Fern one of those plants whose “pedigree” originates from prehistoric times and has more than one million years. In addition, he is fanned by various legends and beliefs. The most famous of which - bloom on the night of Ivan Kupala. No one has ever seen him, but to this day, they hope to find this flower ... Belief in miracles will always live. And this is good! But in the cultivation of fern as a houseplant, there is no miracle. This traditionally forest dweller lives very well at home.
The most popular type of fern among amateur flower growers is nephrolepis, although you can meet both adiantum, and asplenium, and polypodium is golden, and a couple of species. Here, perhaps, that's all. And this is from 20 with a tail of thousands of species!
They are all grown quite easily, and caring for a fern at home is not difficult. Almost all indoor species of this plant are grown the same way, so take as an example nephrolepis.
Room fern: home care
Little about the plant
Before starting to describe the rules of care and conditions of growing this plant, I want to highlight one important point. The fern is a traditional forest dweller, and not some American or Australian forests, but our own. Often it is from there that he gets into our homes, becoming a houseplant. But in the forest no one cared for him, did not care, did not cherish, he was completely dependent on the weather and grew to himself a magnificent and beautiful bush. Moving into the room, he suddenly began to wither and dry through time. Often the florist (and the beginner in particular) begins to look for flaws in the care and ... does not find them. Everything was done right. But everything is much easier. Fern is a wonderful indicator of the atmosphere. If something is wrong with him, and care is due, look for the reason in the atmosphere of the apartment. The air may be smoke, gas, too dry. Finding the cause and eliminating it, you will not only save the plant, but also thank him. After all, you breathe the same air! At the same time, consuming such air to the detriment of itself, it simultaneously purifies it. So, along with chlorophytum, spathiphyllum and dieffenbachia, it is also a natural air filter. By the way, speaking of the usefulness of indoor fern, it is impossible not to mention his ability to heal wounds, like aloe and zebrin.
Location and lighting
One should not think that if a fern is able to grow in the shade of trees, then at home it can be pushed into a dark place. Of course, light partial shade will not harm him, but in bright, diffused light, nephrolepis will show itself in all its glory. Room fern plant rather big, and this should also be considered. For some time he can stand on the windowsill (east or west), but then he will be crowded there. Try to find him a place brighter, but without direct sunlight. It looks good indoor fern on a stand by the window or in the corner between the windows.
In summer, the most comfortable place for a fern is on the street. Consequently, the outdoor temperature for him would be quite acceptable. But it also adapts quite easily to ordinary room temperature (+ 20-22 degrees). In winter, the fern can be in a cooler room. The lower temperature limit for it is +12 degrees.
Watering, humidity, fertilizer
When watering the room fern should follow the rule of "golden mean". In this event, the main condition is moderation. The plant is moisture-loving, but you can not fill it. It is also impossible to overdry. It is often recommended to constantly keep the soil moist. But the line between wet and swampy soil is very thin, and it is sometimes difficult for a beginning grower to determine the desired degree of moisture. Therefore, water when the topsoil has begun to dry up or has dried slightly. Watering is best suited to the water of "natural origin" - rain or melt, but in the absence of, suitable and well-settled water supply.
As I have already noted, dry air for room fern and nephrolepis in particular is completely unacceptable. Regular spraying - a prerequisite for growing this plant in the home. Of course, their frequency directly depends on the air temperature and its humidity in the room. This is especially true in the winter, when the air is dried out by heating devices, and airing is not very often. During this period it is better to rearrange the room fern away from the central heating radiators.
Liquid fertilizer will be a very good fertilizer fertilizer. For example - the traditional infusion of mullein or bird droppings, but with such fertilizers, you must be very careful. Its high concentration or insufficient fermentation can harm the plant. Novice flower growers can use regular potash fertilizers sold at flower shops. So they feed the fern according to the instructions at intervals of 2-3 weeks.
Transplant room fern
This event is held as needed. That's just the need for this occurs almost every year. The fern grows fast enough, and by next season it becomes cramped in the old pot. Here it should be transplanted. Transplantation in the classic concept is completely unnecessary. You can remove the plant from the pot, only slightly remove the roots from the ground (they tightly twist the whole clod) and transfer it to a larger pot (2-3 cm more than the previous one). In the case of plant disease, the roots will have to be cleaned from the ground completely. You can do this thoroughly soak earthen clod, following the example of an azalea transplant. The fern root system develops mainly in width, therefore, the pot is more suitable for it wide and shallow. When choosing a soil, note that it is preferable to acidified soil (pH5-7). Fans of preparing mixtures for indoor plants can prepare the soil for the fern at home, on their own. For its preparation, peat, leaf earth and humus are mixed in equal parts and about 0.2 parts of bone meal is added. To avoid stagnation of water, make a drainage layer of expanded clay or other drainage material.
Propagation of indoor fern
It can be propagated by dividing the bush, and spores (seeds). But seed fern breeding process is very complex and lengthy. In the indoor floriculture, it is used very rarely, and then, mostly florist with great experience.
For a beginner grower, the most acceptable way is the division of a fern bush. This method of reproduction is usually combined with transplanting, since for it it is necessary to remove the plant from the pot. Having done this, you will immediately see the rosette rosettes - kids. Here they must be carefully separated from the parent plant. Then they are seated in separate pots and put in a minipod. If not, then cover them with a transparent cap (glass jar, PE bag, etc.). I must note that the percentage survival rate of such children is far from one hundred percent. Painfully they are capricious. In the process of survival, require constant maintenance of humidity, temperature, ventilation without drafts.
