Known to all the ordinary spruce belongs to the vast family of hvoynik, namely pine. Translated from the Old Slavic language "spruce" means "resin." Among the plants, the main place is occupied by spruce, which includes about 50 species. Culture is widespread throughout the world and grows from Central Asia to South Africa and North America. It is important to consider in more detail the description of the common spruce.
Spruce is an evergreen crop, has an erect slender trunk and a dense cone-shaped crown. The stem of a culture is quite difficult to discern, since it is hidden under the branches.
Spruce trees of different ages are covered with a large number of branches that grow to the very base. The bark of young cultures is colored gray-brown or brown, rather smooth to the touch. The old trunks ate rough to the touch, the bark in some places was highly cracked, resin smudges can be discerned. The needles of the common spruce are needle-shaped and remain on the plant for ten years. In the conditions of growth in the city, the life time was eaten for no more than five years, and environmental degradation shortens the plant life even more.
Needles of coniferous culture in the context of a tetrahedral type, are located singly along the perimeter of the entire spiral of the branch.
Cones have a high density, have an elongated and cylindrical shape. From the branches, the cones hang down, and in autumn time the seeds ripen and form for further dispersion.
Special seed flakes with special cup-shaped wings are formed on the seeds. Wings are needed to transport seeds through the wind. Experts have found that one seed can cover a distance of up to 200 meters.
The most common subspecies of spruce in our country are:
Common spruce is considered the most unpretentious culture on earth. It does not require a fertile substrate for itself and can grow in the poor on organic components loams and clay soils, as well as on sandy hills.
Also, the culture is not afraid of shaded slopes or places with moisture stagnation. The tree is resistant to low temperatures, not afraid of the northern and continental climate. The plant grows mainly in the taiga, tundraand also beyond the territory of the polar circle.
Spruce negatively refers to bad ecology in the place of growth and polluted air. Despite this, the culture is actively planted for landscaping cities, parks, it looks good both in a single planting and in the creation of entire compositions. Culture is often used for the landing of snow cover. Dwarf or undersized varieties of the decorative type are well suited for creating alpine slides, personal plots or improving the landscape. No rock garden will look whole without a dwarf spruce, it looks good when landing together with thujas, as well as wild stones.
Features of the common spruce
The common spruce grows mainly in the territory of Central Europe and in the European regions of Russia, it is the main coniferous culture that forms the taiga.
In the European part of Russia and in the north of Siberia, with time common spruce is replaced by Siberian. There are no particular differences between such species. Also, pines are not very different from larch and pine. But when growing, spruce is distinguished by its particular simplicity, while larch likes to grow in the shade and it is difficult to take root in open places. At the shoots stage, pine is damaged by low spring temperatures or sunburns.
It is important to bear in mind that cultures are not protected from forest fires, which are caused by a person’s fault or due to seasonal arson.
Spruce needles are actively used in medicine, as they include a large number of useful components, minerals and other substances:
- essential oils,
- vitamins K, C, E and PP,
- copper, iron, chromium and manganese,
- bioregulators of natural origin,
With the help of fir needle needles you can fight a lot of diseases and ailments. Broth well helps with:
- bronchial asthma,
- atherosclerosis and hypertension,
- kidney disease
- viral lesions of the upper respiratory passages,
- lesions of the epidermis with various fungi,
- plexitis, nervous disorders and radiculitis.
Other famous species
To date, growers emit about 45 species of plants that are actively growing in nature and reach a height of up to fifty meters. All cultures differ in their structure, color of needles and the shape of the crown. Among the vast number of species of this plant to the more popular include:
- European spruce. The description of this culture is presented most clearly. Evergreen plant, whose height is 30 meters. But there are separate rocks that reach up to fifty meters in height. The crown of a cone-shaped tree, whitishly located branches of the drooping or prostrate type, the bark is dark, over time it begins to peel off in small plates. The needles are tetrahedral type, on the branches located along the perimeter of the spiral. Culture forms large tracts in northeastern Europe, it can also be found in the Carpathians, the Alps, in North America and in central Russia.
- Siberian breed. Differs in its height (about thirty meters) and pyramidal crown. In girth, the diameter of the stem of the plant reaches eighty centimeters. The needles on the Siberian fir were fairly short, unlike the simple spruce, but at the same time prickly. Siberian breed grows in the northern part of Kazakhstan, Europe and China, in Mongolia, in the Urals, as well as in the Magadan region.
- Eastern Spruce The height of the culture can reach up to fifty meters, the crown is distinguished by a conical shape, the branches are spreading and are rather dense. On the bark of spruce is a small amount of resin, it is painted in gray-brown color and covered with scales. The needles give shine, tetrahedral type, flattened and with rounded ends. Eastern culture grows mainly in the wooded areas of the Caucasus, in the northern territories of Asia. In these places the plant forms whole massifs and mixed forests.
- Korean breed. The plant is characterized by high growth (30−40 meters), the bark on the trunk is painted in a grayish-brown shade, trunk girth up to 80 centimeters. Crohn culture has a pyramidal shape, branches drooping, have slightly dulled needles with a bluish bloom. In nature, culture can grow in China, the Far East, North Korea and Primorsky Krai.
- Ayan culture. On the appearance of this plant is more similar to the European breed. The crown of the pyramidal shape, painted in bright green color, needles have a sharp end, do not possess resin, the height of the culture stem can reach up to 40 centimeters, in some cases up to 50. The trunk girth reaches one meter, sometimes more. Spruce is widespread on Sakhalin, in Japan, China, on the Kamchatka Territory and the Amur Region.
