Pear is a light-loving culture, so its dense crown requires periodic pruning. Removing unnecessary branches allows you to create the right skeleton of a tree that can withstand even the greatest fruits. It also allows you to harvest the crop without any difficulties and freely spray the tree. Such work is carried out with the aim of returning growth and increasing yields. The process of pruning pears is similar to the formation of crown in apple trees.
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Pruning is mainly done using a special sharp garden shears with narrow blades. All old trees with strong and thick branches are pruned using a garden saw. It is necessary to properly cut all branches, without violating the vital processes of the plant.
To do this, consider a few rules:
- Pruning of young pears (up to 1 year old) should be carried out at a height of 50-60 cm from the ground. This helps to stimulate the growth of new branches from the buds, which are located at the bottom of the tree.
- The stalk of seedlings about 2 years should be cut by 25% so that at least 4-5 side branches remain on the stem, which would be located at an angle of 45 degrees to the trunk.
- Branches- "competitors" must be removed. It is important to ensure that all the main branches are slightly higher than the shoots of the second row. Experts recommend to remove all excess parts on skeletal branches by 25%. Care must be taken to keep the top of the plant perfectly level.
- From the very beginning, it is necessary to remove the shoots that form immediately from the trunk. It is best to do so that the cutting angle was 90 degrees. Immediately after this, it will be possible to cut off other shoots that grow vertically and are located along the trunk.
- When pruning does not need to leave the "hemp", but do not cut off the extra branches. If you grab the excess, the incision will be very deep, and it may take a long time to heal. That is why you should be guided directly along the annular flow on the crust. The “ring” is usually located at the very base of the branch.
- In the case of cutting branches with a diameter of more than 3 cm, you should be guided by a special technique: first, the branch should be filed from the bottom, and then the file should be cut from above. This will keep the bark in perfect condition. Usually, if a branch is sawed from above and it falls prematurely under its own weight, the bark of the tree deteriorates.
- When the trimming of the tree is fully completed, each cut must be processed, carefully lubricating with a special garden pitch. Otherwise, they will secrete juice, which will be the bait for insects. The selection of such juice significantly weakens the trees.
- Experts do not recommend fertilizing the pear after pruning - the tree will take to restore all the necessary nutrients from the root system.
- It is best to prune fruit trees in early spring. With the advent of heat, as soon as it is time for severe frosts, it is necessary to have time to cut off all garden crops before the movement of the juice in them has begun.
Properly performed pear trimming includes three steps.
1. Shaped pruning - allows you to create the correct crown.
It is especially difficult for beginners to understand how to correctly form the crown of a pear tree. It is recommended to do this with the following rules:
- In the first year of vegetation, absolutely all young shoots are removed on the pear tree trunk, and the main central shoot and about five developed lateral ones are left at the site of the formation of the first tier. All other shoots break out or gently pinch.
- In the second year of life, the plants from its side branches leave only the 3 most developed (the angle of separation from the trunk of which is about 45 degrees), as well as the central branch, removing everything else.
- By measuring the selected branches, you can determine the length of their shortening. If it is more than 60 cm, then the branch is cut, leaving no more than 50–60 cm in length. This will allow in the future to form on this segment several branches of the second order, located at a distance of 40–50 cm.
- In order to regulate fruiting, improving the quality of fruits, it is necessary to thin out fruit branches a little, removing 3-5 last growths. Vertically growing branches should be shortened necessarily, transferring them to fruiting or twisting under the lower branches. With the help of translation and bending the branches in a horizontal position, there is an opportunity to accelerate the beginning of fruiting.
The shape of a young crown is derived when she has skeletal branches visible and there are no large intersecting and parallel branches running alongside. During the formation of the crown, special attention should be paid to the height of the trunk. Nizkoshtambovye trees are considered preferable, because it is much easier to care for their crown and harvest, reducing the risk of damage to the frost and sunburn.
2. Sanitary - is carried out before the onset of the vegetative period in the plant.
Includes removal of dried and affected branches.
3.Supportive- represents the main pruning, which is performed from the beginning of March to the beginning of April.
Here small parts of large branches are cut off in order not to overload them with fruits.
Correct formation of the crown of young pears with pruning
Since pear belongs to the light-loving culture, it is necessary to monitor the density of its crown.
What gives the correct pruning pear:
- abundant regular fruiting,
- further development of culture
- creating a strong skeleton,
- Harvesting convenience
- good access when spraying.
If pruning irregularly or incorrectly, then the crown will be compacted, as the tree will begin to give all its strength to the growth of young shoots. This will lead to lower yields and a decrease in fruit size.
Another advantage of timely pruning: pear tree is quite high, and pruning branches will stop its growth. Due to this, other garden trees and shrubs will get more sunlight.
Crop pear instruction for beginners:
Summer is done absolutely necessary. It happens that in spring, when pruning, we looked at several branches, and they began to grow rapidly, capturing the fruits that had already appeared on other, pruned, branches. In this case, summer pruning is possible.
