Beetroot is one of the favorite garden crops, it can be found on almost every garden plot. The secret of a good harvest of beets is the right choice of variety, timely planting and good care.
Growing beets in the open field
Content step by step instructions:
Varieties of beet used in cooking, quite a lot. Experienced gardeners recommend planting several varieties of different ripening periods. The crop is removed in two periods, early varieties for consumption in the summer, mid-season and late - for canning and storage.
Most popular varieties:
- early - Libero, Incomparable A 463, Vinaigrette Marmeladka,
Beet Vinaigrette Marmeladka
- Mid-Rim - Darkie, Black, Larka,
- late - Cylinder, Ataman.
In addition, when buying, you should pay attention to the purpose of the variety - for fresh consumption and cooking, for canning, for storage. The shape and color of the root is a matter of taste, but it is noted that the varieties with uniform flesh without rings are more juicy.
Varieties with uniform pulp without rings more juicy
Site preparation for beets
Beets like heat and bright light, so they need a sunny plot with nutritious and loose soil. It grows well on peat soils, sandy loams and loams with high fertility. To ensure a high yield, the land for beets is better to cook in the fall.
Good forerunners of this culture are:
- tomatoes and peppers,
- cucumbers, pumpkins and zucchini,
- greens, legumes, cereals,
- onion garlic.
It is not recommended to plant beets after:
- all kinds of cabbage, radish,
- carrots, celery and parsnip.
Beetroot grows worst in areas where its closest relatives were grown: chard, fodder, sugar and table beets.
The plot is dug up at the end of the garden season or in early spring on a spade bayonet with the application of fertilizers indicated in the table.
It is important not to exceed the recommended doses of mineral fertilizers, otherwise the roots will be loose, with voids and cracks. Fertilizers can be replaced with organic matter: rotted manure that has lain in the herd for at least two years with humus, ash.
It is better to do the beds immediately before planting.
It is better to do the beds immediately before planting, so more moisture will remain in the soil and the seeds will germinate faster. The soil is loosened and leveled with a rake, if it has time to dry up, you need to water it well, after which you can begin to sow.
Beet seeds - wrinkled drupe, rather large size, so they are easy to plant with the necessary spacing. Purchased seeds are often treated with stimulants and fungicides, they are easy to recognize by their bright pink or greenish color. Such seeds do not need to be processed, it can even harm. They are sown without preparation dry in a moist soil.
Beet seeds treated with stimulants and fungicides
The color of the untreated beet seeds is brownish, sometimes sandy with a greenish tinge. It is recommended to prepare them before planting as described below.
- Soak the seeds in water at room temperature for several hours. The sprouted seeds are thrown away; they usually germinate late, giving small root crops of irregular shape.
- Drain the water and immerse the seeds, wrapped in cheesecloth, in a solution Epin, Zircon or other germination stimulator. Maintain them in solution from half an hour to 4 hours, focusing on the instructions on the use of the drug.
- Removed from the stimulator solution and placed in a warm place for 12-24 hours. During this time, the seeds swell, some of them are pecked, after which you can start planting.
Beet seed processing
Planting beets in open ground
To beets pleased you a good harvest, it is important to determine the timing of planting. Single sprouts appear when the soil temperature is 5-7 degrees, but mass and friendly shoots can be achieved only when the earth warms to a temperature of 13-16 degrees at a depth of 8-10 cm.
This is usually not earlier than mid-May. Planting beets in the open ground earlier is meaningless - being in cold, damp soil, the seeds can rot, and the ascended plants will then go to the arrow.
Beets are usually planted no earlier than mid-May.
On prepared beds, grooves are marked with a depth of about 2 cm. It is convenient to make them with the help of a board, pressing it with the end into the loosened soil - the bed of grooves will be dense, and the depth of planting will be the same. By selecting the board of the desired width, you can also mark the distance between rows with it. It should be:
- 10-15 cm for receiving small root crops intended for summer consumption or pickling,
- 20-30 cm for varieties with large root crops for winter storage.
The grooves are watered from the watering can, preventing erosion, and left to absorb water. The seeds are laid on the bottom of the grooves, keeping an interval of 4 to 10 cm, depending on the size and purpose of the selected variety. From above, they are covered with soil or well-rotted humus and watered.
With large planting volumes, you can make a pattern, as in the figure, while the distances between plants will always be the same.
Template for sowing beets at the same distance
Beet is unpretentious and drought-resistant, but it will be able to give a high yield only with good care and compliance with agricultural technology.
- In dry and hot weather, beets are regularly watered from a watering can by sprinkling. Water is better to use separated and heated in the sun. At the same time, the leaves are refreshed, the plants perceive better feeding, grow faster.
In dry and hot weather, beets are regularly watered from a watering can by sprinkling
Mulching will help reduce the frequency of watering and loosening.
In the phase of two true leaves, the plants are thinned
It is recommended to feed plants with complex fertilizer two or three times during the growing season.
08.12.2018 admin Comments No Comments
Beetroot is a wonderful vegetable, loved by many people and included in the most popular dishes of national cuisines. It is a storehouse of nutrients that make a person healthy and beautiful. Imagine a delicious, fragrant soup without beets? No, this is not a soup. Many dishes simply leave our tables without such a unique vegetable.
What time to plant beets
Mid-season variety. The root crop is rounded, with a small head, weighing 230-500 g. The flesh is dark red with a burgundy shade, juicy, tender, sugar. The variety is resistant to high temperatures and diseases. Recommended for use in cooking and for processing.
It is better to water it with water with fertilizers based on the extract of the Californian worm extract - Vermystim, Vermisol or Ideal. Avoid fertilizing ammonium nitrate. so as not to accumulate nitrates. Ideally, any nitrogenous fertilizer should be replaced with organic-based complex fertilizers.
It is useful to add wood ash for sowing beets, which not only reduces the level of acidity, but also enriches the soil with useful elements. Organic fertilizer is desirable to make a previous crop, do not be zealous with mineral dressings, because the beets are actively accumulating nitrates. It is optimal to prepare the plot for planting beets in the fall, digging it up and filling, if necessary, with rotted manure, mature compost or bird droppings.
What soil is suitable for beets
We considered how to plant beets with seeds in open ground, but in the spring some gardeners prefer to plant this vegetable seedlings, so let's talk how to do it right.
By following all these rules, you can grow a large and high-quality crop of tasty and large beets. But the harvest is ripe. When to collect it?
To destroy the weeds, you need to spray the plant with sodium nitrate, among other things, useful for root crops.
Where to plant beets in the country - the choice of location
Beets grow best on loamy soil, in which there is a lot of humus, but this does not mean that it will not grow on others. In this case, you just need a slightly different care: for example, if you plant the vegetable on heavy soils with a high clay content, you will need more abundant watering. Root crops grown on such soils have a bitter taste, but this does not mean that they can not be grown, just have to carefully monitor the ground, preventing it from drying out.
Beets are not too pretentious to the composition of the soil: it only needs to be nutritious and not too acidic, even slightly acidic will be fine.
Land preparation and composition
But the soil needs careful preparation - the future harvest depends on it. Even in autumn, the land should be dug up, moreover, it is necessary to do it deeply, and even better to work with it twice: first, just to blow it, and in a couple of weeks - to dig it. In the spring, when it is already possible to work with the ground, the soil should be loosened and rake should be trimmed. If the soil is heavy, then you may have to dig it again, but not to such significant depth. “If the groundwater comes too close to the ground, it will be necessary to form beds of sufficient height, since the beets do not like dampness, it is much more pleasant to drought.”
The land in which the crop will be planted should be well fertilized. This can be done both in autumn and spring. Per square meter of planting area will be required (in grams):
- ammonium nitrate - 15-20,
- superphosphate - 30-40,
- potassium chloride - 10-15.
Those soils that are not fertile at all require the addition of organic matter, but only this should be done in the fall, and after adding fresh manure, the beets can be planted no earlier than after 2 years. Fresh manure will affect the fruit - they will have a bad taste and an unsightly look.
Another condition that is required by this vegetable: the place should be chosen light, shading only hinders the growth.
How to grow beets from seed
The seeds of this crop are very complex, stuck together in the stems. Many pre-sowing methods are not suitable for them, but if they are not processed at all, they will have to wait too long for seedlings. But there is a solution: well-known seed producers sell them already in a ready-to-plant form. Of course, they are more expensive, but these costs will pay off handsomely afterwards.
