When it comes to a coffee tree, most people imagine a huge plantation located in a tropical area. However, each of us can admire this plant. It is enough to know how to grow a coffee tree at home. Some pot plant lovers may think that this work is too complicated. However, it is not. It is as easy to care for this plant as for other room pets. The climate of the premises is perfect for a coffee tree, which can become a true decoration of any home. At the same time, it will perfectly complement the collection of your plants.
Growing a coffee tree at home is not too new. Many of those who like to tinker with plants, have long had these beautiful apartments in their apartments, with the unforgettable scent of tree flowers. An additional advantage is the fruit. Of these, you can brew flavored coffee. Productivity of a tree - from 300 to 500 g of fruits. Of course, this is not much, but still very nice.
Coffee tree refers to the genus of coffee, which includes forty species. Of these, the Congolese and Arabian, the highest, and the Liberian are used most often for economic needs. These are evergreen trees or shrubs belonging to the Marenov family.
Coffee trees are distinguished by leathery large green leaves. Their inflorescences are a false umbrella, in which there is a bunch of 8-16 flowers. Each of them is located on a short leg and has a whitish color. Inflorescences are formed only on annual shoots.
Fruits of a coffee tree two-seed, round form. Initially, they are painted in yellow-green color, rolling when ripe into red. Already ready-to-eat fruit has a dense outer skin, inside of which is sour-sweet pulp with two seeds from 8 to 13 cm long. The tree begins to bear fruit in the third year.
Coffee beans have long been used by people as a means of giving the body vigor. They have this effect due to the caffeine in them. In addition, carbohydrates and organic acids, proteins, as well as amino acids, minerals and fats are found in coffee beans. But the main role in creating the flavor and taste of an exotic drink is played by ether-like compounds and chlorogenic acid. These substances are formed only when frying raw wood grains. Collected and simply dried seeds do not have the necessary flavor and coloring.
How to grow a coffee tree at home? To do this, you can use one of the two most common ways. In the first of these, unroasted coffee beans are used, and in the second, plant cuttings. Consider each of these methods in more detail.
Where to get seeds?
Is it possible to grow a coffee tree from grain? It turns out that yes. The main question is the following: "Where can I get the seeds?" There are several options. For example, you can go to the store and buy there unroasted green coffee beans. However, in this case, the likelihood that the seeds germinate is very small.
How to grow a coffee tree from grain? A more reliable option is to ask your friends who have already planted the plant, and it began to bear fruit, a couple of ripened brown-red fruits. They will need to peel and remove the flesh. Both halves of the remaining grain can be used as full seeds for planting. Well, if in the immediate environment there are no friends who could give the seeds of this exotic plant? How to grow a coffee tree at home? Seeds can be bought at a nearby flower shop.
It should be borne in mind that the seeds of an exotic coffee tree quickly lose their germination. That is why it is necessary to start working with them immediately.
If coffee beans are in your hands, they should be washed with water and placed in a pink solution of potassium permanganate for half an hour. This must be done to disinfect this material.
How to grow a coffee tree from the stone? After processing the grains, each of them is placed in a separate pot, in which there is a light, loose and rather acidic soil. To create the desired acidity, pre-crushed sphagnum moss is added to the soil. What should be the composition of the soil intended for growing a coffee tree? It is recommended to use two parts of peat and one part of leaf humus, cleaned river sand and greenhouse earth. Prepare this soil for two weeks before planting.
Depth of laying seeds - 1 cm. They are placed in a moist soil so that the convex side of the grain was directed upwards. This will make the sprouts easier to get to the surface. After that, each grain should be covered with a glass jar to create a greenhouse effect. It is essential because coffee is a tropical plant. In this case, do not forget about airing. But even this is not all the conditions that will allow to answer the question “How to grow a coffee tree at home, so that it is not only beautiful, but also healthy?” For this you will need to follow some more simple, but important conditions.
In order to grow a coffee tree, in the room where the plant pot is located, the air heating must be between twenty and twenty-five degrees. In winter, the room temperature can be reduced by no more than five degrees.
In the room where the tea tree is located, the necessary humidity must also be observed. Only in this case, the plant will delight its owner with beautiful green leaves. It is also necessary to produce a constant soil moisture. Spray need themselves leaves.
Due to frequent watering, it is necessary to take care of the integrity of the roots of the plant. If you ignore this moment, the tree will die. Consider this feature so that your initiative is a success.
How to grow a coffee tree at home? Until the plant is mature, it needs a large amount of light. At the same time it is worth protecting it from direct rays of the sun. Bright natural light will be needed for an adult tree when it comes time to bloom.
