Experienced gardeners never start laying plum orchards spontaneously. Beginners yes, these can "shove" a tree into the ground, regardless of the objective reasons, which in certain cases can be the main indicators of the inexpediency of planting seedlings. Pros do not do this, before carrying out work, they try to take into account all the indicators that could affect the proper development of the plum in the future. There are many such indicators. This quality and preparation of the soil, the correct location of the landings, the time of work. But all of the above will not matter if the gardener does not know the rules of planting in his climatic zone. And the main rule states that each locality implies a specific time for laying a plum orchard. What is the time, how to plant the plum in the spring, step-by-step instructions will tell. Or maybe not in the spring?
Planting plum in the suburbs
According to the location of the Moscow region, the strip seems to be average, but, being in that climate, this cannot be said. Not that it is radically different from the climate of other territories located in the same lane, but it is able to present its own surprises.
Planting of plum saplings in this area is allowed in spring and autumn. It is believed that young trees, planted in the fall in early September, before the winter is quite successfully able to harden and safely live to spring. Ideally, yes, for those who do not know how fast and not in time the weather in the Moscow region can end the summer and begin the winter. Here it happens quite often, so the autumn planting of seedlings is allowed, but not welcome. Even if someone risked planting plums in the fall, there are other dangers in planting material loss during the winter. The freezing of the tree is inevitable in the winter with severe frosts and a small amount of snow. True, they say, if for the winter to wrap a tree stem with a newspaper, he is not afraid of frosts. Why not, you can try, life is unpredictable. Another nuisance is the risk of bark preying near the root collar due to a changing climate.
Planting plums in the Leningrad region
It is quite real, the trees there are not bad fruit, if for the autumn planting completely forget. This is not even the Moscow region with its weather surprises, in these places in the open ground seedlings are planted only in the spring. Therefore, there are no problems with the timing of the work. But there are other problems in terms of how to plant the plum in the spring correctly, taking into account local conditions.
The first of them - the ground. In the Leningrad region, it is the ground, not the soil. Earth, sand, crushed stone - all this can be part of the upper "fertile" layer. For this reason, the preparation of the soil in those places should be given special attention.
The second important type of preparatory work is the choice of a place for a sapling. Since in the Leningrad region the area is blown by cold winds, protected places should be chosen for plum planting. For example, behind the house, a shed or a fence without cracks. With this arrangement, the tree will have a maximum chance of normal development.
Planting plums in the Urals
Plum in the Urals, it is already interesting, because for its cultivation in those places almost no conditions. All traditional varieties of crops, fruit well in the southern regions and in the middle belt, there do not grow. For the Urals and the places close to it, the varieties have their own, hardy. Of the main types, there are two types of plum: Chinese with their varieties (“Pioneer”, “Flamingo”), Canadian with their own (“Seligran”, “Hungarian Ural”). Based on the local climate conditions, all varieties of plum tree are bred.
With independent reproduction of the “Ural” plum one should not forget that growing crops from seeds does not lead to anything good - the “newly made” seedling completely loses the signs of the variety. Another thing is planting plums in spring with saplings or reproduction using shoots. When planting material is taken from a particular species or variety, a tree with the same properties will eventually grow.
Planting plums in Siberia
In fact, the same extreme type of occupation as in the Urals, but with its own nuances. When growing plums in Siberian conditions, seedlings are recommended to be taken from among cold-resistant species that are able to withstand the air temperature with a minus index. Alternatively, the best one, we can recommend the Ussuri plum. For their "Siberian" quality is valued not only here, but throughout the world.
The process itself also has some features. For all fruit trees, planting plums in spring with seedlings begins with the selection and preparation of the site, namely the pit, which is recommended to be prepared in advance. But if for the middle band this recommendation is more informative, then for Siberia it is obligatory. In the spring, while the earth podtaet to the desired depth, time to work may not remain. And so, from the autumn they dug a hole, laid the ground nearby. In the spring, as soon as the soil thawed out a little, and with it the earth from the pit, the plum can be planted. The main thing is that the root was something to sprinkle.
General rules for plum planting for all areas
You can know how to plant a plum in the spring only if you know exactly which place will be the most favorable for its development. What is meant, what to pay attention to?
Place for plums is selected:
- preferably with some kind of protection (house, shed, fence),
- with a warm microclimate (no drafts),
- not in the lowlands. In the case when there are no other options, the landing is recommended to be placed on half-meter artificial elevations,
- at a considerable distance from other trees.
If you comply with these conditions, it turns out perfectly. In the future, the plum orchard will show itself from the best side, providing the gardener with a good harvest. In the case when the recommendations fail, the planting of seedlings is carried out as is. With further appropriate care, some negative points can be minimized.
Plum planting procedure: walkthrough
1. The pit is dug out in the fall. For the middle zone and the southern regions of the work is not required, but desirable.
