Among the coniferous ornamental trees and shrubs, juniper is especially popular. He received his right to be a pet in landscape design for his unpretentiousness to the soil composition and climatic changes. Juniper perfectly tolerates both severe frosts, and prolonged drought, it is very fond of light. Designers and gardeners are attracted by a variety of bush shapes and needle color. A charming, subtle scent complements all this magnificence.
Juniper is a widespread coniferous plant, for the growth of which is suitable as arid areas of Mexico, and Asia, America and the Caucasus. High and medium juniper bushes feel great in deciduous and coniferous forests, and low - on the rocks.
In nature, planting groups of shrubs occupy small areas. Currently, there are six dozen juniper species. This conifer is a long-liver. Under favorable growth conditions, juniper can live for five or more centuries.
Description of the species
The juniper needles have a bluish-green color and triangular needles pointed at the tips. In appearance, it resembles the needles of cypress plants. Juniper, the reproduction of which occurs in several ways, has buds. They almost never have scales. The leaves of the plant replace the needles, on which they appear with age.
Cones have a spherical, rarely elongated shape. They are very fleshy, the scales close tight, and this prevents them from fully opening. Blue or gray bumps on the needles, green with a bluish tint, look very impressive.
Juniper is used for single planting and in large arrays. Low-growing and creeping branches cover the slopes, they build rocky gardens. They strengthen the slopes. Juniper has a flaw - it does not tolerate smoke and air pollution. Therefore, it is rarely used for landscaping urban gardens and parks.
Dwarf juniper species grow at home, but they need to be regularly sprayed. From these conifers form bonsai in miniature. For this fit seedlings, in which the needles are hard, with glitter, and the trunk is curved. If bonsai of dwarf junipers are planted outside, you need to ensure that they are protected from wind gusts. In the cold season, the top of the tree should be covered to protect it from freezing. When the plant comes into contact with snow, the needles can get burned. Therefore, it is better to plant small trees under a canopy.
Seed propagation culture
Juniper is a beautiful ornamental plant. Seed reproduction gives low germination. Even if they germinate together, the seedlings are easily damaged, and therefore they are not easy to preserve.
But if you are a supporter of seed propagation of this plant, then the procedure is as follows. The reproduction of juniper in the fall involves planting seeds in boxes with fertile soil. As soon as the cold comes, take out the boxes with the landings on the street for a period of four months, so they harden. In the spring you will transplant the seeds that survived the winter into other boxes or pots and keep them outside again. Shoots appear only next year. They need a lot of sun, they need to be watered and fed. Do not allow the soil to dry out. Do not rush time, a bush or a tree of this conifer will surely grow from the sown seed, if you take good care of it.
In many ways you can grow juniper. Seed propagation is usually carried out in the spring and requires some preparation. Intended for sowing, they must undergo scarification, that is, scratching the shell. So the seeds will give the first shoots much earlier.
Plant propagation by cuttings
The reproduction of juniper cuttings - the usual way for gardeners. However, it should be remembered that some species are poorly grafted. It is not recommended to take shoots from wild plants. The cuttings will be stronger and take root better if you take them from a young tree or bush at the age of 8-10 years.
Reproduction of juniper cuttings in the fall is not the best option for this procedure. It is better to do this immediately after the winter cold, in early spring. To do this, cut an annual shoot of 10-12 cm in length and place it in a growth-stimulating solution for a period of one day. After that, plant the stalk in the ground, mixed with peat and sand.
Landing depth should not be more than three centimeters. Types of creeping juniper are planted taking into account the inclination of 60 degrees, and columnar - strictly vertically. It is important not to confuse the bottom and top of the cutting, for which it is cut with a small piece of bark.
The reproduction of juniper cuttings involves several stages. The next is in their shelter film for two months. Find a darkened spot. To keep the cuttings dry, spray them every day with water.
When they are well rooted, transplant into other boxes and leave for two years. After this time, determine for them a permanent place of growth and planted in the ground. The reproduction of juniper cuttings in autumn and winter can also be carried out. The main thing is to observe all the necessary conditions for rooting seedlings.
Juniper reproduction by layering
This breeding method is simple. It is applied from the beginning of spring to mid-summer. To do this, take a young twig of a shrub, located near the ground, make an incision on it along an oblique line. Insert any stick into it, strengthen it in the ground and cover it with soil on top.
When new roots are formed, cut the seedling with a pruning shear and plant it in a separate hole. Breeding juniper in the fall is not as preferable as spring. After a few years, the plant will grow, and it will be possible to shape its appearance.
Juniper: reproduction by grafting
In order to preserve the valuable qualities of a rare species of juniper, reproduction is carried out by grafting the shoot onto a similar plant. With this reproduction, the best qualities of the mother plant are accurately transmitted. You should know that grafted bushes grow slowly. But this method allows breeding for 3-5-year-old seedlings and get new varieties of juniper.
Vaccination is carried out in the period when the plant woke up from winter and sap flow began. The grafting material is young shoots from the upper tiers of the bush, which are grafted onto any type of juniper.