If you use ordinary seeds, they are soaked for 2-3 days before sowing, but such seeds should not be sown in too cold soil, and too dry soil will not work.
Sowing can only begin when the soil warms to 8-10 degrees Celsius. This happens usually after the carrot has already been sown. If you sow in a colder ground, the beet will shoot itself.
Rows under the seeds are made at a distance of 15-20 centimeters from each other with a depth of 2-3 centimeters, the seeds are laid out in them, 6-8 centimeters remain between two neighboring ones. Such sowing will allow not to thin out the seedlings in the future (if single-growth varieties are used).
Someone sows in the winter, but this method is not always justified: in the southern areas of planting can constantly spoil the thaw.
How to grow beet seedlings
There are no special requirements to the soil, the seeds are embedded in it in the same way as in open ground. This should be done in April, in the middle of the month. Then put the box near the window to the seedlings enough light. Sometimes planting must be watered, it is impossible to allow the soil to dry out. If necessary, seedlings thinned, this is done at the time of appearance on the seedlings of 1-2 true leaves. Fertilizing the plant is not necessary, but you can still do it once, for which a solution of mineral fertilizers is prepared, and it should be done after thinning.
Seedlings are planted in May, when the seedlings have already acquired 3-4 true leaves. It is necessary to take into account the weather conditions, in the Black Earth area, usually beet seedlings are planted before May 10.
Growing beetroot from sowing seeds to harvest
This is done so that some plants do not shade others: several shoots simultaneously appear from one stem:
- The first time thinning is carried out after the first true leaves have appeared at the seedlings: a centimeter or two is left between the neighboring plants.
- The second time the procedure is performed with the appearance of 4-5 leaves, and the distance between the neighbors should already be more significant - 3-4 centimeters.
- And the last time it is necessary to thin out in a month, this time already remains between two adjacent plants of 6-8 centimeters. Taken this time, the seedlings can already be used as food.
It is not required to thin out single-seeded varieties, as a last resort, it can be done only once, if the sowing was carried out too often.
Watering the beets is necessary only during the period of a special drought: the earth should get wet to a considerable depth, up to 5 buckets of water per square meter of sowing.
On chernozem soils, beets can not be fed, but if the vegetable grows on poor lands, then top dressing is carried out 2 times: after thinning and when closing the tops of the tops in the row spacing. If the owner notices that the fruit begins to soften, then the plants should be sprayed with micronutrient containing boron.
Land on the beds where beets grow, you need to regularly loosen and get rid of weeds.
Tags: Garden Vegetable, Vegetables, Beet
Root fruit fruits for two years. However, if the care of the beetroot is of poor quality, it may form a peduncle. The root crop in this case or not grow at all, or will be tiny.
Planting is carried out in loose soil. Varieties that are cultivated, have a round head or a cylindrical elongated shape. Vegetable can be dark red or burgundy. There are varieties of green that bloom with leaves.
Preparatory work before planting a vegetable
Planting beets of any kind made in fertile light soil. It is necessary that her reaction was neutral. Before planting beets, the land for the root crop is prepared from the end of summer. Previous crops, such as cucumbers, tomatoes, or onions, should enrich the soil intended for sowing root vegetables with beneficial substances. It is not necessary to carry out planting of beets at once to the same place.
It is not recommended to plant beets in the place where cruciferous cultures used to grow. Their pests can spoil the seeds.
Before sowing, remove all weeds. Plant beets should be in the ground, pre-treated with lime. In addition to the standard compost with humus, the soil before sowing is fertilized with superphosphate and potassium chloride.
Before planting, do not fertilize the soil with manure. This can increase the level of nitrogen content, which will adversely affect the quality of the crop.
It is necessary that the care of the beets was permanent. It should be loosened before planting the soil. Before planting beets, the furrows are set to be 20-30 cm long. The seeds in them are placed at a distance of 5-10 cm from each other and covered with earth, 2 cm thick. Then, future root vegetables should be watered. The first shoots will appear in 10-15 days.
Root seeds are small nodules in the shell. This shell must be broken so that the seeds germinate faster. To destroy the shell, prepare the ash solution and soak the seeds in it for several days. Seeds absorb moisture, increase in size and due to this they germinate in the soil in less time.
From one nodule on average five shoots sprout. Of these five shoots leave only one, the strongest. In order to properly carry out planting and grow a culture in the open field, careful care and compliance with the following rules is required:
- Plant beets at the right time
- Fertilize a vegetable,
- Observe the watering mode,
- Protect against pests and weeds.
Root crops, intended for sale or storage, are planted with seeds in heated soil. Soil temperature should not be lower than 10? C. When the temperature becomes standard, and the crop will not be threatened by a sharp cooling, you can begin planting crops.
When to start planting culture depends on the region. In the Crimea, beet planting is carried out from the beginning of spring, and in Siberia only in early June.
If you want to have vegetables in the country, which can be eaten and tops and roots, the fruits of which contain a huge set of mineral salts, and the juice is curative, after all, from which you can make numerous salads, pickled pieces and caviar for the winter, then you just need to start growing beets. I have not yet mentioned the delicious recipes, the main of which is borsch with beets. You can, of course, buy it all year round in stores, or you can grow beets from seeds at a country house with your own hands in your own country garden beds, on organic matter, without excess chemistry.
How to grow beets in the open field
Compared with other root vegetables - potatoes, Jerusalem artichoke and others, beetroot is more sensitive to moisture and heat. Germination of seeds in the ground in open ground occurs at temperatures above 7 degrees, and the optimum temperature for growth is within 18-21 degrees. Its best predecessors are tomatoes, onions, cucumbers and cabbage. The soil under it is suitable sandy, rich in organic matter, however, and just compost land will be home.
Как производить посев семян
Высеивание семян свеклы производим на даче в открытый грунт весной и перед зимой. Весной сеем на ровные поверхности, осенью, в обязательном порядке, на грядах, иначе они глубоко уйдут под землю с талыми водами. We make grooves at a distance of 20-25 cm from each other and put the seeds in them. After the appearance of 2-3 true leaves, we carry out thinning, weeding, and then we pay all attention to removing the soil crust.
Young plants are well tolerated transplant, after it do not forget to shed plenty of water. Further excessive watering is undesirable. Seeds are sown when the required soil temperature is reached, usually in the middle of May.
Then along the garden we make grooves a couple or three cm deep, sow the seeds at a distance of 5-6 cm and cover it with earth. Which year we prefer to grow a certain variety - "Cylinder", germination of which reaches almost 100%. Therefore, it is easier to further pull out the excess than to have a lack of vegetables in the shoots. We deliberately left the seedlings to grow beets in the open field, because even with our late Far Eastern spring and early autumn, the vegetables have time to reach large sizes that we dislike.
Plants taken out of the beds can be planted at the edges of other beds with vegetables or select an additional bed. Thinning is done on wet soil, better in cloudy weather.
With an increase in the root to the size of a walnut, we feed the beets with the following solution: take 1 tbsp of water in a bucket of water. spoon nitrophoska and liquid organic fertilizer.
We carry out the second top-dressing in days 10-12 after the first liquid mineral fertilizer, such as "Agricola for root crops". The third is in another three weeks, suitable for this liquid "Agricola Aqua". In addition, it is possible spraying growth. Nutrient beets pour water from the watering can without a horn, in the aisle.
Start harvesting vegetables in the country should be planned before the onset of severe frosts or as you reach the size of the vegetables you need. Beets can be carefully podkapyvaem pitchforks or pull out with his hands. We clean it from the ground and prune the tops. Vegetables cut off the apical kidney half a centimeter.
Beet storage in short
Store grown beets can be in boxes, sprinkled with layers of sawdust, shavings or sand. Storage temperature - 2-5 degrees Celsius with relatively high - 85% humidity. Someone stores in bulk in bulk, someone in plastic bags, sprinkled with sawdust, we store beets (after cutting the ends), pouring it on the potatoes on top. But until that time, of course, we make from it a mass of home-made stuff.
In the gardens we grow red beets. Truly industrial importance is its closest relative - sugar beet. This is a vegetable that appeared relatively recently - a little more than 200 years ago, and was developed in Europe by the targeted efforts of scientists. In 1747, German chemist Margrave found sucrose in beetroot and offered to make sugar from it. Research continued, but Napoleon was truly interested in this discovery.