2. The depth of the pit is usually made about 60 centimeters, width is 80. This is on average, but young trees, and hence the root system, can be of different sizes. To the landing site did not get more or less necessary, and if you have experience in carrying out garden work, the dimensions can be adjusted.
3. Spring planting of young stock begins with the departure of cold weather and warming up of the ground.
4. The ground dug from the fall is mixed with fertilizers: a bucket of compost or humus, a bucket of peat, a pound of wood ash, 300 grams of granulated superphosphate (preferably less than more).
5. A small mound is made in the pit, a wooden stake is driven in there, a seedling is placed and tied next to the stake, not closely. When the tree will be installed, you need to make sure that the root neck was six centimeters above ground level,
6. The pit is carefully filled with the prepared earth mixture and watered. Water needs two or three buckets.
7. Mulching peat, manure or anything (straw, dry grass, etc.)
In the future, you will need a few more watering. By quantity, it is two or three times. On water, depending on weather conditions - under one tree from three to eight buckets.
That's all, the sapling is planted. And yet, despite the fact that all aspects relating to planting in different climatic zones are considered, how to plant a spring plum in a step-by-step instruction explains this is only the main points. They explain, recommend, give an idea in principle of the progress of work. If there are no complaints about the climate in the landing zone, you can unconditionally orient yourself to recommendations. Just where to find such a climate. Therefore, it is advisable to “tune the rules” under the specific conditions of the future growth of plum plants. Then, there will be nothing difficult in cultivation, and the yield will be at its best.
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The best varieties of plums for planting
Experts advise to plant seedlings in the spring. For the southern regions can do it in the fall. Plum - quite a capricious tree, so the variety must be selected according to the requirements and characteristics of your area.
Nowadays, many hybrids and varieties have been bred that grow well even in the north of our country, only seedlings need to be purchased in nurseries. Otherwise, all the labor may be wasted. Consider the most popular varieties for different areas of the country.
Plum varieties for the southern region
The Volgograd Region and the Krasnodar Territory belong to this region. For planting in a relatively warm climate, it is recommended to plant new varieties and hybrids bred by breeders, such as: Podruga, Milena, Krasotka, Herzog.
Also, the hybrids belonging to the elite class will get accustomed and give a good harvest: 17 - 6 - 49, 17 - 6 - 60, 17 - 6 - 80, 17 - 6 - 85, 17 - 6 - 110.
These varieties are characterized not only by high yields, but also by resistance to diseases such as monophobia and monociosis.
Plum varieties for the Urals
Breeders in this area today have developed many new varieties of plums that are better suited for this region. Therefore, at the moment, the popularity of growing this fruit tree has increased dramatically.
The most famous today are: the Ural gold, the Pearl of the Urals, Ailinskaya, Shershnevskaya and others.
Plum varieties for Siberia
The climate in this region is colder, therefore, naturally, the varieties destined for the southern regions do not survive here. Hybrids and varieties were obtained due to the Ussurian plum growing in the Far East, which gave resistance to cold.
So, the Dawn of Altai, the Manchurian beauty, Chemal souvenir, Pyramidal, Souvenir and many others were obtained.
How to plant a plum in the open ground in the spring
This process involves several very important steps, starting with the selection of a seedling and ending with fertilizer and watering.
All these actions must be done according to certain rules and adhering to the instructions, then the plum will please not only with a lush and green crown, but also with an excellent harvest. Let us consider in more detail each of the points.
- The most favorable period, depending on the region, can be considered the second half of April and until the first decade of May. It was at this time that the soil begins to warm up to the desired temperature, which will favorably affect the adaptation of the seedling and subsequent development.
- In the southern regions it is recommended to plant a sapling also in September, until the soil froze, and in more northern ones - only during the spring months in order to avoid freezing of the root system of the young tree.
- A seedling in the already heated soil should be planted with not yet opened buds. Also, the grade chosen by you, probably, will demand some certain additional conditions.
Which place is better to choose
- This tree is not only very thermophilic, but also requires good lighting. Therefore, it is recommended to plant a seedling on the south side of your garden plot.
- The sun's rays, a spacious place, the absence of partial shade and shadow - these are the main criteria when choosing a place for landing.
- Plum does not tolerate cold winds and places where there are drafts. It is also not recommended to plant it in the shade of other trees. The distance between plants should be at least 3 meters. The distance between the rows suggests at least 3–4 m. If the variety is characterized by a considerable height and sprawling crown, then the gap between the seedlings should be made at least 4–5 m.
- The tree is cross-pollinated. For a good harvest, you need to plant at least a few seedlings, if your chosen plot allows.
Plum just loves fertile and well loosened soil. Neutral acidity loamy soil (6.8 - 7.2 - recommended pH level) will be the most comfortable for this plant.