Exotic plant growth
How to grow a coffee tree at home from the bone? For this you need patience. Coffee seedlings appear only after 2 months. For irrigation of the sunk grain, only separated water is used. It should be poured into the tray at least once every three days. It is recommended to periodically check the soil moisture. If she does not have enough water, then watering will have to be done in large volumes. To loosen the earth in a pot during this period should not be.
After the appearing process, the plant is gradually accustomed to indoor air. To do this several times a day for one minute removed from the pot jar. To abandon such a procedure will be possible when the tree grows up. The jar is removed from the pot altogether.
In 4 months your tree will have a fully formed first leaf. Soon he will definitely disappear.
The coffee tree is a very unpretentious and very appreciative plant. In the first year after planting, its growth rates are quite modest. On average, the growth of the stem of the trunk is from 15 to 20 cm. But after a while the plant begins to strive vigorously in height and even branch abundantly without any additional trimming.
At 9 months, a crown begins to form near the coffee tree. You should not interfere in this process. Pruning a plant is required only if its growth becomes too large for the space provided.
How to grow a coffee tree from seed? Such trees grow all the first year with one trunk. And only at the end of this period appear skeletal branches. They grow from axillary lateral buds. In order for the crown to be lush, the longest shoots are cut. This will provide abundant flowering of the tree.
A plant grown from seeds begins to bear fruit only at the age of 5-6 years of its life. Very interesting in coffee grow twigs. They depart from the trunk at a right angle, resembling a Christmas tree in its shape. This is what affects the spreading of the crown.
How to grow a coffee tree at home from the grain, so that it blooms as early as possible? To do this, every year it should be transplanted into a pot having a larger diameter. An increase in this size should be at least five centimeters. In this case, the tree will bloom in 4 years. In a small pot for its size, the plant feels uncomfortable. It will grow, but it will not bloom.
Any soil can be placed in the pot. The main thing is that it is suitable for shrubs or for indoor plants and in its composition were nutrients. Also, the soil should not be very loose and structured.
Before transplanting plants in the new pot should be provided drainage. Next, inspect the roots of the tree and remove rotted and diseased. It is also recommended to add fertilizer to the soil. It can be any mineralized composition or ordinary manure. An ideal source of readily assimilable phosphorus for a coffee tree is bone meal or horn chips. They take 200 g per 10 kg of soil.
How to grow a coffee tree at home with your own hands? To do this, you can apply the second method - reproduction by cuttings. Trees grown with a relatively new method are distinguished by the fact that they retain all the traits of the mother plant with absolute precision. This refers to their size, size of flowers and leaves, etc.
In addition, with the modern method of breeding the plant will need to form a crown. The coffee trees planted with cuttings are blooming, much faster, already in the process of rooting.
Growing from seed
The easiest way to buy a small tree in the store, because the coffee tree is grown from seeds or propagated from cuttings, it is quite difficult and long.
So, how to grow a coffee tree at home? If you grow a tree from seed, you will need to wait two months until they germinate.
Two or three hours before planting, they should be placed in warm boiled water. Then you need to remove the peel from the surface, and rinse the seeds themselves with a light solution of potassium permanganate. They need to sit down with the flat side down, and the convex - up.
Land in a pot will need to be sprayed with water and gently loosen. And for better seed germination, it is better to cover the pot with an impermeable film or a transparent lid, if the pot is very small, you can simply cover with a liter jar.
Two months later, sprouts should appear, in which case they will need to be transplanted into a larger pot.
If, instead of a sprout, you find only a root, you will have to transplant it into a smaller pot so that the seed tries to grow the sprout, and not to the root.
The first leaves appear above the ground in the "shirt" from the seeds, then they drop it - just at this period it is important to moisten the soil in a pot. Then you need to give the plant to get used to drier air and several times a day to remove the lid (jar or film) from the pot.
You can completely remove the coating when brown spots appear on the stalk - this is normal, the plant turns into a tree, whose trunks are known to be brown.
Growing from cuttings
The coffee tree cannot be grown from a leaf, only from a seed or a cutting. It is easier to grow a tree from cutting than from a seed, and the plant itself begins to bloom when it takes root. It is better to take a stalk with four leaves from the center of an already fruiting tree.
To get the roots, you need to thoroughly scratch the bottom of the cutting: a few strips along.
Next you need to dissolve heteroauxin in water: ¼ tablets for one and a half liters of water, then place the cutting in water for three to five hours, this will help the tree roots to develop faster.
Any soil can be taken, but the main thing is well-drained, for best results, peat and perlite 1 to 1 will be useful (they should be carefully mixed). The soil before planting is shed with a small solution of potassium permanganate. How to prepare the soil for the coffee tree, you can find in the relevant article on our website.