- Serbian spruce. Evergreen culture with a height of about 35 meters, often there are cultures that grow to forty meters. The crown of the pyramidal form, but narrowed, looks more like a column. The flowers are small, sparsely arranged, directed upwards. Spruce needles are painted in green, give shine, with a bluish tint. This type of spruce is quite rare: in its natural environment, the culture grows in Eastern Bosnia and Western Siberia.
- Prickly (blue) spruce. This breed is especially popular with landscape designers, often used as an ornamental plant. The height of the culture reaches 46 meters, although the average height is usually 25 meters. The crown of young trees is narrowly conical, it grows with age and becomes cylindrical. Needles in length reach three centimeters and come in different colors - from grayish-green to rich blue. Cones of culture in length reach eleven centimeters, can be painted in violet and red color, change to light brown when ripe. Blue spruce is particularly common in the western part of North America, where it is used to grow on moist soils along the banks of streams and rivers (in mountainous areas).
How long does a spruce live? What are the types of eating? How to grow spruce at home? All these issues are addressed in this article.
Spruce is evergreen, straightforward, very slim tree with a cone-shaped crown. The trunk of the tree is very difficult to see, because it is hidden behind the wide "paws" of spruce.
Firs of all ages are covered with branches to the very foundation. The bark of young trees is gray with a brownish or brick tint, smooth to the touch. Old spruce trunks are rough, bark is peeled in places, resin drips are visible. Needles, needle type and kept on the branches up to 10 years. In an urban environment, the life of needles does not exceed 5 years, and environmental degradation further shortens the period.
Needles of a coniferous tree are four-sided in section, single, located on branches in a spiral. Cones are dense, elongated and cylindrical in shape. The position of the cones on the branch hanging down. In autumn, the buds ripen and open to disperse the seeds.
Seeds cover seed scales, they are supplied with "wings", in the form of a bowl. The wings are designed for the flight of seeds in the wind. A simple observation experience will show that one the seed can fly a distance of 150–200m.
Grows on the territory of Russia several subspecies of Norway spruce:
A very clear description of common spruce: one of the most unpretentious plants on the globe. The spruce does not need fertile soils and it is well acclimatized on poor clay soils and loams, as well as on sandy hills.
Fir trees are not afraid of shady slopes or areas with stagnant water in the ground. The plant is incredibly cold-resistant, not afraid of the continental and northern climate. It grows in the taiga, tundra and the Arctic Circle.
Spruce can not withstand gas pollution and poorly tolerate smoke. Despite this, this tree is used in urban landscaping and is great for planting park areas in both single and group plantings. Spruce is widely used for planting snow cover. Stunted or dwarf ornamental forms are great for alpine slides, home gardens or landscape decoration. No landscape rock garden is complete without a dwarf spruce, which is great in combination with thujas and wild stone.
European or common spruce
The name of the conifer tree speaks for itself and the name indicates the range. Norway spruce grows in Central and European Russia, it is the main conifer forming taiga.
The territory of European Russia and the North of Siberia is gradually changing the common spruce to the Siberian. There is no significant difference between species. There are no intraspecific differences from pine and larch.
However, the spruce when choosing the condition of growth is unpretentious, while the larch is very shade-loving and very difficult to grow on the unshaded areas. Pine at the stage of shoots is damaged by spring frosts or can get sunburn.
It is important to remember that all plants suffer greatly from forest fires triggered by humans or seasonal arsons.
Spruce needles are used in medicinesince they contain a huge amount of vitamins, minerals and other beneficial substances:
- vitamins B3, K, C, E, PP,
- essential oils,
- natural bioregulators,
- manganese, copper, iron, chrome.
Spruce needles tinctures and decoctions treat many different diseases and pathologies, for example:
- viral diseases of the upper respiratory tract,
- bronchial asthma,
- kidney disease
- neurosis, sciatica, plexitis,
- fungal skin lesions,
- hypertension, atherosclerosis.
Periods and features of tree growth
European spruce is famous for poor exchange of minerals and very grows slowly in the first 10 years of life. Then the growth rates increase dramatically and stop only after 120–150 years. Intermittent, uneven growth distinguishes European spruce from Siberian.
It has long been known that the spruce tree is a recognized long-liver and if conditions allow, it survives without problems up to 300 years.
Spruce grows best on loams and sandstones.
This kind of soil allows the tree to form a branched root system that goes deep underground and keeps the tree on the surface. Do not forget that the spruce is a lover of raw places. However, in places with an excess of moisture in the soil, the spruce forms a superficial root system of small diameter, therefore, with a strong gust of wind, the root system may not hold the tree.
Unpretentious tree is found even in swampy areas, if the swamp has a flowing character. The root system is small compared to pine, this explains the instability of spruce in the winds and external factors. Another feature of the tree can be called a phenomenon in which the lower branches dry out, but do not die. For this reason, spruce forests are always damp and dark.
Despite all its simplicity, spruce remains a very delicate breed of wood. Spruce can grow in almost any region. Spruce grows well under a canopy of trees, for example, oak, pine, birch, ash. Under the cover of other representatives of flora, spruce remains much more demanding than pine in the conditions of growth. Ate still requires a small amount of water. For these reasons, it is rare to find pine and spruce trees nearby.
Common spruce seed propagatedwhich is very easy to assemble. It is enough to cut several spruce cones and keep them warm until dry. Trying to get the seeds or peeling the cone is not worth it, because the cones themselves open up and you get seeds, the germination of which is great.
