If possible, it is better to treat the plants with a special spray gun, although in the old manner you can spray the plants with a broom.