The fact is that sugar at that time was made from sugar cane, which was imported from the colonies mainly English. After the start of the war with England, cane sugar became a very rare commodity in Europe. The Emperor of France appointed an award of 1,000,000 francs to thatwho will make sugar from beets. The very first sugar factories began to appear in Europe during the life of Napoleon, but already after the fall of his Empire. So the prize, so no one received. But the first beet processors received such profits, which didn’t remain out of date, becoming the richest people in a few years.
What else should I look for when growing beets in the open field? Organic matter is best to apply humus. It also grows well on peat soils - all that is needed is to ensure that the soil is not too acidic and, if necessary, lime. It is responsive to nitrogen fertilizers - it can accumulate nitrates. Immature manure adversely affects the development of the fetus - it will be porous, loose, and will be poorly stored.
Salty soil withstands easily. Mineral fertilizers on organic fertilized soils can not be applied at all. They are used usually in the fall under digging. The composition of the fertilizer on 1 square. meter:
- a bucket of good land or peat,
- 10 kg of humus or compost,
- 10 kg of sand
- 200 grams of dolomite flour or lime - fluff.
- a glass of dry ash.
This fertilizer is already quite enough for good care, but it is not bad to add a box of superphosphate matches, a spoon of potash and the same amount of potassium salt.
There is a way of winter sowing when the seeds are planted before the onset of cold weather. After that, the soil is mulched with peat or humus. This will ensure early seedlings and early harvest. Seedlings will be more stable to cold snaps. But, in autumn sowing, you can lose the crop because of a sudden strong freeze. Beetroot is very sensitive to cold: seedlings may die at minus 3-4 degrees.
A more traditional way of planting is in the spring from mid-April to the end of May. The main role is played by temperature. Beetroot worse than other root crops tolerate low temperatures, so they plant it later than carrots or radishes. Sowing begins when the temperature of the soil rises to 8-10 degrees.
Planted seeds to a depth of 2-3 cm in the grooves, at a distance of 15-20 cm from each other. Seeds of beets - this is the seed fruit. These are several accrete seeds, which appear from the accrete flowers in the inflorescence, therefore the beet does not sprout in a single plant, but in a kind of nests. Only recently, varieties with a single seed have begun to appear. Beetroot - two-year plants, the seeds gives the second year of life, and we remove it at the end of the first year. Therefore, seeds are rarely collected at home. We usually buy them in the store..
To increase the resistance of the root to frost easily with the help of hardening - this is when the seeds are affected by the contrast temperature.
- Seeds should be placed between layers of damp cloth at a temperature of 18–20 degrees for 15–20 hours.
- Then transfer to the refrigerator, where the temperature is 0–2 degrees for the whole night.
- In the afternoon, keep at room temperature again.
Hardening with contrasting temperatures should be continued until the first seeds are crooked within a week.
Useful techniques of seed preparation
Sparging is the long-term presence of seeds in water that is saturated with air. Seeds swell much faster, substances are eliminatedslowing germination. It's easy to do this:
- the seeds are placed in a glass or other container for 2/3 filled with water,
- A tube is placed on the bottom, the other end is connected to the compressor from the aquarium,
- It pumps air and the seeds move continuously in the water,
- As a result, the seeds are saturated with oxygen, their germination increases.
It is recommended when sowing, especially early, add a little spinach seeds. These so-called beacon seeds will quickly sprout and designate beet beds, which will allow you to immediately begin to care for and weed and cultivate weeds without fear of damaging the seedlings.
In Russia, traditions very clearly established the time of planting and the time of harvesting beets. They sowed it on May 1 - on Kuzmin’s day, and cleaned it on September 1 - at Föklu-beet factory. The people said: Fockla - pull the beets. And almost immediately after harvesting this vegetable in Russia, funeral rites of flies were held. In the old days they believed that it would reduce the number of flies and mosquitoes in Indian summer. Little Coffins for flies cut out of beets, placed there flies and buried them with weeping and lamentations. This event was attended by young unmarried girls. They tried to dress up - after all, the burial of flies was the first bride of the future brides before the fall weddings.
Care for beetroot in the open field
The first 2-3 weeks beet beds are recommended to close the film to protect against frost. Sometimes it is planted with seedlings - then the seeds are sown in a greenhouse at the end of March. And in open ground transplanted in the middle or end of May. This allows for a very early harvest. However, in contrast to tomatoes or peppers, planting seedlings is not a necessity and is used quite rarely.
To root turned out large, beets need to be thinned in time. Sow usually with a margintherefore, plants quickly become crowded. Thinning should begin when the first true leaf appears. Between plants, 4–5 cm should be left. The beetroot grows in nests, therefore, the need arises to double the thinning of crops. The second thinning is done 20–25 days after the first one and the interval between shoots of 10–12 cm is now left. Thinned plants can now be sowed - transplanted to another place one by one, like a seedling, necessarily pinching the main root. Then the root does not go into the depth, but begins to immediately fill with fruit.
Secrets to fight disease
The disease, which is terrible for growing sugar beets, is chalcosporosis. There are yellow spots with red edging around the edges, in wet weather - gray bloom. Favorable condition for the development of this disease is a temperature of 15-20 degrees, high humidity. To avoid this disease, it is necessary to seed seeds before sowing in open ground.
You can use drugs fungicides. In production, ready-made pickled seeds are used, but they are not marketed. You can take advantage of such a drug as "Maxim". The package says how to properly dilute and apply it. Using fungicides, we can avoid the consequences of the disease of table beet disease and, if properly care for them, then get a good harvest.
As we know, the general principle operates: the same culture cannot be planted in the same place for 3-5 years - it is necessary to observe crop rotation. You can use siderats, which not only enrich the soil, but also reduce the number of weeds by 30–40%. For example, when we harvest, on the place where the potatoes are harvested you can plant siderats: rye, mustard or rape.
Care, loosening and weed control begin almost immediately after sowing. If there are lighthouse shoots - they see and do not touch the grooves with seeds. If the beacons are not planted - you need to mark the future grooves with pegs when sowing, so as not to hurt the shoots when loosening. Loosen the soil after each watering. Watering the plants must be abundant: young shoots are watered at the rate of 10 liters per 1 square meter.
After mid-July, when the root crop begins to develop, if it is hot, watering is doubled. And two weeks before cleaning, watering is stopped completely. It is often advised to lure with sea salt or ordinary rock salt diluted in water. This recommendation to care for this root appeared because wild beet originated from the Mediterranean region and grows near the sea. However, the practical usefulness of this advice has not yet been confirmed.
When yellow spots appear on the leaves, this is a sign that the soil is acidic and the plants lack potassium. It is necessary to shed planting lime milk with potassium chloride. You need to feed the plants only if you think that it does not grow well enough. If you have applied fertilizer in the fall and root crops are developing normally, it is better not to fertilize at all.
Eat beets from the moment the fruits appear. Though they are small, they are suitable for salads and borscht. The young beetroot even eats leaves - they have as many nutrients and vitamins as they do in root crops. Initially, the beets ate only the leaves, and only then tasted the roots. And the current roots - is the result of a long and painstaking selection.
For storage in the winter harvest is collected at the end of September. The main secret is that the roots do not come under frost - after that they will not be stored. Pull the beets out of the ground with their hands, gently shake them off and cut the foliage, leaving short cuttings no longer than a centimeter long. And one more growing advice: so that the beets do not spoil, it should be placed in the storage very carefully. It looks like hard root crops crush when struck, and death begins in these places - beetroot rots. If you are careful, the roots will continue until the next harvest.
Preparation for sowing beet seeds
The most effective way is vernalization:
- Beet is loved by many people for its taste and usefulness. Many dishes, for example, soup or vinaigrette can not even be imagined without beets. In addition, its nutritional value is very high. Eat a root vegetable can be both in the form of juice, and in a baked, fried or boiled form, and the young tops, after drying it, can be used as a seasoning for ready-made dishes in winter, as it is also rich in nutrients. Some summer residents practice this way: immediately after harvesting, root squeeze fresh juice out of the roots.
- Wash and boil potatoes in a uniform, peel and cut into cubes.
- Against ants, often arranging anthills in between the rows, systematically loosen and water these places. You can sprinkle the anthill with the drug "Medvetoks", "Thunderbolt", "Muracid" or just hot ash. Sometimes, when adjacent to the field of sugar beet, weevil appears on the landings, which destroys the crop in the phase
- mid-season variety (120 days) with a rounded root of dark red color. On the section, the root vegetable is intensely colored, the annular zones are almost imperceptible. Well kept.