Also at this time held pinching young shoots. It is much easier to remove them now, until they are numb, in addition, due to this trimming, the leaf buds are transformed into fruit.
The summer pruning of a pear tree is carried out exclusively at the very least.
Is it possible to prune branches in winter?
Winter trim has some advantage. It lies in the fact that at this time of the year, when it is cold outside, all the plants, including the pear tree, are in “sleep mode”.
Therefore, it is much easier to tolerate wounds inflicted, healing is faster, and in the absence of juice the wood becomes more pliable.
Spring trimming scheme
Spring pruning of pears is considered the most important for the plant.She gives a guarantee of a good harvest. In the spring, as is known, the birth of the kidneys. This requires sunlight.
If in some place the crown is thickened, then a darkening will be created, respectively, there will be no flower buds there, which means there will be no fruits.
To avoid this, pruning should start with one year old saplingwhen its height reaches 50-60 cm.
You need to cut the tip about a quarter of the length, which will stimulate the lower branches to grow and form the correct crown. The branches in the neighborhood are cut "on the ring."
Spring pruning of pear trees is the most important for future harvest
Trimming "on the ring" is done clearly on a kind of influxlocated at the very base of the branch. If you leave a big knot, it will lead to decay, and if you remove the branch flush, the wound will heal for a very long time.
The branches that form the basis of the trunk should be left, there should not be more than four.
As the tree matures, there are fewer shoots on it. To remedy this situation and increase the number of young sprouts on an aging tree, it is necessary to regularly trim the crown, rejuvenate it.
Spring pear pruning work is recommended to begin. after the establishment of warm weather, in the absence of night frosts and solid plus at the daytime temperature.
But it is also impossible to be late with this, it is important to have time to prune before the circulation of the tree sap has begun.
After spring pruning Nitrogen fertilizers should not be applied under the pear.. This may adversely affect the taste of the fruit. After hibernation, the tree itself actively pulls all the useful substances out of the ground.
How can and should be cut pear in autumn, rejuvenate it
Need to treat autumn pruning with great care. Ahead of winter, if you remove too many branches, the tree will be difficult to survive in the coming frosts.
The fact is that in September (namely, this time is the best for autumn pruning) tree sap continues to circulate, although it becomes slower.
The tree will start to spend the substances stored for the winter period in order to “heal” the wounds left after pruning.
Scheme correct autumn pruning pears:
- First, remove the dry and diseased branches, so that in the winter when they fall, they do not cripple the healthy branches.
- Find branches that grow at right angles to the trunk and also remove them.
- Remove the branches that hinder the development of fruits. The remaining branches that seem redundant should only be shortened to remove them next year.
- Do not leave large knots, and cut "on the ring" (see above).
You may be interested in other publications:
Young pear should be pruned every autumn.or even twice a year, starting from the second year after landing. The reason: slow growth and poor tolerance of a cold winter.
Mature early-growing trees ripening may be cut from the second half of August to September 15-20. The procedure is the same:
- removal of damaged branches,
- thinning thickened crown,
- removal of diseased branches
- shortening shoots no older than one year.
At a later date, shortening is not recommended, since the possibility of shortening of shortened branches increases, which will lead to a decrease in yield.
Autumn pear pruning is the most effective way. return a good harvest from an aging tree. This pruning can be called rejuvenating.
In addition, if earlier it was not necessary to form the correct crown, then this pruning will allow thinning, which will lead to the emergence of young fruitful shoots.
If pear is over 18 years old, it is recommended to cut it once every five years.
How to form the crown of the columnar pear
Not so long ago, Russian gardens began to appear. columnar pear, already managed to conquer the hearts of our gardeners. From its tall "sisters", it is distinguished by its unpretentious care.
The main advantages of the columnar pear:
- always gives a rich harvest
- on the same piece of land you can plant more trees,
- takes root well
- gives large fruits
- resistant to various sores
- frost hardy
In the first year after landing pears should not be allowed to bloom, so that the seedling gains strength for further growth.
Next year need make so that in one inflorescence there is a maximum of two flowers to prevent the young tree from being overloaded with fruits.
Advice to novice gardeners: before pruning you need to pay attention to the apical bud. If she is healthy, then the tree has a central conductor.
If this bud is damaged, then other shoots appear. Of them should be left the strongest, the rest removed.
Colonlike pear needs regular pruning, as it is necessary to maintain the shape and size of the tree
Often it is not necessary to cut the columnar pear.in order to prevent the increased formation of branches. A young tree shoots should not be cut, and shorten, not forgetting to leave a pair of buds.
This should be done closer to the fall.. Most importantly, remove all side shoots that grow to the side. The central conductor can be cut only in one case: if its development is not enough. Then two or three buds should be left.
