In your garden you can make beautiful plantings of the tuberous begonia: if you organize the right care for the plant, it will delight you with lush flowers during the whole warm season. Begonia really looks very beautiful, and if you get creative, it will certainly become the hallmark of your garden.
Botanical description of tuberous begonia
Each plant is famous for its features - leaves, flowers, elegance of forms. In this sense, tuberous begonia can be called a classic home flower. What is required from a houseplant? Lush and long flowering, bright colors, pleasant foliage. This characteristic can be applied to any variety of tuberous begonia.
Botanical description of the plant is as follows:
- the form - bushy, in height from 25 to 80 cm,
- leaves arranged asymmetrically, shaped like hearts,
- flowers have various coloring - white, pink, yellow, bright red, peach, coral, orange,
- underground rhizome massive, in the form of a tuber, whence the name of the species.
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The blooming of the tuberous begonia lasts from May to November - it is largely because of this that the plant has gained deserved fame among experienced and beginning flower growers.
What varieties for the garden is better to choose
For planting tuberous begonia in the garden, you can pick up any variety, since the conditions of care for them are about the same. Therefore, in this case, you can fully trust your taste and give complete freedom of fantasy. Moreover, thanks to the diversity of species, begonia will certainly satisfy even the most demanding taste.
Here are just a few popular varieties that will literally decorate the dacha and will become a real center of attraction:
- Ampelous begonia (B egonia pendula) or begoniahanging gives unusually beautiful flowers. It grows to 30-35 cm. It is interesting that the flower stalks literally hang - that is, such a plant must be placed at a height. Among the varieties of begonia ampelnoe there are terry and semi-double varieties. In favorable conditions, they can grow to 50-100 cm in total length. The shoots of ampelous begonias easily creep and perfectly hide both bare soil and walls. They can also be hung up - you get a real hedge of extraordinary beauty.
- Multicolor begonia gives numerous flowers of orange color. They grow in such quantity that from a distance the flowerbed will look like a flower carpet.
- For cultivation of plants in the open field bred a special variety garden begonias.
In the garden and in the country you can create a flower garden of any plant species: under the conditions of planting and care, you can get an incredibly beautiful flower bed or even a whole flower arrangement.
When choosing street begonia varieties, it is important to consider not only their color combination, but also their height. Flowerbed should be smooth and neat. If necessary, too large shoots cut with a sharp knife.
Tubers (bulbs): selection, planting, care
First of all, it is important for the grower to choose the right begonia tubers (they are also called bulbs). As a rule, the material is purchased in specialized stores, the range in which is quite large. Therefore, the main task is not in the search for tubers, but in their proper selection. Here are the first things to notice:
- Of course, the bulb should have a normal appearance: without cracks, overgrowth, mold, etc.
- In size it is better to pick up those tubers with a diameter of more than 3-4 cm.
- It is not allowed to choose dry bulbs. Therefore, you should pay attention to their weight: healthy tubers are quite dense and heavy, and dry, on the contrary, light.
- If you buy the bulbs in March, you can see how white or reddish buds are beginning to form on them. At the same time, it is optimal to buy material in January. There are no buds at this time - the tuber is in a state of physiological rest.
The very planting of the tuberous begonia in the pot does not take much time. The main requirement is to create optimal lighting, watering and temperature conditions. Conventionally, the whole process can be divided into 3 stages.
Step 1. Tuber preparation
It is useful to know not only how to plant a begonia in a pot, but also how to prepare it for the ground. First, the tuber is completely cleaned of all rotted shoots. If the bulb is large (6 cm or more), you can cut it in half and sprinkle the surface with charcoal.
Next, the tuber is immersed in a solution of any fungicide (for example, "Maxim") and kept in it for half an hour. Instead of the fungicide, it is allowed to use a solution of potassium permanganate with a concentration of 1%. It is enough to hold 40-45 minutes.
All work with tubers should be done very carefully. It is not allowed to drop, hit or push on the bulbs.
Step 2. Planting tubers
A pot or box must be put on a pallet - after all, it is supposed to water the future begonias abundantly. At the bottom lay drainage (expanded clay, pebbles), then - the ground. The surface of the earth should be 3-4 cm below the edge. A small depression is made in the center into which the tuber is planted.
Each bulb has 2 sides - convex and concave. It is necessary to place into the ground only with the convex side (respectively, the concave will look upwards). It is important to note that the upper third will remain on the surface. When the first shoots appear, they can be slightly sprinkled with earth.
Step 3. Care for sprouts
Now it remains to carefully pour the soil - it should become noticeably wet (but not too much). Boxes or pots placed in a sunny place. However, direct rays must also be avoided. To solve this problem, you can use the following tips:
- Optimally positioned containers in the west or east.
- If the sun comes too much, you can create a penumbra using a curtain or shade from other plants.
- Well, in the case of south windows better to put the container a little further from the window sill.
- Concerning temperatures, then it should be at least 20-22 o C. After all, in order to understand how to put a tuberous begonia in a pot and care for it, it is important to consider that this plant came to us from the tropics. Therefore, in the home provide a sufficient level of humidity and light.
- Watering mode determined by the condition of the soil - it should always be moderately wet. At the same time, water is not allowed on the tuber itself - it can rot and die.
Normally, the first shoots will appear in 5-7 days, and in another 15-20 days 2-3 leaves will show off on the tuber. It will take another month, and with proper care on the tuberous begonia will appear the first flowers, which will mark the beginning of spring.
- If you later plan to transplant a flower in an open ground (for example, to decorate a garden or a summer house), you can do it a month later after the appearance of the sprout.
- However, if there is no certainty that there will be no more frost, you can simply transplant the flower into a pot with a diameter of 25-30 cm and wait for the final onset of the warm season.
Seedlings for seedlings
This method requires some effort and in general it looks more troublesome. On the other hand, the gardener gets invaluable experience in plant breeding. In addition, you can grow a lot of begonias at once, from which to create a beautiful flower garden in the garden or in the country.
Growing technology looks like this:
- The process starts already in January (until the beginning of February) - because by spring you need to get ready seedlings and distribute them in pots. However, you can plant seeds and later - they will bloom, but only in the fall.
- Seeds, as a rule, are immediately mixed with a small amount of sand: they are rather small and can be blown away by the wind.