It will be worthwhile to process the seeds manganese solution.
An excellent ground for planting seeds will be incinerated river sand. Pour the soil into the pot, pour a little and deepen the seed by 1.5–2 cm. The container should be placed in the refrigerator or on the balcony for stratification. The stratification procedure is necessary for the seeds, as in the natural nature of the seeds of conifers in winter they are exposed to cold. Stratification stimulates the early germination of seeds. In the cold, the seeds should be about 3 months, this period will simulate wintering. Seeds that have not undergone stratification may lie in the ground for several years, but they will not ascend. Over time, the containers with the seeds are placed in a warm, bright place and wait for seedlings.
For sowing, October-November is considered the ideal time for the presence of seeds in the ground to teach for the winter. In February-March, taking the container from the balcony or refrigerator, the seeds get favorable conditions for germination. With the onset of spring, the duration of daylight increases and the plants start to grow.
During the period in the ground, the seeds require generous watering, which corresponds to natural conditions, because in winter the snow melts periodically, creating a water cushion. Humidity and heat are the main conditions for the beginning of the emergence of coniferous plants.
When the containers are moved to a bright place, after a couple of weeks, baby-spruce will ascend. It will be immediately apparent that this is a real coniferous tree, because needles first appear.
Now in watering it is important to maintain a balance in order to prevent excessive wetting or underfilling. Once a week, young spruces need to be fed with fertilizers, as well as loosen the top layer of soil.
When the frost recedes and warms up the little seedlings it's time to plant in the soil. Before planting, humus or compost mixed with soil is added to the well.
You can add a small amount of mineral fertilizers. Adults ate not fed. The seedlings are placed in the hole, the roots are carefully covered with prepared soil, slightly tamped and watered. For each sprout, they create a small greenhouse of film, a plastic bottle, or a glass jar. The procedure is necessary for the fastest acclimatization.
Every day, seedlings must be ventilated. They need to open, ventilate, check the soil moisture and remove condensate. After 10 days, greenhouses can be removed, and the soil around the young Christmas trees covered with mulch to preserve moisture.
Seedlings are in containers for 3-4 years. In conditions of slow growth, this period is considered optimal. At this age, seedlings are most adapted to severe temperature extremes, they are not afraid of burns and frosts.
Like all conifers - spruce ornamental plant. Spruce has always decorated the gardens, parks, old Russian manor. Thanks to the implementation of modern breeding work, many varieties of spruce were used, which are used in landscape and garden design. Spruce, grown from the seeds of his own, will decorate any area, and can also become the ancestor of many traditions. This method of growing ordinary spruce is suitable for tall varieties. Выращивание саженцев собственноручно, является гарантией быстрой адаптации к климатическим условиям в вашей местности.
Карликовый подвид обыкновенной ели
Среди существующих сортов ландшафтные дизайнеры особое внимание уделяют карликовой ели. Рост карликовой ели обычно не превышает 1 м, крона широкая и плотная, хвоя мягкая. Карликовая ель прекрасно подходит для садовых композиций, ландшафтных объектов и альпийских горок.
The most sought-after representative of the dwarf species - nidiformis. It is the most spectacular and easily cultivated.
The crown of nidiformis is round, its diameter is 3 m, and its height is barely 1 meter. The crown is oblate in shape and resembles a nest. This is due to the absence of the main branches of the tree; numerous thin branches grow in the shape of a fan. The needles of high density, short and dark green, very soft and dense, evenly covering the branches in a spiral fashion.
The tree grows very slowly. I pick up a year no more than 4 centimeters high and 8 cm wide. The fir-tree is unpretentious to the ground, it grows well in loams and sandstones of any acidity level. Due to the slow growth of the plant allows you to save the created landscape for many years. Nidiformis is very cold-resistant, but young plants are still better covered for the winter. Nidiformis is not a pure species, therefore reproduction is carried out exclusively by the vegetative method - layering or cuttings. Seeds of nidiformis are useless. The reason is that such a plant is selected from various species of conifers. The progenitors of nidiformis were tall conifers.
If you can not grow such a conifer remains - one way to the store. Dwarf nidiforissy sell in pots or containers. The basic principle of choosing this expensive plant is the belief that the root system is strong. No mechanical damage and needles are not infected with pests.
Before going to the store, read the information about the shape of the crown, the size of the plant, as well as the features of its care.
European spruce or as it is also called ordinary - beautiful decoration of any garden plot. The country site planted with spruces always looks like it is ready to celebrate the New Year.
Norway spruce (European) - a worthy decoration of any country site. Spruce appeared in Europe in the XVI century, there is a description of the breeding of spruce, dated 1511 year, then the seedlings were very rare.
Nowadays, there are more than a hundred garden and design forms of spruce, and seedlings and seeds can be easily purchased in specialized stores and nurseries.
European spruce: species description
The height of the tree is 50 m with a trunk width of 1 m. This is a slender tree, the crown is thick, pyramidal. Branches - horizontal or drooping, low down the trunk. Twigs gather in whorls. If there is sufficient illumination, the lower tier of the branches is maintained for a very long time. The bark in his youth is smooth, brown in color.
By old age it becomes scaly rough, gray or brown. Shoots yellow or brown shades. May be bare or covered with red hairs. Buds are light brown. The needles are pretty tough, green.