Despite the fact that pear requires constant care and delivers a lot of trouble with pruning, she gives all of herself without the balance with her divine fruits, giving the gardener the joy and enjoyment of the results of his work.
Adding an article to a new collection
Autumn pruning raises many questions for beginning gardeners. Let us see what branches need to be rid of the pear and when it is best done for the tree to survive the winter well and to enjoy the next season with juicy fruits.
The correct pruning of a pear in the fall will allow you to form a beautiful sparse crown, as well as a strong and stable skeleton that can withstand a large load of fruits. If you do not consider yourself a pro gardeners, you can easily get lost in the flow of information that is offered by various sources. We collected for you the most important tips in one article and illustrated them with clear diagrams.
The value and advantages of autumn pear pruning
Many novice gardeners refuse to prune young and adult pears, fearing harm. Others believe that the more a fruit tree grows, the more likely it is to harvest a good crop. However, this is fundamentally wrong. The overgrown crown prevents sunlight from reaching the fruit, which negatively affects their juiciness and taste. In addition, leaving the old dry twigs, you risk that they will damage healthy ones, breaking off in the winter under the weight of snow.
The value of pruning depends on the age of the pear. For young trees that have not yet entered the time of fruiting, it is important to properly form the skeleton and crown. Already fructifers need help to distribute nutrients in order to achieve a better harvest. But for old trees in the first place comes the need for rejuvenation.
Pruning crown pears often carried out in spring and autumn. The advantages of autumn pruning are as follows:
- The vegetation process has been completed, which means that at the cut this year no new shoots will be formed.
- Sap flow is slowed down, so the juice will not flow through the wound sections.
- Proper autumn pruning of the pear and the formation of a sparse crown stimulate fruiting in the next season.
- More opportunities to work without haste and risk to the tree. Spring can come quickly, and you can not have time to complete the work before the start of sap flow. Or, on the contrary, after an early pruning, frosts can occur that interfere with wound healing. But the autumn pruning can be performed at any time after the removal of the fruit. The main thing is to complete it in 2-3 weeks before the first frost.
Autumn pruning of pear seedlings in the year of planting is not performed. This can inhibit the growth of a young tree and reduce its chances of successfully wintering. In all other cases, the procedure is recommended annually or at least one year.
Tools for pruning fruit trees
To trim a pear or apple, you need the following tools:
- Pruner. For trimming thin and medium-sized branches (up to 2.5 cm in diameter), as well as for removing dry twigs and young shoots.
- Lopper. The functionality is similar to a pruner, but it has longer handles, which means it provides convenient access to highly located branches.
- Garden saw. To remove branches more than 2.5 cm in diameter.
- Knife. For pruning shoots, stripping wounds.
- Oil paint or garden var. For processing slices.
Tools must be sharp so that the cuts are smooth and even. Before pruning and after it, inventory is important to disinfect, for example, with a solution of potassium permanganate, copper sulfate, bleach or alcohol.
Cut to the kidney and cut to the ring - what's the difference?
There are 2 main ways to trim the pear - shortening the branches by cutting off the top part of the shoots (cut to the bud) and thinning (cut to the ring). Each method pursues certain goals and is carried out according to certain rules.
- Clipping ring escape
If your goal is to get rid of the branch, the best place to cut is the annular flow of the bark at its base. This is where wound healing happens faster. It is important to make the cut as close as possible to the trunk or the parent branch, but without damaging them. Any "recess" (the deepening of the slice in the trunk) violates the movement of the juice, because of which the tree loses its strength. Leaving the stump, we, on the contrary, will get the bark detachment, rotting of the wood and the formation of a hollow, which most often becomes a hotbed of disease.
Thinning by cutting off the shoots to the ring is carried out until the crown is fully formed. At the same time, only a few main branches are left on the trunk, and the rest of the shoots are removed.
- Kidney slice
This type of pruning helps to change the direction of branch growth. Для этого на годовалом стебле находят почку, которая "смотрит" в нужную для правильной формы кроны сторону.The shoot is cut over this bud at a 45 degree angle. It is important to leave a small stump (about 1.5-2 cm). A stump that is too long usually dries out and the bud does not wake up in spring.
Features and dates of the autumn pear pruning
When pruning pears, each gardener decides for himself. In central Russia, it is recommended to do this after harvesting - in late August or early September. In the southern regions of the country, "haircut" can be postponed until October. But you shouldn't delay too much with the procedure, because wounds need time to hesitate before the onset of cold weather.
Astrologers do not advise pruning on the growing moon. At this time, juices are understood upwards, and the tree spends a lot of time and effort on healing sections. Better choose the days of the waning moon (ideally, phase 4).
Choose a good day for trimming the pear will Lunar calendar.