Not suitable for planting soil with gravel, gravel. Also, wetland and wet terrain can cause putrid root processes and plant death.
Depending on the type of soil, it is necessary to fertilize before planting the seedling:
- Loamy and podzolic soil will require such a mixture: 50 g of potassium, 250 to 300 g of superphosphate, and 18 to 20 kg of humus are applied per 1 m2.
- If there is enough peat in the soil, then humus is not applied, but only 50 g of potassium and 300-400 grams of superphosphate can be limited.
- If the soil is greasy, black earth, then it is necessary to add 25 - 30 grams of potassium, 150 - 200 grams of superphosphate and up to 10 kg of humus.
- If necessary, add a little lime.
Landing pit preparation
- 14 days before the landing process itself, it is necessary to dig a landing hole.
- The depth of the hole should be from half a meter to 70 cm, and with a diameter from 60 cm to 80 cm.
- A wooden peg is driven into the planting hole, which will hold the seedling.
- Two-thirds of the hole is filled with soil mixture, which consists of 2 buckets of peat, several buckets of humus or compost, 1 cup of superphosphate and potassium sulphate in an amount of 60 - 80 grams.
- If the soil is poor, then the diameter of the landing pit should be one and a half times larger. Naturally, the amount of fertilizer during planting also increases.
Choosing a sapling
When buying planting material should pay attention to several aspects. Let's see which characteristics are basic for a sapling.
- Pay attention, first of all, to the root system: there should be at least 3 to 4 healthy and strong processes, and they should be 25 cm. Look carefully at the young tree, if there are damages or damaged and dry areas, it is better to find another option.
- Saplings with broken branches should not be bought either.
- In the case when the planting material is purchased in the fall, then for the winter you can simply prikopat seedlings: a narrow oblong pit is dug out at an angle, into which the trees are defined. Top of them sprinkled with earth.
When all the preparatory stages have been completed, it remains to directly plant the plant in open ground.
- It is necessary to drive a peg at the bottom of the pit, and beside it pour the soil in the form of a hill. A sapling is then installed on it.
- The root system on the knoll must be straightened well.
- Do not allow the seedling to skew, make sure that it stands in the pit exactly. Gradually fill the hole with earth by about 2/3.
- Then the plant must be tied to a peg. Try to do this carefully so as not to damage the seed bark.
- Next, fill the soil to the end. Finally, lightly tamp the ground in the near-wellbore circle so that there are no voids in the root system.
- After planting, seedling should be watered with 20 liters of water under each bush.
Rules of departure after landing
When a young tree begins to adapt to a new place, you simply must take care of it and pay attention. What should be done first?
- Depending on the level of humidity in your area, you need to water the seedling after planting every 7 to 10 days. If the humidity is too high, soil moisture can be slightly limited.
- The first time to feed the tree will have only a year after planting, and then do it annually, until the plant begins to bear fruit. Top dressing in the form of 20 grams of urea per 1 m2 is enough.
- It is not recommended to fertilize and feed more, as the tree has not gained enough strength to take the necessary amount of nutrients from the soil.
- When it is time to harvest the first crop, then the plant should be fertilized. To do this, you need to take from 6 to 8 kg of compost, about 50 grams of superphosphate and potassium chloride 10 - 15 grams. This mixture is watered with a place whose area is only one square meter.
- After harvesting the first crop, feed the tree several times a year annually. In the spring, compost, manure and urea are introduced into the soil, and in the autumn months manure and compost, potassium and phosphorus are necessary for the plum.
- Every year the crown of the tree is cut to one third. Too large lower branches also need to get rid of.
The timing of planting plum in the spring
The ideal time for planting plums in the spring in the open ground on the calendar is not found. After all, this treasured date depends on the ambient temperature, which is different in different years. But more often, plum saplings are planted in early-mid-April, when there are no frosts, but the tree has not yet started growing.
The absence of kidneys or their slight swelling is an important parameter to which attention should be paid. It is in this state that the planting is optimal. But if the leaves are ready to dissolve - planting should be postponed until the next season or autumn.
How to plant a plum?
The main thing to pay attention to before landing is the right place. The tree should be located on the south side of the buildings, and not be shaded by other large plants. It is very good if the area on which it is planned to plant a tree will be slightly protected from the winds, because winter storms can harm much more than growing in the shade.
Необходимо для укоренения саженца выкопать достаточно просторную яму, глубиной не меньше 50 см и примерно в 50-70 см диаметре, в зависимости от размера корневой системы. Очень важно при посадке сливы весной внести комплекс удобрений, которые на длительный срок обеспечат молодое дерево всеми необходимыми микроэлементами. По прошествии трех лет подкормку следует повторить, но не ранее, так как этого количества удобрения хватит именно на три года.