- As a rule, seeds are grown in boxes. You can choose a container from any materials, while it should not be too deep (10-12 cm in height is enough).
- The soil is prepared in advance according to the scheme described above. You can also use peat tablets. Immediately before planting, the land is watered abundantly - it should become noticeably wet.
- Then spread the seeds on the surface. You should not fall asleep them - you can only distribute a handful of soil over the entire surface.
- Then you need to wait a few hours and cover the box with glass, and lay the paper on top. The temperature should be about 21-23 o C.
- Shoots appear after 2 weeks. At this time, the glass is removed, and the drawer is removed in a cooler place (18-19 o C).
- After the appearance of 3-4 leaves carry out a pick. At the same time, make the first mineral fertilizers. It is important that they contain nitrogen and potassium - otherwise begonia will grow much slower.
- The seedlings need constant watering. Before the appearance of the first shoots, the soil can be moistened with a spray gun. And when there will be 1-2 sheets - to water, as usual.
Planting: when and where to plant
Everything has its time, and everything has its place. If we apply this phrase in connection with the begonia planting in the country, we get the following answers:
- By landing one should always be guided by the actual weather. If the warm season has already begun, and the temperature has settled, you can start work.
- Night temperaturefrom +12 o С - necessary criterion.
- Thus, planting begonias garden carry At the beginning of June (in southern latitudes - at the beginning of May).
- Concerning place selection, here it is important to take into account 2 points at once - practical and aesthetic. To organize the proper care of begonia in the garden, planting plants is best done in the most prominent place, because such beautiful flowers just can not stay away. On the other hand, for them it is necessary to provide sufficiently bright lighting and an acceptable composition of the soil.
How to plant begonia in the garden
The technology of planting begonias in the country is not particularly difficult.
- After selecting the location, seedlings are fixed in the ground so that the entire green part remains on the surface.
- The interval between plants is 20-25 cm.
- The plant must be handled very carefully - it is unacceptable to put pressure on the roots or leaves or drop the seedlings. In the event of injury, they may not survive.
Regardless of what sort of street begonia to take for planting, care begins with the proper selection of the soil. The plant loves slightly acidic, fairly fertile land with loose soil. Therefore, first of all it is necessary on the site and in the garden to take care of to not be:
- large stones
- dense layer of earth
- willow or oak nearby - they saturate the soil with tannins that adversely affect the development of the plant.
If there is no certainty about soil fertility, it is better to add humus, bird droppings or other organic fertilizer. A week later, you can start planting a tuberous begonia.
Watering in the garden
- Watering begonias pretty plentiful: the soil should never be dry or cracked.
- On the other hand, need to know when to stop: When planting and in the further care of the tuberous begonia in the garden should not be given too much moisture. Excessive moisture leads to rotting of the roots and even death of the plant.
- Water the plant usually in the morning hoursonce every 3 days. At the same time, it is important to try to prevent moisture from getting on the stems, greens and flowers: they are quite tender, and the sun's rays can cause burns.
- During flowering Begonias watering should be reduced by 1.5-2 times compared with conventional volumes.
Thus, it is necessary to periodically check the condition of the soil, and most importantly - to be guided by the appearance of the flower itself. If the plant is in good shape, the leaves are elastic, and the flowers form quickly and are long enough, then everything is in order. If they become lethargic, you should immediately check the soil: perhaps it is already dry.
Fertilizers are used to take care of tuberous begonia in the garden and in the country - immediately after planting and during the summer season. The application mode is as follows:
- After landing It is necessary to immediately apply a complex mineral fertilizer (dosage according to the instructions).
- When the bushes started buds form, make fertilizer with phosphorus and potassium.
- Summer You can feed another 2 times with mineral fertilizer.
And starting from August, the feeding is stopped - the plant needs to be prepared for the winter period, i.e. to a phase of physiological rest.
With the right approach, the flower begins to grow extremely quickly. Therefore, you need to immediately think that the time will come for pruning foliage and shoots. As soon as the stems have reached 8 cm, they carry out the first adjustment of the form: they remove the excess layers from the sides so that the bush acquires the desired appearance.
And when the shoots grow to 12 cm, you need to pinch the tops, so that the plant looked very attractive, and not chaotic. Pruning is carried out only with a sharp knife - garden shears are not suitable for this, because begonia is a very delicate plant.
When pruning took place, it is better to sprinkle damaged areas with charcoal - so the plant will recover faster. In addition, a similar tool serves as a kind of disinfection.
This condition of care for the tuberous begonia in the garden should be taken care of at the planting stage. On the one hand, this flower is very fond of light, but on the other - it does not tolerate direct sunlight. The answer is obvious - you need to create a light shading.
And in the garden this can be achieved with the help of bushy plants that will cast a faint shadow. If not, you can make a canopy of fine-meshed mesh. It is important to understand that too much shading (for example, under the foliage of a tree) is also unacceptable - that is, in this matter one should proceed from the principle of the golden mean.
Preparation of begonias in the garden for the winter
- In September, watering begins to significantly reduce - the plant must be prepared for winter.
- Dig the tubers should be before the onset of the first frost. In our latitudes, it will be mid-October (in the south - until the beginning of November). The whole green mass is completely removed, and only bulbs are taken for storage.
- Tubers (bulbs) are treated with fungicides (for example, the “Maxim” product) or in a 1% solution of potassium permanganate (hold for 30-40 minutes).
- Then the tubers are dried in the open air and stored at home or in the basement. You can also keep them in the refrigerator or in the cool part of the apartment.
How to store tubers
The most important thing is to take into account a few simple tips that will keep the material well:
- Initially, all tubers are carefully inspected to immediately remove the damaged material.
- Storage temperature should be above zero, but at the same time no more than +9 o C. Otherwise, the tubers begin to germinate.
- Even a small amount of moisture on the material is not allowed. If possible, it should be stored in a dry place.
Storage in the apartment
In the apartment you need to find the coolest place - for example, under the window or under the balcony door. Pre-check the temperature (so that it is always in the range of 0-9 o C). There are three storage options:
- In the box or the box - in bulk. Tubers are placed, completely filled with sawdust, dry peat or sand.
- In pots - they are transferred to a cool place, while the upper part is cut off with a sharp knife flush with the ground. It is sometimes necessary to water the soil so that it is slightly wet (drying is not allowed). If the tubers are stored in pots, it is better to water them through the pan to avoid possible rotting.