To understand how to properly prune pears after summer, you need to understand that the autumn "haircut" is, first of all, sanitary. From the end of August, the movement of juices slows down, although it is still far from a complete stop. The tree will be able to tighten the cutting sites, but for this it will have to expend the forces stored in the winter. In order not to deplete the reserves of the pear and not leave it without nutrients, autumn pruning should be extremely gentle.
If you missed the time for pruning pears, it is better to postpone the procedure until spring. Otherwise, the tree can not cope with stress and will not survive the winter.
Before moving on to specific pear trimming schemes, it’s worth a while to familiarize yourself with the general rules and nuances.
- Choose dry days for pruning. Rainy weather increases the risk of wound infection. After the onset of frost pruning is no longer carried out. The optimum air temperature is not lower than 8 ° C.
- Use the garden stairs. Pear wood is denser and harder than that of an apple tree, but at the same time more fragile, and therefore prone to fracture. This means that climbing skeletal branches during the sanitary procedure is strictly prohibited.
- Do not overdo it with pruning. Do not remove more than 25% of the total wood mass at one time. If the tree needs capital pruning, set aside the procedure for early spring, and in the fall only shorten the branches a little (about a quarter of their length). Sections are subject to freezing, which means that heavy pruning can cause the tree to disappear. In addition, a strong pruning of pears at a young age postpones the beginning of fruiting.
- Skeletal shoots more than 5-7 cm in diameter cut in three stages. First make the cut from the bottom, otherwise the branch will break under its own weight, and the bark will tear. Then file a branch on top, leaving a stump. When you already get rid of the main part of the branch, you can proceed to the leveling saw.
- Process all cuts. Slices need to cover with garden pitch or mixtures based on linseed oil. Adults dry branches are treated immediately, and young need to give about a day to dry.
- Do not leave pruned branches in the area.. Autumn pruning is often associated with the release of the tree from the affected pests branches. Therefore, it is better to immediately get rid of them, for example, burn.
What and why you need to cut: step by step instructions trim pear
We offer detailed instructions with illustrations for sanitary pruning pears in the fall. Everyone can deal with our schemes.
1. Remove dry and diseased branches
Removing dry, damaged and diseased wood is something where you should start pruning not only pears, but also apple trees in the fall. It is important to eliminate the risk of breakage of healthy branches when patients collapse under the weight of snow in the winter.
Cut off pests affected by pests, starting from the place of spread of the disease. “Dead” wood is easy to distinguish from healthy: during the summer period neither foliage nor fruit appeared on it. It may also differ in color.
2. Cut young basal shoots
The young wild growth of a pear can be removed both in the spring, and in the fall. These shoots have nothing to do with the fruit crown, and are, in fact, a continuation of the root system. Not lignified shoots break off at the base, lignified - cut with a pruner or dig up to the place of regrowth. But from the thick basal shoots it is better to get rid of only in late autumn. This is a favorite wintering place for aphid larvae and powdery mildew spores, so you shouldn’t postpone this work until later.
3. Cut the tops
Tops are powerful fattening shoots, most of which grow vertically. They often appear within 1.5-2 m from the trunk at the base of large branches or directly from the trunk. These branches do not give fruit, but they take a lot of strength away from the tree. Cut the tops as close as possible to the point of their growth on the main branch.
4. Thin the crown
A-branches grow too close, b-branches look down, c-branches look from the side of the trunk, d- crossed branches
Autumn pruning pears does not set the main purpose of the formation of the crown. But if there is a possibility, why not take care of the formation of a beautiful crown (at least partially) in the fall. If two or more shoots grow from about the same place at a slight angle to the main branch, they will compete and thicken the crown, preventing sunlight from penetrating the lush foliage in summer. Therefore, leave the healthiest of them, and remove the rest. It is desirable that the branch you leave grows at an angle of 60 degrees to the main one. An acute angle can cause the branch to break off when the fruits are ripe on it.
Do not forget to cut the branches that grow down towards the trunk, as well as moving away from the trunk at an angle of 90 degrees and intersecting shoots.
5. Shorten the branches to be removed in the spring
Since the capital pruning is not carried out in the fall, it is worth confining to shortening the branches, which you can get rid of in spring, so that the tree during the growing season will release all its strength to new shoots. Make shorter branches that seem unnecessary to you. If the tree needs a thorough pruning, it is better to stretch this process for 2 or 3 years.
6. Cut a one-year gain on the kidney.
For a good harvest, the annual increment is cut off by about a quarter of the original length. Be sure to leave on the annual shoots a few buds for further development in the spring. Cutting is done under the kidney, counting from which two more, we get a kidney, directed to the periphery of the crown. This is due to the fact that from the first (closest to the cut) bud there is an escape that is “pressed” to the maternal branch. From the second bud - escape, directed to the center of the crown. And it is the 3rd shoot that gives the optimum angle for the formation of the pyramidal crown. He subsequently must be left.
If you have any questions, look for more information in the pear trimming video in the fall.
Features trimming columnar pear
The principles of cutting columnar pears in autumn differ from the general rules, since these varieties do not have a highly branched crown.