A layer of fertilizer laid out on the bottom of the pit must be carefully covered with soil so that the roots do not come into contact with the chemical components, otherwise the burn of the root system is guaranteed. Many experienced gardeners set a landing strip in the pit, that is, a support for a young tree so that strong winds cannot break it.
After the installation of such a support, the sapling is lowered into a hole and sprinkled with soil in such a way that no voids remain. It is not recommended to bury the tree below the level of the root collar. Then shorten the existing crown or part of the seedling for better rooting and initial formation of the tree.
If the plum roots have dried up a little before planting in the spring, they are recommended to be soaked in water for several days, so that they come in tone and are saturated with moisture. After planting, the tree must be watered well (at least 4 buckets). Such a tree as a plum is very demanding on moisture, and therefore watering should be regular and then the crop will be canceled.
Adding an article to a new collection
Modern varieties of plums can not be called unpretentious. They have certain requirements for planting, farming, fertilizers, and without these conditions, the trees can not be fruit-bearing, if not completely dead.
We have repeatedly told in detail about the various stages of plum care and operations that need to be done with it, but in this article we want to collect all the main points for those who are just going to start this beautiful tree in their garden.
1. When and where to plant the plum?
Plum saplings can be found on sale in almost all the warm seasons, however, despite the assurances of the sellers, the planting itself is best done in early spring. During the autumn planting, young plums often do not have time to take root and die, and the summer heat for these trees with a shallow root system is destructive.
In the extreme case, if it was in the fall you caught a sapling of a very attractive variety, try to plant it in such a way that it will remain at least 2 months before the onset of cold, then the tree will have chances to live until spring.
Choose a lighted and sheltered place for the plum. It can develop in partial shade, but certainly not in a draft.
2. What kind of soil does plum love?
Plums grow best on fertile, loose soils with a neutral pH. It can be both loamy and sandy loam soil, the main thing is that it contains a sufficient amount of nutrients and they are applied regularly.
Plum does not tolerate stagnant moisture and waterlogging, so it will not grow on wetlands or lands where the distance to groundwater is less than 1.5 m.
3. How to choose a plum sapling?
The choice of planting material is always difficult, because the eyes just run away from the proposals of nurseries, shops and private farms. Whichever variety you prefer, remember that a sapling must meet several requirements:
- dwarf or semi-dwarf stock,
- lack of dry twigs and rotten roots,
- height more than 140 cm, diameter from 1.3 cm (for the first grade), height more than 110 cm, diameter more than 1.1 cm (for the second grade),
- branched shtamby height not less than 50 cm, with a diameter of 1.4 cm, with a length of branches of 20 cm.
In addition, the seedling will not be signs of disease, traces of lichen, broken or cut branches.
5. How to improve plum pollination?
Most of the varieties of plums that are currently commercially available are self-infesting. This means that one tree on the plot will not be enough, and the harvest will not be tied. If there is a neighboring garden next to your territory, where other varieties of plums grow, blooming at the same time as yours, you can do without planting additional plants. If this is not the case, you will have to plant several copies at once, specifying at the time of purchase whether they have the same flowering time.
However, you can find self-fertile varieties of plums. True, even they will be better fruitful in the company of their own kind.
6. How to feed the plum?
The fertilizer laid on planting fertilizer will be enough for the first two years, but starting from the third, it will have to be fed. They do this not every year, but at intervals of 2-3 years, depending on the condition of the soil and the tree itself.
They do not fertilize the plum under the root, but in the hole or groove, dug at a distance of 60-80 cm from the tree trunk.
In the spring, after awakening the garden, 2 st.l. carbamide and potassium sulfate in 10 liters of water. After the plum has blossomed, spend a second feeding 3 tbsp. nitrophoscopy on 10 liters of water.
During the formation of the fruit, the plum can be poured over with a solution of chicken manure (1:20), and in the fall, spray the foliage with potassium sulfate and superphosphate 2 tbsp each. fertilizer for 10 liters of water.
7. How and how much to water the plum?
The bulk of plum roots is located at a depth of 40 cm, that is, in the layer of soil that dries easily. From a lack of moisture, plum can discard flowers and ovaries, so you need to make sure that the soil in the breech circle is always moist, but not flooded.
On average, a young tree needs 5 buckets of water at a time, and during fruit formation, this volume increases by a third.
8. How to cut the plum?
Young plums grow very quickly, so they need annual pruning. It is held 2 times a year: forming in the spring and sanitary in the fall.
After pruning pruning, all cut areas are treated with garden pitch.
The first pruning pruning pruning is carried out one year after planting. Depending on the type of crown chosen, a part of the branches is removed, all the tops and sometimes they cut the central conductor.
9. How to mulch plum?
Improving the wintering of plants and reduce the drying of the soil will help mulching pristolnogo circle plum. If, after planting, you covered it with peat, then after 2 years you can repeat the process, or surround the roots of the tree with bark (wood chips) within a radius of 1 m.