The shape of the needles is oblate-tetrahedral, the length is 1-3 cm. The conifer tree lasts about 7 years. Mature cones of European spruce have oblong-cylindrical shape. Their length is 10-15 cm, width - 3-4 cm. Cones ripen in October, but the seeds usually fall in January-April. Seed length - 3-5 mm. The seed has a yellowish wing that separates easily from it. The tree blossoms at the age of 25-30 years.
Spruce wood has a yellowish-white color with a slight pinkish tinge. Characterized as soft, light, shiny. The root system is horizontal, surface, due to which the tree is free to turn out of the ground, even with strong winds.
Of all species, the common spruce (European) is the fastest growing. At a young age (up to 10 years), the increase is small, but it increases rapidly with age. The annual growth is 50 cm. From 100-110 years old it starts to decline and by 250 years the plant begins to dry out. In some cases, can live to 500 years.
To date, several ornamental varieties of this species have been bred: weeping, compact, bowling. All these varieties are often used in landscape design and gardening. Ordinary spruce is often found in hedges from roads and railways.
Growing of common spruce
Sandy, loamy, fertile, slightly wet soils are preferred. It carries a short-term flooding, but does not tolerate a long stagnant water. Resistant to shading, but sufficient light is needed for renewal. Resistance to frost due to thin scales that protect the kidneys from frost. It tolerates a haircut, but suffers from polluted air, although it itself has phytoncide, ionizing properties. Because of the superficial system of the location of the roots, the tree is afraid of windfalls.
Very often, seedlings can develop on a fallen trunk or a decaying stump. This is explained by the fact that it is characteristic of the plant to assimilate nitrogen compounds. Mycorrhiza (a symbiosis of spruce roots and edible cap mushrooms) helps spruce extract nutrients from the soil. It is mycorrhiza that explains the presence of a large number of white mushrooms in spruce forests.
Reproduction occurs by seed or layering. Moreover, the lower branches of the tree rooted directly on the soil, which is rare for conifers. But it is better to propagate by cuttings and grafting, since during seed multiplication there is a loss of characteristic decorative qualities.
Caring for European spruce
Novokadki unstable to dry air and soil. Therefore, on hot days, they require daily watering at the rate of 10-12 liters per 1 plant. It is also desirable sprinkling crown. After each irrigation, it is necessary to loosen the soil in the stop wheel, weed weeding and mulching with peat.
If the spruce grows as a hedge, then it requires special formation. With the help of trimming, you can achieve the effect of an impassable green wall. In other cases, in autumn and spring, diseased, dry, broken branches are removed from the trees. And the main formation of a beautiful correct crown occurs naturally. However, with the simultaneous growth of 2 tops, one must be removed, cutting it at the base.
Only young Christmas trees need special preparation for winter, except for frosts, they require protection from direct sunlight that causes burns. Under the young plants necessarily mulch the soil, and the needles are covered with spruce branches, non-woven material or kraft paper.
Norway spruce Acrocona (Acrocona)
Bright slow-growing variety, which appeared in the late XIX century in Finland. The crown forms a wide pyramid, is low, reaches a height of 4 m, at 2.5–3 m in diameter. The young plant is compact, round shape. Difference Acrocons are an early, abundant and very colorful fruiting, immature lilac-crimson buds appear in a multitude at the ends of skeletal branches and remarkably adorn the plant.
The needles of a dark green tone, on the gentle drooping young growths of a grassy shade that makes a striking contrast. A wonderful choice for gardening small gardens and soliternyh landings on the lawn.
Norway spruce Ohlendorf (Ohlendorffii)
Dwarf spruce with a compact crown comes from Germany. By the age of ten it reaches 1–2 m, it develops slowly, growing annually by 3–6 cm. The crown is wide, first round, then pyramidal, multi-top. The branches are thick, spread to the sides and raised at the ends, densely covered with refined green needles, sometimes with a golden shade. The variety is shade tolerant, unpretentious, suitable for drawing mixborders or decorating stony hills.
Cultivation and care
Spruce is propagated by seeds that can be planted without preparation, but pre-planting stratification may improve germination. Along with seeds, it can also multiply by cuttings, which take root very quickly. You can get a layering, sprinkling the lower branches of the earth. In this case, the lower branches very quickly begin to form a young root system, which is rare for conifers.
Caring for a planted plant is reduced to watering and weeding of the tree circle with simultaneous weed harvesting. Artificially does not require the formation of a crown, but it is necessary to remove dried or broken branches regularly. Young Christmas trees require protection from severe frosts and from direct sunlight. In hot weather, you need to regularly spray the crown with water and water every day at the rate of 10-12 liters of water per plant.
For use in landscaping and landscape design most suitable decorative appearance:
Characteristics of the plant
The description ate unequivocally: this is one of the quite unpretentious plants on Earth. It is undemanding to the fertility of soils, it is well acclimatized on very poor soils. She is not afraid of shady slopes and slight waterlogging of the soil cover. It is incredibly hardy, and it is not afraid of the sharply continental climate. But most species do not withstand gas pollution and smoke, however, the tree is used in urban greening and is used both in single and in group plantings for park alleys and snow protection zones. Dwarf or undersized ornamental forms are perfect for decorating the landscape of small personal plots, hills and rock gardens.
European spruce, or ordinary
The name of this tree speaks for itself and precisely indicates its habitat. European spruce grows in the European part of Russia. It is the basis of the taiga. In the north of Siberia and European Russia, arrays of common spruce are gradually replaced by Siberian spruce. What is this tree? There is no clear distinction between these species. In the selection of growing conditions, spruce differs significantly from larch and pine, but there are no intraspecific sharp differences. They are so shade-loving that it is rather difficult to grow in open treeless areas, since at the stage of shoots that have started to grow they are damaged by return spring frosts or get sunburn. In addition, they suffer greatly from grass fires triggered by seasonal arsons.