- The central conductor, or stem-column, is cut for the first time not earlier than 5 years after landing. With proper care, it will grow by 12-15 cm each year.
- If the apical bud is damaged and several competing sprouts develop on the tree, one of them is cut under the ring, leaving it healthier.
- The main care for the columnar pear is thinning the side branches. It is necessary to remove only weakened, dry and damaged branches. Thinning is also performed if the quality and quantity of fruits has decreased markedly.
We hope that pruning pears in the fall for beginners in pictures is a convenient way to understand the not too complicated, but not the simplest process of forming the crown of the tree. And if you, following our recommendations, correctly prepared your plants for wintering next year, you will surely get a good harvest of juicy fruits.
Types of pruning
The pear plant is light-loving, as a result, in addition to the selection of the illuminated cultivation area, measures should be taken to form the crown of the pear, which will result in improved aeration of the tree and increased access of sunlight to the vegetative organs of the tree.
Pruning fruit trees
Above all, the crown of a pear, on which excess shoots do not grow, is easier to maintain - to process fungicides, to control the sanitary condition of the tree, and to collect fruit. Cutting the crown in addition to additional exposure to the sun allows the branches to grow freely, avoiding competition for access to light.
Excessively shaded leaves worse carry out the process of photosynthesis, on the shoots the development of fruit buds is significantly reduced, which under insufficient lighting does not fully develop and die in the conditions of winter frosts. And the fruits growing in the shade do not reach their commodity properties, becoming small, with an uncharacteristic color and low nutritional value.
Pear formation starts from the moment of planting the seedling and continues throughout the entire cultivation period. Pruning pears should begin in the first year of cultivation. If the seedlings are planted in spring, then immediately after planting, the upper bud is pinned, which contributes to a more active growth of the skeletal branches, in the same period the branches (under the trunk) that grow vertically upwards are cut.
Formation of fruit formations
In fact, the seedling in the first growing season should represent the trunk with the minimum number of emerging branches.
Pruning of non-bearing trees
Pruning of young pears is carried out in spring, when constant positive temperatures have been established, and the buds are in the resting phase. During this period, all shoots formed on the shtambe are removed at a height of up to 60 cm, which favorably affects the development of branches from lower order buds.
The upper end of the leading stem is cut to a quarter of the length, and the skeletal branches are left in an amount of not more than five, all the rest are cut off under the trunk. During this period, one should pay attention to how the crown-forming branches grow and, if necessary, direct them at an angle of 45⁰ from the trunk.
For this purpose, guide rods are used, to which skeletal shoots are attached, and until the directivity is changed, the procedure is repeated several times.
General principles for pruning fruit trees
Shoots that develop on skeletal branches should also be controlled and, if they grow faster, they are cut off, as are the branches that thicken the crown. During this period, shoots that have been mechanically damaged and are infected with infections or frost are removed. Damaged are cut under the ring, and the surface of the cut is covered with linseed oil. All shoots of a vertical orientation and growing down are also removed.
Summer is the time of fruit formation
Summer pruning is carried out only if the plant is affected by fungal infections - black cancer, scab or cytosporosis.
Since many pathogens affect not only the foliage and fruits of the tree, but also the covering tissues of young shoots and skeletal branches, when identifying mycotic diseases, in addition to using systemic fungicides, pruning will be required in the summer.
This is perhaps the only case when it is necessary to remove branches from a tree in the summertime. All other circumcisions are excluded, since the active vital processes in the cambium can be disturbed, and through sections pathogenic microorganisms — viruses and bacteria — will penetrate into the vascular system and into the damaged integumentary tissues.
How to cut a pear in the fall? This period is carried out two types of work, including sanitary and formative pruning. During sanitary pruning, the trees are removed from the tree - damaged and non-fruitful branches.
The former are the wintering grounds for phytopathogens (mycoses, bacterioses and viral diseases), while the branches that do not shape the fruits are considered organs that consume nutrients in vain and lower the commercial quality of fruits on others.
Large cuts are processed by garden pitch or linseed oil. In addition to sanitary pruning, the method of cutting the branches, forming the crown of the plant, is used in the fall. In this case, all secondary shoots of skeletal branches are shortened, by 25%, and reduced by about a quarter, the upper parts of the main shoots grown during the season.
But also all the shoots growing down and the branches that have grown inside the crown are cut off, but such works are carried out only inside the crown, and the branches that grow right behind the stem should be trimmed gently, since they have protective and nourishing functions.
First of all, they protect the lower part of the trunk from high temperatures, and the foliage formed on them, smaller in size, provides the plant with additional products of photosynthesis and does not enter into "competition" with the leaf plates of the upper rows.
You should not cut / shorten the fruit-forming formations - spikes and fruit twigs - they are removed when the surface bark begins to significantly thicken and woody. Such an operation is carried out every two to three years, but not annually.