Plant the cuttings to a depth of 2 to 2.5 cm, immersing 2 lower leaves in the soil, then spilling again with the same solution of potassium permanganate: this is necessary for disinfecting the soil, and also for the tree to stick better.
Then the pot with the seedling is covered with a plastic bag with a pair of holes at the top: through them you will need to moisten the ground around the tree. The temperature around our saplings is better maintained from 25 ° to 32 °.
About four months later, a bud should appear at the top, followed by a pair of leaves. Only then it will be possible to transplant a seedling. It is necessary to carefully dig it out of the ground, the roots by this time should already be formed.
Then you need to plant it in a pot in the soil, as for planting seeds, water well and leave for a week in a dark place. Only after the expiration of this period can be put on the place chosen for him.
In the photo below you can get acquainted with the appearance of the coffee tree:
Fertilizers we need once a month, it is: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and trace elements.
- For those who have their own farm, you can get fertilizer yourself: nitrogen from chicken droppings, you need to fill it with water in a bucket and wait until all organic compounds disintegrate: gas bubbles and a strong odor cease to appear - our nitrogenous fertilizer is ready. It is important to dilute it with water three to one. (3 parts of water), otherwise you can harm the plant.
- Phosphorus can be obtained from superphosphate: it must be poured into clean water and then heated to about 50 ° C in order for the reaction to take place better.
- Potassium can be obtained from wood ash. Mix ashes in warm water and leave for a day to stand.
The coffee tree blooms in the third year. It blooms in the form of green tendrils that grow from the stomata of leaves. They do not need to cut, it is not shoots, and buds.
Then their tops turn white, and inflorescences form on them, which last only a day or two.
The ovary of the fetus is formed in the pedicel. Green grains ripen within seven to eight months. Then change color to white, and later - to red.
Red grains need to be peeled and dried in the oven for about 70-80 °. Then the seeds are dried on a windowsill on a spread newspaper for 10 days.
After you can fry them in a frying pan, like seeds - that's when they turn brown, ready for grinding and eating. Remember that caffeine in this coffee is four times more than in the store.
Growing a coffee tree is not so easy, but if you do it right and monitor the health of the plant, it will thank you for a delicious coffee that will warm you in the cold.
In any case, the tree will delight you with its beautiful view.
How to grow your own coffee tree without seed? The cutting for breeding is a branch from the middle part of the crown of an already fruiting tree. On this planting material should be at least two pairs of leaves. Cutting off the stalk for propagation of the coffee tree, you must adhere to an important rule. From the bottom pair of leaves you will need to retreat by three centimeters. Immediately after pruning, the lower part of the cutting should be processed using an organic plant growth stimulator. This will allow the tree to take root in a timely manner.
For planting cuttings, you must select the appropriate soil. After all, the normal development of the future tree will depend on its density and composition.
Experts recommend preparing such a ground for planting, which will be:
- breathable, to ensure the flow of oxygen to the places of root formation,
- retaining water, but it does not allow moisture to stagnate.
The soil for a coffee tree can be bought ready or mixed in a proportion one to one peat and perlite.
Prepared primer fall asleep in the pot. It is not necessary to compact the soil. It should remain a place for air circulation.
Another important point of such preparation is the disinfection process. The soil prepared by yourself must be treated with a weak solution of potassium permanganate. Pre-disinfection will allow cuttings to settle down faster in a new place.
Cuttings should be placed in the ground at some distance from each other. Which? It is each gardener decides himself, based on the size of young plants.
The main requirement for this is that the leaves of the cuttings do not obscure the "neighbors" and do not come into contact with them. Depth of landing is 2-2.5 cm. After placing the cuttings in the pot, it should be disinfected again using a weak solution of potassium permanganate. A very important point is to create a greenhouse effect. This is necessary in order to maintain a constant humidity of the earth. But it is worth remembering that in this case the cuttings must be provided with access to air. В таком случае великолепно будет работать полиэтиленовый пакет, в котором заранее проделывают отверстия.
Основные правила выращивания
Most of all cuttings love diffused light. This should be considered when placing the pot in the room. In addition, the temperature of cultivation should be in the range from 25 to 27 degrees. But not only the characteristics of the room create normal conditions for plant growth. When growing coffee tree, it is important to look at the temperature of the substrate itself. If the thermometer installed in the soil reaches +31 and higher, then such conditions will negatively affect the development of cuttings.
As the first leaves appear, young trees can be planted in separate pots. These containers should be narrow and deep, as the roots of the cuttings grow down.