Very often, bouquets complement fern leaves. With them, he looks much more beautiful. If you have collected a bouquet of flowers grown by you, you can add there cut leaves of indoor fern. Do not worry, he will quickly restore them.
To date, breeders have identified a large number of cultivated species of ferns, which are great for growing and breeding at home. As the most popular can be identified:
- Nephrolepis - This is the most common and unpretentious decorative look. It boasts a spectacular rosette formed by openwork leaves, the inner side of which is covered with spores. The length of the leaves of nephrolepsis can be forty-five to fifty centimeters.
- Hare's foot or davalliya - A distinctive feature of this species are reddish and shaggy modified rhizomes. They crawl out of the pots and hang over their edges. This exotic plant has juicy bright green leaves.
- Platicerium has a middle with brown leaves, which in its appearance is very similar to a head of cabbage. It has flat leaves sticking out in different directions, somewhat reminiscent of deer horns.
- Kostenets or asplenium differs from other types of whole leaves with wavy edges. This fern should not be disturbed too often, as it does not like when they touch its foliage.
- Derbyanka or blehnum Its structure is very reminiscent of a palm tree. Adult plants of this species are owners of a crown with a diameter of one meter, consisting of hard wai.
- Dysconia as ornamental plants are grown only at a young age. Over time, they are transformed into tall trees, up to three to six meters high, which makes their maintenance at home problematic.
- Centipede or Polypodium - This is a plant with deeply dissected leaves growing on thin stalks. The bush can grow in the air, on weight, as its rhizome can cling to various surfaces.
Temperature and lighting
Home ferns need good lighting, but direct sunlight has a devastating effect. Many fans of indoor plants believe that ferns are shade-tolerant plants, but this is not so. In too dark a place they can stop growing or die at all. Therefore, to maintain the beautiful appearance and health of the fern, its must be provided with a bright but diffused light. The most suitable place for it will be a window on the south-west side. If this is not possible, then you can place the flower on the southern window-sill, pre-curtain window with thin gauze or tulle.
All ferns belong to certain groups and therefore they need to be provided with specific conditions of detention. However, many species of this openwork plant feel great in rooms where the temperature is kept at fifteen to twenty-two degrees of heat.
Adiantum, platicerium, asplenium and nephrolepsis are thermophilic shrubs, so the temperature in the room where they are located should not fall below eighteen degrees Celsius. For pelley and polypum pimply in winter, the temperature should be kept about twelve degrees above zero.
It should be noted that all varieties of ferns are very fond of well-ventilated rooms, but do not tolerate cold drafts. In the summer pots with these decorative flowers can be taken out on the balcony or in the garden. There they will feel great if you choose a place that is well protected from direct sunlight.
Humidity and watering
Caring for ferns at home includes watering in a certain mode. This plant need a lot of moisture. It needs to be watered regularly, as soon as the top layer of soil dries out after the previous time. Irrigation mode primarily depends on the air condition in the room where the fern is kept. In the hot season, it should be watered several times a week.
You can not overdry the soil, it is detrimental effect on the fern. It is important to know that if the plant spent several days in completely dried ground, it will never be able to recover.
Too much moisture in the soil reflects badly on the condition of the root system. That is why ferns should be transplanted only in well-drained soil, so that excess water is immediately removed from the ground. For watering bushes take soft water at room temperature. Before use, it is recommended to boil and cool or let stand for several days.
Such plants are very fond of moist air. They like daily spraying from a spray bottle. In hot weather and with the heating system turned on, they should be sprayed several times a day or replaced with a humidifier. It is also recommended to periodically arrange ferns warm shower.
If during the period of active growth the indoor fern does not receive the necessary nutrients, then its foliage will begin to turn pale, and then turn yellow and dry. Therefore, once a week it is necessary to introduce special complex liquid dressings into the soil of ornamental shrubs.
In late October, the plant falls into a resting phase, which lasts until mid-February. If during this period you moved the fern to a cool room, then you should stop fertilizing the bush and reduce the amount of watering by half.
How to transplant fern
Caring for a fern at home also includes a timely transplant. Young plants need to be relocated annually. Adult bushes are transplanted only if the root system of the cavity has filled all the soil.
The complexity of this procedure lies in the fact that ferns are very painful and can be restored after it for a long time, up to several months.
Therefore, experienced growers use method of transshipment from an old pot to a new one together with an earthy ball. A suitable time for transplanting is spring.
It should pick a wide, but low pot and soil with an acidity of from 5.0 to 6.6 pH. The soil can be bought at the gardening shop or prepared by yourself using the following ingredients:
- Peat - 500 gr
- Humus - 500 gr
- Leaf ground - 500 gr
- Bonemeal - 100 gr
After the primer is ready, you can proceed to transplant:
- Choose a new pot, it should be five centimeters longer than the old one.
- Cover the bottom with a good layer of drainage material. Chipped bricks, expanded clay, and crumbled foam are perfect for this purpose.
- Cover the drainage layer with moss, put the substrate on top.
- Transfer the plant by transferring it to a new pot along with an earthy clod.
- Pour into the pot the remnants of the soil and well tamp so that the plant has received support, and there are no voids between the root system and the ground.
- Water the plant well.
After transplantation, provide fern with abundant and regular watering.
Problems with caring for ferns at home
If you provide the bushes with the necessary conditions and good care, then you are unlikely to encounter problems when growing ferns at home. But even in indoor conditions, plants can be attacked by pests:
- If the air in the house is too dry, then parasites such as aphid, scab, and thrips can appear on the fern. Therefore, when caring for these colors, do not forget to regularly spray the room or install a humidifier. If you did find these insects on your indoor plants, you can cope with them by treating the foliage with special chemicals. They are freely sold in stores for gardeners.