Spruce growing conditions
Spruce can be grown in most regions of the European part of Russia, in Siberia and in the south of the Far East. But this is a very delicate breed of wood. It is better to plant it under the canopy of more resistant representatives of the flora - oak, birch or pine. This is especially important for rather dry and poor soils on which spruce grows hard, since well-moistened soils are preferable for it. Spruce is much more demanding to the growing conditions than pine, which can grow well on dry sandy soils. That is why spruce and pine rarely grow together - they need too different conditions.
Watering and care
The period of germination of seedlings requires particularly generous watering, as it should act in accordance with natural conditions. After all, in spring, during the snowmelt, the soil is especially moist. Heat and humidity are the basic conditions for the activation of conifer seedlings. After a couple of weeks, the baby-fir tree should ascend. That this is a real conifer is immediately visible: the first needles appear. Now it is necessary to exercise caution and maintain a balance, i.e., water the sprouts as much as necessary, avoiding both underfilling and excessive moisture. Every two weeks, the young Christmas trees need to be fed and loosen the upper soil layer.
When it becomes warmer in the open air, and return frosts will recede, small seedlings can be planted in the ground. Compost or humus mixed with soil and some complex mineral fertilizers are added to the well before planting. More Christmas trees are not fed. By placing the seedlings in the hole, the roots are gently covered with soil, tamped, well sprinkled with water and create a small
greenhouse from a covering material, film or glass jar. This is necessary for faster acclimatization of seedlings.
Seedlings in greenhouses should be ventilated every day. They need to open, remove condensate and check the soil moisture. After 7-10 days, shelter can be removed, and the soil around the fir-trees can be mulched to preserve the soil moisture. As a rule, in nurseries spruce seedlings are grown in containers for 3-4 years. Since the tree grows very slowly, such a period is considered optimal for the successful further development of the conifer called spruce. Saplings of this age are more adapted to temperature extremes, they are no longer afraid of frost and sunburn. They are also planted with one dressing and good irrigation.
Varieties of spruce and their use
Like many coniferous trees, spruce rather decorative. She has always been a decoration of the Russian manor, gardens and parks. Today, thanks to the large selection work, many species of spruce trees used in garden landscape design have been developed. Herringbone, personally grown from seed, not only decorates the site, but can also become the ancestor of family traditions. This method of growing spruce from seeds is suitable for all tall species. In addition, such cultivation is a guarantee of excellent adaptation of the seedling to the climatic conditions of the area. Of the existing species, the attention of landscape designers attracts dwarf spruce. Low-growing varieties usually do not exceed a meter height, have a wide dense crown. They are great for decorating garden compositions, stone and alpine slides. One of the most spectacular and sought-after representatives of such species is spruce Nidiformis.
Dwarf forms: description
Nidiformis - a variety with a round crown shape and a central recess. The height of the tree barely reaches 1 m, and the crown reaches 3 m in diameter. The oblate crown is formed in the form of a nest, since the main branches of the tree are absent, and numerous shoots grow fanlike. Gorgeous short dark green needles, very thick and evenly covering branches. The tree grows very slowly, adding not more than 3-4 cm in height and 5-7 cm in width in a year. The spruce tree is undemanding to the soil, grows well on moderately fertile sandy soils of any acidity level, but can die if ground water is constantly in the vicinity of the root system. This spruce, like all low-growing conifers, photos of which are presented, is very decorative. And its slow growth makes it possible to preserve the landscape once created for many years. Nidiformisy frost-resistant, but young plants are better to cover with the threat of returning spring frosts.
Evergreen dwarf cattle: reproduction
Low-growing forms are not pure species and reproduce exclusively in a vegetative way - cuttings and layering, but not seeds. The fact is that such plants appear as a result of the mutation of various species of conifers, and from their seeds, as a rule, grow ordinary tall, rather than dwarf conifer trees. Photos of ornamental undersized species can be found in the special literature. If you grow such a conifer yourself it is impossible, there is only one way - to the store. Dwarf trees are usually sold in containers. The main rule in the purchase of this rather expensive acquisition is the firm belief that the root system of the seedling is strong, well developed, and is not damaged either mechanically or by pests. And before going to the store should be familiar with the form of the crown, features, size of plants and care for him.
Many coniferous species for many years retain a good shape regardless of the variety. Low-growing species may first have a spherical crown, and over time form a cone. Nevertheless, spruce and pine trees are such common trees that it is impossible to imagine Russia without these magnificent conifers.
Norway spruce grade Froburg (Frohburg)
Swiss original weeping spruce with a straight, slender trunk. The plant is medium-sized, by the age of ten it can grow up to 2–4 m. The branches are lowered, fall down to the ground, creep with age, forming a peculiar lush trail that looks unusual and attractive.
The needles of a light green tone, short, tough. Immature cones are greenish-crimson, emerald green growths, oblong-rounded shape. The stunning variety for soliter landings gives the compositions an elegant vertical accent and is of interest to fans of unusual ornamental plants.
Serb spruce (Picea omorika)
A tall tree with a narrowed conical or columnar shape with a pointed tip. The needles are flat, glossy, dark green in color, from the wrong side is marked with two silver-white dashes. Cones are small, bluish-black.
A beautiful, stable look is unassuming to the ground, it tolerates air pollution, in natural conditions it is common in the mountainous terrain of the Balkan Peninsula.
Fir-tree Serbian grade Nana (Nana)
Dwarf variety is characterized by a dense rounded crown in young specimens, then the crown becomes wide-conic with a pronounced pointed tip. The height of an adult plant is no more than 3.5 m and its width is about 2 m. It develops at a moderate pace for low-growing varieties; by the age of ten it reaches one and a half meters.
The main branches are directed obliquely upwards, covered with radially directed glossy emerald green needles with a distinct bluish tint and light stripes on the wrong side. Высаживается в садах восточного типа, благодаря эффектному голубому оттенку и компактности успешно используется для создания контрастных древесных композиций.
Певе Теджин (Peve Tijn)
Ель сербская сорт Певе Теджин (Peve Tijn)
Низкорослый спорт предыдущего сорта отобран голландскими селекционерами. Конусовидная широкая крона очень густая, с ровной плотной поверхностью. Дает приросты по 5–6 см в год, к десяти годам достигает чуть более полутора метров высоты. Хвоя золотисто-зеленая с голубым или серебристым оттенком. Привлекательное цветовое сочетание особенно ярко проявляется на годичных приростах и у растений, высаженных на открытых солнечных участках.
Ель канадская или сизая (Picea glauca)
A powerful tree reaches a height of 25–30 m, grows more moderately in culture — no more than 10–15 m, in nature it is common in the forests of North America. The crown is dense, the main branches of young plants are raised, in adults they are directed downwards. The needles are thick, bluish-green. Cones are small, light green, when ripe they turn brown.
Fir-tree Canadian grade of Alberta Glob (Alberta Globe)
A miniature, round-shaped plant becomes dome-shaped in adulthood. By ten years, the diameter of the dense crown is about 30 cm, with annual growths of 2–3 cm, over the years the magnificent conifer grows in breadth to 0.7 m and reaches 1 m in height.
The needles are light green, elegant, densely covering the thick side branches, forming a hilly continuous surface. A wonderful variety for planting in rockeries or flower beds looks good in homogeneous groups.
Norway fir Conica (Conica)
Slow-growing variety of Canadian breeding is distinguished by a dense conical crown of the correct shape. In adulthood, it grows no higher than 2 m with a width at the base of about one and a half meters. The surface is flat, dense, the twigs are directed upwards. Spiny elastic needles of juicy green color are located radially.
Konica does not need formative pruning, it is wonderfully suitable for arranging mixborders, decorating stony hills and growing in containers. The plant is stable, prefers rare penumbra, growths are prone to spring burns.
Spruce Canadian grade Sanders Blue (Sander's Blue)
The famous blue variety is one of the best colors in its group. It develops slowly, growing by 4–5 cm per year. By the age of ten, it reaches 0.7 m in height and 1.3–1.5 m in diameter. The crown is conical, regular, in shading it becomes friable.
The needles are bright, fresh silver-blue, on young growths of more saturated color, on old branches - bluish-green, because of which the surface appears unevenly colored, which is especially noticeable on specimens growing in the shade. Sometimes reversions can appear - completely green branches, which are neatly cut out at the trunk in early spring so as not to spoil the overall impression.
Engelman spruce or weeping (Picea engelmanii)
Slender coniferous heights up to 50 m in nature grow on poor soils of the Rocky Mountains of North America. The crown is cone-shaped, wide, with sloping branches covered with sharp bluish-green needles on growths darkening at the base of the branches. Cones are small, oblong-conical, up to 7 cm long, before maturation of burgundy color.
Spruce Engelmana Bush Bush Lace
Beautiful unusual variety with a straight trunk and pyramidal loose crown. The young plant actively gives growths - 20-30 cm per year, growing to 7 m in height and about 1.8 m in diameter. Skeletal branches are raised at the base, drooping at the ends, the lower branches lie on the ground, forming a magnificent plume.
The main color is bluish-green, spectacular large growths are bright, contrasting, silver-blue. It looks best single in open areas, in the shade it loses its saturation and attractive shape, growing unevenly.
Spruce Engelmana Snake variety
Tall tree with sparse crown and bluish-green needles, silver on the growths. Skeletal branches with virtually no lateral branching, characterized by growth from the top, horizontally directed, spread, at the ends slightly elevated. The variety is rare, mainly grown by lovers of the exotic, magnificent as a soliter, gives refinement to the oriental and rocky gardens.
Spruce barbed or blue (Picea pungens)
The species widespread in culture, beautiful and frost-resistant, well tolerates air pollution. It is widespread in the mountainous terrain of North America, grows to 30–40 m in height, and is characterized by a dense broad-pyramidal crown evenly developed. Skeletal branches are directed horizontally, spread and raised at the ends.
Young shoots bright brown, naked. Gray needles, with age becomes more and more green. The advantage of the species is tolerance to excess moisture and the ability to develop well in low-lying areas.
Fir-tree prickly grade Hermann Naue
Dwarf showy variety of pillow shape, without a pronounced central stem, with numerous lateral branches, directed in different directions. By the age of ten, a compact plant reaches half a meter in height and up to 0.7 m in diameter. The needles are bluish-gray, bright. Numerous oblong buds of a light brown color, appearing in the set at the ends of the shoots at an early age and serve as a wonderful decoration.
The Blues (The Blues)
Spruce barbed variety The Blues (The Blues)
Stunning blue sport varieties Glauca Pendula. The plant is medium-sized - no higher than 2.5 m and up to 1 m in diameter, with a straight stem and a low tip. The branches are horizontally spread, the ends are directed downwards. The needles are long, silver-blue in color, as if covered with frost, the growths are bright blue. Successfully grafted on shtamb.
Fir-tree prickly grade Hoopsi (Hoopsii)
The classical form of gray fir was bred in the USA in 1958. A lush beauty does not require a huge area, growing up to 10–12 m in height and no more than 3-4 m wide. It develops quickly - 15–20 cm per year, the branches are strong and elastic, do not break during snowfall. The crown is harmonious, pyramidal, with open, densely laid skeletal branches and multiple lateral branches, versatile.
The needles are large, up to 2.5 cm long, saturated blue in color, with growths light blue. Small purple bumps serve as an additional color accent. Looks great in a single landing and alleys, as well as in multi-colored compositions of conifers.
Black spruce (Picea mariana)
A large tree with a narrow pyramidal crown, in natural conditions it grows up to 20–30 m, in culture by the age of ten it is no more than 3 m. The needles are short, bluish-green, dense. The branches are brick brown, covered with reddish hairs. Winter-hardy unpretentious species is not distinguished by a huge selection diversity, amounting to only 6-7 varieties.
Fir-tree black grade Nana (Nana)
Dwarf plant is characterized by a dense rounded flattened crown with a smooth surface. The main branches are horizontally directed, completely covered with lateral aspiration sprigs. It develops slowly, growing 3-5 cm per year. In adulthood, reaches no more than half a meter height and about 1 m in diameter.
The needles are short, bluish-green, on the shoots of the current year of spectacular bright green color, contrasting. Unpretentious compact variety will serve as a wonderful element of a flower bed and rock arias, it grows well in container culture.
Black spruce Aurea (Aurea)
Slow-growing pyramid-shaped tree grows no higher than 1.5–2 m by the age of ten, then growth accelerates, and an adult plant reaches 5–7 m. Growth is much lighter, golden yellow. An elegant bractor looks great both in colorful dissimilar compositions, and as a tapeworm.
Siberian spruce (Picea obovata)
Slender spruce with a narrow crown in the shape of a cone, growing low from the ground, is considered one of the most resistant species. Growing shoots of light brown color, with slight pubescence. Glossy needles are sharp, up to 3 cm long, dark green. The species resembles European spruce in many respects, but develops more slowly, reaching a height of no more than 35 m. It is widespread in the forests and mountainous terrain of Siberia, China, Mongolia, and in northern Europe.
Glauca (var. Glauca)
Spruce Siberian cultivar Glauk (Var. Glauca)
The average variation with a pyramidal crown 10–12 m high grows intensively - 20–25 cm a year. Skeletal branches are widely spread, directed obliquely upwards, the central stem is smooth, pronounced. The needles are elastic, linear-needle-shaped, tetrahedral, silver-blue, very showy. Glauka is highly frost resistant, unpretentious and quite shade-tolerant. Used as a soliter, for group plantings and bookmarks alleys.
Eastern Spruce (Picea orientalis)
A common species grows in the mountainous terrain of the Caucasus and northern Turkey. The tree is large, up to 60 m in height. The dense pyramidal crown is symmetrically developed, with branches elevated at the base, sloping at the ends. Grows up to 20 cm per year, young trees develop much more slowly.
The needles are short, stiff, thick green tone. Cones of a bright reddish-purple shade, oblong narrowed shape, 6–8 cm in size. Spruce prefers light soils, poorly developed on heavy soils, freezes in severe dry winters.
Fir-tree east grade Nutans (Nutans)
A beautiful tree in the shape of an uneven pyramid, formed by unevenly growing branches, horizontally spread and raised at the ends. The side branches hang down. At first it grows moderately, at a mature age more intensively, growing at 20–30 cm per year. Mature trees can reach 18–20 m in height, at 7–9 m in diameter.
Needles spiny, very thick and short, about 1 cm long, dark green, glossy. Young shoots of light green bright tone. Immature cones are spectacular, reddish-purple, mature brown. Quite a large ephedra assumes the presence of sufficient space, usually grown in a single planting.
Fir-tree east grade of Aureospikata (Aureospicata)
Gorgeous oriental spruce obtained by German breeders at the end of the XIX century. A tree of medium size in adulthood reaches 10–15 m, characterized by a wide pyramidal crown, slightly friable. Omitted branches are uneven, raised at the ends, the side branches hang beautifully.
The needles are thin, very short, dark green. Greenhill-yellow bright growths, as well as small crimson buds, give a special attraction to the ephedra. An elegant tree is considered to be one of the best representatives of the species.
Spruce Mariorika (Picea x mariorika)
It was obtained by crossing black and Serbian spruce trees in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century, later a few, but very interesting varieties were bred. It is a large plant up to 30 m high, with a wide pyramidal crown. The branches are horizontally directed, covered with flat bluish-green needles, with distinctive silver stripes on the reverse side. Cones are small - up to 5 cm long, in an unripe form of purple color.
Norway spruce Machala grade (Machala)
Czech dwarf variety, up to half a meter in height and about 1 m wide, pillow shape. Branches versatile, horizontal, thick, raised from the base. The prickly needles are up to 1.5 cm long, silver-blue, from the inside out is lighter. The origin remains the subject of heated debate - in various sources it is argued that an interesting variety was obtained not from the Serbian spruce, but from the Jezian or, according to another version, the Sitka.