The mulch from freshly cut grass or straw will also work, however, for the winter, the roots of the tree will have to be protected from rodents.
10. How to prepare the plum for the winter?
Usually plums endure winters, especially in the middle lane. But since their roots are located quite close to the surface, it is desirable to protect the garden from severe frosts, decay and rodents.
To do this, in the late autumn, wrap the root neck of the plum with sphagnum moss, and as soon as snow appears, pat it around the tree. If in the spring you for some reason did not mulch the tree trunk, in the fall you should certainly do it, but choose coarse materials that your mice will not like.
Do not forget to whitewash the plum after the onset of stable negative temperatures - young trees with delicate bark often suffer from frostbite. Wrapping the barrel with paper or covering material will help to cope with sunburn.
11. How to get rid of root sprout on plum?
Plum is famous for its abundance of root growth and its resistance. Of course, if you want to multiply the plum, then these offspring will be useful to you. But if the number of trees in the garden suits you completely, then it is necessary to get rid of the sprouts in a timely manner. It spends food and moisture, depriving the tree of force and reducing its fruiting.
A simple clipping from the overgrowth does not get rid of - it will "rise" again and again. It is better to spray it with 10% urea solution 2-3 times in sunny weather. Scions "burn", and new ones will cease to appear over time.
12. How to treat plums from pests?
Many insect pests prefer plums to other crops and actively eat leaves, buds, flowers and fruits. They are found, as a rule, rather late, so one or even several harvests can be lost through ignorance.
As a preventive measure, the plum is treated in a leafless condition (in early spring and late autumn) with 3% Bordeaux liquid and 5% urea solution.
If pests have already appeared in your garden, plums should be sprayed with insecticides 3-4 times per season: before bud break, during the period of leaflets, before flowering and before the fruit begins to ripen. Fufanon, Karate, Karbofos, Aktara, Mospilan, Calypso are well suited for this purpose.
13. How to plant plum?
If the young plum grown by you is not productive enough or gives tasteless fruit, you can change its varietal qualities with the help of vaccination. It is important to remember that the plum is grafted not on all cultures, but only on plum, cherry plum and apricot.
In addition, plum trees grow old very quickly, so it makes no sense to vaccinate a plant over 10 years old.
Plum is grafted at any time of the year, but autumn is the most risky and often destroys the tree.
Care plum seems difficult only at first glance. After you master the basic techniques and rules, the trees in your garden will delight you with lush flowering and abundant harvest for many years.
When to plant?
The best landing period begins at the end of April and ends at the end of May. In this case, the roots of the seedling fall into the heated soil, which will positively affect the health of the plum tree.
You can plant a plum in the fall, and the optimum time for planting will be a period of 1.5-2 months before the soil freezes (usually the soil begins to freeze in late October, so you need to plant the plum in the fall in September). Also, when planting should take into account climatic conditions.
Experienced gardeners recommend that residents of the southern regions plant a plum in autumn (September) or in spring (in April and early May), and residents of the middle belt - only in spring (in April and early May). Plum is very fond of heat, so it is not recommended to plant this tree in the northern regions.
How to choose a place?
Plum is a light-loving plant, so it should be planted in areas with good lighting. Also, the plum must be planted in areas that are not blown by the wind. Other trees should not obscure the plum, so plum should be planted in the south of other trees.
The minimum distance between trees should be at least three meters. Also, it should be remembered that the plum is a cross-pollinated plant, therefore it is recommended to plant at least two plums at a time to get a good harvest.
Soil requirements and preparation
Plum grows well in loose fertile soils. Best of all, plum grows in loamy soils with neutral acidity (pH from 6.8 to 7.2). Plums can not be planted in the swamp, it is also not recommended to plant plums in the soil, which contains a large amount of gravel and gravel.
Before planting seedlings, it is recommended to fertilize the soil:
- In the case of loamy or podzolic soils, a mixture of 15–20 kg of humus, 200–300 g of superphosphate and 40–50 g of potassium (per 1 square meter of earth) must be introduced into the ground.
- In the case of peaty soils, 300-400 g of superphosphate and 40-50 g of potassium should be added to the ground, and humus should not be added to the soil.
- In the case of chernozem soils, 5–10 kg of humus, 100–200 g of superphosphate and 20–30 g of potassium should be introduced into the ground.
- If necessary, you can liming the soil.
2 weeks before planting, a special hole must be dug in the ground. The diameter of the pit should be 60-80 centimeters, and the depth - 50-70 centimeters. Also in the pit you need to drive a thin wooden peg, to which when planting a seedling will be tied.