Beet seeds germinate at a soil temperature of +10 - + 12 ° С and seedlings withstand small short-term frosts. But the cold resistance of different varieties is not the same, and this must be taken into account: in varieties that are unstable to cold, a decrease in temperature may provoke the formation of peduncles.
- Egyptian flat, Cold-resistant, Pablo, Incomparable A-46, Bordeaux 237, Renova, Gribovskaya, Podzimnyaya A-474.
- A month before planting beets to a permanent place in a specially prepared substrate, seedlings are sown according to the 4 x 4 cm scheme. This method of cultivation allows us to get a crop 3 weeks earlier than usual. It is not necessary to swoop down before landing in the ground. The required temperature for growing is 15-20 ° C. Seedlings are best to grow beets with oval root vegetables. Transplanting it to a permanent place begins when the plant forms 3-4 leaflets. Before this, a container with seedlings is shed with water, after which a plant is dug out with a special spatula. In order for the beets to settle down, before planting the root of the sprout is shortened by about 1/4 part. After this, the seedlings are well watered. Plants are planted at a distance of 8-10 cm one from another.
- It is necessary to start harvesting approximately 75 days from the date of sowing.
- So, the solution must be mixed in proportion: 2 g saltpeter per liter of water. That's enough to handle 1 square. meter of soil. Remove any remaining weeds by hand.
Moisten the seeds with water. You can put them in a container and pour water in a 1: 1 ratio.
The beet we use in food belongs to the “dining room” type and belongs to the family of haze. The root crop lives for two years, the seeds are contained in dry and hard fruits, so it is absolutely impossible to remove them. Root crops are connected into balls, and gardeners sow them. From each ball several plants appear. Because of this, the beets need to thin out. Otherwise, the plants will be too crowded.
Beet broth strain and cool. Beets put in a saucepan, add boiled potatoes, cut into small strips of cucumbers, chopped egg, chopped green onions.
How to grow seedlings?
Early ripe variety. The root crop is round, smooth with a thin skin, weighing 230-420 g. The flesh is juicy, tender, sweet, dark red in color with burgundy green, has a small number of cylindrical rings. Universal purpose.
- Seedlings. Against him, sprout the seedlings with the “Actofit” preparation. For the prevention of diseases such as chalcosporosis, root rot, hollowness, it is necessary to observe crop rotation and sow with healthy pickled seeds.
- Sow beets in several terms. For summer fresh use, early-ripening varieties are sown around the second decade of May (much warmer in warm regions). If you choose cold-resistant varieties, then crops can be started when the soil temperature at a depth of 10 cm reaches + 5 ... + 6 ° С. Varieties intended for storage, it is advisable to sow in late May - the first half of June. Finally, cold-resistant varieties resistant to bolting are sown before winter to obtain early harvests.
- The soil should be well and deeply treated. The surface should be leveled. All weeds must be removed. Before planting, the beets are cultivated by 3-4 cm. Then they are folded and rolled. The latter is not carried out in rainy weather.
Further care for the beets is timely loosening, weeding, fertilizer and watering.
The collection of root crops ends until mid-September, that is, until the moment when the first frosts begin. In order for the beets to retain their color, vitamins and all the nutrients better, you need to cut the tops at a distance of three centimeters from the root. Root crops can be stored in cellars or basements, the temperature in which does not rise above three degrees.
How to care for the root?
Огромную роль играет рыхление корки на почве, опрыскивание тракторным керосином (около 40 грамм на один кв.м.). Это необходимо для решения проблем с сорняками с минимальными затратами труда вручную.
Оставьте семена на 32 часа, а затем вылейте воду.
Чтобы семена проросли, необходима температура от пяти градусов, уже через три недели появятся первые всходы. At ten degrees, the process will accelerate, and small plants can be seen in ten days. At fifteen - in five or six days, and if the thermometer rises above twenty, the shoots will turn green in three days. Based on this, it is necessary to focus on the landing time.
Put grated horseradish, salt, sugar and mustard to taste. Pour beet broth, add sour cream and stir. Beetroot sprinkle with chopped dill.
Root crops have good keeping quality, but eventually shrivel due to dehydration. Therefore, if it is not possible to regulate the temperature and humidity at the place of storage, it is better to pour the beets with slightly moist sand. Pre-production must be sorted by size and laid so that the roots do not touch each other. Sand blocks spore access to the roots and prevents their dehydration. The beet leaves of the beet left for food should be cut to 1-1.5 centimeters before storage, the root crops left on the seeds should be cut to 2-2.5 cm without damaging the growing point. Cut the tops completely and manually pull it impossible, otherwise the beets rot.
- - mid-season variety (100-125 days) with rounded and rounded flat root vegetables with a mass of 300 to 600 g
- You can sow as dry seeds, and soaked, germinated. In the latter case, the seedlings will appear faster and be more friendly, but the sowing will require more accuracy. Note that germinated seeds can be sown only in moist soil, otherwise the shoots will die. In general, the beet for germination requires a lot of moisture, because the seeds from it are quite dense, swell for a long time.
Thinning beet seedlings and harvesting
Seeds are sown in spring, after carrots. By this time, the soil should already warm up to + 8 ... + 10 ° С. Effectively plant seeds before long rains. On loamy soils, the planting depth is 2.5 - 3 cm. If it is sandy and sandy, the depth is 3 - 4 cm.
So, when sowing beets in open ground, we figured out, now let's talk about how to care for her.
More information about growing beets can be found in the video.
Some gardeners recommend adding ordinary salt to water for irrigation. As for the frequency of irrigation, then, if there is no rain, water two times 10 liters per 1 square meter. After irrigation, loosen the soil, as the water must penetrate to the very roots, and they lie at a depth of 15 cm.
- After three days, put the swollen seeds in the refrigerator for 8 days, scattering in a layer of three centimeters across the bottom of the box.
- The middle of May is the most acceptable time for planting beets, but if it is cold, then you can plant it later.
- For 4 servings you will need:
- Mid-season variety. The root crop is flat-rounded, weighing 250-300 g. The flesh is juicy, dense, tender. The variety is resistant to sprouting and lack of moisture. Suitable for long term storage.
Varieties of beets are domestic and foreign selection. Among the former, one can single out, for example, the classic variety Bordeaux 237 or the recently created Crimson, Delicatessen, Diy, Smena. Among the latter are the “Chervona Kul”, “Bikores” and “Regala” companies created in Poland by Bejo, “Bolivar” by Nunhems and others. Foreign varieties are sometimes less fruitful, since most of them have a smaller average size of root crops. At the same time, their flesh is darker, they are resistant to growth, which is important for the southern regions, and also richer in nutrients. Their seeds are pickled, which reduces the risk of damage by soil pests and diseases.
The optimum sowing depth is 2 cm for heavy soils and up to 4 cm for light ones. The distance between the seeds is 2-3 cm, between the rows - 20-30 cm. I prefer to grow beets, like carrots, in the crests - so the plants get more light, the roots have more room for development.
In recent years, the seeds are sold already drazhirovannymi. Most often this applies to foreign varieties. When buying unprepared seeds, processing is carried out independently. Otherwise they will rise for a very long time. Well helps bubbling. This is the soaking of seeds with the forced supply of oxygen or air.
Beet seeds, as mentioned above, sprout slowly, therefore, approximately 3-4 days after sowing, it is recommended to slightly loosen the soil on the ridge with a spring rake, this will ensure friendly shoots. This deep loosening is carried out for the first time 4 days after friendly shoots appeared. In general, the beets are very responsive to loosening, so do not forget to loosen the soil after rain or watering, but after the closure of the leaves occurred, the loosening should be stopped.
This method must be applied 12 days before sowing.
In the latter case, the seeds must be prepared. If there are no weeds, and the weather is warm, then late-beet planted sprouts well, and in terms of yield and quality is not inferior to early plantings.
- mid-season variety for blanks and long-term storage. Forms even long cylindrical root crops weighing from 250 to 600 g, on a section of a ring are not expressed. Well kept, quickly prepared.
Several sprouts usually grow from each beet seed, therefore immediately after the shoots appear, they are thinned. At first, you should not be especially zealous, because individual shoots can die or develop poorly - they are removed later. A month later, thinned again, leaving between plants about 6 - 7 cm. If this is not enough, sometimes at the end of the summer they additionally thin out the plantings so that the roots can build up weight without interfering with each other.