This is followed by a very important and crucial stage. After transplantation, the cuttings should be watered, and then closely monitored for further growth within two weeks. If everything goes well, the plant is placed in a permanent place.
If the coffee trees planted in this way immediately begin to bloom, this will mean that the plant grower has carried out all the steps correctly.
The best place for a home-made coffee tree will be a windowsill. You can put a pot with a plant on the rack, which is located near the window. Light falling on a tree should be diffused. Air circulation - normal, not allowing drafts.
Watering an exotic plant should be done as the soil dries in the pot. In the summer, this will occur more frequently, and in the winter - approximately once a week. Water at the same time should be at room temperature and always defended.
Diseases and pests affect the coffee tree rarely. As a rule, such cases occur only with the wrong care of the plant. For example, root rot appears from abundant watering. If such a problem occurs, the ground should be dried. You will also need to remove all affected roots. If pests have appeared on the leaves of the tree, then insecticides will help to get rid of them.
Coffee trees are very fond of fertilizer. For this you can use various complex options. Fertilize the tree preferably once a month.
So, we looked at how to grow a coffee tree from grain and in other ways. With all the rules of care, your plant will begin to bear fruit already at 3 years of growth. This will allow you to collect a small crop of beautiful coffee fruits and enjoy a wonderful invigorating drink.
Characteristics of the coffee tree
Homeland coffee - hot Africa, and specifically - Ethiopia. From there went all known species today. But out of 50 varieties for indoor decorative cultivation only one is suitable - it has the name Arabian. Its main differences are the wavy elongated leaves of an oval shape with a rich green tinge and a pointed tip. The flowers are white, formed into a bunch, then turn into greenish berries, which become reddish when ripe. Grains are collected from these fruits, which are then turned into a famous drink.
Where to put the plant
Young indoor coffee tree requires a lot of light, so it is best to install the pot on the windowsill in a warm room. Coffee grows well on the north window, but the most optimal fit is the southern window. One of the most important requirements is not to change the location of the plant and not to rotate the pot. This will cause the foliage to fall off, and the flowering tree may lose its buds and subsequently fail to produce fruits.
Suitable temperature, humidity and lighting for coffee
For the normal development of the seedling he needs the following air temperature:
- Summer period - up to +22 degrees,
- Winter period - up to +18 degrees.
In winter, the temperature in the home should not fall below +12 degrees, because if the temperature is low, the growth of the young green pet is inhibited and its roots rot. Adult plants are quite suitable and not quite comfortable conditions in order to overwinter. Acceptable temperature in the winter season for it is +10 degrees, good lighting is required, and a little rare watering of the root zone.
The sapling loves when his leaves are regularly sprayed with settled lukewarm water. This procedure is carried out in all seasons. Homemade coffee tree should grow in moderately humid air. If it is dry or excessively wet, it inhibits the plant.
Seedling growth in the north window will be long, flowering will be late, and fruiting will be delayed. Southern lighting also has its drawbacks. The leaves of the coffee tree can easily get sunburns, so in the summer season the plant is slightly pritain. To do this, tape to the glass window attach sheet. The rays of the sun falling on the coffee, becoming scattered, do not burn the leaves.
If there is no good solar lighting, then an adult “green inhabitant” cannot form a full-fledged ovary. It is necessary not to miss the moment of the formation of a flower brush of fruit embryos, after this process the plant must be pritenit.
Soil, watering and top dressing for coffee tree
The most favorable soil for coffee is loose, breathable. Water during irrigation of this soil moistens the roots of the plant well, does not stagnate, its excess flow into the pan due to drainage.
- Combination of leaf turf, shabby peat and coarse sand in proportions of 1: 2: 2,
- Chernozem, sand, leaf turf and humus are mixed in equal proportions. Two parts of sour peat are mixed in with them.
It is also desirable to chop finely and add sphagnum moss. It will provide moisture retention in the soil and will maintain its looseness and acidity normally. Do not forget about good drainage at the bottom of the pot, otherwise stagnant moisture can lead to the death of the roots.
It is necessary to replant a coffee tree up to three years each spring, and when it reaches four years and beyond - once every 2-3 years.
Cultivated coffee tree at home should be regularly plentifully watered in the summer, and in winter, slightly reduce the flow of moisture. It is best to “drink” coffee with soft rainwater.
For more moisture, the tree should be sprayed or rubbed leaves with a damp sponge. You can also sometimes arrange a "green friend" warm shower or put the pot in a pan with water.