This pit needs to be filled with 2/3 of fertile soil and fertilizer. Components such as humus or compost (1-2 buckets), peat (2 buckets), superphosphate (300 g) and potassium sulphate (60-80 g) are used as fertilizers. If you plan to plant a plum on infertile soil, it is necessary to increase the volume of the pit by 1.5 times (at the same time, the volume of fertilizers also increases by 1.5 times).
Preparation and selection of seedlings
Let's now learn how to choose the right plum sapling.
A walkthrough with which you can choose a sapling, looks like this:
- When buying, you need to make sure that there are no defects or damages on the seedling. A good seedling should have a strong root system (at least 3-4 roots, the length of which should be at least 25 centimeters).
- Also, during the inspection it is necessary to make sure that there are no broken branches on the sapling.
- If you bought seedlings in the fall, then you need to dig them for the winter. To do this, you need to dig a narrow wide hole, and the hole itself must be inclined, after which it is necessary to place the seedlings in the hole and sprinkle them with earth.
How to plant?
So, you have fertilized the soil, dug a hole and bought a sapling. Let us now learn how to plant a sapling.
Step-by-step instructions for planting seedlings in open ground look like this:
- Before planting, make a small mound of earth in the pit next to a wooden peg.
- Place the seedling on a mound in the hole, and then straighten the seedling roots.
- Slowly fill the pit with earth somewhere 2/3 (in this case, you must hold the seedling with your hand so that it is upright and not twisted).
- After that, you need to carefully tie the seedling to a wooden peg.
- Now completely fill the pit with earth.
- Carefully tamp the ground with a shovel and pour 2 buckets of water into it.
Departure after landing
Now you know how planting plum seedlings looks.
Let's now learn how to care for the plum after planting:
- It is necessary to water plum 2-3 times a month in case of a climate with an average level of humidity. If the humidity is very high, then watering can be carried out less frequently, if the humidity is low, then watering should be done more often.
- The first dressing plums need to perform 1 year after planting. Urea should be used as the first feed, and its concentration should be 20 g per 1 square meter of soil. Fermenting urea must be done every year before the first fruiting.
- During the first fruiting need to fertilize the earth. To do this, mix 5-8 kg of compost, 50 g of superphosphate and 10-15 g of potassium chloride. This mixture is enough for fertilizing a plot with an area of 1 square meter.
- After the first fruiting, you need to feed the land every year. In the spring, compost, urea and manure should be applied to the soil, and in the autumn, compost and manure, as well as various fertilizers based on potassium and phosphorus.
- Also, after planting, you need to cut the tree crown 1/3 each year. If the lower branches have a greater coverage than the upper, then they also need to get rid of.
The most important aspect to consider is the choice of a quality and viable seedling. If the seedling is chosen correctly, the planting will take place efficiently, and in the future you will receive a high-quality and abundant harvest of tasty plums. As you know, plant plum only need high-quality planting material. A good sapling can be selected, guided by the following selection criteria:
- absence of defects on the seedlings and various types of damage,
- no broken branches,
- the presence of a powerful root system. The seedling should have 3-5 strong roots, the size of which should be from 25 cm.
Such seedlings can be not only planted in the spring in a suitable place in your backyard, but also transplanted into a new one in the future. When choosing planting material should be aware that the drain is:
- own-rooted. In case of frosting, they can recover on their own.
Also trees can be:
- self-infertile. Such a plum should be planted only in combination with self-bearing trees.
To properly plant or transplant the plum, you need to know certain nuances. Tips for planting and caring for a tree include the following aspects:
- Plum is quite demanding wood to moisture, heat and location. Therefore, the optimal area on which you can plant a plum is a place with sufficient access to light and little access to the wind. The tree needs full protection from westerly and northerly winds. The best choice would be a plot close to buildings or a fence,
- the depth of the landing pit should be about 0.5 m, and the width - more than one meter,
- if the soil is poor in nutrients, then the planting pits should be pulled deep from 40 to 60 cm and extended to 100-120 cm. Such dimensions allow creating optimal conditions for soil nutrition of seedlings,
- The best site for planting a plum will be south-west, south-east or east. It is not necessary to take the southern slopes under the landing sites. Otherwise, the drain can get a pretty strong degree of sunburn,
- it is worth avoiding low places in which the tree will rot, and during flowering - the negative impact of spring frosts is possible,
- in terms of soil selection, preference should be given to loamy soils having a neutral soil solution. soil pH should be in the range of 6.8-7.2. Marshlands that have a gley horizon are considered unsuitable for planting. In addition, soils with abundant gravel and crushed stone are not suitable. Here the plant will suffer from draining or excess moisture,
- 2/3 of the excavated pit is filled with the top layer of soil, which is mixed with fertilizers. Approximately 15 kg of compost, 400 g of wood ash, 300-400 g of superphosphate, 40-60 g of potassium chloride are put into the pit,
- sowing should be planted so that the root neck is located about 5 cm higher than the existing ground level. The same condition persists if the tree needs to be transplanted,
- the distance between seedlings is determined based on the type of tree acquired. Для раскидистых и широких слив данный показатель составляет примерно три метра. При небольшой кроне, дистанцию можно сократить до 1,5 метра,
- чтобы молодое деревцо росло ровно, саженец подпирают колышком с северной стороны.