Juniper, the reproduction of which is carried out by vaccination, should be covered from the sun. If after a month and a half buds on the shoots are dismissed, the process was successful.
This type of conifer has been the most widespread among other members of the cypress genus. This is a very branched creeping shrub, which reaches a height of 1.5 meters and a width of 20 meters or more. For unpretentiousness and chic appearance, the Cossack juniper is very loved by landscape designers. It is well tolerated by frost, resistant to wind and drought. And his ability to kill microbes has developed resistance to damage by various diseases in the ephedra.
Bush Cossack juniper does not lose its decorative throughout the year. It looks great on the soil, snow and rocks. It is used in single landings and groups, from it create a hedge. Cossack juniper has an unpleasant smell, if you rub the needles.
The juniper is undemanding to growth. Care and reproduction are carried out in soil poor in nutrients. But it will still grow better if you add a little dolomite flour or lime to it. Oily black soil can harm the plant. Growing on it, it is prone to fungal diseases.
Reproduction of Cossack juniper seeds
This breeding method can be carried out using stratification. Before the onset of frost, sow the seeds in cooked crates and bury them in snow. There they will stay throughout the winter period. Stratification is necessary in order to accelerate seed germination.
In spring, sow them in the ground and wait for shoots. And if this procedure is not carried out, the seeds will come up only the next year. In this way, the ephedra mainly propagates in the natural environment.
Cossack juniper, reproduction of which is carried out by cuttings, takes root well. It should be held in the spring, before the movement of juices, or in the fall. Planted cuttings should be in cloudy weather, so as not to harm the seedlings and adult trees, from which they were taken. The cuttings will be better if you cut the tops of the shoots. They do not have to stay dry for long. Therefore, wrap them immediately with a well-moistened cloth or place them in a bag of water.
Cut the cuttings with a piece of bark, otherwise they will not root. Treat them with a solution for the growth of hvoynik and land in a designated place for planting.
As a rule, the further growth of seedlings is carried out in the nursery for 1-3 years. The root system of large cuttings develops faster, and this means that the time of their rearing in the nursery will be reduced.
The reproduction of the Cossack juniper layers
During the entire vegetative period, the Cossack juniper, the reproduction of which is carried out by layering, requires appropriate care. Bent and pinned to the ground branches must be watered periodically, and the earth around the plant spud.
In order for the shoots of the Cossack juniper to settle down better, you need to add coconut shells, a little sand and peat to the soil. Pine needles at the end of the shoot, the stem must be bare. After six months or a year, rooting of the layers and the appearance of vertical shoots will occur. Separate them and transplant into the ground.
If juniper is of particular varietal value, propagation is carried out by grafting. However, it should be remembered that the survival rate of shoots with such reproduction is small.
- Chinese - it can be both a high twenty-meter tree and a dwarf bush.
- Common Juniper - This is a cone-shaped tree with a height of up to ten meters. If it grows with shrubs, it is very slow and has an ovoid shape.
- Horizontal - creeping or creeping shrub up to half a meter tall.
- Cossack - It can be a four-meter tree and creeping shrubs.
- Scaly - shrub with dense branches and bright green needles. It is resistant to frost and drought.
These plants love light, in the shade their decorativeness is lost. Many varieties are resistant to frost. Only young plants and heat-loving species need sheltering for the winter. Pruning cords tolerates well. It should be done to form a certain form of a bush or to limit the growth of creeping junipers. Although dry branches can be removed as soon as they appear.
Juniper needs regular care. Planting and care, reproduction is carried out with abundant watering, which is especially necessary for the downtroop. During this period, water the plant several times per season, 10-30 liters of water under one tree. In the evening, when the sun is not so bake, do sprinkling.
The land around the trunk of young trees or shrubs needs to be weeded regularly from the weeds and loosened after each watering or rain. Every time after these procedures, apply fresh mulch. With proper and regular care, juniper will always delight with its appearance.
Features reproduction junipers
The ephedra family cypress are considered centenarians. Like all plants with a long life cycle, junipers grow very slowly and late reach the fruiting age.
The first pine cones appear by the age of 9-10, and it takes 2-3 years to mature. In addition, long-term stratification is necessary for seed germination; seedlings are often obtained unviable, with a weak root system.
To the note: because of the slow pace of life in nature, junipers are renewed very difficult. Therefore, in nurseries and home conditions for propagation often use the method of cuttings.
Coniferous shrubs grown in this way will have the following characteristics:
- They show a higher growth rate than seedlings - they reach adult parameters 3-4 years earlier.
- Retain all varietal characteristics of the mother plant.
- The degree of adaptation to specific conditions is higher than that of purchased seedlings.
The success of growing juniper from cuttings depends on many factors: the choice of uterine bush, time of cutting, agricultural technology, growing conditions.
Regardless of the variety, cuttings can be harvested from the moment the snow melts until the autumn:
- The best period of juniper grafting is the beginning of spring, when the juice begins to move, and the buds wake up. Planting material will take root already this season.
- Possible summer harvesting cuttings. It is carried out in the first decade of June - when the spring active growth ends and the lignification of the spring growth begins. In some varieties, rooting may take a while — only callus will be formed in the first year, and full-fledged roots will form by the next season.