- If the apartment is warm enough and there are no cool places in it, you can save the begonia tubers for further planting and in a refrigerator. The material is dried, placed in bags with holes and covered with sawdust, or each tuber is wrapped in paper. Store in the door or at the bottom of the refrigerator (in the same place as vegetables and fruits). Such care will perfectly save bulbs of a tuberous begonia to a new planting.
Storage in the basement
If you have access to a fairly dry, cool basement, you can save the tubers there as well. They are also placed in a cardboard box or a wooden box, filled with peat, sand or sawdust so as to completely hide. It is important to understand that the cellar is definitely not suitable for such purposes. As a rule, the humidity in it is always increased due to the proximity of the earth, which will lead to rotting of the material.
Diseases and pests of begonias
In the garden of enemies at the begonia of the tuber is much more than in the apartment. Plant pests include the following:
To combat these insects, ordinary insecticides are used (neoron, thiophos, karbofos, etc.).
You can also use a home remedy based on common onions (with brown husks):
- Onions are cut very finely or minced.
- Take a full teaspoon (half a tablespoon) and insist 1 week in a liter of water.
- Strain and spray the leaves and stems until the complete destruction of insects.
The foliage and especially the stems of the plants that hid under the bush should be carefully examined for the presence of these pests and other lesions. The sooner you start to fight them, the greater the chances of success.
The most common developmental disorders associated with inappropriate conditions and infectious pathogens include such.
What is a tuberous begonia
Tuberous begonia is one of the most favorite flowers of gardeners. The reason for this is truly gorgeous and long flowering, so decorating a garden, terrace or balcony with the help of this plant will not be difficult for you.The main thing is to properly care for the flower, otherwise it can not only get sick, but also die.
Chinese folklore says that the first begonia grew up in a place watered by a woman who fell in love.
Tuberous begonia (Begonia tuberhybrida) is a species of the begonium family, obtained as a result of a complex long-term selection of nine plant species from different parts of the world. Work on the creation of this flower was started in the XIX century, and today there are about two hundred of this bright perennial.
Begonia has several distinctive features. Unlike ordinary begonias, it can be grown both as indoor, and as a garden flower. At the same time it is grassy, shrubby and ampelous type.
The main feature of this plant is the presence of a thick rhizome (tuber) about 5–6 cm in size. The stalk is strong, thick, translucent and up to 80 cm tall, and the leaves are large, heart-shaped with a glossy or fuzzy dark or light green color.
Another difference of this type of begonia from other plant species is an unusually long (from May to October) and beautiful flowering.
The shape of the flowers are divided into peony and rose-like, while there are also flowers that look like large daffodils, camellias or carnations.
Depending on the type of plant, the diameter of flowers can vary from 3 to 20 cm, and their location can be both individual and group (in the form of inflorescences).
Male flowers differ in large size, terry surface and early flowering. At the same time, women look somewhat more modest - they are smaller in diameter and have about 4–5 smooth non-terry petals. These flowers will look great in a group planting stone garden
Color, of course, depends on the begonia variety. So, the most popular colors of this plant are:
Main varieties with photos
The most beautiful and popular varieties of upright tuberous begonias experts consider:
- Picotee Arlequin - plant of semi-sprawling type up to 25 cm high.
Flowers: large (up to 12 cm in diameter), yellow with a bright red border, terry.
Leaves: green, gear.
- Bouton De Rose is a short compact bush plant.
Flowers: pinkish, terry, up to 18 cm in size, pale pink or white.
Leaves: large, green, with a wavy edge.
- Dark Red is an undersized shrub of a semi-sprawling type.
Flowers: peony, up to 10 cm in diameter, double, dark red.
Leaves: large, finely toothed, green.
Another tuberous variety of this flower plant is ampel begonia. Its distinguishing feature is long, falling stems, studded with bright flowers. The most popular variety of this memorable flower is Chanson, striking with a variety of colors and shades. Ampella begonia is perfect for filling hanging pots
Separately, consider the Bolivian begonia (Begonia Boliviensis) - a type of ampelous flower, the shoots of which grow upwards, and upon reaching 30 cm they drop down in the form of a multi-tiered cascade. Especially in demand are such types as:
- Santa Cruz Sunset - sprawling plant with drooping shoots up to 40 cm and fuchsiform flowers of red-orange color,
- Copacabana - unpretentious in the care and hardy creeping plant with bell-shaped bright red flowers,
- Bossa Nova is a spreading plant with shoots up to 50 cm long and fuchsiform flowers of orange, red, white or pink color.
In what conditions can you grow
As noted above, to grow a tuberous begonia at home in pots, and right in the open field in the garden.
Due to the long flowering period (on the window sill it can bloom almost the whole year) and the chic appearance, the plant is especially popular to impart a luxurious and fresh look to balconies and terraces. Tuberous begonia looks great in the landscape and design of the house, even if only one grade is used
Thus, there are no restrictions on the place of cultivation of the tuberous begonia - the main thing is that the place is rather dry and warm.
Landing at home
Growing at home should begin in early March - at this time, the first buds appear on the rhizome, from which later sprouts will hatch. If there is a lot of them on one tuber, then it can be divided into several parts with the help of a knife, leaving one or two eyes on each of them. Sections at the same time should be sealed with crushed coal, and the tuber pieces should be planted in moist peat. When caring for a plant, it is extremely important to remember the so-called “light mark” and not to change the position of the pots in relation to the sun, otherwise the buds on the tuberous begonia may fall off
Planting in a pot. Step-by-step instruction
- Tubers should be planted into the soil in a rounded bottom part - it will be the roots that will later grow from it. Shoots will bite out of the concave lobe, so it must remain at the top.
- In order to speed up the process of the emergence of sprouts and the formation of stems, during planting the tuber must be buried in the peat only half, leaving its outer part on the surface.
- A few weeks later, when the size of the shoots will reach 5 cm, and the first leaves will appear on them, each specimen must be transplanted into a special soil, sprinkling the rhizome with earth, and rearranging the pot in a bright and warm place.
The ideal soil for planting the tuberous begonia can be made independently by adding sand to the floral substrate.
Particular attention should be paid to the size of the pot for the tuberous begonia. The capacity for transplanting a young plant should be wide (with a diameter of 20 cm), but shallow, because the rhizome of begonia is superficial.