Если саженцы были приобретены осенью, их следует прикопать на зиму в специально вырытую для этого траншею. В нее деревца укладывают под наклоном и присыпают сверху землей. Young trees need to be thrown over the ground about half a bob. For our country, in most cases podzolic soils are characteristic. Therefore, in this situation, it is necessary to carry out the liming procedure in order to get a strong and healthy tree, as well as a high-quality and tasty harvest.
Correctly liming can be done according to the following scheme:
- at a soil pH of 5.2–5.6 –perforated - 400 g / m², podzolic soil — 450 g / m²,
- with a soil pH of 4.5-5.0, peat is 600 g / m², podzolic soil 650 grams / m².
In addition, before planting in the situation of the presence of loamy and podzolic soils, pre-planting fertilizer of the soil is carried out. Here the following fertilizers should be applied:
- humus - most of all (about 15-20 kg),
- superphosphate - significantly less (no more than 200-400 g),
- potassium chloride - quite a bit (about 40-50 g).
The fertilizer application scheme changes somewhat in the presence of peaty soils. In this situation, pre-plant fertilizer includes the introduction of:
- a small amount of superphosphate (about 300-400 g),
- potassium chloride in small volumes (up to 50 g).
In the presence of black chernozem, this scheme involves the introduction of:
- humus - 10 kg less,
- superphosphate - about 100-200 g,
- potassium chloride - even less than for loamy and podzolic soils (only 20-30 g).
At this size, fertilizer should be applied to one hole.
Many gardeners recommend planting together. This will allow to achieve a better planting, since one person will keep the seedling in a level position, and the second will cover it with fertile soil. Taking into account the above tips, you can plant a plum due to all the rules.
Video “How to plant a plum”
It would seem to plant a plum - a very simple and easy process. However, it has its own subtleties and tricks, compliance with which will help you grow a healthy and prolific tree.
Preparing for the plum planting process
Garden culture begins to appear breeding methods, as a result of crossing several species at once.
On this will depend not only the taste characteristics of the fruit, but also which region will be most suitable for the tree, what will be the size of the plant, its special resistance to frost, as well as to various parasites.
For this reason, the most important process during planting will be the preparation of the site, a thorough study of several varieties of plums at once. The flower grower must choose the culture that he liked the most, and at the same time observe the conditions of the climatic region and plum planting process.
How to plant a plum in the spring?
The second stage of preparation for planting is to choose the best place for germination and seedling formation. It is mandatory to observe the level of illumination on the site, whether the rest of the trees or the buildings and buildings will not shade the crop.
Even in the process of laying a garden should take into account the distance between crops and be aware of how large the plant is able to grow.
If the plum starts to fall into a particular shade, it will begin to grow much worse, its sheets may begin to actively turn yellow and fall off. Also a strong indicator of shading can cause deterioration of crop yields and reduce the size of fruits.
Also, plums do not tolerate strong winds and drafts, as they can simply blow plum blossoms and deprive them of a quality crop. It is for this reason that the relief of the place of the plum on which it will grow throughout its entire life should be broad-leafed and have gentle slopes.
With the help of such a particular area, good air drainage will be created for the culture - cold air will not reach it, and drainage will not accumulate in a certain place. Not suitable for planting plums and the territory on which there will be a large number of spring or basins.
How to choose the right soil?
- The best soil mixture for this plant will be mixtures of loam and loess loam. It will be very good if under these and soil types there will be drained loams or layered sediments containing large amounts of sandy loam.
- Plum has a fairly wide and branched rhizomes, which are strictly forbidden to rinse with groundwater, although the plant is considered quite moisture-loving.
- Thus, the best level of groundwater occurrence will be a mark of 1.5–2 meters. If it is located higher, then the best option would be to create a special drainage ditch, which should be done near the plant. It is in them that all unnecessary moisture will drain.
Also, you should not think about planting a culture on a peat-marshy territory, as well as in the place where special sands or clay-and-sand moraine are found at a depth of less than a meter.
It is also very important to remember that after the unraveling of the plum orchard, you need to wait about 4–5 years before you start laying a new one in the same place. This is worth doing because the old plants have already taken away all the most useful trace elements and organic matter from the soil mixture, so it will be quite difficult for a young plant to grow in the same area.
How to prepare a soil mixture for plum planting?
- Before embarkation, it is worthwhile to dig up all the soil very well so that it can absorb the right amount of oxygen.