As fertilizer for feeding apply:
- Potash, phosphate and nitrogen mineral mixtures,
- Horn chips,
Planting coffee beans from the beans
To start growing a coffee tree with your own hands, you need to prepare a deep pot so that the stem of the rod type is comfortable and free. The seed should be slightly compressed with pliers or deeply incised with a knife so that the outer shell cracked. Then germination will start faster. Otherwise, the grain will not be accepted until its outer shell has decayed.
Further, the procedure is as follows:
- Prepared according to the above scheme, the planting material is soaked overnight in a growth stimulator (for example, "Zircon"),
- For planting trees from coffee beans we take a deep pot with good drainage, filled with slightly moist loose soil mixture,
- We make planting into the ground by 3-4 cm with intervals of 3-5 cm between each grain,
- We irrigate the soil, then cover the pot with a plastic bag or glass and place it in a warm room,
- Once in 14 days, we open the pot, remove the condensate and air the crops. The first shoots "peek" in 50-60 days.
Better pick fresh seeds. They will germinate more likely. But from seeds that have lain for a long time, only 2-3 out of 100 can begin to grow.
Reproduction of coffee trees by cutting
It is easier to reproduce plants with green cuttings. To do this, you need to prepare a soil mixture from equal parts of swamp acidic crumbs based on peat and perlite. It will pass oxygen and moisture well. It is also necessary to carry out soil disinfection with a solution of manganese.
- In an adult tree, choose a twig with four leaves from the middle part of the crown. It is better to take a stalk from a branch with buds of buds, which grew last year. So the future plant will enter into a phase of branching and flowering,
- Cut the stem from the mother tree three centimeters below the foliage with a blade or a sharp knife,
- On freshly cut blanks under the extreme two leaves, leave longitudinal scratches with a needle. This will contribute to the accelerated formation of the roots,
- Then the cuttings are placed vertically on the bottom of the scratched part for 3 hours in the root-forming mixture of a tablespoon of honey dissolved in a glass of water,
- Next, the blanks are planted in a pot with soil 2-3 cm deep (up to the leaves) and covered with a plastic bag with perforation. Through the holes it will be possible to spray and air the seedlings,
- You also need to protect the cuttings from the sun.
The best temperature for rooting is + 25-30 degrees with high humidity. The main sign that the cuttings have taken root is the growth of the upper buds. And when a new pair of leaves appears, it is possible to transplant into a separate container.
Cutting has several advantages:
- A young tree will have the same characteristics as the mother plant,
- Flowering occurs in the first year of planting,
- The first fruits appear in a year.
You can buy a young plant in a flower shop. Its value will depend on the type, height and diameter of the pot. For example, the average price of a small specimen with a height of 30 cm in a pot with a diameter of 12 cm is about 1000 rubles in online stores.
Diseases of the coffee tree
The main cause of plant ailments is improper care. Diseases of coffee tree can be eliminated as follows:
- If the foliage dries, twists and stains, you need to carefully examine the plant and remove the affected areas,
- In order to get rid of pests, treatment with a solution of actellic and karbofos is made (10 drops per half liter of water),
- If the leaves are damaged with a shield, they should be gently rubbed with alcohol,
- For fungal diseases, treatment with insecticidal soap, copper sulfate or antifungal drugs will help.
Now you know how to care for a coffee tree. If you do everything right, then after 3-4 years you will be able to get not only a beautiful houseplant, but fruits in the form of berries, from which the grains are mined. When processing them, you get real natural coffee. And when grown from cuttings, the tree can start to bear fruit in the first year.
Growing coffee tree at home
There are about fifty varieties of culture that can be found in Madagascar and Mascarene Islands, as well as in the tropics of Africa. Also, cultural forms of coffee are currently grown in tropical regions of Africa, America and Asia. Figure 1 shows how this culture grows in nature.
Figure 1. Coffee tree in nature
Most fans of indoor ornamental gardening grow Arabian coffee and rarely meet Brazilian or Libyan.
Very often, people ask the question - is it possible to grow coffee at home from the beans sold in the supermarket? Of course you can not, because they do not have the ability to grow. The seeds of this culture very quickly lose their germination. In fact, growing coffee at home is very similar to the cultivation of citrus fruits.
Arabica Coffee - Indoor Plant
Arabica coffee while growing at home can reach a height of up to three meters. It has oblong leathery leaves of dark green color with wavy edges. This type of fruit only once a year (April-May) and brings bright red berries (Figure 2).
Figure 2. Arabica houseplant at different stages of vegetation
Also among lovers of ornamental plant growing dwarf species, which is a variety of Arabian and can reach a height of not more than one meter. It can be grown without any special care difficulties in a residential area, as it has a high resistance to diseases and dry air.