Jezian or Ayan spruce (Picea jezoensis)
A wonderful conifer tree, in nature reaching 30–50 m in height, grows no more than 8–10 m in culture by thirty years. Under natural conditions, the species is distributed in the Far East and the Korean Peninsula, in China and Japan, it is considered exclusively winter-hardy, , loves crown sprinkling, shade-tolerant.
Crohn pyramidal, skeletal branches directed obliquely upwards. Flat needles up to 1.5–2 cm long, blunt or with a small tip, dark green, with bluish-white stripes below, retained for up to 10 years. The needles fit snugly to the branches, with good lighting tend to bristle, which gives the plant a bright silver tone. Cones ovate-oblong, up to 8 cm long, in an unripe state of purple-crimson or light green color.
Nana Kalus (Nana Kalous)
Jezian or Ayan spruce variety Nana Kalus (Nana Kalous)
Dwarf squat plant without a pronounced central conductor, rounded, about 1 m in diameter. Skeletal branches are evenly spaced, horizontally and obliquely up, side branches are short, growing in number. Tousled needles with bluish seamy bright, attractive. Very nice shape, looks good on alpine slides, in the foreground mixborders.
Fir-tree prickly grade Blue Pearl (Blue Pearl)
Dwarf conifer with a rounded crown, which eventually becomes cushion or wide conical. By the age of ten, it reaches half a meter in height and 0.8 m in diameter, it grows slowly - 2-3 cm per year.
The branches are thick, multidirectional, lateral branches are arranged vertically, forming a convex textured surface. Needles radially located, hard and prickly, bluish-blue tone, creates an attractive contrast with the red bark of the shoots.
Fir-tree prickly grade Lucky Strike
A charming dwarf herringbone with a pyramidal crown reaches 10 years of age 1.2 m in height and 0.8 m in diameter, does not exceed 2 m in adulthood. Dense branches are uneven, directed horizontally or obliquely upwards. Glossy needles are dark green, growths are bright, yellowish. Purple cones appear early and in abundance, they are large, directed vertically, and turn brown with time.
Norway spruce Goblin (Goblin)
Attractive dwarf form of common spruce resembles a bright green lush hummock. The central conductor is not pronounced; short skeletal branches cover a multitude of vertically directed lateral branches completely covered with short protruding needles of a juicy green shade, especially bright on young growths.
It develops slowly, growing at 2–2.5 cm per year, and reaches a height of 0.4 m by the age of ten. The variety was obtained from the well-known cushion variety Nidiformis.
Norway spruce variety Kruenta (Cruenta)
The stunning "red" variety of Norway spruce is winter-hardy and drought tolerant. It develops at a moderate pace, by the age of ten it reaches 2–4 m. Crohn is dense, regular pyramidal shape, with skeletal branches raised obliquely upwards and drooping side branches.
A remarkable feature is the purple-crimson large increments, which eventually acquire a green color. Unripe cones are bright, crimson-purple. The spectacular combination of crimson and green tones makes this ephedra extremely elegant, invariably attracting looks.
Fir-tree Serbian grade of Pendula Bruns (Pendula Bruns)
The original plant of medium size, growing to 4–5 m tall, less often up to 10 m, develops at a moderate pace - annually by 7–10 cm in height and about 3 cm in width. Crohn narrowed, about 1.2–1.7 m in diameter, with a straight central conductor, curved upwards to varying degrees. The branches are directed downward, clamped to the trunk and slightly raised at the ends, growing from the ground itself, forming a wide dense loop.
Spiky narrow needles of dark green color, from seamy side with two silver stripes. Cones are small, in an immature state of reddish-purple. To preserve a spectacular flat and narrow shape, the trunk is tied up to a height of 1.5–2 m. The variety develops poorly on too moist moist grounds.
Fir-tree prickly grade Christmas Blue (Christmas Blue)
A slow-growing tree in adulthood reaches a height of 3–4 m with a width in the diameter of about 1.5–2 m. The main difference is the ideal proportions of a conical crown with a smooth surface. Skeletal branches are directed horizontally, evenly covered with lateral branches growing in different directions.
The needles are elastic, radially located, silver-blue, exceptionally pure tone. It develops best in open areas, successfully grown in groups and to create dense blue fences.
Izeli Fasgiata (Iseli Fastigiata)
Fir-tree prickly Izeli Fastygiata (Iseli Fastigiata)
Beautiful prickly spruce grows to 10–12 m, the growth rate is intense - about 20 cm per year, reaches 10 m by the age of ten. up, side twigs and growths are directed vertically.
The needles are bluish-green, of a pleasant fresh tone, in sunny areas the blue hue is more pronounced. One of the best tall narrow varieties that allows you to successfully grow luxurious blue spruce, even in a limited space.
Norway spruce Columnaris (Columnaris)
The high natural form of Norway spruce in the wild is found in Scandinavian countries. The narrow columnar crown is formed by short skeletal branches and horizontally located, densely covered with dark green glossy needles lateral branches.
The plant is large, at a mature age it reaches 12–17 m, it develops quickly, it gives increments up to 30 cm per year. Young trees tend to frost and burn in the sun. Used to create alleys and solitary landing.
Video about the variety of species and varieties of fir trees
Разнообразные разновидности елей широко используются в озеленении участков, для оформления парадных подъездов, обустройства плотных изумрудных или голубых изгородей, одиночных или групповых посадок, в миксбордерах и рокариях. Невероятное сортовое разнообразие не только удовлетворит самый привередливый спрос, но и может не на шутку увлечь садовода, превратив его в страстного коллекционера замечательных вечнозеленых растений.