Planting and growing fruit
There are several subtleties that can help grow a quality plant.
To make the fruits sweeter and more tender, it is fed with a saline solution. Only this culture needs a similar feeding. This fact is explained by the origin of the root.
He first appeared in the Mediterranean, where there is a large amount of salt in the air. Thus, salt has become an essential element.
After excess sprouts are removed, it is fertilized with necessary substances for the fastest development of the root crop. Feeding beets in the open ground can be any, the main requirement is that it contains enough nitrogen. Most often used tincture with nettle or urea. The required amount of the solution is diluted per liter of water.
When the sprouts give several independent leaves, the root crop is fertilized with boron. One liter of water with a solution is applied on top of the plant, but not into the soil. If there is a slowdown in growth, it is necessary to analyze the soil for acidity. It is likely that a negative environment hinders the absorption of nutrients in the soil.
Phomosis is a fairly frequent disease that reduces the yield and its quality. It is presented in the form of black spots on the leaves. The cause of fomoz is most often the lack of elements such as boron in the soil. For prevention, the plant is irrigated with a solution of boric acid at the rate of 0.5 parts per 1 liter of water.
When the root is formed and reaches 10 cm, the period of secondary feeding begins. The choice of fertilizer depends on the development requirements of the vegetable. The exception is nitrogen supplements - they are banned a few days after the formation of the fetus.
Any care with the use of fertilizers is carried out only after irrigation of the plant with water.
Watering the fruit
If watering is uneven, root cultivation will proceed poorly. Excessive soil irrigation can cause root cracks. Plant care includes watering by sprinkling. It takes about a liter of water per square meter. 2 weeks before harvesting should stop watering.
Suitable conditions for growing beets
To eat beets from mid-summer and until next spring, you need to choose the right varieties with different ripening terms, as well as surround this relatively unpretentious culture with care and attention. Growing beets, despite its apparent simplicity, will bring remarkable results only if the basic rules of planting seeds, caring for plants and harvesting are observed.Beet cultivation video
The bed for beets should be chosen on a lighted place, although in a small shade this crop may well bring good yields. The main thing is that the soil should not have an acid reaction, otherwise the beet tops of the beets will grow small, red in color, and the roots will form small and tough.
Suitable soil for beets is light, fertile, not prone to over-wetting, with a neutral reaction. Regular watering with lime mortar during the growing season of beets helps to neutralize the increased acidity of the soil.
Beetroots like to grow on the edge of the garden, but cauliflower, carrots, onions, kohlrabi, cucumbers or celery can be planted in the center. As precursors, legumes, cabbage, eggplants, onions, early potatoes, tomatoes, peppers, and cucumbers are allowed.
Suitable soil for beets - light, fertile, not prone to over-wetting, with a neutral reaction
It is great if organic fertilizers were applied to the soil during the cultivation of the precursors, because beets assimilate them better when they are planted on a fertilized bed in the second or third year. If the land has not been fertilized before, compost or humus can be applied immediately before sowing beet seeds. On fertile soil, ammonium nitrate, potassium chloride and superphosphate will be sufficient during spring digging.
Sowing beet seeds - what needs to be considered
You can plant beets both in spring and in winter - in the last days of October to get the earliest harvest. In the spring, you need to choose the time so that the soil at a depth of 10 cm warms up to +8 degrees. Usually such conditions fall on the beginning-middle of May.
It is important that in the initial period of beet growth the temperature does not fall below +4 degrees, but dry heat is also undesirable. In both cases, the beets can go into flowering, and not tied root crops.
It is possible to plant beets both in spring and before winter - in the last days of October.
Planting rules beet:
- before sowing, the seeds can be temporarily immersed in a growth amplifier and then dried a little, or sow unprocessed,
- in springtime, it is not necessary to form the grooves in the garden, you can distribute the seeds in even garden every 10 cm, with 20 cm row spacing,
- from above the seeds fall asleep 2 cm layer of soil,
- at possible frosts the bed is protected by covering material.
The cultivation of red beets can also be carried out by seedlings. In this case, the seedlings are kept in a bright, warm room, and when three or four true leaves appear (in the first half of May) they are planted in a garden bed.
How to grow beets to get a great harvest
Soon after the beets germinate, it will require careful care. Together with the first sprouts, the first weeds will surely seem to be weed out as they grow so that they do not take the necessary substances from the soil. At the same time, gently burst the aisles, and you will need to loosen the soil after each rain or watering, otherwise the beet roots will get a little air. The destruction of weeds, too, must be carried out regularly, preventing their growth.
Beets like moist soil, so watering should be regular
Tender shoots will need to be thinned as soon as you notice the appearance of the third leaf on the plants, and re-thinning when forming the fifth leaf.
Beets like moist soil, so watering should be regular (once a week during normal weather) and abundant. This is especially important during the period of active growth of beets and the formation of root crops. Together with watering a couple of weeks after sowing beets, add potash fertilizers - they are necessary for young sprouts for better development.
Nitrogen fertilizers should be used with caution, as beets tend to accumulate nitrogen in the roots.
In addition to the main elements of the beets in the soil is often not enough boron, manganese, calcium and magnesium - the lack of these trace elements can adversely affect the yield on the health of root crops and their quality. Therefore, in addition to root nutrition, it is advisable to also add foliar nutrition of beets with microelements.
Digging up beets for storage
Harvesting beets is usually carried out on warm, dry autumn days, around mid-September or in October, when the roots are fully ripe and the tops will wither. It is important to take a very careful approach to digging up root crops from the ground, so as not to accidentally damage them with sharp forks. Otherwise, the damaged beets will need to be used in the near future, so that it does not have time to spoil and infect other root crops with rot.Video about growing beets in the country
Best of all, the beets are stored in the cellar, as the whole winter is rather cool and humid there - this is what root crops need to preserve their taste and firmness. Only for storage it is necessary to select the most healthy, high-quality root crops so that there is not a single sign of disease on them.
If there is no cellar, it is possible to store beets in the apartment, especially if you have a glazed balcony or pantry. There are several tricks that will help in the home to save the roots as long as possible, you learn about them from the relevant article on our website.
The composition of the plant
Beetroot is sugar, fodder, leaf and, of course, dining. Due to the bright saturated color this vegetable can not be confused with any other. Beet contains many useful elements:
- citric, malic and oxalic acid,
- amino acids
- vitamins and minerals.
Red fruit contains potassium, magnesium, iron, iodine, copper, zinc, folic and pantothenic acid, vitamins BB, B and C.
Beet is an unpretentious plant, which grow under the force of even the beginning cottager.
Planting beets seeds
Usually planting beets begins with sowing seeds. Seed preparation begins in the spring. There are several ways to prepare beet seeds for sowing:
- Seeds are soaked in warm water for 24 hours, then left to dry for several hours.
- Seeds from packages are poured into a deep reservoir with a layer of 3-4 cm, filled with warm water - about +20 degrees so that the water covers the seed layer on two fingers, cover with a damp cloth and leave for 3-4 days, after which, for 10 days dried.
Sowing is done in the bursting soil in the first half of May, because it is at this time that the soil is quite wet after the snow melts and the spring rains. Standard seed packaging contains 2-3 grams of seed, given that this volume must be sown on 1 square. m, you must calculate in advance what area is allocated for the cultivation of beets. So, on a bed of 10 square meters. We will need ten bags of beet seeds, 2 grams each, or seven bags, 3 grams each.
It is necessary to plant seeds shallowly at a distance of 5–8 cm and an interrow distance of about 20 cm. After a week, when the first shoots appear, it is necessary to water the beds well and thin the young beets. It is imperative to carry out weeding and loosening the row spacing, this provides air access to the root system. Watering the young shootsshould be moderate, and when more intensive growth begins and the air temperature is too high, watering is increased to 20 liters per 1 square meter. m, but such abundant watering can be carried out no more than 2-3 times a month.
The next thinning is carried out when two leaves are formed on the plants, while the distance between the seedlings should be about 6 cm. plants after this thinning are already suitable for human consumption.
An unpretentious plant still has its preferences in soil. A suitable ground for beets is a well-lit drained plot of land. With high acidity of the soil, before planting, it is necessary to add ash or lime to future beet beds. If growing beets scheduled for the summer, then preparations begin in May. The first thing to do is to apply organic fertilizer, for example, compost - about 3 kg per 1 sq. Km. m. So, for a plot of 15 square meters. m. need about 45 kg of compost.
Ready-made compost can be purchased, it is usually sold in bags of 5–6 kg or in liquid form in buckets from 10 to 30 liters. If time allows, the compost can be prepared with your own hands from kitchen waste, hay, straw, sawdust and many other natural products. This compost is useful for gardeners to grow other vegetables and fruits, so you can prepare it with a stock for the whole season.
If the cultivation of beets is planned before the winter season, then the preparation of the soil has other features. Участок земли перекапывают на глубину штыка лопаты и на каждый квадратный метр грядки вносят смесь из половины ведра перегноя или компоста и 30 грамм хлористого калия.
Основные проблемы, которые возникают при недостатке различных микроэлементов, обычно можно вовремя распознать, если обращать внимание на состояние ботвы. Покрасневшая ботва свидетельствует о высокой кислотности почвы и недостатке натрия. Для предотвращения развития заболеваний растения поливают солевым раствором, а грядки тщательно посыпают золой.
Побледневшие листья свёклы свидетельствуют о недостатке калия в почве. To solve the problem, the beds are watered with a solution of 1 liter of water, 3 grams of potash fertilizer, 3 grams of phosphate fertilizer and 2 grams of nitrogen fertilizer.
If yellow spots appeared on the beet leaves, then it is necessary to irrigate with a solution of 10 liters of water, 80 grams of potassium chloride and 200 grams of lime, this solution is also called lime milk. Repeat this watering can be no less than 10 days.
If a brown color mycelium begins to grow in the roots, it means that the plants are affected by brown rot. Very often, beets are prone to this disease, when the groundwater at the site is too close to the surface, which contributes to stagnant water. For treatment, it is necessary to break through the soil and apply boric fertilizers.
If the stem and the base of the root began to rot and a black strip is formed, then the plants are sick with the so-called black leg. Usually, beetroot gets sick at high humidity, as well as when a seed is infected, therefore seeds collected and prepared at home are better treated with fungicides.
When the edges of the leaves are folded and purple-gray mycelium is formed beneath them, the plants are sick with peronosporosis, or its better known name is downy mildew. For the prevention of disease, seeds before planting are treated with disinfectants. It is much easier to grow beets from seedspurchased in the store, as they have already been prepared and processed. If the disease has already completely enveloped the plants, then it is necessary to spray with copper-containing preparations. To prevent the spread of the disease, after harvesting, all the tops and weeds from the plot need to be burned, since the spores of peronosporosis can overwinter and infect plants in the next season.
It is very easy to determine the time of harvest, for this you need to pay attention to the foliage - if the lower leaves began to turn yellow and small roots appear on the roots, then it is time to dig up the beets. Harvesting is best done in dry weather. Root vegetables are carefully dug, in order not to damage the skin, they are cleared from the ground, and the tops are cut to a maximum of 2 cm. Store beets preferably in bulk, sand boxes can be used.
Beetroot is one of the most unpretentious plants, with regular care and maintenance of crop rotation at the site you can get a rich harvest of this delicious red vegetable.
If there is not enough space in the garden, then it is possible not to allocate a separate garden bed for culture, but to plant on the edge of onion or carrot beds.
This vegetable does not like blackout, so do not forget to weed weeds on time, this is especially true in the phase of tying root crops. By the way, in August, the beets require another thinning, when weeding remove extra roots, the distance between plants should be 15-20 cm. After weeding and thinning, be sure to spud the plants and grind the soil.
It is difficult to find a summer resident who does not grow red beet on his plot, and there is a simple explanation for this. Not only that, it is a very useful vegetable, as mentioned above, so, among other things, it is easy to grow, because it is extremely unpretentious plant. But despite this, to get an excellent harvest, you should follow some rules. Let's understand how to plant beets (sowing, seedlings, features, care), we will try to tell about all this in this article.
When sprouts appeared second pair of leaves, conducted the first feeding of root crops. Dry fertilizers are applied when the soil is loosened between rows. One square meter will require eight grams of potash salt fertilizer and ten grams of ammonium nitrate.
About 19 grams of seeds per 10 square meters is a normal seeding.
Remember that the spring cooling greatly affects sprouts, provoking the appearance of color blooming.
Mid-season variety. The root crop is rounded, smooth, weighing 100-200 g. The pulp is dark red, without ringing. The variety is cold resistant and resistant to sprouting. Suitable for canning.
How to grow beets to get a good harvest
At the first thinning, the removed plants can still be transplanted (dive), this is useful if the shoots are uneven. Such plants should definitely be watered and applied well before they take root. For such an operation, cool, cloudy weather is chosen, because in sunny and dry pickled seedlings they usually take root very poorly.
Should not allow the formation of crusts on the surface of the earth. When 2 - 4 full leaves have been formed, thinning is carried out. In the event that single-growth varieties were used, thinning is not necessary.
Diseases and pests
Healthy leaves, regardless of the variety, have a smooth surface, free from stains and cracks. Any appearance of non-vegetable-specific traits is a consequence of the disease of the plant. In this case, thorough care and treatment fungicidal solution.
Types of pests that are dangerous for vegetables:
- Common flea. These are small bugs of green or bronze color. They wake up in spring and eat young plants,
- Roundworms and click beetles. These parasites live at a depth of half a meter from the surface of the earth. They can feed on weeds, but when the root is ripe, these pests can cause great damage to the crop. The plant may die if damaged at the beginning of its development. If it is damaged in a later stage of formation, the fetus takes on an ugly shape,
- Winter Nightwoman. Small butterflies of dark color. As a rule, caterpillars of winter scoops eat root stalks and leaves. Appear where there are weeds of any kind, so the prevention of winter shovels is timely weed control.
There are various ways to protect against these pests. These include manual removal of pests from the soil, as well as various chemical methods of protection.
The best prevention is to use on developing sprouts of anti-harmful drugs.
Collection and storage
Medium-sized fruits are valued above all. For this reason, you can not rush to planting seeds. The larger the size of the vegetable, the less quality the fiber in it.
Harvesting is carried out before the first frost. At sub-zero temperatures, the crop will die. This occurs because the top of the crop during the development of the soil protrudes.
The shank of the plant is removed without the help of a knife. He twisted and pulled out.
How to grow beets
The root crop, cut with a knife, loses its juice and becomes non-marketable. Wash the vegetable is not necessary, the dirt disappears itself after drying. At damage of a root crop, its storage will be impossible. Vegetable kept in boxes of sand. It is permissible to store together with potatoes, but only should be separated from each other and between them there should be a small distance.
Cultivation of red beet in open ground
The choice of location. The most suitable for table beet (vegetable) flat fields with a deep cultural layer and with a light texture (but not sandy). Plants do not tolerate acidic soils, the optimal response of the environment - at pH 6.5-7.2. The best predecessors are potatoes, cucumber, solanaceous vegetables, cruciferous root crops, cabbage.
Fertilizer and soil preparation. Despite the relatively less demanding of soil fertility than carrots, beets are very responsive to the introduction of higher doses of fertilizers. On medium and even poorer sites, from 30 to 40-50 tons of semi-mature manure or compost per 1 ha are introduced (3-5 kg per 1 m 2 ridge). To obtain an average yield, it is necessary to add 0.7–0.9 tons (70–90 g per 1 m 2) of potash and 0.6–0.7 tons (70–90 g per 1 m 2) of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers, to ensure a high yield - 0.9-1.0 t (60-100 g per 1 m 2) of potash, 0.4-0.5 t each (40-50 g per 1 m 2) of nitrogen and phosphorus, and 15-20 kg (1.5-2 g per 1 m 2) of boron fertilizers per 1 ha. In Western Europe, an average of 1.6-1.9 tons per 1 ha (160-190 g per 1 m 2) of a mixture of mineral fertilizers containing 45-50% of useful substances is applied. Phosphorus and most of the potassium is given under a fall or spring before sowing, 2/3 of nitrogen under spring cultivation. In the Black Earth, soils require liming.
After harvesting the previous crop, the peeling is carried out (except for the plots from under the potatoes and root crops), and then deep autumn plowing. In the spring they are harrowed or treated with a disk cultivator coupled with zigzag harrows. Preseeding plowing to a depth of 15-18 cm with careful cutting of the upper layer and leveling the surface are necessary. To this end, sometimes they plow twice - first deeply, and after disking - to a smaller depth.
Sowing. By the time of the beginning of sowing, the soil should warm up to 6-8 ° C and have a high humidity, necessary for the swelling of seeds. Pre-seeds calibrate. Sow separately large and medium in size. To speed up the emergence of seedlings, it is advisable to soak the seeds for 24 hours.
Growing beets in the country is quick and easy
Sow beets after sowing carrots with the norm of 8-10, sometimes 6 kg per 1 ha. For both summer (beetroot) and autumn crops, they are sown more thickly - with a norm of up to 12-13 kg per 1 ha, so that some plants with small roots are removed for early sale.
In country gardens and backyards should be sown sprouted seeds, and in the northern areas to use seedling method, planting plants in the phase of 1-2 true leaves.
Beets are sown with vegetable drills, in the Non-Black Earth Region - on ridges 3 lines with 33 cm rows, on a flat surface - wide-row with a distance between rows of 45 cm, less often 60 cm (yield decreases), 2 lines of rows with a distance of 20 cm between rows tapes 50 cm and in other ways.
The most effective dotted seeding method. The depth of seeding is 3 ^ 4 cm. Simultaneously with the sowing, they slightly roll in the surface of the soil to pull the moisture to the seeds.
Water mode. Beetroot due to relative drought resistance is capable of producing high yields in areas of the Non-Black Earth region without irrigation. But during dry periods, watering significantly increases the productivity of plants, especially with abundant fertilizer. In Central Asia, systematic irrigation is necessary - in 8-10 days (only 8-11 times) with irrigation rates at the beginning 500-600 m 3, then 700-800 m 3, irrigation norms 5100-7000 m 3 per 1 ha. In the less arid zone, water is watered with rates ranging from 250-300 m 3 to 400-500 m 3 at an irrigation rate of 2400-3400 m 3 per 1 ha. After watering loosen the soil between the rows.
Caring for plants. The main methods of care: harrowing before germination or at the beginning of their appearance across the direction of the rows to prevent the formation of soil crust and weed control, loosening between the rows, making 1-2 dressings with nitrogen-rich fertilizers, protecting plants from pests and various diseases.
Small sowing rates eliminate the need for plant thinning. With increased density, the stabbing is first thinned to a distance of 3-5 cm (in the phase of 1-2 true leaves), then to 6-8 cm and finally to 16-18 cm. The distance between the plants regulates the diameter of the root crop, depending on the requirements of the consumer. During the care, deep loosening of the row spacing before the “shedding” of the root is necessary, when the formation and growth of the root crop begins.
Harvesting. Beets can be harvested twice - 2-2.5 months after germination as a beetroot and at the end of the growing season after the root crops are fully formed. Young root vegetables with a diameter of 4-6 cm are also harvested 1-1.5 months before the end of their full growth. For this, the plants are placed at a distance of 5-8 cm. After harvesting parts of the plants for early consumption, the rest form standard root crops by autumn. Basically, the collection is carried out after the termination of the growing season, when the temperature drops, and before the start of frost. At a temperature of minus 2-3 ° C, the roots extracted from the soil are frozen. In beetroot, the leaves are pre-cut, and then the roots are beaten under the beet lifter. But it is better to use a root harvester. The leaves of harvested root crops are cut at a distance of 1 cm from the head of the root. The beet harvest averages 20-25 tons (2-2.5 kg per 1 m 2), maximum 60-70 tons (6-7 kg per 1 m 2) per 1 hectare or more.
Improving the profitability of the cultivation of beets. The main ways to increase profitability are: reducing manual labor costs by mechanizing the methods of care and harvesting, increasing the yield by selecting fertile soils and applying fertilizers, using effective methods of protecting against weeds, pests and diseases, using irrigation in dry time, and also getting early production (or two harvests from the site).
Red beet (dining room) does not tolerate fertilizer with fresh manure.
How to grow sweet and bright beets in the country
And in the fall it would be good to place lime on the future planting site, if the soils are acidic, sprinkle with humus, adding one square meter of superphosphate and potash salt in a matchbox.
Beetroot well on fertile loamy and sandy soils.
The following predecessors are good for her: cauliflower, onions, cucumbers, tomatoes, potatoes. The groove under the red beet is 3 cm deep, the seeds are laid out at the beginning more often - after 3 cm, and 30 cm between the rows.
Beet water does not require much, but in dry weather, you need to water it once a week. And just two dressings - after the first thinning and after 4 weeks. How will the first leaves, you need to thin out. And pay attention, one single large, gnarled beet seed can give two plants each. One must carefully pull out.
Do not throw away the weeded, if the main root is preserved, it can be transplanted. You may have lunges in the rows of beets, and in general you can find a free spot for several root crops on the plot. The sooner you transplant the extra specimens, the more hope for success.
Seedlings can not be planted deeper than she sat, and when planting, firmly squeeze the roots. When two or three true leaves appear, it is necessary to thin out once more, leaving 6-8 cm between plants. It is better to pull out the excess at the level of the soil and not to throw it away - it will fit in the soup or in the salad.
When, as the formation of small roots you will take them for food, choose not in a row, but through one, as if thinning out again, leaving a large area of food for those that you dig up in the fall (you need to make it cold before you freeze!). Do not damage the skin when digging and tops do not cut with a knife, but unscrew by hand.
As for the red beet varieties, they are equally good in the middle lane: Bordeaux-237, Gribovskaya, flat A-473, Red ball.
Cleaning and storage of beets
Many gardeners cut off the leaves on beets for cooking summer soups and salads. To do this is strictly prohibited, the harvest will be much lower. Do not forget to water the beets in a timely manner, with a lack of moisture, the roots become woody. For better aging, watering is stopped 4-5 weeks before harvest.
To begin with, let's decide when to sow beets in open ground. This useful vegetable can be sown in the spring, and it is possible before winter.
When the rows are ready to close, it is time for a second feeding. To loosen in this case is also necessary. In this case, fertilizer will need to use a little more.
It is not necessary to deepen the seeds, because at a great depth the seeds will not have enough oxygen. Too small sowing is also not worth it, because the seeds simply will carry the wind, or they wither.
Planting beets - preparing the soil and sowing seeds
Beetroot and Beetroot FETA Snacks
Root crop is flat, weighing 300-500 g. The flesh is dark red with a purple open, juicy. The variety is resistant to sprouting and drought. Recommended for autumn-winter consumption.This garden crop is characterized by dietary properties, remarkable keeping quality and ease of agrotechnology.
In the first month and a half, while the beets are growing very slowly, it is necessary to weed and loosen it, not allowing the formation of a soil crust. Watering and feeding is carried out as needed. In general, after the second thinning, the beet crops are usually not delivered.
Most often, plantings are affected by downy powdery mildew, fomosis, root aphids, beet flea, rhinoedum, leaf spot, smooth dead bible, beetroot fly, beet nematode, beetroot, rust.
An excess of nitrogen in the soil can lead to the fact that voids are formed inside the roots, with a lack of boron, heart rot can develop. The appearance of yellow spots on the leaves indicates a lack of potassium, redness of the tops indicates a lack of sodium and increased acidity of the soil.
For early harvesting, sowing is carried out in the fall, early November, or under film at the end of April, and the beets, which are intended for long-term storage, are sown in May, after the 10th day, but no later than May 20th. If the seeds are sown too early, in cold soil, the roots may not grow, instead they form flower stalks. After the first sprouts appear, the film can be removed (the seedlings of the beets tolerate frosts down to -2 ° C).
Many root vegetables, and beet among them, are sown a little more densely than is necessary for their normal growth and development. Посев специально делается более густым, так как из-за погодных условий, гибели и порчи саженцев не все семена взойдут.
К поперечному высеву прибегают довольно-таки редко. Бытует мнение, что при такой высадке уход легче. Сделайте в гряде бороздки и высейте семена, прикрыв их слоем земли в полсантиметра, утрамбуйте и насыпьте слой торфа или перегноя. Если семена высеваются поздно, то дно борозды поливают водой и ждут, пока она впитается. Only then can sow the seeds.
There is no better soil than loamy, light or suspended for the plant, since they contain enough organic matter.
Beet seeds are found in dry fruits of several pieces, therefore, when sowing, they take into account that thinning will be necessary soon. Seeds in some varieties are located 1 less often 2 pieces in the fruit, such varieties are called single-growth. Before sowing, seeds are soaked for a day in a warm nutrient solution, for example, 1 tablespoon of wood ash per 1 liter of water. Then the seeds are transferred to a damp cloth and kept at 20 ° C for two days.
Wash beets and boil whole until tender. After cooking, cool in water.
Features of growing beetroot
Watering the beets with salt helps to enrich the soil with sodium. There are recommendations on how to water beets. Two or three times in one season, the plants are watered with salt water. For 10 liters of water use 1 cup of salt. In addition, this procedure will increase the sugar content of the crop.
Well, that's all, you now know when to sow beets in open ground, which seeds to prefer, how to care for it and how to store it.
Having decided on when to sow beets in open ground, let's start preparing the soil.
On the beet there are two leaves? This is a sign to the beginning of the first thinning. 2 centimeters - the most acceptable distance between plants.
Such a handful will generate heat that will warm delicate plants.
Popular beet varieties
Beets are not demanding in planting and care, but in order to obtain high-quality root crops, it is recommended to loosen the soil in order to prevent the formation of a surface peel that is not permeable to water and air. Water the beets by sprinkling from a hose or a watering can. Watering is carried out until the soil at a depth of 8 cm is wet, usually enough 10l per m2. 3-4 weeks before harvesting watering is reduced. When growing and caring for beets, in addition to watering and loosening, fertilizer is required.
34 medium beets
Early ripe variety. The root crop is round, smooth, weighing 250-300 g. The flesh is intense maroon color, without pronounced internal radial rings. Universal variety for early beam production, storage and processing. Resistant to bolting.
Beets are cold-resistant, but in spring they are sown for a week or two later than carrots that are sown as soon as the snow melts. Early and subwinter crops mainly go for beam products in the summer. If you plan to plant beets for winter storage, it is worth sowing them in a second term - in early May.
In itself, the plant moisture-loving. There is even more need for irrigation when it is young and when root crops are thickening. A month before harvesting, watering is reduced. Since waterlogging during this period has a negative effect on the roots.
Have a good harvest!
The bed for planting is best prepared in the fall. First of all, it should be dug up on the spade bayonet, and well loosened. It is advisable to add half a bucket to the soil per m2 of rotted compost or humus (it is not recommended to make fresh manure). If the acidity of the soil is large, it is recommended to add dolomite flour, lime or chalk at the rate of 1 cup per m2 when digging (it cannot be added in the spring, this can cause such a disease of root crops as scab). Before sowing, you should fertilize the soil, such a mixture will do: 10-12 teaspoons of boric acid, 1 teaspoon of magnesium sulfate, about 2 cups of ash and a tablet of trace elements (all this per m2). Chlorine-containing fertilizers should not be applied for planting, but this root vegetable loves magnesium. Growing beets in the open ground on sandy soil requires the introduction of peat, turf land and humus to the site (1 bucket per m2). In a clay soil make a full bucket of peat and coarse sand with the addition of two liters of stale sawdust, which should be treated with a solution of urea.
When the five leaves appear, the second thinning phase begins. Here, the distance should be a little more - about five centimeters.
Sacking, film, broom will serve as additional protection from the cold.
Cover them with another damp cloth.
10-14 days after planting or after thinning the beets are fertilized with mineral fertilizers, for example, with a solution of ash. The second feeding is carried out a month after the first. Instead of ash, you can use urea (10g per 1 m2), as well as ready potash phosphate fertilizers.
Lettuce or sprouted soybean sprouts
As for the subwinter crops, this crop, like other root crops, must be sown so that it does not have time to germinate this year. Usually, podzimny sowing of beets is carried out before the soil freezes.
- mid-season variety (110-128 days) for autumn-winter use and storage. Root crops are flat, with pink-red pulp, weighing from 300 to 500 g
Beetroot came to Kievan Rus, among other borrowings from Byzantium, back in the 10th century. And this guest turned out to be courtyard, settled down and spread. Without delving into its history (and it begins in the 4th century BC!), Let us turn to the actual features of beet growing and caring for them today.
How to plant beets seeds in open ground, you ask? So, before you sow, the seeds should be pre-prepared for planting. To do this, it is desirable to soak them in a solution of baking soda or ash (half a teaspoon to 0.5 liters of water) for a day, then rinse, wrap in a damp cloth and stand in this form at a temperature not lower than 250 ° C for two days. This technique allows you to get friendly shoots a week after sowing.
Until the 15th of August, the third thinning is carried out. The gaps between the roots reach seven centimeters.
Beet dishes - recipes
Warm beds are arranged in early April, and from April 15 to April 30, seeds are sown, and seedlings are planted in the 20th of May. To prepare seedlings, it will take a month. It is obtained from the ridges. To seed them you need early ripe varieties. They must first be soaked or vernalized.
By the number of seeds raised, it is easy to determine the percentage of germination in this batch of seeds.
When feeding with potash fertilizers, it is better to use their chlorine forms, since it is chlorine that prevents the accumulation of nitrates in beets. To do this, take 10 g of potassium chloride and 8 g of superphosphate per m2 beet plantations.
- Seeds are placed at a distance of 7-10 cm in the furrows, 45-50 cm are left between the rows. Usually, the seeds are fused together in beets, therefore sprouts will have to be thinned out, so that there is a distance of 10-15 cm between them. , lead to unjustified waste of seeds, and more rare plantings - to low yields. If the soil is dry, water the bottom of the furrow before sowing.
- For sowing beets one should choose well-lit areas, in shading it forms high tops and small, tasteless roots. Such an indicator as acidity is critical: beets need neutral soil (pH 6-7), even a small increase in acidity slows down the formation of root crops, and beetroot often suffers from such conditions. And alkaline soils provoke rot, and therefore also undesirable.
- Beets are cold-resistant and unpretentious. Growing it is easier than some other vegetables. For example, carrots are more dependent on weather conditions. It is better to grow beets on loose soils that are rich in organic matter. You should not place it on heavy and clay soils. In this case, the quantity and quality of the crop is reduced. And the shape of the roots turns ugly. Among the shortcomings can be identified the difficulty of cleaning and weeding. It is also often affected by pests. In general, the agricultural technology of beets is quite simple.
How and when to plant beets? Landing is carried out, as mentioned above, in the spring or autumn. So, if you plant beets in the fall, then the seeding rate will be 3g per m2, the seeds are laid down to a depth of about 4 cm, from above they are covered with mulch.
Carefully monitor the time of thinning, because if you are late to carry out such an important procedure, you risk losing part of the crop and degrade the quality of the rest. The best period for this procedure will be time after rain or watering. It is easier to pull out the plants from the wet ground, and the neighboring shoots will be less disturbed. In addition, transplanted plants will take root in wet soil much better than in dry.
When warm weather sets in, seedlings are planted in open soil, but covered with polyethylene for the night. The seedling method helps to get high-quality beet crops a few weeks earlier.
Seeds of the first class usually germinate by 80%, germination lasts from three to five years.
Harvest beets begin to collect in 70-90 days from emergence and finish before the first frost, usually in mid-September. Beets are beautifully stored until spring. To do this, cut tops from root crops, leaving 2-3 cm, and put their boxes, pouring sand. Store in a cool place at temperatures up to + 4 ° C.
Thinning and planting seedlings
There is an unspoken rule saying that during the first thinning process, less viable and weakened sprouts should be removed, while subsequent thinning should be used to transplant large and developed plants that are suitable for human consumption. Copies that show even small signs of illness are best thrown out.
Careful care is required when growing beets. This root vegetable loves "show off"! An important point - preventing the appearance of a crust on the soil. Make sure that weeds do not choke sprouts, because harmful plants grow much faster than root crops. Keep the soil well hydrated, watch for optimal gas exchange and control the weeds - at the initial stage of beet growth these are the main tasks of the gardener who wants to get a rich harvest.
There are quite traditional methods of accelerating the rate of emergence of sprouts and increasing the yield of beets. For example, you can soak the seeds in water, the temperature of which is about 15 degrees, for one day. Just do not forget to change the water every three hours. There is a similar method. Only in this case it is necessary to wait until the seeds germinate, and then plant the germinated seeds in a moistened soil.
Growing beets in the country is an easy and affordable way to provide yourself and your loved ones with tasty and healthy root vegetables for the whole winter. Beetroot is easy to plant and care, takes not much space, has a long period of harvest, is suitable for storage, can be used fresh, canned, preparing first and second courses, and a large selection of varieties allows you to grow beets of various shades and shapes. Go