Care of the coffee tree at home
Despite the fact that the coffee tree is an exotic plant, there are almost no difficulties in caring for it. Culture normally tolerates changes in temperature and humidity. In winter, she feels great and at a temperature of 14-15 degrees, but if the figure drops below, it will no longer develop and bear fruit.
Choosing a landing site
Growing coffee at home always begins with planting or transplanting. The soil should be acidic, but since it is difficult to verify this indicator, it is recommended to use a mixture of sour peat, humus, sand, leaf and greenhouse soil for cultivation (Figure 3).
Note: To maintain an optimum level of humidity and acidity, it is recommended to add sphagnum moss to the soil mixture.
Lighting is essential. It is advisable to place the plant on the windows facing south. It is believed that the location on the north window can destroy it, but this is not quite so. Placing on the north window can only slow down the growth and further development.
Figure 3. Planting a coffee tree
However, do not forget that an overabundance of sunlight can also be harmful, especially for plants under two years old. In an adult plant with a lack of sun, full-fledged inflorescences will not form.
Note: Experienced growers recommend shading the crop only after the completion of fruit set.
This technique is used in the homeland of coffee, where other cultures are planted around it, giving the necessary shade.
Transplantation is carried out annually, until the plant reaches the age of three. After this transplantation is recommended to do once in 2-3 years. However, one should not forget that in the intervals between transplants, it is necessary to annually replace the upper layer of the soil (Figure 4).
Figure 4. Tree transplanting process
Under natural conditions, the culture grows in a fairly humid climate, so you should not allow the air in the room to be too dry. Regular spraying will help to provide the necessary level of humidity, but this method is not always effective. It is better to use a deep tray with pebbles. Stones are poured with water, and a pot with a plant is placed on top. But at the same time the soil should be well drained.
Top dressing and fertilizer
The best for the coffee tree are special liquid fertilizers. They are introduced into the soil every two weeks from April to September, since it is at this time that the plants bear fruit and develop actively.
More details about how to properly care for the plant, tell the author of the video.
Today, there are several ways to harvest grains by hand (Figure 6).
The first method is called the method of stripping. It is very simple. When most of the berries are ripe, the branch is held with the left hand, and the right one is grabbed, moving from top to bottom. But in this case not only ripe fruits are broken, but also green, rotten berries, leaves and flowers.
Figure 6. Coffee collection and processing
The second method is based on collecting fruits with a special comb, which has rare and flexible teeth. With it, with the help of the branches of the coffee tree, only ripe fruits are broken, and the green berries and leaves will remain on the branches. After harvesting, the fruit is peeled, the grains are sifted and fried for further storage.
A little about coffee
Coffee tree belongs to the family marenovyh. To him belong more than five thousand species of plants, sixty of them belong to the coffee. Among them are trees and shrubs, evergreen and tall plants. All coffee plants combines high levels of caffeine in green mass and fruits.
Most of these species grow in Africa and the island of Madagascar. Ten species grow in Southeast Asia, and on the island of Mauritius only three types of coffee grow. Brazil has been the largest coffee maker in the world for the last one hundred and fifty years, 80% of which is Arabica and 20% Robusta.
The best conditions for obtaining the maximum amount of high quality fruit are the tropical climate and more than 1200 meters above sea level.
There are three main types of coffeewhich are in high demand:
The Arabica coffee bush is considered easy to maintain and undemanding to growing conditions. In the middle lane, coffee is grown from grains or cuttings, so the tree perfectly adapts to local climatic conditions.
Consider both options for growing coffee tree at home.
Growing out of grain
Not suitable for planting fried, green coffee beans. They can be purchased in the trade or removed from the tree in wildlife.
The shell of a coffee bean is so tough and hard that it often causes a lack of germination. For the successful germination of grains, it is necessary to scarify the seed, in other words, to destroy the seed shell. They do it:
- mechanically - cut or cut the edge of the kernel,
- chemically - for processing using a solution of hydrochloric or sulfuric acid.
Further, in order to stimulate the growth of the embryo, artificial stimulants are resorted to, for this purpose they use Appin, Kornevin or Zircon, according to the manufacturer's instructions.
Before landing in the ground should очистить зерно от мякоти и промыть раствором марганцовки. Субстрат нужно приготовить заранее, за 15 дней до посадки зёрен. Для этого смешивают пропаренную дерновую землю, песок и торф. Для урегулирования кислотности опытные садоводы рекомендуют добавлять ещё и горсть древесной золы.
Семена высаживают в грунт на 1 см, вдавливая плоскостью вниз. It is necessary to saturate the ground well with moisture, and cover the pot with a transparent material, it can be glass or film, then put in a warm and bright place.