All newly formed young shoots should be monitored on the main trunk and cut off to the base. Pruning in autumn is carried out after harvesting, and complete before the onset of low temperatures. All trimmed material must be removed from the site and burn, in order to prevent diseases.
Spring cutting work
Pruning pears in the spring is carried out before the fungicidal preventive measures in the stage of "sleeping" kidneys. In regions with early autumn frosts and severe winters, spring crown formation manipulations are most suitable, as the plant may not have time to recover after cutting, before the onset of cold weather.
Works are carried out at the onset of constant positive temperatures, and the choice of tool depends on the neglect of the crown, the age of the plant. Secateurs, saws with a thin cloth are usually used, and for the disinfection of sections, garden var, drying oil or oil paint is used.
Spring Trimming Scheme
First of all, the skeletal branches that grew back last season are shortened. The branches are a quarter of a length, which contributes to a more complete penetration of light into the crown and to the fruits. And also such an operation activates the development of buds located below the level of the slice, and leads to the formation of new fruitful branches.
Then young shoots that grow vertically are removed, which contributes to the development of branches that grow horizontally from the trunk. In order to avoid the load on the tree, it is important to cut the tree not for one day, but gradually, then the plant will bear the manipulation without loss, and the wounds that have formed will heal.
Asking how to properly trim the pear, one should not panic, worrying that the pruning process requires specialized knowledge of botany and pomology, as well as complex tools.
It is important to know that the concept of a permanent and invariably shaped shape (crown) of a pear does not exist.
Cultivating a plant requires every year to prune pears, forming a crown and maintaining its shape throughout the entire tree growth period. This means that it is necessary not only to form a crown in the early stages of the growing season, but to comply with the “rule” No. 1 - regularly prune the plant, adhering to the shape of the crown recommended by the breeders.
How best to cut the branches of pears in the garden
Pear tend to develop on the annual skeletal growth last year, almost all formed buds. Some varieties of pears simultaneously plant and generative buds, which is very different from the apple tree. Because of this feature, the skeletal branches of the pear are covered with a large number of overgrowing branches, which may be absent on the branches of an older age, hence their exposure. Of course, pear tree branches can be more durable than apple trees, but fructification is lower without appropriate agrotechnology and pruning. The fact is that many varieties have a pyramidal growth and without the correct formative pruning of pears (for transfer to the side branch) the yield will be impermissibly small.
Gardeners should remember that planting a pear is better on light soils with permeable soils. Pear roots on vigorous rootstocks lie much deeper than that of an apple tree. Like the apple tree, the pear does not tolerate placement on wetlands or soils with close groundwater storage.
When establishing the safety of fruit formations, it will be possible to start pruning the crown of pears according to the following classical method, which boils down to the following.
The trees of most pear varieties are prone to pyramidal growth. For this crop, the same types of crowns are generally applicable as for apple trees. In most varieties of pears, the crown is rarer than in apple trees. At a young age, pears grow strong shoots that are not suitable for laying skeletal branches. Cutting them stimulates the growth of new shoots and delays the start of fruiting. Saving all the shoots leads to thickening of the crown. Partial thinning and folding in the remaining uncorrupted shoots contribute to the formation of early harvests.
Чтобы делать обрезку груши так, как предполагает правильная агротехника, побеги, которые выбирают для закладки скелетов, укорачивают ниже места расположения боковых цветковых почек, чтобы они впоследствии не отгибались под тяжестью плодов.
В стремлении получать ранние урожаи не следует забывать о необходимости создания структуры кроны.
С этой целью концевые приросты скелетных ветвей и боковых побегов ежегодно укорачивают. The shortening of branches by no more than 1/2 of their length is carried out in order to enhance their vegetation, the formation of fruit wood, especially at the base of the formation of semi-skeletal branches bearing fruit on themselves.
Pear responds well to the conduct of the so-called "green" operations during the formation of the crown. Lignification of the shoots in this culture is faster than in the apple tree. Therefore, to do summer pruning of pears, as a rule, you need a little earlier than apple trees.
During the period of growing fruiting, the terminal growths of skeletal branches are shortened, especially in varieties with weak branching (Cure, Kieffer, etc.). Unlike an apple tree, a pear often grows too high, not expanding in width. Therefore, shortening the branches when pruning fruit-bearing pear trees to lateral ramifications is extremely necessary to maintain shape, but you can not do this on an apple tree.
Some pear varieties in areas of insufficient moisture, which include the Southern region, lay a large number of fruit buds to the detriment of the development of vegetative organs. As a result, in the first period of life they give high yields. Then continue to bloom intensively without the formation of ovaries. The result is an annual drop in yield.
To regulate growth and fruiting, pruning and tree formation is carried out, the yield of pears and apple trees after a properly performed operation increases, the quality of the fruits improves.