- In marginal soil mixtures, where the soil fertility coefficient is rather low, it is worthwhile to introduce various mineral additives and fertilizers that can increase the overall soil fertility. The main thing to remember is that the preparation should be carried out in advance, even a few years before the beginning of the landing of the drain garden in the ground.
- Prior to this period of time in the garden plot it is impossible to plant other large cultures of trees, after which there will be a very small amount of organic minerals for the cultivation of plum culture.
How to plant a plum, plum saplings
A large number of plums are presented in the form of medium or tall crops, which can occupy a fairly large area and free space in the garden. That is why, it is necessary to take into account not only the place for planting, but also the distance, which is worth retreating from other surrounding plants.
Layout of plum planting plants, how to plant
The total distance between the cultures should be such that they do not obscure each other and almost touch their other trees with their branches. This will not only help the plant to get more light and light, but it will not complicate the gardener's movement around the site during the assembly of the pear fruit.
So if medium type plant, the distance between neighboring cultures should be at least two meters.
If the plant is vigorous, then this distance should be extended to three meters. The aisle distance between medium-sized plums should be at least four meters, and for a strong-growing plant, this distance should be increased by another half a meter.
The most important thing is that the florist should remember when laying a plum orchard that a large number of crops in your garden plot will not be possible even if you start to make regular fertilizing with organic fertilizers. So this culture does not need an excessive amount of fertilizer and sunlight, but needs free space for the development of rhizomes and fruits.
How to prepare a pit for planting?
The pit should be dug prematurely, time should be found for this process two or three weeks before planting the plum culture. This is worth making in order to pre-fill the bottom surface with a mixture of a large number of organic substances and fertile soil. So she will have time to settle before the landing time of the plum itself.
It is for this reason that the pit for culture should have good depth, about 60 centimeters. Moreover, its diameter should be at the same level.
At that moment when you start digging a hole, you should immediately dig a stake or other support into it, to which your seedling should be tied at a later time. It is necessary to take into account the time that the distance between it and the tree should be at least 15 centimeters. The stake should be located on the north side of the crop planted in the soil.
The main rules for planting culture in the ground
During the landing process, some key rules should be considered:
- The neck of the roots must necessarily remain above the ground for 2–5 centimeters. After the subsidence of the soil, it will be able to descend some distance on its own. You should not overdo it with raising the seedling above the surface of the soil mixture, as there is a special risk of leaching, and after drying of the root system of the culture.
- It is better to plant the seedling only with the soil, without admixture of various organic dressings. Having planted a crop planted, the ground near it should be slightly compacted so that no extra air passes near the plant's root system (it can produce a process of drying the root system of the plant).
- From the soil mixture, which was dug out from the very bottom of the pit, it is worthwhile to create a small mound around the tree, which will contribute to the qualitative growth and development of the seedling and the absorption of the necessary amount of water into it.
Plant care after planting in the ground
Thus, after a tog, as a seedling was planted in the soil, it is mandatory to pour it with plenty of water.
With all this, even if after the process of snow melting the soil remains wet, watering process must be carried out without fail, but you can use much less water.
The required amount of water per plant should be no less than three buckets. Since the plum prefers to grow in moist soil, then after two weeks it is worth re-watering. Also, the soil near the trunk of the plant should be mulched with peat.
How to timely prevent plums from diseases?
First, it is worth knowing which diseases the plum culture that you planted most can be most susceptible to, as well as which pests are capable of infecting the plant.
During the growth and formation of the plant is to carry out inspections of the garden, while taking into account exactly what types of parasites are in it.
The easiest and most proven method of eliminating parasites can be called crop pruning or burning damaged parts and branches. It is also worth to burn all leaves and infected fruits fallen from the tree. In the spring, before the onset of cold temperatures outside (up to 10 degrees Celsius), the parasites who are trying to attack the plant should simply be shaken off the plant and then destroyed.
Of course, a greater effect of eliminating various infections and parasites can be achieved by starting chemical processing for plants.
If your culture is actively affected by a scythe or a false guard, then even before the process of swelling of the first buds on the plant and before the temperature of the air around will be five degrees Celsius, the culture should be treated with nitrofen, with a total concentration of 3 percent. In this way, you can also eliminate aphids and ticks, which at this time are still at rest.
In spring, when the plum has already fully blossomed, it is worth treating its surface with Brodsky acid with a concentration of one percent. Brodsky acid can also be replaced with 4% polycarbocin acid. In the case of the last spraying procedure is also worth repeating, and after flowering.
To implement fight against caterpillarsthat affect the leaves of the plant, after the flowering process, the culture should be treated with a tool such as dendrobatsilin and entobacterin with a concentration of one percent. It is necessary to take into account the fact that the processing of culture with these means should take place at a total temperature of at least 15 degrees.