The necessary conditions:
- Substrate must be wet.
- Ambient temperature around 25 ° C.
- Air pot daily.
Favorable conditions of maintenance will lead to germination in 30 days.
The next important point is transplanting.. The appearance of the first two leaves - a signal to transplant the germ. A pot for one shoot is taken with a small neck diameter up to 7 cm, but it must be deep. After transplantation, the plant must be hidden for several days in a place shaded from direct sunlight.
The next transplant will be needed in about 1 month, and the capacity of the pot increases each time.
If you have grown your own bush coffee at home, then the plant has already adapted to the proposed conditions, it remains only to maintain them in the norm. Much more difficult if someone gave you a bush or you bought it. Then the coffee tree will go through adaptation, it will take some time.
Simple care of this exotic plant comes down to a few simple rules. The first thing you need to know and take into account - the substrate or soil. It is prepared in advance, before planting or transplanting.
When planting, it should be remembered that the growing medium for coffee is a sour soil. That's just the acidity (ph
Agrotechnics when growing coffee at home
- Lighting for a coffee tree should be good, but scattered, as direct sunlight will damage the foliage. Therefore, the side on which the pot of coffee will be placed may have an east, west, southeast, or southwest location. But on the southern direction of the windows will have to make a small shadow with light curtains or curtains. In the summer, you can take the plant to fresh air, but at the same time take care of the desired level of light. However, such movements do not at all like the plant, although they have a great effect on the condition of the crown, but there will not be many flowers and fruits.
Growing temperature Coffee should be kept constant throughout the year at a level no higher than 25 degrees, and only in the autumn-winter period it is reduced smoothly to 15–16 units and not lower.
Air humidity. The plant loves moisture with adequate parameters. That is, on hot summer days you can arrange a coffee tree with warm shower baths, but not during the flowering period. The same is done when heating devices work during the winter period. When the plants are still young, to increase their growth every 2–3 days (in the heat of the day) they should be sprayed with a soft and warm water with a spray bottle.
Watering a coffee tree they spend it regularly, but, like many plants, it doesn’t like the substrate gulf, however, it’s impossible to allow the soil to dry in a pot - it’s still a tropical representative of the flora. In the summer, the soil should be moistened 2-3 times a week, and with the arrival of autumn and winter, this procedure will be required only once for 7 days. Water is used only soft and warm, slightly above room temperature - 23-26 degrees.
Coffee fertilizer are brought in the form of mineral and organic preparations. Most often fertilize the plant in spring and summer. Feeding alternate. When there is a build-up of hardwood mass, it is recommended to use drugs with a high nitrogen content. During the flowering period, a full mineral complex should be used, and phosphorus is necessary for fruit ripening. With the arrival of autumn and all winter fertilizers, the coffee tree is not disturbed. Some growers are advised to apply dressing for plants from the family of pink. Coffee also miraculously responds to the addition of a dry mullein to the surface of the soil in the pot. If cross-pollination is required, due to the absence of bees in the house and the wind, this is done manually. At the same time, the flowers are easily shaken or they are flown over the inflorescences with a soft bristle brush.
Coffee tree transplant. For several years in a row, transplants for coffee are needed annually, as soon as spring arrives, but the plant has not yet begun to actively develop. For adults, the pot is changed once every 2–3 years. Since the root system has sufficiently developed volumes, the pot should also be corresponding, the diameter of the container should be increased by 2–4 cm. A drainage layer is piled on the bottom.
If the coffee tree is very stretched, then it is only then subjected to pruning.
How to propagate a coffee tree?
Get a new plant with coffee beans, you can sowing seeds or cuttings.
When propagating by seeds, it should be remembered that the material that is intended for beverages - will not work. Fruits must be fully ripe and fresh. And this method does not guarantee the preservation of all properties of the parent instance. If there are ripe home-made coffee berries, then it is necessary to carefully remove the seeds, clearing them from the pulp. Then they are washed in a solution of potassium permanganate. The substrate is prepared 14 days before planting and is made up of sod soil, peat and river sand, some ash can be mixed in. All mixed up and left to "go." The seeds are placed on the ground with the groove down and only slightly press into the substrate no more than 1 cm. Then the crops are well moistened and the container is covered with a transparent lid, a piece of glass or a plastic bag. Contain a container in a bright place, but without the direct rays of the sun. The temperature is maintained at about 25 degrees, you need high humidity, but at the same time daily ventilation. Then sprouts can be expected in a month.