- If you water the fern with cold chlorine-containing water, then sooner or later the nematode will “delight” you with its visit. In the affected flower the leaves will turn yellow and dry. The bush will need to be treated immediately with insecticides and transplanted into fresh soil. But it should be borne in mind - in some cases, the fern can not be saved.
If the fern is grown in unacceptable conditions for it, then its foliage may turn yellow and dry. The main reasons for this reaction are:
- Watering the plants with cold water.
- For irrigation water is used with a high content of chlorine.
- The plant suffers from drafts.
- In the room where ferns are grown, the temperature is too low.
- The flower was exposed to direct sunlight and suffered from ultraviolet radiation.
- In the house where the plant contains, the air is too dry and very hot.
Room fern: growing nuances
Florists love the fern for its beauty and ruggedness. However, the peculiarities of growing are still available, and in order for the plant to look attractive, they should be observed.
The main feature of nephrolepis is its ability to detect dirty air, in which it immediately begins to wither.
Unsuitable conditions for him is to be in a stuffy, smoky or dusty room. "Do not like" fern low humidity.
The flower can stoically tolerate the lack of regular watering, high or low temperatures. But if the air is not clean enough, its leaves will quickly turn yellow and dry.
Care for indoor ferns is easy. Like any other home plant, it requires a certain soil, a suitable location in the apartment, watering and spraying. Does not do without periodic fertilizer. Кроме того, следует знать особенности пересадки цветка, так как делать это нужно каждый год из-за его быстрого роста.
Требования к грунту
Растение предпочитает рыхлую почву с большим количеством листьев и перегноя. Иногда в ней может присутствовать торф или хвоя. Земля должна быть очень рыхлой, воздушной. Through it, water will easily flow to the roots.
The roots of the plant can rot from overflow, so the pot needs good drainage.
The prepared soil can be purchased at the store or prepared on your own if you have sufficient skills to do this.
For cooking you will need to take in equal proportions:
- sod land
- leaf ground.
You should also add a little humus and sand. This recipe is the most suitable, forming the same soil conditions that are required indoor fern.
For the content of nephrolepis the clay pot will be the most suitable. It tends to collect excess moisture from the soil, and then dispose of it as needed. This nuance helps control the humidity of the earth.
However, the clay has the property of being covered with fungus, which is subsequently very difficult to withdraw.
Plastic packaging is also suitable. It should be remembered that this material does not allow air and does not have good stability. In order for the plant to feel great and not fall from the surface, it is necessary to choose a steady and large pot. Its diameter in the diameter should be 2 times smaller than the size of the flower crown.
Lighting and temperature
The leaves of nephrolepis are large and green, so their need for a large amount of scattered sunlight is quite logical. The plant can tolerate shade, but it will not look so impressive.
The direct rays of the sun will burn the sheets, leaving brown spots on them. Therefore, it is better to place the fern near the window, but not on the windowsill.
The optimum temperature for the content is 15-22 degrees. It may be warmer indoors, especially during the heating season, therefore during such a period it is recommended to wet the leaves more often with a spray. The minimum temperature at which a room fern survives is 5 degrees.
Watering and spraying
Water fern need soft water, slightly warm. In the summer season, this can be done 2 times more often than in winter. Otherwise, in the winter period the plant will continue to grow and will be too elongated with small leaves, since there is not enough sunlight.
Watering should be such that the soil in the pot remains slightly damp. Excess water, as well as drought - are not the best conditions for indoor fern.
Spraying the leaves should be done daily, especially during the heating period. Excessive dryness of the air nephrolepis is not suitable. You can also take care of suitable humidity in the room. To do this, it is recommended to purchase a humidifier or regularly hang a wet towel on the battery. This microclimate in the apartment is useful not only for the flower, but also for people.
Water is better to take distilled or rain, as the water from the tap will leave white spots on the green.
Top dressing and fertilizer
Fertilize room fern is recommended in spring and summer. This can be done using any ready-made solutions for feeding. They must be diluted according to the package instructions. Then add the same amount of pure water to the resulting solution. This option is the most appropriate feeding for nephrolepis.
How to transplant?
One of the main stages in the care of a green flower is its transplant. To carry out it is required every year, as the rhizome of the plant grows rapidly. The crown is also becoming larger, which is why the previous pot can not withstand its weight. Choose a new container should be 2-3 cm larger in diameter.
To transplant indoor fern, you will need:
- Gently holding the flower by the base, pull it out of the container along with the earthy clod.
- Part of the old soil shake off the rhizome. If there are rotting roots, they must be removed.
- Place the plant in a new container, cover the surface with fresh earth.
Transplantation is best in the spring. If this is done at a different time of the year, the room fern will take a long time to take root and look not the best way.
Breeding room fern
The most suitable way for the reproduction of nephrolepis is the division of the mother bush. This action can be performed during the transplant period. The plant is examined for the presence of daughter rosettes, after which they are separated with a part of the roots from the common rhizome. They also need to land pre-prepared soil.
At the stage of growing a new fern, it is necessary to carefully monitor the indoor climate and strictly follow all the requirements for caring for a flower. Some outlets do not survive, which is the norm. However, the division of indoor fern is the easiest method for its reproduction.
Plant Diseases and Pests
Fern can hurt, like any other home plant. Most of the troubles are associated with improper care, as well as an insufficient amount of attention of the hostess at the stage of acquisition and transplanting a flower.
To reduce the incidence of nephrolepis, you must:
- Refuse to independently prepare the soil. Store soil is thoroughly sterilized and does not contain pests.
- Quarantine newly acquired plants.
- Do not leave the flower in drafts, in direct sunlight, near the battery.
- Watch the soil moisture, do not overfill the soil.
If you follow the recommendations for the prevention of diseases of room fern, they can be successfully avoided. But if the plant is still sick, you must put it in quarantine and immediately take action.
Possible diseases and how to deal with them:
It appears dark brown drips on the ends of the sheet. Affected leaves are recommended to be removed from the plant, the crown should be treated with a fungicide. Watering for some time must be reduced, and the sheets do not spray.
At first the leaves turn yellow, then turn brown. Fern dies quickly. At the initial stage, it is important to monitor the irrigation, not to re-moisten the soil.
It appears wet brown spots. It is necessary to completely remove the affected areas, treat the plant with a fungicide and do not water for some time.
Leaves, stems and soil are covered with gray moldy bloom. The fern should be quarantined, all affected leaves should be removed from it, treated with a solution against mold.
Fern affects: whitefly, white poduras, mealybug, nematodes, spider mites, aphids, thrips, bills and others. Most pests start up due to improper plant care. The affected areas should be removed by carefully treating the entire crown and rhizome with a suitable insect solution. The plant in this case requires quarantine, as the pests quickly move to healthy flowers.
The main problems with growing
All the problems that flower growers may face are related to improper care of the room fern. The green leaves immediately begin to show the effects of not suitable microclimate or watering.
Among them are:
- falling foliage - is due to insufficient watering, darkening - the effects of overflow,
- yellowness on the leaves indicates dry air,
- Slow growth and pale green foliage indicates insufficient feeding.
If you comply with all the conditions of nephrolepis, it will decorate any room with greens of its magnificent crown. Therefore, all the efforts to care for the flower are definitely worth the time spent.
The fern is considered not only the unique representative of the plant world, but also the most ancient. He is associated with many magical stories, most of which are favored.
Spore plant - and the type of ferns belongs to them - according to research, not only the most ancient in the history of our civilization, but also the most adapted and widespread throughout the planet. The twilight and abundance of moisture is the perfect combination for the plant to take root and multiply.
The first mention of growing fern as a houseplant came in the Victorian era. Greenhouses were specially built, where glass cases were used, not cheap material at that time, equipment was purchased to create an ideal climate and trained people who were well versed in the technique of growing plants were invited.
Cultivation and care in the apartment
There are only a few types of plants from the family of ferns, which withstand the climatic conditions of urban apartments. Care for indoor ferns is mainly aimed at the proper irrigation of the soil, wet processing of the leaves of the plant, as well as fertilizing and transplantation.
Cultivation and care of indoor fern flowers are based on creating a favorable microclimate, which should be as close as possible to the natural.
To understand how to care for indoor fern, you need to know some points in the features of growing this plant.
Moments that need attention:
- creating optimal air temperature in different seasons,
- constant humidity control in the room
- providing a flower with suitable lighting,
- regular moderate watering
- soil fertilization,
- correct transplant.
It is also necessary to take into account that caring for fern potted flowers means choosing the right place to live. Special attention should be paid to each moment, which will describe how to care for a room fern, creating a suitable microclimate for it:
- Optimal temperature. In summer, the fern can safely withstand temperatures of + 28−30 degrees. But this is only if care is provided at the proper level.
- Humidity. In a room where the flower is constantly, it is necessary to ensure high humidity. Optimum humidity can be achieved by spraying water from an atomizer into the air. In addition, the fern needs daily spraying. In the summer, it should be sprayed several times a day.
- Lighting. The fern will feel comfortable if you put it in a place where the sun's rays will scatter.
- Watering. You need to water the flower as the topsoil dries. Pour it too undesirable. If the fern is not watered correctly, its fronds may become “rusty”, after which it will quickly fade. Water the plant should be only settled water at room temperature or warm rain water.
- Top dressing. The plant needs mandatory feeding. As fertilizers, you can purchase a complex of mineral fertilizers in the store. It is necessary to plant them in water, according to the instruction given on a container. You can also use a solution of chicken manure. But in this case it is necessary to dilute its weak solution. A more saturated solution may adversely affect the health of the plant.
- Transfer. The fern grows very quickly, so you need to replant it when it becomes cramped in its pot. For transplanting should pick up a pot of 3-4 cm more than the old. Before transplanting, it is necessary to water the plant well and wait a few minutes until the earth is absorbed. Only then carefully remove it from the container. Immediately before planting, the root system of the flower must be well shed with water, then placed in a new pot and lightly tamped down with earth. The most important thing in transplanting is not to deepen the growth point in the soil.
Growing an exotic ornamental flower always seems more complicated than it actually is. But it is only necessary to provide it with the right conditions initially, it will immediately become clear how to continue to care for the home fern.
The room fern reproduces beautifully at home. Spore gives life to a microscopic sprout, which, after germinating, turns into a small stalk. Most species reproduce by gametophytes, resembling a heart in appearance. The gametophyte has two lobes that fertilize themselves.
Archegonia and antheridia, merging, give impetus to the transition of plant development in the second stage. Sporophytes are the second stage - the format of plants in which we are accustomed to seeing the fern. Which can be found in any flower shop, or greenhouse.
Fern, home care for which is similar to the cultivation in artificial conditions of moss, according to the life cycle refers to the format of sporophytes. The perennial fern in the summer period modifies the color of the leaves, consisting of a mass of brown dots that form intricate patterns.
It is in these points that the new life of the plant, the sorus, is born. Fairy tales and myths about the fern flowering period are nothing more than an invention: the plant does not bloom for the entire period of its existence, but the only method of reproduction is spore, which germinates and matures on the surface of the leaf.
Most common species in nature
Paleontologists are an exact and consistent science, so paleontologists claim that over 55 million years many subspecies of plants have hardly changed and remain the same today as when life began on Earth. One of the oldest species of fern species is the bracken, a perennial representative of the fauna that lives in wooded places.
Orlyak is the most common representative of fernaceae, it can be found in the mountains of the Caucasus, in the forests of Belarus, the taiga parts of Siberia, and Ukraine.
A plant in warmer climatic conditions can reach a height of two or more meters, while its stem stem is fleshy, and the root system is well developed. Shoots resemble palm leaves: wide, spreading fronds.
The birth of a new fern begins in the spring, at a time when the ground is warm enough, but there is still a lot of moisture in it. Phased eagle and other species develop in a similar way.
- the first of the soil appears sheet or waya. A coiled up vaya resembles a snail, the ridge of which is arched like a question mark,
- the formation of new leaves gradually begins. In colder climatic conditions, the number of leaves does not exceed three, but in southern latitudes the fern can throw out several (5-7) at once,
- when forming, the vaya takes the form of a triangle: this indicates that the plant is already ripe and ready to bear fruit.
Such species of fern, such as eaglet, can germinate not only in forests, but also on dry areas of soil, and this is precisely what makes it possible to grow them at home. The most convenient place for growth for eagle fish are the hills, the slopes of the valleys and the ravines, here it can cover entire areas, representing a living sea, which in windy weather strikes with fantastic visions.
Orlyk instantly displaces other plants in areas of forest land at cutting sites or areas affected by fires, despite the fact that this type of aggression is not the best feature to characterize a plant. Thanks fernier soil can not be washed and dried, it saves the forest at the time of summer heat or rising groundwater.
Some interesting information
By their appearance ferns resemble other representatives of the plant and animal world, for example, the same eagle shape and leaf pattern strongly resembles an eagle's wing. In some countries, it is specially grown for use in food. In Japan, up to 300 tons of rachis are collected annually, parts of the plant that by their taste are very similar to the white mushroom — a delicacy that is not available to everyone in the country of the Rising Sun.
Indoor flowers. Ferns: Care and Atmosphere
Ferns are considered unpretentious plants, but still there are some conditions, without which they will not please the eyes with their green beauty. Take, for example, their forest counterparts: in natural conditions, ferns feel great without regular watering, without spraying, and without fertilizers applied according to the norms and at the right time. At the same time, their relatives in the room, even with the observance of all the rules, with timely replanting and cutting can wither right before our eyes. What is the cause of the death of the plant?
In order not to wither the fern room, care at home must comply with all the rules. In addition, the florist must take into account the fact that the fern is an accurate indicator of the atmosphere in the house or apartment. If the air in the room is dry, gassed or smoky, the handsome green will start to ache. Thus, you will have an excellent adviser in the form of a fern: by its appearance you can determine that the atmosphere in the house does not meet the standards and you need to look for the reason for this. There may be a gas leak - call the gas workers and make sure that everything is in order. There may be a shortage of fresh air in the kitchen - install the hood. Maybe the air is too dry, very low humidity - buy a humidifier. As a result, you will provide yourself a normal life, and plants.
What place to put?
In order for a room fern to grow and develop normally, care at home must be correct. Think carefully about where to plant the plant. Нефролепис может переносить тень, но свет ему тоже необходим, правда не прямой, а слегка рассеянный и не в больших количествах. Поэтому ставить его лучше в угол напротив окна. При этом ему нужно обеспечить доступ свежего воздуха.
Нужно учитывать еще одну особенность роста растения. Нефролепис вырастает довольно большим, его красивые листья растут и в стороны, и вверх. Based on this, the place on the window sill is definitely not enough for him. The leaves will rest against the glass window and deform, the shape of the plant will be ugly.
Soil for ferns
To find out what kind of soil is needed for a room fern, it suffices to recall what kind of soil in the forest. The land there is very loose, with rotted leaves or needles, with remnants of peat. This is the basis needed for nephrolepis, then it will feel comfortable, like at home.
When filling a flower pot, remember that the land mixture for fern must be with high acidity, with the addition of forest leaf land. Add more sand and humus there, make sure that the soil is free flowing water, was loose. If water in the flowerpot will stagnate, then the roots of the fern will immediately begin to rot, the plant will get sick. Signs of this are brownish spots on the leaves. Sometimes it is very difficult to understand the reason for the dropping of a room fern. Leaves dry and become covered with brown spots even when the soil is drying out. You just need to do everything according to the norms, water the plant on time, but do not overdo it.
Once again I want to remind you what to expect if you water the fern incorrectly: the leaves dry, the plant becomes covered with brown spots and eventually dies.
The main principle of watering ferns - moderation! The soil in the flower pot should not dry out, make sure that it is always slightly damp, and do not allow marshiness. It is recommended to water the plant 3 times a week, but this is not a criterion at all, the timing of irrigation depends on the air temperature and the place where the flower stands. Nephrolepis water only defended, preferably rain water, it should be soft.
Finding out that the fern can die without fresh air, you need to take measures to prevent such a sad ending. To do this, you must regularly spray the bushes room ferns. To carry out such a procedure is necessary often, with an eye on what kind of atmosphere prevails in the room. If the air is too dry, it is necessary to spray nephrolepis every day, but if the atmosphere is normal, then it is recommended to do it two or three times within seven days.
Fertilizer for handsome green
If, when planting a fern, the soil was prepared according to the rules with all the necessary additives, then it is often not necessary to feed the plant. It will be enough twice a month to feed, so that it will continue to please the rich and bright green color of its leaves.