After transplantation, the plant will begin to grow rapidly and release a large number of buds and leaves. With proper care, the begonia will bloom all summer and will not fade even in the fall, but before the winter begins, the foliage will fall off, so its stems must be cut, the tubers removed and the roots cut. Keep the tubers at the same time will need to spring in a dark cool place.
The procedure for planting a tuberous begonia with seeds looks a little different: the seeds should be soaked in a growth stimulator and placed on a moist surface, carefully pressed against the soil and sprayed with a spray. Then the sowing container should be covered with glass or polyethylene and put in a well-lit place. Typical grains are recommended to be planted in the seedling boxes, and granulated - in peat tablets
With proper care (timely moistening of the soil, regular airing of the containers and maintaining the temperature at + 21–22 ° C), the first shoots will appear for 10–12 days. This is how the first shoots of begonia look, from this point on, the ventilation period should be extended to teach the seedlings to a normal environment.
After the appearance of the third true leaflet, the strongest seedlings must be swooped into separate seedlings with light crumbly soil. Flowers must be watered, put in a lit place and provide a temperature of +20 ° C. By the end of the summer season, the young begonias will bloom, and by the beginning of the winter season, full-grown tubers will develop.
It is necessary to pinch only the ampelous begonia, all other varieties, judging by the reviews, grow densely and bloom profusely without any outside intervention.
Rules for planting seedlings in open ground
Before planting a begonia in the ground, it is extremely important to find a suitable place for it in the garden - it should be light, but protected from the hot sun and wind. When to plant begonia after winter? The main criterion - the danger of returning cold at the time of disembarkation should already have passed, therefore the beginning of June is considered the ideal time. It is suitable for planting last year's tubers, and for fresh shoots. When planting a tuberous begonia in open ground, pay attention to the distance between plants
Not less attention should be paid to the selection and preparation of plant tubers. Experienced gardeners recommend using only even, dense, dark brown specimens. At the same time, it is necessary to store planting material in a non-hot room, if its buds have not yet started growing, then a container for vegetables in the refrigerator will also do.
Before planting in the ground, tuberous begonia must be germinated as follows:
- Remove dried roots from the nodules and disinfect them in a fungicidal solution (lower the tuber into the preparation for 2/3 for 20 minutes).
- Place the tuber in loose fertile soil to a depth of 5 cm so that the tops almost remain on the surface.
- Place the pot on the bright window-sill and provide it with a temperature not lower than +16 ° C, restrained timely watering and protection from drafts.
After 5-6 weeks, the plant with young shoots must begin to prepare for transplanting into open ground. To accustom him to the usual outdoor environment it is necessary to gradually, periodically bringing to the balcony and prolonging the interval of his stay in the open air.
Then it is necessary to prepare the landing site, pouring ash or humus to the bottom of the landing pits and mulching the seedlings with the same composition.
Massive tubers of the plant should be planted at a distance of 30 cm from each other, medium - 20 cm, and small - 15 cm.
Rules for watering a home plant
- In the summer, the flower must be watered abundantly with distilled warm water. At moderate temperatures, it is enough to moisten the soil of the begonia every other day, in the heat - every day.
- Over-wetting plants should be avoided, as this can harm already fragile roots. Therefore, before watering, you should make sure that the ground is dry enough.
- On hot days it is better to put the pots on pallets filled with wet pebbles and systematically irrigate the air around them.
- After the plant ottsvetet, the frequency of watering should be gradually reduced.
It is recommended to feed begonia with complex mineral preparations once every two weeks, alternating them with organic-type feedings.
After the end of the budding period, the ground part of the flower should be cut, and the pot with tubers should be placed in a cool place and stored until spring.
Features care for begonia planted in the garden
- Fertilize the plant can be with the help of humus, ash and potash-phosphorus feeds from May to October, once every two weeks.
- To stimulate the growth of lateral shoots, the top of the stems with a length of 7–8 cm should be pinched.
- Closer to autumn, watering should be reduced, the tubers should be dug out, and the roots should be cut and disinfected with a fungicide solution, then dried and placed, buried in peat, in a dark, dry room.
Varieties and types of plants
Experienced gardeners have been familiar with begonia for a long time. This plant, which was obtained by breeders of several types of flowers. Begonia buy better in a specialized flower shop. It can grow in the form of a bush, grass or ampelous plant. It decorates both a balcony and park beds.
To determine the conditions under which begonia will develop best of all in appearance and variety. Flowers vary in parameters of the tuber, size and characteristics of bright petals and the general shape of the bush. From a distance, some of them, with their buds with terry, jagged, corrugated edges, resemble camellias and roses, narcissus and peonies.
The roots of any begonias are sensitive to cooling and drought.
There are up to four types of tuberous begonia and many of its varieties:
- grandiflora (height from 7 to 20 cm): “Golden ball” (yellow inflorescences), “Kelblutrot” (red inflorescences), “Marmorata” (white terry inflorescences with a pink stripe along the edge), “Picotis” (pink, white, yellow with pink edge)
- mid-flowered (height up to 7 cm)
- small-flowered (multiflora likes well lit places)
- ampelous (hanging bushes require a lot of light): “Chanson” (perennial with small terry inflorescences).
At home, begonia care is not difficult. Watering is carried out around the perimeter of the pot. An ideal place for its cultivation will be the windowsills of the eastern and western directions. In the course of development, they remove the shoots, leaves and the male nondescript inflorescences, in which, if necessary, the seeds ripen.
Planting begonias in the open ground in the garden
It is possible to place a tuberous begonia on an open area in the garden only after frosts have passed, in the central regions - not earlier than May. But let's start in order.
Experienced florists recommend to purchase strong and dense tubers with buds in proven stores, starting in February. They should not be physical damage, mold. A healthy planting material will be perfectly kept in a cool room until disembarkation.
Before planting, eliminate dead roots and place a tuber three-quarters in warm water with a fungicide for dressing for 30 minutes (take the proportions in the instructions for the preparation).
For the germination of a flower with surface roots, suitable shallow pot or container with drainage of expanded clay, brick or large crushed stone. It is better to fertilize the soil immediately with mineral components. Ready earth composition can be bought in the store. If you prepare yourself, then take: two parts of leafy ground, part of humus, peat and sand. To tamp the ground for begonias are not recommended.