In order to restore the growth of pear trees with a spreading crown, bearing fruit on kolchatka (Forest Beauty, Bere Ardanpon, Favre), it is recommended to shorten strongly the large branches to perennial wood, thin out fruit formations. Pear fruit live up to 12-15 years, but the most productive up to 3-5 years of age.
Trees with the same crowns, but bearing fruit on fruit twigs (Pet Klapp), thin out mainly the thickening branches of the crown.
This diagram shows how to properly trim a pear:
Do not forget that annual shortening reduces the yield. Pear trees with a pyramidal crown type (Williams light, Williams Rouge Detbar, etc.) are thinned during the fruiting period. First, they cut out large semi-skeletal branches, then thin out small branches, especially if they grow down and in the center of the crown. Overlapping crowns are cut in half, leaving a conveniently located branch. During the period of active fruiting, growth processes are weakened, and the growth decreases. At this time, a strong pruning becomes the only way with which you can cause a growth of 30-40 cm in length and bookmark fruit formations.
Watch a video of pear pruning for beginners, which shows how this agricultural practice is performed:
How to make a rejuvenating pear tree pruning
A strong rejuvenating pruning of skeletal branches in all pear varieties is carried out on one of the stronger side branches. With the age of the tree inside the crown appendages appear, and the skeletal branches should be greatly shortened (minted) and form a new crown.
How is it better to cut a pear to increase the yield of a tree? In addition to the embossing of skeletal branches, they carry out detailed pruning inside the crown - they shorten half-skeletal and overgrowing branches by 1/2 of their length, thin out and rejuvenate old fruit formations.
The effect of such a rejuvenating pruning on the formation of growth and an increase in the yield of pears and apples affect for several years. After 5 years, this technique should be repeated. It is better to rejuvenate skeletal branches in low-yielding years, and to carry out more detailed pruning in productive years.
If your pears have frost damaged fruit, vegetative buds, wood, there are frost bumps on the trunk and skeletal branches, it is recommended to hold off trimming until the onset of warm days - until the bud breaks. It is at this moment that the damage zone of all branches should be clearly indicated. Then pruning will be reduced only to the removal of dead parts of the tree and the creation of good care, which will allow the tree to recover faster and lay fruit formations for the future harvest.
Before you cut a pear, read the following rules:
- Consider the characteristics of pear growth and the tendency to the pyramid of the crown.
- Do not spend a strong annual shortening of the branches, as this leads to a decrease in yield.
- Make it a rule to do green operations when forming a crown.
- Spend rejuvenating pruning in low-yielding years, and in productive years - detailed.
How pear pruning is performed is demonstrated in detail in the video:
Why do you need pruning?
It is one of the most basic processes.which can help to increase the yield of fruit-bearing trees, as well as to increase the yield time and return growth. The technique is very similar to the procedure for removing branches from an apple tree.
It must be remembered that this tree is light-loving. The first year after planting the pear does not need pruning, since the development of this fruit tree is rather slow and weak. To do this, we strongly recommend that you familiarize yourself with the process technology, as well as learn the tips of more experienced gardeners. This will allow you to properly implement it, as well as reduce the risk of damage to the tree.
If you do not have knowledge of the basic pruning rules, the probability increases. culture damage, which subsequently may adversely affect the yield, and in some cases, an incorrectly carried out process can lead to the death of the crop.
It should be noted that it is not necessary in one day to try to carry out a massive crop of culture, since this, on the contrary, leads to a rapid growth of branches and restoration. Thus, in just a couple of years, pear shoots will rise above the crown. It is for this reason that it is necessary to remove extra branches from the pear in several stages. The correct procedure includes The following three steps:
- Forming pruning, which helps to form the necessary tree crown.
- Sanitary, which must be carried out before the growing season of the tree. It includes the cutting of dried, damaged branches.
- Supportive, which is basic. It is held from early March to early April. Support pruning involves cutting off parts of large branches so that they are not overloaded with pear fruits.
The basic rules are as follows:
- First of all, it is necessary to get rid of the shoots that form from the trunk of the tree. Pear pruning is preferably carried out at an angle of 90 degrees. After that, you can start cutting shoots that are parallel to the trunk and grow vertically.
- Proper pruning of the pear is also to get rid of excess branches, while not leaving hemp, but not removing too much. If you grab the excess, the incision will be very deep, and it will take a very long time to heal. For this reason, it is necessary to focus on the annular flow of the cortex. Such a ring, as a rule, is located at the base of the branch.
- During the cutting of branches with a diameter of more than 3 cm, it is recommended to follow the following technique: first of all, the branches are filed from below, after which an incision starts from above. Thus, we do not damage the bark of the tree, which most often occurs in situations where the branches are sawn from above, and it may fall prematurely under its weight.
- After you have completed the pruning of the pear, all slices must be processed using a garden pitch. If you do not process the slices, juice will start to stand out from them, which can be a lure for various unwanted insects. In addition, the selection of juice significantly weakens the plant.