For these purposes, a solution of mineral fertilizers of weak consistency is used. In addition, suitable organic fertilizers, such as mullein infusion. Only using organic matter, you can overdo it and overfeed the fern, this can not be allowed. The easiest way to buy ready-made mineral potash fertilizers, which are sold in every flower shop. On the package there is an instruction. In accordance with it, fertilize the fern in spring and summer. As a result, thanks to the efforts of a careful grower, nephrolepis will delight you with the beauty of green leaves!
Care for indoor ferns
When grown at home or in greenhouse conditions, ferns need to provide bright but diffused lighting. Since in natural habitat ferns grow under the forest canopy, where direct sunlight does not usually fall, they are indispensable for planting shady places. If you have windows facing north in your apartment, they will feel very good there. If the windows overlook the south side, then, especially in the summer, they should be protected from direct sunlight by moving them to the back of the room.
When growing at home ground species of ferns, one of the basic rules is the correct selection of the soil. Ferns grow in a very loose substrate. If you make it yourself, then be sure to mix sod, leafy soil with peat in equal proportions. It is not necessary to add sand. If you add sand, then use small, so-called “construction”. It must be sieved so that the particle diameter is at least one millimeter. If very fine sand gets into the ground, it clogs the pores and the ground becomes too dense, but ferns do not like it. Peat must be riding, because it is neutral, and low peat is sour. Sour peat can not be added to the soil.
In addition to the soil, special attention should be paid to the dishes. Since the root system of ferns is superficial, not lying deep in the soil, the pots are selected, as a rule, wide, not high. If you have a high pot and you like it very much, just pour a large layer of drainage, which can be used as expanded clay.
Also ferns are very moisture-loving, so the ground can not be overdry. If you still peresulili soil, and all the leaves wilted, nothing wrong with that. In this case, the entire above-ground part must be cut off and continue to water the plant. After a short period of time there will be new young shoots. At the same time to pour water ferns too. From overflow they can rot the root system. The ideal option is to water the plants as the soil dries. As soon as the soil is slightly dried, be sure to spend watering.
Ferns are particularly demanding for high humidity. Usually in apartments, especially in winter, when the heating is working, the air is very dry. As a rule, the relative humidity in the winter in apartments is approximately 40% with the required rate of 70%. In order to increase the humidity, it is advisable to place a sphagnum moss on top of the pot. It can be purchased in dry form, then cut with scissors into small pieces, put on top of the pot and water.
What ferns are suitable for growing at home?
Of course, not all ferns can be grown in indoor conditions. There are both more capricious and less demanding care. For example, adiantum, or venerin hair, is very unpretentious and easily reproduces by dividing rhizomes. To do this, simply remove the plant from the pot, cut with a knife into 2 - 4 parts, so that each of them has a rhizome, and plant in a separate bowl. Transplantation can be carried out once every two years, because The adiantum grows and develops very fast.
The same can be said about nephrolepis. It can often be seen in schools and offices. There are many species of this plant. There are miniature nephrolepsies, the length of the leaves of which usually does not exceed 25 cm. Other types of frond can be up to one and a half meters long. The most unusual type is Nephrolepis curly (curly), which has a magnificent "hair".
Also interesting and unpretentious pteris. Pteris with variegated leaves with whitish streaks are particularly decorative.
But, not all ferns can be grown at home and, above all, because at home throughout the year the air temperature is about the same both in winter and in summer. It is good for ferns of tropical and subtropical origin. Although the subtropical ferns in the winter still need to lower the temperature. Ferns from more northern regions that need cold wintering are naturally difficult to grow in an apartment. In winter, they should rest, in particular water fern, which can be found in the central regions of Russia. It grows in swamps and in the winter period the whole aboveground part of this fern dies off, only in spring it starts to grow, and already in late autumn, approximately in October - November, it prepares again for a period of rest. If you still want to grow this plant at home, then you need to put it in a pot, put it in water, and be sure to transfer it to a cool room for the winter period. But, naturally, such ferns will feel good only in the greenhouse.
It is interesting that ferns cannot be crossed with each other. Therefore, experts, in order to obtain new varieties, sow spores in a special, very humid environment, creating ideal conditions for them. About one in a million spores after germination has some deviations from the parental form. This is usually due to mutation. Thus, there are new varieties that differ in appearance from other ferns. In the future, they are propagated either vegetatively (by dividing) or by the meristem method in the laboratory, thanks to which for 2 - 3 years you can get a huge number of plants and provide the most diverse countries with a new type of fern.
By the way, if you believe the signs, the fern flower can bring a lot of benefit to the person who found it. For example, he will be able to understand the language of animals, birds, and even plants. And find treasures buried underground and even become invisible. But not everything is so simple, because the evil spirit considers the fern flower to be its property. And therefore, going to the forest, do not forget to take a knife with you. Finding a fern, circle around it and yourself a circle and wait for it to bloom, tear and hide it in the bosom, and then until the morning do not get out of the circle, what evil forces would not fool you or frighten you.
But the sad thing is that ferns do not bloom at all, they do not belong to flowering plants. Therefore you should not wander on the night of Ivan Kupala in search of fern flowers.
Ferns breed in natural conditions, as a rule, in spores. Spores are located on the back of the frond. There are a lot of disputes, millions, they scatter around the district and, getting into more favorable conditions, where a certain humidity and temperature, they germinate. And they even appear on the trees as platicerium, or antler. It is this species of fern that grows on trees, using them as domicile, and not being a parasite.
Of course, when grown at home, it is very difficult to use this method of reproduction without having a certain experience. Because you need to collect disputes, put them in a favorable sterile environment ... In general, it is feasible only for specialists - those people who are engaged in large-scale cultivation of ferns from spores.
So, in order to propagate a room fern, it is necessary to first determine how well its root system is developed. The impetus for transplanting ferns and other domestic plants is the appearance of roots in the drainage holes of the pot. This means that the plant in this pot is already crowded and needs to be transplanted.
Next, you need to divide the rhizome of fern. For this purpose, with a sharp knife the mother plant is cut in half or into more parts. The soil must be taken necessarily friable, since ferns do not tolerate heavy soil. For example, you can take the following substrate: turf, leaf ground and peat in equal parts.
As a drainage, you can use any material that does not decay with time. Ceramsite is best suited. You can use perlite or coarse sand. If you have old clay pots that have served their time, they can be broken into small pieces and put in the bottom of the pot.
Then on top of the drainage you need to pour a small layer of soil and place a plant on it. Fern root ball set in such a way that its upper part was slightly below the edges of the pot. This is necessary for subsequent watering, so that the water does not run off, but rather soaks the soil. On the sides of the pot sprinkle a little more ground and be sure to well compacted it, so that the root system of the fern as close as possible in contact with the soil particles.
After transplantation, the plant is plentifully shed with clean water without any fertilizer. Fertilizers should be applied no earlier than two months. After transplanting fern put in shading place. Soon he will get used to the new pot and he will have new shoots.
Features of care for platicerium
Platicerium, or deer antler (flatheads), is one of the most unusual ferns. It is difficult to call it rare, because quite often it can be seen on sale in specialized stores. It grows rather slowly, not like most species.
It has many differences not only in appearance. For example, ferns with leathery leaves can be cleaned after spraying to get rid of stains. And the leaves of the platypus can not be cleaned with a cloth or anything else. Because on his fights there are small hairs that he needs for normal development. With the help of these little whitish hairs, it gets extra moisture from the moist air.
In nature, the antler lives in tropical rain forests. It grows on trees, using them as a support. It takes root in the place of the tree where the fallen leaves are wet and accumulate. In such a place the spores of this fern develop well.
It is worth noting that platicerium has leaves of different types, i.e. performing various functions. The lower leaves help the plant to gain a foothold on the tree. Therefore, when growing at home, it is necessary to break off the edge of the pot in a semicircle and plant the plant slightly tilted so that it can grasp the leaves of the pot.
The upper leaves, located in the central part of the plant, dry up and serve as a place for the accumulation of leaves falling from the tree. When the tree leaves fall off into the rosette of the upper leaves of the antler, the process of decay begins inside. Given that in the tropics, high humidity and a lot of precipitation, the process of decay proceeds very quickly. Such a tank serves as an additional power source for the flat.
When grown at home, it is not always possible to create favorable conditions for platicerium. Because he prefers a very high humidity, and in our apartments, as a rule, the air is dry. But experienced growers place these plants among other indoor plants, where an optimal microclimate is created. Helps to raise the humidity and water bowls and humidifiers.
If you can not hang this plant, you can simply install it on some kind of flower stand. It will also be good for planners to feel in a special mini-teplichka, as well as in a large aquarium, where planted plants that require high humidity.
During the year, the room platicerium has to be rearranged from one place to another. In winter, when the sun is not so bright and does not heat the pot, it is moved closer to the window, hiding from direct sunlight. And in the summer they move back into the room so that there is bright but diffused lighting. However, you need to know the measure - do not create very shaded conditions for it. In the dark, it will grow and will not develop well. In summer and in spring and summer, in no case do not put this plant on the windowsill under the scorching rays of the sun. First of all, it can burn his fronds. In addition, all indoor plants in the summer suffer from overheating of the pot.
Before you start growing ferns, like any other indoor plants, you need to relate the conditions of your premises to the requirements that the plant makes. That is, not to acquire everything, especially those species that are more demanding or very capricious.
There are different opinions about growing ferns. In Britain, for example, they are considered harmful plants and are not kept at home, while in Russia, on the contrary, they are confident that ferns absorb harmful energy from computers and televisions. In general, almost any plant cleans the indoor air and creates a more favorable microclimate for humans.
Fern in cooking
By the way, ferns can also be eaten. Of course, not all species are edible, many of them are poisonous, so be careful. But if you take the usual swamp eaglet, then it is quite possible to eat. For this you need to take about 10 - 15-day shoots. They are still small and not fully revealed - they are also called snails, so they are the most delicious.
Before cooking the fern must be pickled. The plant is exotic, but it is salted just like cabbage. 250 grams of salt are taken per kilogram of fern, all this is mixed and put under pressure, and the weight of the load must be equal to the weight of greens. The salted fern is kept for 6 - 8 days, and then, when the brine starts to rise and covers the lid, it is drained. With this brine, all bitterness goes away.
Thus prepared fern stew, boil, fry, add to salads. By the way, this is a popular dish in Japan and China. Fern even harvested in the Far East and sent to these countries for export.
Features of the plant
Ferns - one of the most ancient plants of our planet.
Ferns grow in different climates and environments - in meadows and marshes, in forests, even in trees. But most of all they are common in the tropics. And it is tropical species that have taken root in home gardening. There are also resistant to frost. Их садоводы с радостью выращивают на приусадебных участках.
Все виды папоротникообразных состоят из двух частей: корней и ажурных, перистых, изогнутых дугой листьев, называемых вайями. Большинство растений имеют перисто-рассеченные листовые пластины, но встречаются виды с цельными листами различной формы и размеров.
Папоротникообразные являются таинственными и загадочными растениями, которые упоминаются во многих легендах. According to one of them, the fern blooms once a year - on the night of Ivan Kupala. Despite the legend, the plant does not appear flowers, do not form fruits and seeds. Fern breeds spores, like mushrooms, mosses and algae.
The fern has a characteristic feature: the plant is very hardy in nature, but it can not survive at home even with proper care and the creation of optimal conditions of detention. Plants are indicators of clean air: when released into a polluted and dusty atmosphere, the leaves of a fern fade quickly, it dies.
The fern cleans the air and has healing properties, helps with bleeding, eczema, boils, but at the same time, the rhizome of the fern is poisonous, and you need to prepare decoctions, strictly following the recipe.
There are not so many species of ferns grown at home.
- Maidenhair. The plant with thin, but strong stems and graceful vayya loves heat, shade and moisture. Adiantum is better to grow in winter gardens and terrariums than at home. The names of Adiantum varieties are radi, tender, small-haired, lady's hair.
- Asplenium. Loves shade and humid air. Houses breed several varieties of asplenium, which in appearance are completely different from each other. It is an asplenium nested and onion-bearing, viviparous.
- Nephrolepis. The plant loves space and does not tolerate neighborhoods. Vayi nefrolepisa strongly dissected, which creates a unique openwork effect. The most common cultivated variety nefrolepis sublime, care for which at home is quite simple. Nephrolepis propagates too simply - by dividing a large bush or shoots-siblings.
- Blehnum (aka derbyanka). The crown of the plant reaches a diameter of about 1 m, and the hard fronds look like a palm tree. The most common types - blekhnum hunchy and Brazilian.
- Davallia Plant with a very thick rhizome. Because of this feature, he was given the popular name hare or squirrel paws.
- Platicerium (aka plateau). The presence of large, showy leaves divided into lobes, externally similar to deer horns, is characteristic of the plateau.
- Dysconia. A small young plant in adulthood can reach 3 m, suitable for spacious interiors.
- Pelley Pelley loves dry habitats, which distinguishes it from other species. The most common varieties of pellets round leaf and green.
- Polypodium (aka millipede). The plant with strongly dissected leaves has two features: a rhizome crawling along the surface and the ability to grow in places with dry air.
A large plant looks very impressive in hanging pots and on stands, and its beautiful feathery leaves are used for decorating bouquets and flower arrangements - the fern restores pretty quickly the plucked waii.
Room fern usually grows normally and feels good without additional fertilizing. But the fact that the leaves of the flower turned pale and became small indicates a lack of nutrients in the soil.
The need for feedings often occurs in the phase of active growth - in late spring and summer. Flower can be fertilized with liquid complex mineral fertilizers, for example, with a solution, which contains in 1 liter:
- potassium salt - 1 g,
- superphosphate - 1.5 g,
- ammonium nitrate - 1.5 g
Organic material for fern is used with great care - it can cause a burn. Some growers periodically add tea leaves to the pot or pour it with weakly brewed tea.
The fern plant is fast-growing, and therefore at a young age it is transplanted every year. Adult specimens recommend replanting every 2-3 years. Fern transplantation is carried out in the spring.
In order not to cause harm to the plant, it is advised to transplant it into a larger pot by the method of transshipment. During transplantation, the base of the rosette of leaves cannot be dredged into the ground.
Land from the roots of the indoor flower is not cleaned, so as not to damage the fragile roots. The exception is the disease of the indoor flower, in which you need to detect damaged roots and remove them.
The fern painfully perceives the transplant procedure, and its recovery can last several months.
For fern transplantation, you can buy a ready-made soil substrate with an acidic medium in the store or prepare the soil yourself. For this you need to take:
- leaf land - 1 part,
- humus - 1 part,
- peat - 1 part,
- bone meal - 1/5 part.
You can use another primer containing:
- 3 parts of sheet soil and peat,
- 2 pieces of turf land,
- 1 part of humus and sand,
- 1/2 cup ash
- a handful of sphagnum moss.
If it is wrong to care for a fern at home, it is sick, more often it is affected by pests.
- Nematode. It affects indoor ferns when watering with cold water containing a lot of chlorine. The leaves of the plant become yellow, dry. The only way to save it is to transplant it into a new pot, after having been treated with insecticides. But the treatment is not always successful, in some cases the decorative fern dies.
- Shchitovka, thrips, aphid. The fern, which is contained in a room with excessively dry air, is attacked more often by a flower. Prevent the defeat of the flower will help frequent spraying, periodic warm shower. If the pests appear, the plant is treated with insecticides.
Diseases and pests for ferns are not the only problem. Flower growers who have a fern at home often face the problem of drying leaves. Domestic ferns are sensitive to inappropriate conditions of detention, which is manifested yellowed, dry wyai.
The reasons for drying out a lot of plants. It may be:
- low or, on the contrary, high (more than 25 ° С) air temperature,
- use for watering cold water
- watering with water containing a lot of chlorine,
- dry air, the presence of heaters near the indoor flower,
- direct sunlight (leaves fade first, then dry),
- growing in a cramped pot or nutrient deficiency in the soil (leaves turn pale and their tips turn yellow).
Fern leaves can darken and dry out due to drafts.
Where can one buy?
You can buy fern in greenhouses, specialized flower shops or on the Internet portals. The cost of a plant depends on its variety and size:
- Nephrolepis Boston and Aspleum nesting height of 25 cm - about 800 rubles,
- asplenic nest height 65 cm - 5 500 rubles,
- Nephrolepis elevated 40 cm high - 2 100 rubles,
- Nephrolepis Vital and Sonata - 3 200 rubles.
Fern perfectly decorates any interior. But it will look healthy and lush only in case of constant correct care and creation of suitable conditions. Only with good lighting, timely watering and frequent spraying the openwork waii of a flower will delight with its beauty and grace.