The interval between plants is kept at 10 centimeters, and up to the edge of the tank - 5 centimeters. The convex side of the tuber is placed deep into the soil for root formation, and on the concave part, which is left on the surface, will go to the growth of the kidney.
Creating a greenhouse plant conditions are not recommended, so the tuber adapts faster to external conditions. The place for germination is bright without direct rays, ventilated without drafts, the temperature is necessary from 15 to 17 degrees.
Young begonia is gradually taught in the street and garden, daily carrying it out to the open balcony or directly to the garden. This method of color adaptation is the easiest.
Planting in the spring in a flower bed and hiding plantings with various materials is a more energy-consuming option for the gardener. Although it also has the right to exist, especially if you live next to your garden.
The plot in the garden is semi-shady and windless, the soil is prepared nutritious, loose, breathable.
In the formation of the landscape design garden must take into account the characteristics of the begonia variety.
Planted large bushes from each other is recommended at a distance of at least 30 itself. Medium-sized copies are sufficient to leave 20 cm. The interval for small varieties is 15 cm.
Watering, fertilizer, dressing
So, begonia took its place in the garden. It is time to take care of flower plantings. During the growing season, bushes prefer abundant morning watering, but not around the tubers, but around them.
At the end of May and until mid-October, begonia blooms profusely. Each large bush-bouquet needs support as the shoots of flowers are brittle. Plants during flowering require moderate irrigation.
Good development, increase the number of inflorescences contributes to the introduction of organic and mineral additives. Feeding is carried out up to three times during the whole season.
How to multiply the tuberous begonia at home?
You can get several begonia bushes in various ways: by seed, by dividing a tuber or by cuttings.
Her seeds are small, so they sell them in a soluble shell, and the resulting home, mixed with sand. Sowing without sprinkling into containers with drainage and nutrient soil is recommended to be produced in the middle of winter so that the begonia of the tuberous plant can be enjoyed with flowers in the summer. In early October, the tuber will be formed. Capacity cover with a lid or film, maintain the temperature in the room about 25 degrees. After 14 days, shoots will appear, and if there are two true leaves, seedlings dive into separate pots.
Bulk specimens of tubers over two years old before spring planting are segmented with a sharp knife into several parts, leaving several live buds on each. Fresh surfaces are covered with coal and then placed in boxes with soil.
Consider the most difficult way, using cuttings to propagate the tuberous begonia. To do this, in spring or autumn, the shoots from the tuber of the mother plant are twisted, sprinkled with coal and dried "wound". For the roots to appear more quickly, they create conditions like in a greenhouse: a sprout placed in the soil is covered with a plastic bottle. In about a month, the stalk of the begonia will give roots, it will be moved to the pot. Further care occurs as for any other home plant.
How to buy a suitable tuber
Begonia recommended to buy in specialty gardening stores. After winter frosts, ripe Dutch tubers can be purchased.
Фасовка бывает различной, в пакетах по несколько штук с древесной стружкой и торфяной смесью, или в рассыпном состоянии. Не покупайте по распродаже или по скидке, скорее всего, это уже подпорченные клубеньки, которые не прорастут. Обращайте внимание на посадочный материал.
Признаки непригодного клубня:
- неупругий и вялый,
- высохший на вид,
- есть повреждения,
- has the presence of bloomed.
Garden begonia: varieties and varieties
Begonia, an ornamental flowering plant. There are several types of begonias that differ in color and shape of both flowers and leaves. All kinds of leaves from green to burgundy even have pinkish colors with pearl dots and dashes. The largest accumulation of begonias grows in Asian countries, Africa, South and North America. On these continents, the climate is humid; therefore, garden begonia saplings are recommended to be planted in shady places with regular irrigation.
Begonia is a perennial flower that grows into shrubs, bushes, or creepers. The roots are often woven into the tuber. In gardening, often use 3 types of begonias that are divided into varieties. B. tuberhybrida (tuberous B.) in height reaches 30 centimeters. Flowers terry and smooth different colorings.
Same-sex flowers: at the same time both pistil and staminate buds can bloom on the same plant. Begonia root is a thick tuber. This type of begonia has a long flowering, which begins in early summer and ends in the fall. Flowers in diameter from 6 to 21 centimeters. The shape of the plant is like a rose, lotus, anemone, carnation.
There are certain subtleties for planting a tuberous begonia in open soil. In the cold period, the plant must be provided with greenhouse conditions or, before planting in a permanent place, pre-grow flowers in greenhouses. B. tuberhybrida pendula, a type of hanging begonia that is grown in hanging pots.
Shoots long bushy covered with flowers. B. semperflorens (ever flowering) is divided into a large number of species. Bush, this flower is about 15 centimeters. Oval-shaped leaflets, smooth from green to brown. This type of begonia is mainly planted in parks and squares.
Garden flowers are very delicate, so they should be planted in a special way. Let's discuss the rules of planting garden begonia.
- plastic container
- soil, peat organic,
- tubers already prepared.
The soil must be slightly acidic for cultivation, otherwise it will wither in an alkaline one. Plant in a plastic container with sprouts up, sprinkle with earth by 2, 5 cm. Seedlings should be grown at a temperature of + 21 degrees. Subject to all the subtleties in a week will grow the first leaves. Planted seedlings in open ground no earlier than 2 weeks after the first bore.
If you want to get a solid, beautiful flowery carpet, planting in the ground, you must observe a distance of 20 cm between plants. After the end of planting in the ground under the seedlings need to mulch so that it does not dry out, for this is suitable sawdust, peat or small clay. Provide the necessary care for the plants.
When planting a garden begonia in open ground, compost, peat or mineral fertilizer composed of potassium and phosphorus should be poured into each hole. When all the seedlings are planted, it will help the soil to take root. Near plantings it is recommended to regularly loosen the soil to saturate it with oxygen.
If you want your plant to grow beautifully, water it every three days.
In hot and hot weather it is necessary to water more often, not forgetting to loosen the soil. Do not let water stagnate, as the roots may rot. As a preventive measure, when planting seedlings on the bottom of the well, they spread drainage-gravel, large river sand, expanded clay.
Foliage, does not need additional spraying because they may appear brown spots. Autumn watering ends. In November, the tubers should definitely be dug for the winter. In the first place, the plants cut the stems, while leaving the process 3 cm in height.
Tubers that are dug, dried at room temperature for two weeks. Then placed in a storage container and sprinkled with sand. If you have a small number of tubers, they can be stored in the refrigerator.
Tuberous begonia: reproduction
Tuberous begonia can be propagated by seed, by dividing a tuber or by green cutting.
- Tuber dividing method for reproduction and flower cultivation used in greenhouses. To do this, it is necessary to moisten the planting by carefully spraying water for irrigation over the soil surface. The soil must be kept moist, watering as necessary. Transfusion is very harmful because it did not grow roots and shoots. The method of dividing the tuber is mainly used for rare plants.
- Green cutting - Another way to multiply the tuberous begonia. In the container with the prepared, moist, fertile soil lay royal tubers. Put in a bright place. After the green shoots appear, they break off and are planted in a container or individual cups. When sprouts take root, they are recommended to be planted in a permanent place. This breeding method can also be applied to ever-flowering begonias. For this, the bores are cut from the mother flower and planted in light ground.
- Seed propagation is used for breeding purposes.
Some secrets of pomp garden begonias
Increase flowering time and give it more fluffy shape help care, systematic fertilizing the flower and cleaning dried flowers.
The problem of keeping buds of the garden begonia is in unsuitable conditions. This may be too sunny a place where vegetation gets overheated. It is possible to take measures simply to move it along with the land into the shade or to wait for the next year and also make a transplant along with the land.
There is another reason why the buds are pressed because the soil is too wet, then just stop watering. The begonia growing in the garden will fall ill with high humidity and sudden changes in temperature with powdery mildew. Special fungicides will help to get rid of the disease.
We suggest to irrigate first with a weak solution of soda ash. Or garden begonias can attack aphid and spider mite. In order not to use chemistry, first use folk methods, for example, tincture of garlic tops, onion peels. Well apply the ash for these purposes, dissolve it in water and strain, process the bushes with this solution from different sides.
Begonia, sprouted in pots, is well treated with soapy water 2-3 times, then rinse. As one of the options to buy a special stick in the flower shop and insert it into the pot. Thus, the wand will fertilize the plants during watering and protect against pests.
For the most part, begonia is a garden non-whimsical and non-painful plant that is perfect for home and garden cultivation, and it is not difficult to care for it, and the result will not take long to wait.
Flower for quartermaster
Discoverers of some begonia varieties were French fleet quartermaster Michelle Begon and the monk the Franciscan Charles Plume.
One of them was a nerd, and the other just wanted to get a rare kind of begonia to decorate them Rochefort. Just the quartermaster Begon gathered an expedition, during which, in Haiti, Plumier noticed a rare kind of flowers, they had unevenly growing leaves and light pink buds similar in appearance to butterflies.
Plumier gave him the name begonia in honor of his benefactor and organizer of the expedition Begon. After some time, I found some more related species. When they returned home to France a strong storm broke out, taking with them the seeds, only the sketches of this species remained. Unfortunately, Michel Begon never saw the plant that glorified his name.
How to choose the begonia tuber?
It is best to buy begonias not in large supermarkets, but in specialized departments and garden centers. Starting from the end of February, tubers from Holland appear on the market, ready for planting. Usually they are packed in special bags filled with peat or sawdust, but often in small shops they are sold loose. You need to choose very carefully and focus not on the colorful picture, but on the planting material itself. You should not wait for the price reduction, when there will be only low-quality goods that are unlikely to sprout.
Tuber should not be soft, dry, covered with mold or bloom. It is often difficult to see traces of decay. Sometimes in the package there are 2-3 plants that can vary greatly in quality. You can touch several packages to find the largest and densest specimens. Well, if they are awakened buds.
Tip! It is important to pack begonias well, for example, to wrap in several newspapers. If you just put them in a bag and take them outside, these delicate plants will freeze and most likely die.
There are four types of tuberous begonia:
The size of the tuber is different. The color of the flowers can be very different, the inflorescences have a terry and non-terry shape, with a corrugated or serrated edge. Some look like peonies, daffodils, roses and camellias.
Several popular varieties:
- Golden ball - a tall bush with large yellow flowers,
- Kelblutrot - large-flowered begonia with red inflorescences,
- Marmorata is one of the most common varieties, with huge double flowers of white color, along the edge of the petal there is a pink stripe,
- Pikoti - terry large-flowered begonias, colors: pink, white or yellow with a pink border,
- Chanson - ampelous perennial with small double flowers.
Usually, begonia is acquired before the land at the site is warm enough to land in open ground. Such planting material can be removed in a cool room or stored in a refrigerator (vegetable compartment) until March, if the kidneys have not yet started growing. Care is not required. But if the tuber has already awakened, you should not wait for warming and leave it in the bag. In order for the plant to increase the root mass, it is placed in a pot. It is necessary to plant in a loose soil, quite fertile, in which it is desirable to add vermiculite.
You can purchase ready-made substrate or prepare the mixture yourself by mixing two parts of leafy ground with one part of humus, peat and sand. Seal the soil is not necessary. But before planting begonia, the tubers need to be processed. First of all, you should remove the dry roots. Then the planting material is pickled in a special fungicide, which is diluted in warm water according to the instructions. In the container prepared in advance, the tuber is lowered by about two-thirds so that the liquid does not fall on the upper part, otherwise it may rot. Keep the begonia in the solution should be 20-40 minutes.
How to plant a tuber in a pot?
The container for planting tubers should not be deep, since the root system of this plant is superficial. You can germinate several begonias at once in the same box, if you place them at a distance of 10 cm from each other to facilitate care, but then you still have to plant the grown plants. For one - it is better to choose a wide, but low pot. The distance from the wall to the tuber should be at least 5 cm.
These flowers react very well to the application of long-acting fertilizers, they can be immediately added to the soil. For begonias, drainage is required - expanded clay, broken brick or clay shards. To plant a tuber you need a convex part downwards, roots are formed on it. Begonia buds are on the concave side. When planting, it does not penetrate, as if the moisture gets into the recess, the plant may rot. Watered gently on the edge of the pot.
Some growers recommend covering the tuber with a bottle or jar to create greenhouse conditions. But you do not need to do this, otherwise begonia, once in the open field, may not adapt. The pot should be immediately put on a bright window, but not under direct sunlight, where the temperature is not below +16 ° C. Planting care consists of regular moderate watering, protection from drafts and ensuring the flow of fresh air.
Planting in open ground
The plant should be gradually accustomed to the conditions of the street, brings to a warm balcony or terrace, gradually increasing the interval. Some gardeners plant tubers immediately in the ground in early March, covering them with several layers of special material. But this method of germination is suitable only for those who have the opportunity to constantly monitor the garden. It is possible to plant tubers in open ground when the threat of frost has passed.
Growing begonias in the garden begins with a search for a bright, protected place from the wind, but not under the scorching sun. These plants withstand shading, from direct sunlight on the leaves can cause burns. If several bushes are planted, then the distance between them depends on the size: large specimens are planted 30 cm apart, medium - 20, small - 15. Soil should be very loose, breathable. Humus and ash can be put on the bottom of the planting pit; the same composition can mulch the soil after planting.
Further care for tuberous begonia is abundant watering, but without stagnant moisture. Better to do it in the morning. The shoots of the plants are very brittle, so you need to handle them carefully. During the period of growth they can be tied to a support. Abundant flowering continues from late May to mid-October, it is usually abundant - the flowers are large, bright, of various shapes and colors. Terry begonia is especially attractive, it looks like a vibrant bouquet.
In the care of begonia in the soil and in the pot, includes the removal of wilted flowers. In these plants, they are bisexual - males are usually plain-looking, they can also be removed if you do not plan to collect seeds. Spraying the bushes is not necessary, as this can cause sunburn. You can feed them with mineral fertilizers, 2-3 times during the whole growing season.
Rest period of tuberous begonia
By the beginning of autumn, the tuberous begonias are preparing for a rest period, gradually reducing watering and stopping feeding. At this time, adult plants can be propagated by cutting. When the plants are prepared for winter, their above-ground part begins to die off. Watering should stop when all the leaves fall off. Then the top is cut, and after 2 weeks the tubers are cleared from the soil and placed in peat or sphagnum. Sphagnum moss has bactericidal properties and protects begonias from rotting. For storage, choose a place where the temperature is not higher than 8 ° C, for example, the vegetable compartment in the refrigerator. Subsequent care consists in regular inspection of tubers, rotten - clean.
Young, grown from seed plants, often remain green. In the autumn, before frosts, such begonias, along with a lump of earth, are dug up, sorted by size, placed in boxes 15 cm high and sprinkled with substrate. They are placed in a bright, cool place (about +15 ° C), care during this period is limited watering, not allowing the earthen coma to dry. In the spring, when the bushes resume growth, they are again placed in pots, before transplanting into the open ground.
Reproduction of tuberous begonia
Tuberous begonia can be propagated vegetatively (by dividing the tuber), seeds and cuttings. The first method is especially popular and is often used for plant rejuvenation. For him choose large tubers, 2-3 years old with several buds, which are cut with a sharp knife. Slices need to be powdered with crushed coal and land the resulting parts in the ground. Caring for them is the same as for the usual tuber begonias.
When grafting, all signs of the mother plant are preserved, but this method is rather laborious. Cuttings taken in spring or autumn. To do this, the shoots are twisted from the tuber, sprinkled with coal at the bottom and dried. Rooted usually in the soil or peat tablets, which use a teplichka. Roots appear within a month. Then the cuttings are planted in pots, care - as for indoor plants.
Sowing seeds is considered the best breeding method for tuberous begonias. Since they are very small, they are sold in a special shell that dissolves in water. Seeds, obtained independently, it is better to mix with fine-grained sand. Sowing produced in January - February. Then the plant will have time to bloom in summer and by the fall will form a tuber.
For sowing, take a container with drainage holes, on the bottom of which lay fine clay and put the top, spilled in advance with a pink solution of potassium permanganate. Seeds are sown superficially, they are not sprinkled with earth, after which the container is placed in a hothouse or covered with a lid. The optimum temperature for germination: + 23-27 ° C. Shoots sprayed with a spray bottle, preventing the soil from drying out. After 2 weeks, the greenhouse begins to air. Seedlings dive when the first pair of true leaves appear.
Conclusion: buying planting material, you need to carefully examine it and choose the most dense and healthy specimens. If there are no buds on the tuber, it can be put in the fridge until March, when it is awakened, it is put in a pot, after having been etched. Plants are planted in open ground when the threat of frost has passed.
Care is regular watering and dressing. For the winter, the begonias are dug up, the young plants are planted in a box, the adults, the above-ground parts of which die off - are cleaned from the ground and stored in a cool place until spring. Размножаются растения семенами, черенками и делением клубня. Если соблюдать несколько правил по уходу за клубневой бегонией, этот цветок способен стать украшением для любого сада.
В какое время года лучше сажать цветок?
Подобно многим другим комнатным (и не только) растениям, бегония находится в периоде покоя осенью и зимой. In the spring it enters the growing season, begins to grow rapidly and give new leaves, and in the summer it is blooming with dozens of delicate flowers. When planting, it is necessary to take into account this mode of the plant, therefore plant a tuberous begonia It is best to start at the beginning of March so that it will immediately start active vegetating
What ground is needed?
In relation to the composition of the earth begonia is not capricious, she will feel good in the usual universal ground, sold in all flower shops. If you still want to prepare your own soil mix, mix four parts of leafy ground, one part of turfy ground and one part of sand. This mixture has a slightly acidic composition, which is ideal for tuberous begonias.
Which pot is better to choose?
The material of the pot does not matter: since the roots of such a begonia have the appearance of tubers, they do not have roots and lint that can cling to the pot and interfere with transplanting. Any pot will do. - ceramic, plastic, even wooden tub. Although most often begonias are planted in plastic pots. But the size of the pot is much more important - it should not be very deep. The tuber should enter the pot so that its third could be seen above the ground, and three to four centimeters should be left from the tuber to the edge of the pot.
How to water?
Correct watering - An important part of the care of tuberous begonia.
Recommended watering mode - two or three times a week, evenly distributing the water in the pot. During the flowering period begonia can be watered more often. It is important to prevent stagnation of water, excessive watering will lead to the development of fungi.
What is the optimal light mode?
Begonias - light-loving plants, for their harmonious growth it is necessary to arrange them in a bright place, but not in the bright sun. Begonias feel good on the southeast and southwest windows.
Direct sunlight Leaves can cause burns.
If the sun is too active, you can shade the windows by attaching tulle or gauze to them. The larger the flowers of your begonia, the worse it tolerates bright sunlight.
How and when to trim?
Pruning begonias spend early rest periodwhen the plant has faded and began to shed its leaves (in room conditions, the most suitable time is the beginning of October). Dying off shoots of begonias are cut off in one or two centimeters from a tuber, and then the plant is placed in a cool place at home for autumn and winter.
What thermal regime is needed?
During the growing season, that is, in spring and summer, the temperature in the room should not fall below 12 degrees although begonias suffer badly in extreme heat. The ideal temperature is about 22 degrees. During the rest period, after the plant has faded, and you cut off the dried shoots, the pot is moved to the basement or storeroom.
Growing tuberous begonia from seed
It is good that allows you to save varietal characteristics of the flower, but it is a very time-consuming process. The purchased seeds are poured onto damp ground without burying, and the pot is covered with plastic wrap. Put in a warm sunny place and sprayed daily. Every day, the pot is opened for an hour to air the seeds and prevent them from rotting from the damp.
After about two weeks the seeds will sprout. When the sprouts acquire two or three leaves, carefully sit them in small cups.
Most often practiced in the old tubers, because over time the plants will bloom less magnificently. Tuber separation is produced in early spring, when new shoots appear on the tubers. Until they reach 4-5 centimeters in length, you can cut the tuber without damage to the plant. The cut sections are treated so that they do not rot, with a special preparation or powder of charcoal. After that, the tubers are seated in different pots and cared for as full-grown plants.
Reproduction of the begonia of the tuberous cuttings
A very simple and fast way to spread begonia. Cut off the shoot about 10 centimeters long with several sheets.sprinkle the cut with crushed charcoal (to prevent rotting) and root it in a damp earth in a warm bright place.
Planted cuttings must be covered with a glass jar and air daily for an hour so that excess moisture evaporates. After three weeks, the stalk is carefully transplanted into the pot.
How long does a flower live?
Usually, the life of a tuberous begonia is from two to three years, but some varieties can live for five years with proper care. Tuberous begonias, sold in stores for gardenersare repetitive plants. To “rejuvenate” the begonia tuber, divide it into several according to the division method described above.
How and when to feed the plant?
In the spring, when begonia enters the growing season and actively forms new leaves, it is watered with fertilizer, containing nitrogen, two times with an interval of two weeks. To feed the flowering plant, in the summer every two weeks it is fed with fertilizers containing potassium.
If you are not well versed in fertilizers and trace elements that make up their composition, use one special fertilizer for begonias in spring and summer - so you definitely do not harm your favorite flower.
How to care for begonia tuberous in the fall?
Begonia in the fall there is a period of peace which lasts until spring. At this time, you need to cut off the withered leaves and shoots, reduce watering, the plant is cleaned in a cool place (with a temperature of about 10 degrees) and occasionally gently moisturize the ground.
How long is the flowering period? Of all the begonias, the tuberous is the most decorative, its flowers, depending on the variety, can be simple or double, single-colored, two-colored or border-shaped, small or large (up to 15 centimeters in diameter). Tuberous begonia pleases with abundant flowering in the garden - throughout the summer, and in room conditions - from June to October. Best begonias bloom on a shaded balcony.
Care and planting of a tuberous begonia in garden conditions
Tuberous begonia is, first of all, a garden plant. If you plan to plant it on your plot, pay attention to several rules of care.
As in the case of indoor cultivation, in the garden begonia does not require a special composition of the soil. The only condition - the land should be loose.
Choosing a landing site
You can not plant begonias in the scorching sun, diffused light recommended. Flowers feel best on the eastern and western sides of the plot, away from direct sunlight. In the first month after disembarkation of begonias, it is recommended to shade them, to shield them from the bright sun with a piece of greenhouse film.
How to grow this flower in the garden?
Begonia can be planted in the open ground only when the weather is warm - best of all in May. Until this spring, begonias are kept in pots at home or in a greenhouse. On the garden the plants look beautiful, planted at a distance of 15-20 centimeters from each other. In the fall, when the begonias fade away and start losing the leaves, they are cut, dug and harvested in a cold place.
Planting begonias garden
Begonias garden: planting and care, - the plants are planted in a permanent place in the spring, with the onset of warm weather. Tuberous begonias are first grown in greenhouses, grown plants with flowers are often planted in flower beds. The ever flowering begonia is planted with the first flowers, which allows you to immediately get decorative flower beds. That is why the varieties of begonias ever flowering are widely used in landscape design.
It is not allowed to overflow plants, which may cause tuber rot. With a high level of groundwater, beds for begonias are arranged after the drainage has been completed. Planting begonias in the open field allows you to solve the problem of decorating hanging pots, flowerpots, flower beds, rabatok and lawns.
Fertilizer and dressing begonias garden
Begonias spend a lot of power on flowering, so for the season you need to carry out several dressings.
- In spring, the plants are fed with a full complex fertilizer, which will help the plants to increase the green mass faster.
- During the budding of plants, phosphate and potash fertilizers, as well as trace elements, are applied.
Growing new plants of tuberous begonias is possible when breeding with green cuttings, seeds or division of the tuber.
- Tuber division used in the reproduction of plants in greenhouses. Humidification landings carried out very carefully, ensuring the spraying of irrigation water above the ground surface. Watering is carried out periodically, maintaining the soil in a fairly wet state. Overflowing the delenok during this period, when the roots and shoots are not yet branching, will have a detrimental effect on the development of plants. The division of the tuber is practiced during the reproduction of rare plant varieties.
Begonia garden: a combination with other plants
Garden begonias form beautiful combinations in plantings with lawn grasses, decorative leafy crops, curb leaves:
Planting begonias with low shrubs, providing the plant some shade, also perfectly decorate the territory.
Garden begonia in landscape design
Photos of modern garden and park areas show that landscape architects from different countries make extensive use of garden begonias in the design of park compositions. Attention is drawn to the photo of landscape design with flowerpots planted with tuberous begonias. These vases look great on lawns and framed flower beds.
The flower beds, on which garden begonias are planted, look great up to the most frost.