- Immediately after pruning, it is necessary to fertilize the tree. Thus, the pear will take from the root system all the necessary nutrients for its recovery after this procedure.
- Pruning must be done immediately with the arrival of spring. With the advent of heat, as a rule, it is necessary to have time to prune all garden crops, before they begin to move the juice.
It should be carried out using a sharp garden pruner, with wide blades. Proper pruning should be done literally for each branchso as not to disrupt the vital processes of the pear. To do this, consider the following points:
- Pruning young pears, whose age is about 1 year, should be carried out at a height of about half a meter from ground level. This action stimulates the growth of new branches from the buds, which are located in the lower part of the pear.
- The stems of trees, which are about 2 years old, are cut by 25% so that on the main part of the tree there are about 5 side branches, which are located at an angle of 45 degrees to the trunk.
- Competitive branches must be removed using the above scheme, that is, under the ring. It is necessary to ensure that the main branches were slightly higher than the shoots of the second order.
- Excess skeletal branches must also be cut by 25%. At the same time, it is necessary to ensure that their upper parts remain even.
- During the procedure, new shoots, on which the ovaries will subsequently form, must be bent to a horizontal position. For convenience, you can tie the remaining branches with twigs.
- As for trimming adults, they also need this procedure.
- Trees from 8 to 10 years old should be thinned in spring, before foliage and bud formation.
- Pruning of adult trees should begin with the removal of excess mass from the crown. This will ensure maximum air flow and light pear. After that, you can begin to shorten the young branches that grow parallel to the main trunk of the pear. Due to this order, young branches will grow and form much faster.
Pruning pears in the summer
If you cut a pear in the summerthen it is necessary to use the pinning method. Very often, this method is called pinching. This method involves pinching young branches.
Pinching young shoots can be done with bare hands. This is done as follows: unnecessary, young branches pinch with their nails in their upper part. Due to this, the entire upper part is removed up to the hardened escape. This action will give young branches to grow in length.
Summer pear pruning must begin in June. It continues in the summer throughout the season. The growth of shoots does not stop, but only stops. Therefore, after about 10 days, the procedure must be repeated.
Summer pinching shoots will save energy during the autumn or spring pruning pears. Thus, most of the shoots that need to be removed in spring or autumn, did not gain strength. In addition, pinching will help the formation of leaf buds in the fruit. As mentioned earlier, when a pear does not spend its strength on the development of branches, its fruits absorb more nutrients.
Pruning pears in autumn
It should be carried out at the end of August, but this procedure can continue until early December. Most often, autumn pruning is necessary for those pears that differ in the early and middle ripening period. These varieties of pear, as a rule, have a special form of the crown, which is called pyramidal.
To make such a pear shape, it is necessary to cut off young shoots in the following years so that the crown of the tree takes on a pyramidal image. Thanks to this procedure, the pear will be better to bear fruit, and the branches will not break under the weight of the fruits. Thus, the autumn pruning is carried out in order to increase the ability of the pear to produce more yield.
Autumn pear pruning also means removing sick, damaged and dry branches, which subsequently must be burned. After this procedure, annual branches are also cut off so that several buds remain on them, of which with the advent of spring new branches are formed.
The approach of the fruiting stage
Unlike apple trees, most pear varieties give their first harvest only at 12 years after planting. Therefore, many gardeners are trying to solve the problem of the approach of the stage of fruiting. For this you need every year in the spring to prune wood.
If you do thinning properly, following all the above instructions, the branches and leaves will be provided with a sufficient amount of light. The tree distracts the growth of new branches from fruiting. Therefore, to ensure the full development, it is necessary to produce a pinch of growth points on young branches. Thus, we can cause the laying of flower buds, which in the future will bring the term of the formation of fruits.
Note to novice gardeners
Most novice gardeners do not distinguish the difference between pruning young and old wood. BUT The scheme of pruning young and old trees is different. For example, during planting seedlings, damage to the roots is inevitable. The tree begins to experience severe stress, in accordance with the worse develop. A young tree needs not only to grow its branches, but also to restore the damaged root system. Therefore, if you prune the tree immediately after planting it, you will help it to quickly restore the rhizomes, which means to get more nutrients from the soil that are necessary for the development of fruitful branches.
To form a crown, it is necessary to shorten the main stem of a pear every year. In the future, this action allows you to spend less time on pruning. After all, have to cut only the dried and old branches. As mentioned earlier, the most optimal form for a pear is a pyramid.
Anti-aging procedure is recommended late winter or early spring. This procedure must be done before the start of the growing season. Old pears are less sensitive to low air temperatures than young trees. But still, pruning is recommended when the air temperature is about 0 degrees.
Immediately it should be noted that after the anti-aging pruning, do not hope for a big harvest. However, the old pear will still be able to please its owner with useful and juicy fruits.