- In autumn, in September-October, lignified shoots are scaled. They are planted in the ground next spring.
An important point: the formation of the first roots of junipers occurs on average in 25-30 days, it takes at least 2 months to form a viable root system.
Therefore, they are not immediately transplanted into the garden, leaving them to take root until the next season.
Choice of material for grafting
Junipers grown from cuttings can turn out to be both lush and healthy, as well as weak and crooked. The thing is, how and from where the plant is taken planting material. In order to grow a bollard to meet your expectations, use the following recommendations:
- For the role of queen trees, choose young bushes of 5-8 years of age, since the juniper capacity for the formation of the root system decreases with time.
- The maternal plant must be healthy, with a dense, symmetrical, even crown.
- The cutting place of cuttings in creeping varietal forms does not matter much. The main thing is to choose a developed sprawling branch on which the sun's rays regularly fall (it is important for variegated and brightly colored forms).
- In pyramidal, kolonovidnyh and bush types of cuttings cut from the central branches 1-3 order (above). If you choose the escape branch laterally growing horizontally, then the bush will expand in breadth.
- For grafting, select shoots with a healthy apical bud and a growing cone, otherwise the seedlings will become unnecessarily bushy.
An important point: it is better to harvest cuttings from shoots, on which lignification has already begun. Too young, like too old branches, the percentage of rooting is much lower.
Preparation of planting material
Cut juniper shoots in case of cloudy weather or in the early morning - this will help reduce the evaporation of moisture from the cuts.
Do not touch too thin branches, because they will use up their nutrients before rooting occurs. For grafting, use annual shoots about 25 cm long.
From the trunk and large skeletal branches take cuttings with a piece of wood ("heel"), which contributes to better rooting. For this reason, it is better not to cut off the cuttings, but to tear them off with a quick movement directed downwards. If the tongue is long, it is pruned.
When cuttings are taken from a large shoot, they use a pruner or a sharply sharpened knife. The cut should capture 1-1.5 cm of lignified area, which can be recognized by the transition of green to brown bark.
The lower segment of petioles 3.5-4.0 cm free from needles and shoots. It is better to do this with your hands, since the wounds formed during tearing also stimulate the process of root formation.
Before planting, it is advisable to sprinkle the cuttings with means that accelerate the formation of roots: “Heteroauxin”, “Korevin”, and preparations based on succinic acid.
To the note: it is not necessary to soak the planting material in the solutions of the activators of rooting - with prolonged exposure to moisture, the bark will begin to flake off.
Prepared planting material is planted in a specially prepared substrate. Since rooting of coniferous crops is a long process, it is important to properly prepare the soil mixture:
- It should be loose, light, with good aeration.
- Junipers love soils with a neutral or slightly acid reaction, so do not add ash, lime, and shell to the substrate.
- Juniper cuttings root well in peat mixed with an equal volume of: a) sand, b) perlite, c) vermiculite, d) leafy / soddy earth.
If you plan to root several stalks, then you can use a flower pot for planting. На дно выкладывают дренаж, затем слой 15 см почвенной смеси, верх присыпают песком.When a lot of planting material, it is planted in greenhouses, large boxes or greenhouses.
To the note: if you doubt the quality of the components of the substrate, then pre-disinfect them by steaming or sprinkling with a solution of potassium permanganate.
Planting juniper cuttings
For planting simple sticking shoots into the ground is not enough. Proper landing is carried out in stages:
- Using a wooden peg or pencil, make holes in the substrate at an angle of 45-50º. The gap between the holes is 5-10 cm.
- At a depth of 3-5 cm obliquely land the cuttings.
- Condense the soil around them so that there are no voids left.
- Carefully pour through a sieve or sprinkler nozzle, trying to moisten all layers of soil.
- Cover the cuttings with a film, frame or transparent cap.
An important point: do not let the sun's rays directly fall into the greenhouse - junipers root in the shade better.
Intense root formation in the ephedon occurs at a temperature of the substrate and the environment not lower than + 21 ... + 24 º C and humidity in the range of 95-100%.
Departure after landing
The cuttings begin to actively take root 2-4 months after disembarkation. In different varieties, the time frame may vary, with the rooting in the summer period may pause and resume by the autumn. During this period, the roots are still not gaining strength, remain fragile and weak, so young junipers are left in the greenhouse until next spring.
To prevent moisture stagnation, watering should be done with care, only when the soil dries. To moisten the soil using water heated to ambient temperature. To prevent diseases, water seedlings with fungicidal solutions several times a year.
To the note: since the saplings will spend about a year in the greenhouse, it is necessary to maintain the transparency of the covering film.
Illumination should be bright, but diffused, since the light stimulates the production of phytohormone, which is responsible for root formation.
After the juniper cuttings take root and form growths, it is possible to gradually harden, opening and airing the greenhouse. In the winter they are warmed with sacking, covering material or leaves.
The following year, young bushes transplanted into the garden. To do this, the plant is transferred along with an earthy ball into a prepared pit.
An alternative method is suitable for junipers with creeping and spreading crown. In the spring, during sap flow, the lower semi-woody branches are bent down, laid into the groove, fixed in this position and sprinkled with soil.
Preliminarily, small processes and needles are removed from the rooting site. During the growing season, the roots will have time to form on the cuttings. After separation of the branch from the uterine bush, such a seedling can be transplanted to any place.
Juniper cutting is the most affordable method for obtaining benign and viable seedlings at home. With the observance of agricultural cultivation, the method allows you to quickly propagate coniferous crops on your site.
Description and features of the plant
Junipers are extremely long-lived. They can grow up to 500 years. Culture is used to decorate parks, gardens, gardens. Her plant:
- in groups
- in rows
- in the alleys
- on the alpine hills,
- as ground cover crops.
The needles of junipers are mainly needle-like, awl-shaped, rigid. The length of each needle varies from 1 to 2.5 cm. They are located 2-3 pieces in verticils along the shoot. Older plants have small needles, scale-like. Cones are like berries, because they have a fleshy outer shell. Mature for 2-3 years.
The size of the bush depends on the variety. There are pyramidal, sprawling or creeping varieties. The height reaches 1.5 m.
Culture is developing slowly. The only exceptions are a few species of fast-growing junipers, in particular, the Cossack. It has many beautiful forms that are most common in Russia, Europe and Asia.
Note! Junipers are light-loving, durable and drought-resistant plants. Most of the species are winter hardy, not demanding on the quality of the soil and successfully develop even on poor soils. The root system is well developed. It improves the structure of the earth, loosening it and providing air circulation.
How juniper breeds
The reproduction of junipers is possible by several methods. Each of them has features and disadvantages.
How can you plant juniper:
- using seeds,
- division of the bush.
The last 2 ways are not suitable for all types of juniper. The layers are obtained from creeping varieties, and only a young bush can be divided.
Seed breeding is a very time consuming process:
- cones ripen 2 years,
- seeds require a long stratification,
- varietal qualities are not preserved,
- seeds have low germination rates.
Because of this, the vegetative method is popular. Propagation by cuttings is the easiest and most efficient way. It has several advantages:
- varietal properties are completely transmitted to the seedling,
- a full bush is formed in 2-3 years,
- seedlings adapt quickly to growing conditions,
- cuttings show high growth rates.
Juniper has an unusual feature. The direction of growth of a new bush depends on where the cutting was cut from:
- from the top - the plant will reach up,
- from the side - the shrub will begin to develop in breadth.
Many gardeners have a logical question, how to grow juniper from a sprig at home, so that it quickly settles down and actively grows. And about it below.
Selection and preparation of planting material
Before breeding juniper, you should correctly pick up planting material. Then healthy and powerful plants will grow from cuttings.
There are several rules:
- for harvesting cuttings use juniper bushes that are at least 8 years old, so that the seedlings retain the characteristics of the donor plant,
- cuttings are cut from the middle part of the juniper, if they want to get spreading bushes, from the top - vertical. This nuance is especially relevant for columnar varieties, because it allows you to fully preserve the quality of the parent plant. You can collect as many saplings as you need for upgrading the territory,
- choose green cuttings, not lignified. Work is started in the early morning when all parts of the bush are saturated with moisture,
- when pruning, they seize a small piece of the branch on which the cutting grew, the so-called “heel”. Thanks to her, plants take root faster,
- the best length of the cutting is 12 cm. It is permissible to use branches that are larger, but not more than 25 cm.
Important! Sharp and disinfected instruments are used for grafting.
If transportation of the cutting is required, after cutting it is wrapped in a damp cloth and put in a plastic bag. So it can be stored for a couple of days.
How to prepare the stalk
Preparation of the cutting for rooting takes place in three stages:
- The needles are carefully removed with a sharp-edged knife, trying not to touch the bark. Leave only the top for breathing.
- The lower part is treated with a growth stimulator to increase the likelihood of rooting. Some gardeners place a stalk in a nutrient solution. To this end, in warm water to dissolve the sugar in a ratio of 2: 1. But with this method, the bark can peel off, so it is better to use a stimulating drug in the form of powder or paste. In exceptional cases, it is permissible to just pour the substrate, in which the cutting will grow, with a solution to improve rooting.
- After 24 hours, the stalk is transferred to the prepared soil.
The more responsible the gardener approaches the preparation, the higher the likelihood of successful rooting.
Important! Junipers cannot be rooted in water. From a long stay in a humid environment, they exfoliate the bark, which negatively affects the viability of the cutting.
How to root a cutting
To answer the question of how to propagate juniper in a quick and easy way, you should familiarize yourself with some of the tricks of rooting the cutting. Success largely depends on this stage.
First, prepare the nutrient substrate. Soil mixture should be:
Substrate made from sand and peat, mixed in equal proportions. To ensure good air exchange and water holding capacity, put a small amount of charcoal and perlite.
How to multiply juniper:
- In the soil mixtures form a hole 3-4 cm deep and 1 cm in diameter. A cutting is placed in it, the surrounding land is crushed by hand and watered. If several cuttings are planted in one pot, then a distance of 6-8 cm is left between them.
- For early rooting, maintain a temperature of 18-23 ° C. At higher rates, the roots will dry and the soil dries up, and at too low rates, the cuttings will begin to rot.
- The pots are removed in the greenhouse. If this is not possible, then they are simply covered in packages.
After planting, care is reduced to maintaining optimal lighting and periodic watering. Moisture the soil as it dries, avoiding excess water. Saplings need diffused light, in direct sunlight they develop much worse. When grown in a package requires systematic ventilation. If you do not open the plants on time, then condensate will begin to collect, and the seedlings will die.
Important! In a pot the plant should stand for 2-3 months. But the first roots appear in 25-30 days.
When growing juniper Cossack use reproduction not only cuttings, but also layering. In varieties, the crown of which should be laid on the ground, rooted lower shoots. They are not cut from the bush, and tilted to the ground. The future seedling is fixed on the surface of the soil with a metal hook, and the point of contact is covered with earth.
This procedure is carried out in the spring. Approximately in August roots will be formed on the cuttings. After that, it is separated from the parent bush and moved to a permanent place of growth.
Means to stimulate rooting
The modern market offers gardeners a huge amount of drugs to stimulate rooting. Previously widely used folk remedies:
Now there is no need to spend time on preparing solutions with your own hands. Purchased products are easy to use and have a low cost.
The most popular are:
- root is a stimulant based on indolylbutyric acid. 1 g of water requires 1 g of the drug,
- heteroauxin is a phytohormonal agent. The active ingredient is β-indole acetic acid. At 1 liter of water put 1 tablet
- epin stimulates rooting and improves immunity. At 1 liter of water take 0.5 ml,
- Zircon is a multifunctional complex preparation, a mixture of hydroxycinnamic acids. Add 1 ml to 1 liter of water.
You can not exceed the dosage specified by the manufacturer, because the opposite effect will occur - the inhibition of planting material.
The cuttings are immersed in the solution by about a third. The remaining liquid is used for irrigation.
Rules for planting cuttings in the ground
Under the juniper divert the illuminated area, allowed partial shade. Cuttings are moved to the ground with a lump of earth and try not to damage the still weak root system.
To plant juniper, dig a hole, the size of which is 2-3 times the volume of the roots. Down must be laid drainage.
The location of the seedling depends on the variety:
- columnar juniper is placed vertically,
- bushy - with a slight slope.
The plant is buried along the root neck, watered and mulched.
On a note! In the early years of growth, young bushes cover for the winter and protect from the bright sun. Juniper is drought-resistant, does not tolerate waterlogging. It is watered about once a month.
At the beginning, it is advisable to conduct additional fertilization with nitroammofosca (50 g per 1 m²). In the summer they make organic and mineral fertilizers.
To decorate the garden, you need to know how juniper breeds. This is not a complicated process, but requires adherence to certain rules. With strict adherence to instructions from the cutting, a powerful bush will grow, retaining the varietal qualities of the mother plant.
The appearance of these representatives of conifers is diverse, it can be both tall trees and low, ground-covering shrubs. Junipers are not demanding to the growing conditions, undemanding to soil fertility and low temperatures. He lives long over 1 thousand years, but there are cases when there were very ancient specimens whose age exceeded 2-3 thousand years and even 5 thousand years. Of particular note is the ability of the juniper to clean the air from harmful impurities.
The juniper has long been widely used in folk and official medicine, and is also used in the food industry.
Types and varieties of juniper
It is impossible to imagine today a modern landscape gardening without junipers.
They have long occupied one of the first places among the most sought-after elements of landscape design. Among the most famous are the following kinds:
- Spiny, or red.
These representatives of cypress differ also by the type of the main trunk. They are presented in three basic forms that are characteristic of perennial plants:
- Shrub form.
- Woody form.
- Creeping form.
Juniper propagation by cutting
For the breeding of decorative rocks are usually used cuttings. You can chop juniper for almost the whole vegetative period. But the best rooting cuttings carried out in the spring. Depending on the area of growth and weather conditions, the preparation of cuttings for rooting is carried out from April to May. During this period the plant begins to grow and develop intensively.
The choice of the mother tree is made depending on its phenotype and genotype. As a rule, highly vegetative species of juniper are chosen for vegetative propagation, which are more difficult to obtain by other means of reproduction of the species. Cuttings are taken from young actively growing plants, aged from three to eight years. Preparation of cuttings for rooting, to be made in the early morning before the appearance of direct sunlight, or on an overcast day.
Good clonal material are apical annual shoots from the top or middle of the crown of a mother tree or shrub. It is necessary to cut the cuttings with the “heel”. "Heel" is a piece of old bark with wood, which is left on the annual escape, when it is separated from the main branch. The length of the prepared stalk should be from five to seven centimeters.
The next step is the preparation of sliced cuttings for planting in the substrate. To do this, the cuttings are cleaned of needles to a height of three, four centimeters from the "heels". Cuttings are planted in a greenhouse or greenhouse, the air temperature in which should be in the range of 20-23 degrees. Soil for rooting cuttings resembles a multilayer cake, consisting mainly of three main layers. The first layer is small pebbles or pebbles, the thickness of this drainage layer should be up to six centimeters. The second layer is a soil mixture rich in humus.
The final third layer is coarse river sand. The cuttings are planted in the prepared soil, the angle of inclination of the cutting depends on the plant variety. Tree forms are planted vertically, and shrub and forty-forty-five degrees creeping to the depth of the upper layer.
Features reproduction of juniper cuttings in the spring
The percentage of rooting of juniper is significantly increased if, when planted in the ground, the cuttings are processed by one of the root-forming preparations or the already planted material is shed with a solution of the preparation. The most well-known and used root-forming drugs are heteroauxin, root, sodium humate, zircon. These drugs not only accelerate the formation of roots, but also make the root system more powerful and well developed. For successful grafting, you need to fulfill several necessary conditions, such as:
- Maintain a constant and uniform temperature of the soil and air.
- Soil temperature should be slightly higher than the air temperature.
- The presence of ambient light.
- Keeping the soil moderately wet.
- Maintain humidity levels 80%.
And it is also possible to propagate juniper in the spring by cuttings, and in open ground. But it should strictly monitor the soil moisture and air. This is especially problematic in a hot and arid climate.
Planting cuttings in open ground
Root formation from cuttings takes from fifty to ninety days. Further care is to air the greenhouse or greenhouse and sprinkle the soil with warm, settled water. Care should be taken to avoid excessive waterlogging, which can lead to rotting of the roots.
Transplantation of seedlings to a permanent place is best done in the spring of next year. Choose a suitable place for planting seedlings in open ground and follow the following rules:
- A recess is dug into the ground, about the size of 2-3 times morethan an earthy clod with juniper roots.
- At the bottom of the hole is poured a drainage layer of sand or pebbles in height. 20-25 cm.
- Засыпается готовый субстрат, состав которого подбирается в зависимости от сорта можжевельника.
- The rooted cutting is carefully transferred to the prepared pit along with a clod of earth, trying not to damage it. The root collar is not covered with soil, but left on the ground surface.
- We fall asleep the roots of a sapling with prepared soil and we well tamp it well.
- Liberally pour with plenty of water.
- We mulch pristol circle with peat or sawdust with a layer up to ten centimeters thick.
Breeding juniper in the spring at home
Many amateur gardeners wonder whether junipers can be propagated by cuttings, in the spring, at home, or on the backyard. We can safely say that yes, you can. The technology of breeding juniper at home is basically no different from technology on an industrial scale. The difference lies in the lack of greenhouses and greenhouses, where you can achieve the required humidity and diffused lighting.
Procurement of cuttings and soil preparation at home is carried out in the same way as for greenhouse breeding.
- It is necessary to prepare a special container for the substrate. This may be a special plastic container or flower pots.
- We pour in the selected tank first drainage (small pebbles), then special ground (it can be purchased at flower shops) on top of the river sand.
- We plant the cuttings and pour a solution of the root-forming drug.
- From above we cover with any glass container made of transparent non-colored glass or thin polyethylene film. We create the conditions of a mini-greenhouse or greenhouse. Regularly ventilate and moisten the soil.
Observing all these recommendations, you can, without special expenses, plant on your site many highly decorative types of junipers, which can reproduce so effectively in spring, rooted by cuttings. Thus, cultivation of juniper cuttings in the spring is an effective method of obtaining an exact copy of the mother tree.
Types of juniper
Most plant species easily tolerate the realities of Russian climatic conditions. Juniper is not demanding to care, easily tolerates dry periods. Despite the fact that this plant loves the sun's rays, it can grow in shaded spaces.
The following types are most common in our country:
- juniper virginsky, who came to us from the North American continent,
- rocky, can grow up to 10 meters high,
- juniper horizontal will wrap any area with a carpet; its variety juniper Cossack breeding allows using all known methods,
- juniper medium resistant to environmental influences, originated from the connection of the Cossack with the Chinese,
- common juniper has creeping and arboreal forms.
The easiest way to propagate juniper seeds, but a characteristic feature of the plant is the fact that the first seedlings can appear no earlier than a year after planting. Improved germination is achieved by stratification of seeds. Sowing them before winter or artificially creating conditions of high humidity and temperature. For the first time this method was used by R. Silva, described in 1664 in the work “Conversation on forest trees and their reproduction for logging”. Individual varieties can be in the ground without the appearance of sprouts up to 4 years, and the appearance of the fruit will move another 10 years.
Reproduction of juniper seeds
The general technique is reduced to the following steps:
- Collecting fruits. You need to pick the darkest berries. In light - are immature seeds.
- After soaking, rubbing seeds are removed from the fruit.
- For half an hour the seeds are placed in a weak acid solution, then washed. If there is time, it is permissible to mix the seeds with ash, grind and incubate for 3 weeks.
- Preparation of the soil consists in mixing the ground with the soil from under the adult juniper. There are symbiotic fungi that help the plant grow.
- When planted in open ground, mulching with humus or peat is required.
- Seeds can be planted in a box, but then the dishes are taken out of the room and buried in the snow.
- In spring, the plant begins to germinate, it is desirable to warm it.
Seedlings in a permanent place can be transplanted at the age of three. Older plants may not tolerate transplantation.
With the possession of particularly valuable varieties of plants reproduction occurs by grafting. In this case, the cut off part is pressed against the stock — this is the carrier of the new plant; for this purpose, common juniper is most often used. Part of the plant is combined with the stock, at the junction is applied polyethylene film. In the future, no action should be taken, but survival rate is low.
Seeds juniper breeds in the wild, vaccinations to increase the number of plants is quite difficult, so at home the most productive methods of propagation are cuttings or layering.
Breeding juniper bends
If the plant variety is creeping - this may be Cossack juniper green Carpet, blue chip, then let's say the method of propagation is a branch. The procedure is carried out during the whole growing season.
- Before cutting the allotment, it is necessary to water the mother plant abundantly. Loosen the soil.
- The soil is prepared, it is necessary to mix peat with humus in the same proportions, add river sand to it.
- The youngest shoots are cut no longer than 25 centimeters.
- Heel is bare by four cm.
- The bare stem is pressed against the prepared ground, it is necessary to secure it with wire or synthetic tape.
- The attached tap must be mulched with peat or humus.
Requires constant care for a young plant - it is watering and hilling, with the appearance of the root system, you can transplant to a permanent place, but it will appear only within one year.
Video "The reproduction of juniper cuttings"
Care on young seedlings
Care for newly planted plants is quite simple. Every spring you need fertilizer soil nitroammofoskoy, but the flow should not exceed 50 grams per square meter. Other fertilizers are not required. It is not necessary to feed juniper more than once a month. It is better to spray it more often during dusk or dawn, in bright sunlight it should not be done. To cut the plant is not necessary, in extreme cases, you can remove the branches that have dried or broken.
Juniper prefers a soil with a sour character, can confidently multiply on sandy soils. The older the plant, the higher its resistance to the cold of the middle zone of our country.
Even the most lazy person can grow and care for the plant, as it is completely unpretentious. But you need to have remarkable patience, because the results of breeding juniper can be seen only after a few years. But you get a great decoration of the garden.
Choosing and receiving cuttings
To grow healthy plants, you need to know what cuttings should be used for rooting.
Rooting cuttings are cut only from the top of an adult juniper.
There are a number of features and rules for choosing planting material:
- The branch for planting should be cut from the middle of the upper part of the crown.
- The use of semi-woody cuttings is not allowed.
- Each branch should be cut with the "heel", which will contribute to a more rapid and fruitful rooting.
Important. If you want your future juniper bush to be spreading, then the cuttings should be cut from the ends of the side branches.
Depending on the time when it is planned to plant the juniper into the ground, reproduction is carried out at different times of the year:
- To plant seedlings in the ground in the spring, cuttings need to be harvested in early February.
- If planting is planned in the autumn, the cuttings are harvested at the very beginning of summer.
How to prepare cuttings
Needles on harvested cuttings should be removed. For these purposes, use a sharp stationery knife. Work should be done as carefully as possible so as not to damage the bark.
Before proceeding to rooting, remove all the needles from the cutting.
For successful breeding juniper will have to resort to the use of root formation stimulants. These drugs today are in every specialized store, so finding and choosing the right tool will not be a problem.
It should be said separately that even with the help of the root former, rooting the juniper in the water will not work. Being in constant moisture, the bark of the cutting begins to delaminate, and this has a detrimental effect on the survivability of the planting material.
The best option is to use a root former in the form of a paste or powder. These tools can be lubricated slice cutting. But experienced gardeners advise not to dwell on this and recommend adding a liquid stimulant to the substrate in which the sprig will germinate.
Preparation of the substrate for the germination of cuttings
To root a branch of juniper, you need to prepare and the appropriate soil.
It must meet certain criteria:
- Air permeability.
- Looseness and lightness.
- Moisture content
All listed characteristics are available for a mixture of peat and sand. These ingredients must be taken in equal proportions, and the presence of ash or lime in the substrate is not allowed.
For grafting use a specially prepared substrate.
Important. This soil will dry out quickly. This can be avoided with the help of a conventional film, which, after planting the cutting, will need to cover the container.
Further care for seedlings
Caring for seedlings at home does not cause trouble. In order for the plant to give roots quickly, the container or pot must be placed in a place with diffused light. Additionally, watering seedlings is not necessary, only if the soil has begun to dry out rapidly.
The optimum temperature for growing juniper is from 18 to 23 degrees Celsius.
Important. The plant in the greenhouse should not fall into direct sunlight.
When germinating cuttings, it is important to maintain an optimum temperature in the range of 18-23 degrees Celsius. With a sharp increase in the seedlings will begin to sweep, with lower temperatures, rot may develop.
Landing on a permanent place
Planting seedlings in a permanent place carried out after 65-70 days after planting. The procedure should be carried out with caution, it is advisable not to disturb the earthen room, so as not to damage the delicate roots of young shoots.
If planting occurs in the fall, it is best to prikopat seedlings in the garden right with the capacity. Only this option is suitable for those who rooted in individual pots. Do not forget about the thorough warming of such seedlings, which can simply freeze in the winter. Therefore, many gardeners recommend planting juniper in the spring, leaving it to hibernate in the house.
Tips and Tricks Florists and Gardeners
The main rule when choosing a cutting is its size. Few people know that because of its density, you need to choose a branch of the appropriate size - no longer than 25 cm.
In the video, the gardener shows one of the ways of rooting cuttings of juniper.
Another point to which you should pay attention - the slope of the juniper. Copies with a spreading or creeping crown planted with a slope of 45 degrees. Upright species should be planted on rooting vertically.
Is it possible to grow juniper from cuttings?
Cultivated, ornamental juniper varieties propagate exclusively by grafting. Moreover, according to gardeners with experience, this technique has several advantages with respect to the method of seed reproduction. Plants planted with rooting cuttings, have a significantly higher resistance and vitality. They survive better, develop faster and more actively, and are less susceptible to the adverse effects of temperature extremes, typical diseases and pests.
Decorative juniper variety
Moreover, according to statistics, the number of successfully rooted cuttings is almost twice the number of surviving seedlings. Therefore, according to gardeners and landscape designers, this method of reproduction of juniper in artificial conditions is most effective. A plant planted in the ground with cuttings is better acclimatized and adapts to the new conditions without requiring special care and attention. However, to achieve extremely favorable results, you must follow some rules.
We estimate a favorable time for disembarkation
Planting juniper should be carried out in the fall and in the winter months. However, knowledgeable people recommend planting plants from mid-September to the last decade of November. During this period, the stomata of plants are closed due to the increased degree of air humidity, as a result, water evaporation practically does not occur, which has a beneficial effect on the condition of the tree and the reproduction process.
Planting horn in autumn
In spring and summer time planting the planting of juniper is not recommended. This is due to damage to the root system, which is caused by increased evaporation and physiological drought, observed in coniferous plants in the warm season. However, the question of the optimal timing of planting juniper trees is quite controversial. Many gardeners say that the time from the first days of April to the end of May is ideal for organizing the reproduction of juniper cuttings, since it is in the fall that period is the peak of its growth and development.
Determining the planting dates, you should also pay attention to the climatic conditions. To rooting the cuttings of juniper was successful, the temperature indicators of air should be from +5 to +25 degrees. Higher or lower levels of heat can adversely affect the reproduction process of a plant and lead to its death.
Preparation of soil and cuttings
To grow a beautiful and healthy juniper tree, it is necessary to responsibly approach the fence planting material. For propagation, plants are best suited cuttings taken from mature trees, which are 8-10 years old. With regard to the choice of varieties, it is best to give preference to low-growing or ordinary juniper, their rooting rate is about 90%. Please note that in plants with a vertical crown shape, shoots for propagation are cut off vertically. Junipers with a bush-like crown form are cut on the cut sideways. As for the length of the shoot, it is advisable to observe 10-15 cm.
Beautiful and healthy juniper tree
Cutting the cuttings is recommended no later than three hours before planting into the ground. Then their lower part should be cleaned of conifer needles, which can rot when released into the soil. In addition, it increases the efficiency of growth and development of the root system. However, on the top of the branches the needles should be left in order to aerate the cutting. Before planting, shoots are placed in a container filled with water, or they can be wrapped in a damp cloth. To speed up the growth process of the future juniper tree, the cutting can be put into a glass for a day with a special stimulating solution. Well-suited for these purposes "Kornevin" or sugar solution in a ratio of 1: 2.
Then you can proceed to the preparation of soil for growing juniper. Planting soil should be a mixture of land with peat and sand (in a ratio of 1: 3). Juniper, like other conifers, feels bad in excessively acidic soils. To reduce the acidity and disinfection can be done by wetting the ground with a concentrated solution of potassium permanganate. When the planting ground is ready, dig a hole, fill it with mortar, and place a layer of sand about 30–35 mm thick on top.
How to plant a young escape?
After completion of the preparatory stages, you can proceed to the direct planting of juniper. To do this, planting material should be placed in the soil no deeper than 20-25 mm. At the same time pay attention to the fact that the columnar varieties of juniper are planted in a vertical position, without turning the cutting, and the creeping varieties of this plant are best rooted with a slight slope. The distance between the cuttings should be about 70 m. After that, it should be slightly compressed and moisten the soil. At the end, the earth is mulched with a mixture of ash and pine bark, and the cuttings themselves are covered with plastic wrap, this is important for creating the greenhouse effect. In order for the tree to get acclimatized and acclimatized as quickly as possible, it needs to create optimal conditions for this.
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Care is a regular moisture needed to strengthen the plant. Watering the cuttings is necessary as the soil dries, on average twice a week. Care must be taken to protect the plant from sunlight. Несмотря на то, что можжевельник считается светолюбивым растением, в период развития его корневой системы и общей адаптации прямое солнце может оказать на него крайне неблагоприятное воздействие. Укоренение можжевельника длится около 2–3 месяцев. При этом с пересадкой растения в открытый грунт рекомендуется не торопиться, чтобы дать ему возможность окончательно окрепнуть.