As soon as a pair of true leaves appear, they pick a pictogram into new pots with a diameter of 7 cm. If the stem began to woody and crack, this is a normal process. Sometimes there is even a brown color or spots on the trunk, but this soon passes. The next time the pot is changed after a month, increasing by size. Such a plant will have only one stem, and then skeletal twigs are formed. The coffee will start blooming after 2 years from planting, and berries will appear only in the 4th year.
When cutting, cut the blanks of the branches in the spring period from the crown of the adult specimen, only the middle part of them is used. Escape need to choose last year's growth. The length of the cutting is 10–15 cm. It is placed in a growth stimulator for a day. Then they carry out a landing in a peat-sand mixture, not too deep in the upright position. Shelter in the form of a glass jar or plastic bag is required. Rooting place is needed without direct light streams and with a temperature of about 25 degrees. Daily airing and periodic spraying is required.
After forty days, you can see on the pinwheel cuttings of the kidney - rooting is normal. When a couple of new leaves appear on the branch, it is possible to transplant into a new larger pot with more fertile soil. In the new tank, drainage is needed, the place is bright, but without direct UV flux and periodic spraying.
Difficulties in the cultivation of home coffee and solutions
Almost all parts of the plant (some more less than others) contain caffeine, which serves as a kind of plant protection against pests. However, occasionally there is a defeat with a shield, a spider mite, a black fungus, and also a bean brewer or coffee rust cannot fail to give rest. The treatment is carried out with an appropriate insecticidal preparation.
Interesting facts about the coffee tree
Despite the fact that there are many varieties, some species are cultivated precisely for the production of fragrant seeds (colloquially, they are called grains), which then, after roasting and boiling, turn into a beverage that many people like - coffee. The most popular in this regard are two types: coffee trees of the Arabian and Congolese varieties. From the first arabica is obtained, and the latter, respectively, become robusta. Also, occasionally, to obtain grains, species of Cameroonian and Bengali coffee are grown.
The whole history of coffee began from the territory of the Middle East and has its roots in ancient times and the first civilizations of those localities. Although so far scientists have not come to a common opinion.
There is a true, unproved and unconfirmed legend, that the shepherd of the Ethiopian people, Kaldim, around 850, was the first to see the effect of coffee beans. It was as if he noticed a strange excitement that enveloped his goats, feeding on some strange fruits of the bush. The shepherd decided to taste these nondescript berries - but they turned out to be completely tasteless and bitter, Kaldim spat out them in frustrated feelings. Apparently, a couple of berries fell into a kindled fire, and a divine scent floated over it. Then a drink was prepared from roasted berries, which is still popular all over the world to this day.
The cheerfulness that comes from drinking a coffee drink is provided by caffeine, of which there is up to 2%, as well as organic acids, carbohydrates, fats, as well as proteins, amino acids and minerals. But the excellent taste of coffee give chlorogenic acid and multiple ether-like compounds that appear in the process of roasting grains. The physical effect on the body is due to the alkaloid - caffeine.
- Arabian Coffee (Coffea arabica)Also referred to as the Arabian Coffee Tree. The most common type, it is called Arabica. The native habitat is in the river valleys located in the Kefa region of southwestern Ethiopia. There most often you can find wild thickets of this plant at altitudes of 1600–2000 meters above sea level. This species is widely cultivated in Latin America, as well as in the lands of Indonesia, India and Brazil. It is noticed that at absolute altitude lower than 1200–1500 meters, coffee trees of this variety cannot grow, because they do not tolerate tropical heat and shading by other representatives of the flora. In those areas, it is customary to replace it with the Congolese coffee variety (Coffea Canephora), and the amount of precipitation should be greater than 1,300 mm per year. An evergreen plant can be either a shrub or a tree with a height of about 5 m (sometimes 8–10 m). The length of the taproot is no more than 45 cm, it is short and durable. At the trunk of the bark of a greenish-gray color scheme, crawling. Branches have wilted and sprawling outlines, long and flexible. The leaf plates are entire, lumpy, slightly wavy, oppositely arranged, 5–20 cm in length with a width of up to 1.5–5 cm. Petioles are short, hanging. The flowers of both sexes, white with a fragrant aroma, gather in an inflorescence of 3–6 buds. They can self-pollinate, either wind or insects do it. The shape of the fruit is oval-elliptical or almost spherical. They are a berry that, when ripe, reaches 1.5 cm. The color is yellow or dark red. Full maturity occurs after 9 months from the flowering process. The rind is dense, the seeds are paired with a greenish-gray color scheme. On the one hand, their contours are oval, and on the other there is a deep groove on a flat-convex surface.
The main secrets of growing coffee at home in the following video: