The ornamental sunflower is an annual herb. Its sunny flowers will decorate any site. There are more than 150 varieties of sunflower, which makes it possible for each gardener to choose flowers to his own taste.
The purpose of growing decorative sunflower in open ground
Ornamental sunflower, called gelianthus, differs from the agricultural species in saturated sunny flowers. It is grown to create on the site. unique rustic color.
Often enough sunflower can be planted for:
- creating a hedge around the circumference of the fences,
- creating bouquet compositions
- decoration of flower beds.
The most popular varieties of sunflower
The most popular varieties of helianthuses should include:
- Teddy bear. The annual plant has a compact size (up to 1 m) and blooms with fairly large double flowers, painted in bright yellow tones. The flowering period is delayed until the fall.
- Red sun. Variety of sunflower, which has bright petals of red-brown shades. Plant height reaches 2 m, and the flowering period is quite long
- Vanilla ice grown to create bouquets. Flowers have a delicate vanilla color and very favorably emphasize the tenderness of the flower composition.
- Moulin rouge. Sunflower with an unusual color scheme. Petals of maroon-red tones closer to the edges brighten, and to the middle part of the flowers become very dark.
- Kong - the highest representative of the sunflower. The plant reaches a height of 5 m. As a rule, such plants are planted near fences and tied up, as with strong gusts of wind, sunflowers break. This variety produces remarkable and colorful hedges.
- Teddy bear. In this variety, flowers look incredibly rich - terry, fluffy with a bright yellow shade, they look spectacular in flower arrangements.
- Orange sun. The decorative sunflower begins its flowering period in July and pleases with its dark red flowers until September. It should be borne in mind that the plant loves open sunny areas. It tolerates drought well and loves sunny warm days.
Before planting, you must choose the most favorable area for the growth of ornamental plants. When choosing a place, you should remember that the best sites for planting a decorative sunflower are:
- protected from wind gusts,
- located in the open
- with having a good level of drainage.
Decorative sunflower cannot grow on high acid soil. Planting seeds is possible from early May to mid-July.
When planting a helicopter it is necessary to strictly observe the sowing technology:
- First thing soak the seeds. To do this, wrap them in a material impregnated with infusion of wood resin. A recipe of infusion - a liter of warm water will require a couple of Art. ash.
- We dig holes, the depth of which reaches 5.5-6 cm.
- We deepen into each well a few seeds of 2-2.5 cm.
- The distance between sprouts should be approximately 45-50 cm depending on the variety. The largest varieties should be placed at a distance 70 cm apart.
- Rows should be located at a distance 70-80 cm.
- After sowing the beds they should be rolled.
- The first shoots of seedlings appear after 7-11 days.
Care for a decorative flower
Decorative sunflowers require timely care:
- Flowers should be watered enough often and abundantly, as the root of an annual plant reaches a depth of 2-2.5 m. In hot weather, the soil is moistened several times a day. It is especially important to water the plants before the period of full formation of 4 pairs of foliage, budding and flowering.
- Gelianthus required enhanced nutrition. For these purposes, you should purchase granulated superphosphate, which will need to feed the sunflower and water it abundantly at the time of development of the 5 leaf. As soon as the baskets begin to form, the plant is fertilized with a mullein extract in a ratio of 1:10. Potassium sulfate is also added. If bubbles begin to form on the foliage of the gelantus, it is necessary to feed the plant with a boron-containing solution.
- Periodically, it is necessary to examine the condition of plantations in order to timely detect the activity of pests or the onset of the development of the disease.
- Every 7-10 days is required soil loosening and weed removal.
Diseases and pests
Despite the external power and invulnerability of plants, it should be borne in mind that insufficient care can provoke the occurrence of such diseases as:
- black spot
- gray spot,
- fomoz stalk,
For these purposes, perfect Apron and Kruiser.
Helianthuses can strike and viral infections:
- greening of inflorescences.
This disease is transmitted by insects. Also seriously harm the development of a solar flower can broomrape (a flowering plant of parasitic type with a completely missing root system). Broomrape shoots are fully embedded in the roots of sunflowers and feed at their expense.
When growing planes, be careful of the following pests:
- Maybot larvae,
- bed bugs
- meadow moths.
For the destruction of pests, it is advisable to use insecticidal and acaricidal preparations, which include Agravertin, Volley, Akarin.
Application in landscape design and combination with other plants
When using colors of 2-3 types of various heights, you can make up with bright colors of the heliantus colorful flower bed. Having landed compact sunflower varieties along the edges of the garden paths You can make them especially amazing during the daytime. High sunflower species will be great. hedge.
When decorating a flower bed, you should consider the basic rules of landscape design:
- Yellow inflorescences of plants is better to plant next to the flowers of blue, purple and white shades.
- Decorative sunflowers will create a unique composition in combination with chrysanthemum, chamomile, white liatris, lavender and delphinium. If desired, you can add a composition of wild flowers of bright colors.
In recent years, sunflower has gained wide popularity. in the creation of bouquets. When composing the composition, chic solar inflorescences complement with asters, gladioli, chrysanthemums and roses. The main advantage of the use of sunflowers in bouquets is the preservation of its freshness over a long period of time.
Cultivation of decorative sunflowers does not require much time and physical costs. The most important thing is not to forget about systematic watering of plants, weeding beds and loosening the soil.
As soon as the buds wilted, they can be removed with a knife. After that, the geliantus should be cut to the root. If desired, you can collect seeds for the following planting.
Unpretentious plants of extraordinary beauty will emphasize the individuality of the garden plot. Solar inflorescences will please every day with their views of the owners, and create a cozy homely atmosphere.
Decorative sunflowers are flowers that prefer sunny spots. This culture requires fertile soil with an abundance of nutrients. The soil needs to be well drained. Sour soil for this culture will not work. The plot on which the plant will be planted must be protected from the wind.
Culture has the ability to take large quantities of nutrients from the soil, the next year it is recommended to plant beans or beans, the so-called green manure.
Numerous varieties of this culture are widely used in landscape design. Borders are made of plants, planted in group plantings, dwarf varieties are placed in rock gardens, and from high varieties they create hedges, the height of which can be higher than a person's height.
Additional Information: decorative sunflowers will look great in any flower arrangement. A number of delphiniums, chrysanthemums, chamomiles, lavender will look great with heliantus.
Reproduction of culture
Perennial species of heliantus multiply by cutting. Cut a decorative sunflower in spring or autumn. Perennial varieties are also propagated by dividing the bush - this rejuvenates the plant and increases the flowering splendor. "Divide" the sunflower three years after planting.
In the climatic conditions of central Russia, sunflower is more often grown as an annual plant. The most common method of breeding sunflowers - is sowing seeds. Varieties for breeding this plant very much. The most popular are: Sunflower Bear, domestic variety of Red Sun (red sunflower).
Growing from sunflower seeds Bear begins with soaking planting material. Wet the wood ash with a solution of wood ash (1 liter of warm water and 2 tbsp l of ash) with a cloth and wrap the seeds in it.
Dig holes 6 cm deep, put some seeds in them. The distance between plantings should be up to 0.5 m, for large varieties about 0.7 m. The distance between rows of crops should be up to 0.8 m. The first shoots will seem in 10 days. To get a constantly blooming flower bed, seeds need to be sown at weekly intervals.
The ideal time for planting in open ground will be the beginning of May. Gardeners practice earlier sowing - April. The temperature should be stable at +10 ° C, then shoots will appear. Between sowing seeds and the appearance of the first flowers will take about 80 days.
Bred sunflower and seedling method. For this, 2-3 seeds are planted in small pots. This should be done a month before the florist decided to plant them in open ground. Seedlings should be placed on a well-lit window, periodically watered, but not excessively.
Small sunflowers are planted in open ground at a fixed temperature of +12 ° C.
Note! Reproduction of heliantus seeds is the easiest and most effective way, the seeds remain viable for up to 5 years.
Many amateurs practice cultivation of decorative sunflowers at home, dwarf varieties are suitable for this purpose. The pot should be selected with reference to the variety; a container with a diameter of about 40 cm is enough for low varieties. Before planting, the container needs to be disinfected to avoid diseases of future plants.
At the bottom of the pot it is necessary to make a drainage, for this is suitable a pebble or foam. Pour a special soil over the drainage layer, not getting to the edge about 2 cm. Shoots will appear in a week, after which the containers are placed on the window. Even at home you can grow sunflower Bear.
Note! Flowering plants begins in mid-July and lasts until October.
It is necessary to water culture often and plentifully, since the plant has large roots, the frequency of watering - 1 time per week, to increase in drought. Watering should be regular during the period when leaflets and buds are formed, as well as during flowering.
Dried flowers should be removed to stimulate the appearance of new flowers.
On fertile soil, the gelantus does not require fertilizers. For poor soil, it is worth to stock up on superphosphate in the granules, which need to feed a young plant during the formation of 5 leaves. The infusion of mullein in the ratio of 1:10 must be made in the period of budding. Potassium sulfate is also added at the same time.
Note! In case bubbles appear on the sunflower leaves, you need to feed the solution containing boron.
Every week you need to get rid of weeds in a flower bed and loosen the soil around the sunflower, and inspect the plant for the detection of diseases or pests. Sunflower bloom may not occur if the plant is attacked by parasites.
The most common diseases are:
- rust: orange bubbles on the stem of the plant,
- downy mildew: on the inside of the sheet - white bloom, on the outside - dark spots,
- brown spot: round spots, then dry.
These diseases appear as a result of improper care, and the increased humidity of the air and soil cause fungal infections. You can cope with these diseases by treating the culture with fungicides, as well as removing the affected areas of the plant.
To combat the fungus, you can use the folk method: copper sulfate (3 g), laundry soap (25 g), water (1 l). Within a week, the plant is treated with this solution until the symptoms of the disease disappear.
Pests that often attack a plant:
Note! Get rid of pests with the help of insecticidal drugs.
Perennial varieties must be cut off after repeated frosts in order to leave about 7 cm above the ground. Treat the plant and the soil with any fungicide to prevent fungus. Cover the plant so that it does not freeze.
The sunflower got its name because its head resembles the sun and follows it all day long. When caring for this decorative flower, you need to be careful and inspect it regularly to prevent disease or pests. It will be much easier to care for the culture if you familiarize yourself in advance with the features of planting and caring for it.
The most common type of sunflower in Russia - this is oilseed gelantus. The culture has fruit-seeds. Homeland is North America. Even the ancient Indians revered this flower, which they associated with the god of the sun. The sunflower was eaten in the form of flour. This amazing bush was introduced to our country by Peter I. Thanks to him, vegetable oil appeared in Russia, which can also be used in fasting. That is why it is called lean.
Decorative sunflowers appeared a little later and are now widely distributed throughout the world. Thanks to the breeders, more than 200 varieties of sunflower have been bred.
There is a beautiful legend about the girl Schochtilwho was waiting for the sunrise and watched him during the day. The light never hid behind the clouds, which caused a severe drought. The Aztecs begged water from the gods. Shochitl asked the sun god Tonatiu to cover the sky with clouds to rain. Her wish came true, but the girl herself suffered and died away without her beloved luminary. Then Tonatiu told her to go to a sacred place where the sun never sets. There, the girl became a big bright flower that watched its idol all day.
Features of appearance
- Plant height from 30 cm to 5 meters depending on the variety.
- The root system is well developed, which allows the flower to take root densely.
- Stem is powerful, strong, resilient.
- The leaves have a dark green shade up to half a meter in some varieties.
- The flower is painted in bright yellow, white, burgundy tone. There are representatives of heliantus with a double color.
- The plant has a pleasant aroma and is a honey plant. The product of sunflower has a tart taste and rich smell.
Soil for a flower
Place for landing should be sunny, the land is loose and fertile. The soil must be dug up so that it becomes airy. Then sprinkle with water, but not much. Sunflower does not tolerate stagnant fluid at the roots. You can add a little drainage: sand, gravel. A small layer of wood ash is poured into each well.
Planting decorative sunflower seed
It is better to sow the fruit immediately into the ground, but in some regions of Russia this is impossible due to weather extremes. Therefore, the plant is easily grown in seedling containers. The flower in the indoor environment requires additional lighting, because he is thermophilic.
When planting directly into the ground seeds should be sown at a distance of 30−80 cm from each other, depending on the type of sunflower. The depth of planting fruits - 2 cm. After 2 weeks, the plant already gives the first shoots. And in the third month, the sunny bushes are blooming.
- If seed germination did not happen in a certain period, they will not grow.
- From the very beginning of planting the flower requires regular watering.
- When the seedlings stretch to 5 cm and above, they can already be thinned, removing weak shoots.
- Watering the sunflower is often necessary until it reaches a height of 50 cm.
- During the vegetative stage of the helicantus, the soil should be periodically loosened and free of weeds.
- Faded buds are immediately cut to give growth to other inflorescences.
- If you need to propagate a particular variety, then dried heads can be left and they will give self-seeding.
Types of decorative sunflower
- Jerusalem artichoke reaches a height of four meters. Stem tight, resilient. This variety of culture is perennial as well as edible. Ripened tubers are dug up like potatoes. The shape of the rhizomes is uneven. Such a vegetable is stored for no more than two weeks at a temperature of + 2 ° C. In cold conditions, Jerusalem artichoke spoils. It is best to wrap each earthen pear with a newspaper and put it in a plastic bag. Store in the vegetable section of the refrigerator. Topinambur is made from tinctures, vodka and various dishes.
- Teddy bear — это однолетний сорт гелиантуса. Inflorescence terry, lush. The diameter of the buds is 12–20 cm. The height of the plant does not exceed one meter. Sunflower looks great in a mix with other annuals. Heat-loving and unpretentious. Such a bear can grow even on a balcony or loggia. Geliantus begins to bloom in July, and ends with the arrival of autumn. Plant in May at a distance of 30−40 cm from each other. Seeds are sown directly in the ground. The soil loves loose.
- Vanilla ice it looks like a familiar sunflower. Petals have a pale yellow tint with a brown heart. Like other varieties it is a honey plant. The flower is a decorative annual with a height of 1.5 meters. Stalk powerful, resilient. Most often used to cut or to create decorative compositions. The variety was bred by German breeders.
- Red sun. Amazing look, different from others in a completely different color. The flower has a maroon-brown shade with a dark honey core. The annual height reaches two meters. Many gardeners plant a sunflower in the form of a hedge. Cut bouquets perfectly in harmony with other flowers. Sun-loving, unpretentious to the soil. Culture is planted in open ground with 3 seeds in each hole. The distance between the holes is at least 30 cm.
- Kong the largest species of the Astrovie family. In height rises to 5 meters. Stems are powerful, flexible. Dark green leaves with a diameter of 30-50 cm. Inflorescence of bright yellow color with a black core. Often planted as a decorative fence.
- Moulin rouge has a rich red-burgundy shade. The center is painted in a dark tone, the petals at the end become lighter. Variety bred by foreign biologists. This sunflower grows to 2 meters, and the stem is completely covered with beautiful cherry blossoms.
- Red lemon painted in a two-tone tone. The black core turns into a burgundy color of the petals, on the edges the sunflower acquires a yellow tint.
- Italian white. Plant height 1.5−2 meters. The petals are cream colored with lemon edging on the edges. Flower tolerates drought and strong heat. From the plant you can make bouquets. Planted as a decorative hedge.
- Ten sunflower widely distributed in garden plots. Heliantus came to us from North America. Height varies from 50 cm to two meters, depending on weather conditions. It blooms from July to September. Petals are bright yellow with a diameter of 7 cm.
- Black magic is another red representative of the Astrovie family. Annuals strongly branched. Plant height 1.5−2 meters. Sunflower petals have a slightly dented appearance.
Fomoz - It is a bacterium that spreads brown spots on the stalk. These marks deplete the barrel and plunge them into brittleness. The culture is treated in the middle of June with the Acanta Plus fungicide, then with Thanos means just before flowering.
Bacterial rot affects all ground organs. The stem is twisted and the leaves dry out. Baskets do not bloom. Seeds are inferior and not similar. The sunflower becomes vulnerable to gusts of wind and breaks off at the bottom. Prevention of the disease is carried out by herbicides and mechanical treatment of the soil.
Fomopsis - This is the most terrible disease of heliantus. It affects all terrestrial parts of the plant. Appears in the axils of the leaves in the form of brown and black spots. Stems dry out and break. Seeds do not develop and pour out of the baskets. The bacterium is not afraid of frost and spreads quickly in hot weather.
Infected plants should be removed immediately and hybrids that are resistant to the disease should be used. Damaged soil must be treated with antibacterial agents.
Alternaria. After the culture stops flowering, in a month you can see the affected areas. They form a brown spot on the inflorescence basket, with most of the seeds dying. Often the disease occurs due to high humidity. The best prevention will be the breeding of resistant varieties of sunflower, as well as regular treatment with antifungal agents.
Weeds often carry harmful bacteria, so the timely removal of excess grass around the gelantus does not allow various parasites to spread. For better protection, use the herbicide Gambit. The land is sprayed with the preparation after sowing sunflower, when shoots are still not visible (the ratio of 2−4 liters per 1 hectare).
Growing decorative sunflower
Today, sunflowers are grown all over the world: in Europe and Japan, North America, South Africa and Austria. By the way, it was in Austria, not far from Vienna, that the “Sunflower Park” opened recently, whose visitors can see over forty species of wild fellows, hundreds of modern oilseed varieties, as well as almost all the decorative forms of sunflower that exist today.
Growing decorative sunflower
The popularity of decorative sunflowers is due not only to the simplicity of their cultivation, but also the variety of varieties. Depending on your taste preferences, you can place dwarfs (from 30 cm) or real giants (up to 5 m), single-stemmed or branched, small or large-flowered (5 to 20 cm) varieties on your bed of flowers.
With the help of these bright sunny colors, you can decorate unsightly buildings, compost heaps, old fences and so on.
Sowing a decorative sunflower
Decorative sunflowers need to be sown in open sunny areas, protected from the wind, with well-drained soil.
Annual ornamental sunflowers are propagated with seeds, which, before sowing, need to be soaked for 24 hours in a cloth that has been thoroughly soaked with wood ash extract (1 st. Spoon of ash dissolved in 500 g of warm water). Sowing can be done from the beginning of May and throughout the summer period, then you will get a flower bed of continuous flowering sunflower.
Sowing a decorative sunflower
The depth of sowing of seeds should not exceed 3 cm, and the optimal distance between plants is considered to be 30-70 cm apart - depending on the variety.
All perennial species of sunflower are easily propagated by dividing the bush, which can be produced every two years, late in the fall or in early spring.
Care for decorative sunflower
Decorative sunflowers - docile plants that do not need special care. By ensuring regular watering, you can maximize the period of their flowering. Watering must be sufficiently abundant, but try to avoid stagnation of water in the soil around the stems, otherwise you risk ruining the plant.
Decorative sunflower - docile plant
In addition to watering ornamental sunflowers, experienced gardeners recommend loosening the land around the plants, as well as removing all weeds. Pruning faded flowers stimulates the formation of new ones.
It is not necessary to fertilize decorative sunflowers: if the soil is fertile, they will grow beautifully as well, delighting you with their amazing flowers. If you grow them on poor soils, then at the beginning of the growing season, sunflowers need to be fed with any organic fertilizer.
Decorative Sunflower Pests
Among the many pests of sunflower are considered to be especially dangerous for the plant: sunflower moth - its caterpillars damage achenes, as well as sunflower barbel and sunflower shponoska, which completely eat away the core of the stem of the plant.
Decorative sunflower must be protected from pests.
Also one of the most malicious enemies of sunflower is considered broomrape - a flowering annual plant that "settles" on the roots of a sunflower and leads to the death of the plant.
Klubnenosny sunflower (Helianthus tuberosus)
The name of the species is directly related to the fact that tubers with excellent healing properties are formed on the roots of this sunflower.
The height of the plant of the sunflower and tuberous reaches 3 m, the stem is slightly leafy, the baskets of golden-yellow flowers are quite small - from 2 to 6 cm.
Sunflower ten pet (Helianthus decapetalus)
Also a fairly common perennial species, reaching a height of 1.5 m. The leaves are painted in dark green color, the inflorescences of the plant can be either terry or simple, golden or lemon yellow.
It blooms Helianthus decapetalus from mid-August until the first frost.
Growing a decorative sunflower seed
Under the decorative sunflowers often mean annual heliantus. A large selection of varieties and forms, simple and terry, but always dazzling seasonal stars - just one of the reasons for the continued popularity of sunflowers. After all, these plants are so easy to reproduce, that even inexperienced growers can grow summer guards. The right choice of location, timely sowing and caring for young plants - that's all you need to admire the luxurious sunflower heads in your flower garden.
Annual sunflowers are one of the most popular seasonal plants. Their appearance is well known to both gardeners and those who do not grow plants on their own. The largest basket inflorescences of all possible are easily recognizable even in the company of related flowering crops. But to understand the variety of annual sunflowers is not so easy as identifying their luxurious heads in a flower bed. On bags with seeds, they often do not specify the type of sunflower and label the seeds simply as Helianthus, although the annual representatives of the genus and all their varieties have long been combined into a species annual sunflower(Helianthus annuus). The flowering of annual sunflowers traditionally lasts from July to October. Single-stemmed annuals with thick upright shoots, crowning on tops of strikingly large baskets of inflorescences with a diameter of 5 to 36 cm, sunflowers are easily recognizable. And not only along the classically large center of numerous tubular or sternly reed flowers arranged in rows, but also along the bristly-pubescent, rough to the touch, inimitably wrinkled, alternately arranged on the petioles of the heart-shaped serrate leaves of a rich color, and according to the power of their peduncles.
In the annual sunflowers there are dwarf, up to half a meter in height, and even lower, varieties and real giants. Decorative forms (variegated, round swollen, round many-flowered, Californian) and hundreds of different varieties allow you to choose annual sunflowers to your liking. Yellow, orange, red, white, brown, variations of one-colored or two- and three-colored color, different degrees of terry and semi-dimensionalities, size of the center and location, and even the shape of the petals significantly affect the decorative nature of sunflowers and the possibility of their use. But all this diversity does not affect the reproduction of annual sunflowers. They are grown only from seeds and more often they do not use seedlings, but the simplest method is sowing directly at the place of cultivation, that is, directly into the soil.
Breeding methods of sunflower:
- Sowing directly at the place of cultivation in the spring.
- Sowing on seedlings in early spring.
Independent collection of sunflower seeds and their choice for sowing
Even the most fashionable sunflower varieties give plenty of self-sowing, but collecting the seeds of the varieties you like from this plant is not difficult. The reverse-faceted seed buds in flat baskets make it easy to assess the degree of ripening of the seeds (by their darkening).
The most difficult thing in the collection of decorative sunflower seeds is to protect the crop from birds that love to feast on seeds of even one-year-old varieties. As the seeds are formed, the inflorescences, from which they plan to harvest, must be tied with a net, a transparent cloth or gauze to prevent the birds from reaching the precious seeds. After the heads are cut, the seeds are not removed from the seeds, but give them to dry completely. You can store seeds without removing from the baskets, and in a "clean" form.
Seed germination of decorative sunflower seeds is kept for a very long time: even in the third or fourth year after harvest, one-year sunflowers sprout, albeit not with a 90% performance, but quite friendly.
The main thing in the purchase of seeds of varieties and varieties of decorative sunflowers is to choose trusted producers. Too cheap seeds of dubious firms may not give a single shoot at all. Pay attention to the completeness of information about the manufacturer, study its reputation, average prices in the market. For the rest, you can only focus on the height and aesthetic qualities of the inflorescences. Before sowing, seeds are sorted, discarding damaged and small ones (if there is a desire, they can be sown separately for the experiment).
Decorative sunflower inflorescences
Place for sowing decorative sunflowers
The very name of the heliantus directly indicates the conditions in which these delightfully summer flowers prefer to grow. Annual sunflowers are the same sun-worshipers as ordinary sowing or perennial heliantuses. They need the brightest, open, sunny areas. For low varieties of sunflowers, frivolity is not terrible, but for high and especially giant sunflowers, up to 3 m high or planted in curbs and screens, you need to choose a protected, warm, windproof grounds. Even miniature varieties with a height of about 30 cm in windy places develop smaller and less bright inflorescences.
Much more attention should be paid to soil parameters. For annual sunflowers, it should be light and loose. Sandstones are preferable, but if sand is added to improve the structure, helicants can grow on loams and on clay soil. Wet or fresh soils with a high nutrient content will allow the one-year-old gelianth to fully manifest its beauty. Annual sunflowers do not tolerate soil salinity and acidic environments.
Sunflowers are not grown without a break in the same place, after the nightshade, bean and beet.
Dates of sowing decorative sunflower into the soil
In regions where the soil warms up early, the choice of possible planting dates and stretching the sowing period for several months makes it possible to increase the flowering time for almost the entire season. You can sow sunflower in the south in autumn, before winter, in the end of March-April.
In regions with severe winters, annual sunflowers are traditionally sown at the end of April, with favorable weather, but more often - only in May. You do not need to be afraid of early sowing: despite the fact that the sunflowers themselves are not cold-proof and fade with the arrival of primorozkov, shoots perfectly tolerate returnable primorozki up to -6 degrees, which allows for the sowing of ornamental sunflower somewhat earlier than ordinary letnik. Typically, plants are recommended to sow when the soil warms up to about 10 degrees Celsius.
"Stretch" sowing is in any case, dividing the seeds into portions for sowing with an interval of 1 week. If you carry out decorative sunflower sowing during the whole summer, the sunflower parade will continue until the first frost and will be uninterrupted.
Sowing seeds of decorative sunflower
In the process of sowing decorative varieties of sunflowers is nothing complicated. You can soak the seeds for a day in water and pickle in fungicides (even in a weak solution of potassium permanganate) to increase resistance to pests and diseases. With a limited number of seeds, it is advisable to germination on a damp napkin or paper towel, making a careful pinching or cutting the top of the seeds to accelerate germination.
Seeds are sown in grooves or individual pits, deepening them by about 2-4 cm (maximum depth, not affecting the development of sprouts - 5 cm). It is advisable to carry out sowing of a decorative sunflower sparsely in order to avoid the need to thin out the seedlings. Usually seeds are laid out in 2-3 pieces at a distance of 30 cm for undersized up to 70 cm for the highest sunflower.
The first shoots of annual sunflowers usually appear within a week after sowing.
After the shoots appear and get stronger, the excess plants are removed, leaving the strongest.
Flowering from May crops can be expected in July. But it is much easier to focus on the length of the growing season: annual sunflowers will bloom in 75, in extreme cases - 90 days.
Young sapling of decorative sunflower
Care for young shoots of ornamental sunflower
Sunflower can suffer from birds, snails and even rodents long before the emergence of shoots and at the stage of germination. It is better to lay out baits from slugs and snails at once, but to save sunflower crops from birds you can simply cover the soil with a net or foil.
Despite the status of sun-worshipers, it would be a big mistake to attribute decorative sunflowers to drought-resistant plants. They are moisture-loving and the beauty of flowering directly depends on watering. Drought during the period of active development of greenery and the flower stalk necessarily affects flowering, so watering is provided from the stage of young shoots. Waterlogging, soil moisture is as dangerous as complete drying of the soil. Поливы проводят тогда, когда не хватает осадков, около 1 раза в неделю в жару и засуху, промачивая почву на всю глубину залегания корней гелиантуса.
Подкормки для подсолнечника при условии достаточной питательности почвы можно не проводить вовсе. If the soil has not been improved, then approximately one month after the emergence of the seedlings, you can feed the sunflowers with nitrogen fertilizers, and at the budding and flowering stage - with full mineral or potassium-phosphorus fertilizers.
High varieties of sunflower are better as they are tied up to supports as they grow, especially if the plants are still planted on windy grounds. For sunflowers, a simple peg is enough.
In adults, annual sunflowers in the future, care is reduced to several procedures:
- soil loosening
- weed removal
- removing faded bushes (if you keep the inflorescences, you should not rush to cut, because the sunflower will not only decorate autumn and winter beds, but will also provide an additional source of food for birds).
Removing fading flowers from a sunflower speeds up the blooming of new buds and helps prevent the flower heads from wilting. If you grow plants for cutting, then the truth is better to timely cut the inflorescences (except for a few "heads" left to collect the seeds). But if you simply decorate a garden with sunflowers and place accents, then leave as many inflorescences as possible: they will serve the useful birds in the garden as well as regular filling of the feeders. Yes, and your eyes will please.
Growing seedlings of decorative sunflower.
Growing decorative sunflowers through seedlings
The soil for sowing annual sunflowers will be standard, versatile, nutritious and loose, but not with a weakly acidic, but neutral or slightly alkaline reaction. But containers need to pay more attention: sunflowers do not like to transplant, to avoid injuries to the roots it is better to sow in individual cups or peat pots.
Sowing of seeds is carried out depending on the desired period of planting in the soil. Since the grown seedlings are not frost resistant, planting can only be done at the end of May-June, and sowing of seeds at the end of April or beginning of May (20-25 days before planting to a permanent place). But most importantly, what you need to focus on - it is the intensity of illumination, the ability to organize lighting.
Seeds are sown on 2-3 pieces in personalized cups, removing weaker plants from emerging seedlings. Sunflower is germinated under glass or film, sown to a depth of 1.5-2 cm in moist soil. The temperature for germination is suitable for any within the room indicators, but the lighting should be very bright.
Growing a decorative sunflower.
Growing sunflower seedlings is not an easy task. When there is a shortage of light, plants turn out weak, the stems bend, the plant stretches out and sometimes does not look like itself. For sunflower, only a place on the southern window-sill or with additional light is suitable. Soil moisture should be steadily light. Feeding is not carried out. Hardening seedlings need to start as early as possible.
Planting decorative sunflowers grown through seedlings is possible only at the end of May or June, after the threat of recurrent primorozk disappears. Plants are planted in the same way as they were sown in open soil, at a distance of 30-70 cm. An earthen clod around the roots cannot be destroyed. For young seedlings care is similar to the care of young shoots.
Description of decorative sunflowers
Sunflowers are also known under the name "heliantus". This herb has been widely used in the decoration of flowerbeds and garden plots. Of these are original compositions for interior decoration. The photo of a decorative sunflower captures one of them. A gorgeous bouquet of large flowers looks original in a vase.
Annual and perennial sunflowers are divided into two types: sowing and decorative. The second subspecies takes on such shapes and colors that it is difficult to make an association between two flowers of the same family.
There are several main types of decorative representative:
"Red sun". Refers to a giant plant representative. Long flowering is represented by red-brown flowers,
"Teddy bear". Srednerosly subspecies. Its feature is large flowers terry structure. The color of the petals is rich yellow. Flowering lasts from July to early autumn,
"Moulin rouge". It differs in that the petals are colored with a gradient from a dark color in the center to a light color at the edges,
"Kong". Used for decorating the garden plot. Its height reaches 5 m.
There are more than 100 representatives of sunflower grown as a flower.
Description of a decorative sunflower
The decorative variety of sunflower carries the name heliantus. In Europe, it is actively used to decorate flowerbeds, stylized decoration of flower beds (for example, in rural style). Recently, geliantus became an active guest in the beds of domestic gardeners and gardeners:
- in the form of a hedge by the fence,
- a separate small group in the flower garden,
- in pots,
- for bouquets.
In comparison with the well-known sunflower from the field, decorative has the following differences:
- large flower basket: diameter - 5-30 cm,
- small amount of green mass
- seeds of these flowers are too small for food or for processing,
- massive and strong stem,
- stem height is about 40 cm (in large varieties it is much higher, at the level of industrial sunflower),
- the color of the petals is not only yellow, and maybe white, beige, orange, lemon, golden, with shades of reddish and brown, even burgundy, and also chocolate,
- depending on the variety, the petals can be twisted, oblong or rounded, smooth or have a terry / semi-double texture,
- inflorescences fragrant.
The most famous among decorative sunflowers deserved the golden Jint Single, creamy green Vanilla Ice, rich burgundy Moulin Rouge and wine red burgundy sun. Terry varieties that even have the names cozy and warm look good: Teddy Bear, Sunny Bunny, Teddy Bear, Light of the Moon.
Attention! One of the most popular varieties of heliantus is a tuberiferous, known as Jerusalem artichoke.
Features of sowing decorative sunflower
First of all, you should choose a place for landing. It should be protected from the wind and sunny - then you can personally observe how the flower turns its head after the sun. The soil is needed with a good level of drainage. On very acidic or saline soils, the sun flower does not want to grow. The deadline for planting with seeds is from the first days of May to the end of summer.
Heliantus seeding technology:
- Soak the material. To do this, wrap it in a material that is impregnated with infusion of wood ash. Recipe: 1 tbsp. l ash to 0.5 liters of water at room temperature.
- Dig holes about 6 cm deep.
- Dip in them seeds by 2-3 cm. In one well - 2-3 pieces.
- Keep the distance between sprouts about 30-70 cm. The specific length depends on the variety, look for it on the seed packaging. Usually, the larger the variety, the farther apart should be its samples.
- The distance between the rows is 70 cm.
- Roll the bed after landing.
- Wait for seedlings 6-10 days (depending on the average daily temperature).
Council The longer the period between sowing and the first shoots, the higher the risk of damage to seed by birds or rodents.
Theoretically, a decorative sunflower will sprout even at earlier sowing - for example, in April. The flower has a fairly stable daily air temperature of + 6 ... + 9 ° С. However, in this case, the seedlings will be somewhat delayed and will appear no earlier than the 20th day. In total, you can win a couple of weeks by increasing the presence of a blooming sunflower in your flower bed. But late sowing, as a rule, is accompanied by less intensive development and lower yields of sunflower. Therefore, the best option are varieties with average planting times.
How to grow a decorative sunflower with seedlings
Heliantus can be grown in a seedling manner:
- Seeds are buried 1-3 pieces in small glasses or pots.
- The procedure is carried out for 20-30 days before the planned planting of seedlings in the ground.
- Sprouts in pots provide a lot of light so that they become fluffy and strong.
- With the help of irrigation, they maintain the light moisture of the earth and do not overflow the flower.
What you need to know about the care of the gelantus
As well as industrial and decorative varieties of sunflower are not very picky about the growing conditions and care. Highlights:
- Before germination during seed planting, protect the shoots from weeds by harrowing.
- Sunflower is very dependent on moisture. Water it often, but in small portions to avoid stagnant water at the root.
- For a good exposure to the underground part of the flower with oxygen and moisture, weed regularly and loosen the flower bed.
- After the appearance of the first leaves, it is desirable to make a piercing. Late procedure will lead to mutual oppression of seedlings and poor development of flower baskets. Small flowers form on plants that grow too close to each other.
- During the growing season, the sunflower requires 3-5 weeds.
- The sunflower will develop more actively if you feed it a couple of times a season. Better - liquid fertilizers. For the first application, in the phase of 2 true leaves, use full mineral fertilizers. For the second, at the stage of tying the baskets, it is nitrogen-phosphoric. If necessary, repeat the second dressing at the beginning of flowering.
- The flowering inflorescences need to be cut. After the last basket has faded, cut the plant under the root. It is impossible to dig, because the root system is connected with the neighboring ones.
- Among the pest enemies of the sunflower are birds, as well as insects: sunflower moth, barbel and shponoska.
A simple care for the gelantus will help to decorate your site with a lively and sunny decor.