In the autumn, the flowerbed looks bare and sad, to match our mood. To create a feeling of early spring, you can plant an autumn crocus. It is also called poisonous crocus for its resemblance to spring crocus and primrose.
The plant blooms in September, when most plants have a period of rest. Delicate, fragile flowers on already bare ground look very beautiful and impressive.
General view of the plant
Kolhikum or autumn crocus is a bulbous plant with a height of 5 to 30 cm. The fact that the plant is perennial, is a definite plus. Kolkhikum has an elongated bulb covered with dark brown scales with a beige center. In spring, bulbs grow leaves of a lanceolate species, up to 30 cm long in bright green colors, which form a lush shrub. Simultaneously with the growth of leaf plates, the stem grows with a three-chamber seed box in which the seeds are brown and red. In early June, the seeds ripen and the box opens. If seeds are needed, it is necessary not to overlook the collection time, since there is a high probability that the seeds will be on the ground or will be carried away by the wind.
September - the time of flowering Kolkhikum. You can witness the magnificent spectacle - blooming autumn crocus with snow lying around. After all, neither frost nor snow is an obstacle to its flowering.
The plant produces a stem about 25 cm tall with a funnel-shaped flower with a large (up to 10 cm) flower. From one bulb grows from 2 to 6 flower stalks with flowers. The flower does not let out leaves in the fall, so the huge flowers on thin legs look very impressive. Petals of Kolkhikum flowers have a lanceolate form, of various colors: from snow white to pink, from lilac to purple. Modern science of breeding and genetics gave new, terry, species and hybrids. About 3 weeks, they are pleased with their flowering, and then dries completely.
Periods of autumn colchicum life
Colchicum refers to "ephemeroids", that is, to plants that adjust their growing season to certain weather conditionswhere they grow up. Winter cold and summer heat - not the best weather conditions for the growing season. That is why he has such strange at first glance life cycles.
Colchicus awakens in early spring and releases a bundle of leathery, green leaves, with a seed box in the center. At the very beginning of June, after the seeds ripen, the plant dries out, retiring. Colchicum blooms in September, releasing a spike with a very pleasant smell.
Kolkhikum does not let out leaves during this period, the flower of the flower stalk comes from the nutrients accumulated by the bulb. They accumulated during the spring growing season of the leaves, in the cells of which photosynthesis took place and supplied the bulb with substances necessary for nutrition. After a 2-3 week flowering, the autumn crocus plant dries out and goes to rest until spring.
Autumn crocus varieties
Low, with pale purple flowers about 7 cm in size. Due to the fact that the bulbs produce up to 6 peduncles, and the plant has a small height, it is possible to create mini-carpets that look very picturesque in autumn. A feature of these colchicums is the ability to open buds that have already formed during the winter thaw.
In spring, it produces bright green leaf blades 40 cm high. In early September it forms a peduncle with a flower up to 7 cm in diameter. Traditional colors are white or light purple.
Autumn crocus has a variety of decorative forms:
- Terry - low (up to 12 cm), has double purple flowers with a diameter of 5 cm,
- Beaconsfield - has bright purple flowers with a white middle,
- Atropurpureum - with rich burgundy and purple flowers.
Autumn crocus gorgeous
This variety forms in early spring rosettes up to 50 cm high from wide (up to 6 cm), with wavy edges. Kinds:
- Water lily - forms terry, hot pink flowers,
- Huxley - blooms in September, flowers with a pink-purple hue, which changes to bright purple at the edges,
- Dark red - has rich burgundy shades of flowers with a bright middle.
How to multiply the autumn crocus?
It can be propagated both generatively (by seeds) and vegetatively (with the help of children from the bulb).
Seed propagation is not popular due to the fact that the resulting plant will bloom in 6 years, since the bulb must have time to fully form. If, nevertheless, they decided to do this or managed to get the desired variety, it is necessary to sow the seeds immediately after they have been collected. Seeds that have been stored for some time quickly lose their ability to germinate. It is usually practiced by planting seeds with colchicum by those who want to get a lot of planting material at the same time to create a certain composition in the future. For sowing seeds it is necessary to choose a loose and fertilized area. Sow in the spilled grooves, to a small depth.
This method is the easiest, if you had to reproduce other bulbous plants, it is not difficult to propagate the colchicum. It is necessary to dig up Kolkhikum bulbs at the very beginning of the dormant period - in the middle of July. At that time, when the leaves of the autumn crocus turned yellow and withered, and the seeds in the seed box were already ripe. Due to the fact that the bulbs are located deep in the ground (up to 30 cm), you need to be careful and careful when removing the bulb from the ground.
The next stage is the removal of old bulbs with dried leaves and cleaning from the ground, while the scales protecting the baby are not removed. After washing in water, disinfect the bulbs in potassium permanganate solution, followed by drying. Now you can put in storage until the landing time in a place with a temperature close to 24 ° C and darkened lighting.
August is the most optimal month for planting or for transplanting colchicum bulbs, as the plant is in a resting phase. When planting, the size of the bulb should be correlated with the depth of planting. If the bulbs are large enough, the planting depth will be from 12 to 15 cm, with a distance between the bulbs of 20-25 cm. Small bulbs, respectively, are planted to a shallower depth (6-8cm), with an interval of 10-12cm. Soil before planting must be fertilized and loosened.
Autumn crocus autumn: care
In the care of the plant unpretentious, and the use of the following tips will eliminate the appearance of unpleasant surprises.
- Fertilizer application. Pledge of a good start for plant growth in soil pre-plant fertilizer. It is preferable to use organic matter - humus with the addition of a small amount of wood ash. In early spring and summer (when there is an intensive increase in green mass), you can feed the plant with nitrogen fertilizers - 1 tablespoon of urea or nitrate per 1Q. meter. This will allow in the future to accumulate a sufficient amount of nutrients in the bulb, which ultimately will affect the flowering of autumn crocus.
- Watering. Mostly autumn crocus is content with natural precipitation. It may be necessary to water during flowering in dry autumn. Planting and transplanting also imply soil moisture as needed. Excess moisture leads to plant diseases and pest invasion.
- Sanitary pruning. The beginning of the rest period of the plant is accompanied by yellowing of the leaves, which gives the flowerbed an unpresentable look. By removing them ahead of time, you are depriving the bulb of nutrients, which is bad for the flowering of the colchicum. A way out of this situation is spring planning of planting other types of flowers so that they subsequently hide the yellowed leaves of the autumn crocus.
Diseases and pests
The main disease is gray rot. A plentiful, with an oversupply of watering, a very rainy summer, a plot in the shade with a soil that does not dry out for a long time - these are the causes of the outbreak of the disease. If the plant is still sick, it is necessary to cut the plant to a healthy place and treat with Kuproksat, Topaz or Champion fungicide. Preventive spraying with these drugs will also be appropriate.
Slugs and snails are the main pests of the colchicum. Get rid of them will help drugs "Metaldehyde" or "Metiocarb." Popular methods also help - laying out traps, sprinkling lime around a plant, crushed eggshell or a broken shell. Attention! The autumn crocus autumn plant is poisonous! Skin contact may cause redness, itching, and burns. All work on the care of the plant should be carried out in gloves. Rinse all used tools after use.
Autumn crocus (autumn crocus) on the totality of biological features refers to perennial herbaceous plants. Its stem is modified into a corm, covered with dead leaf sheaths. The aboveground part of the plant is represented by broadly lanceolate leaves, which do not lose their brightness during the whole vegetative period. Autumn colchicum flower has a light pink with a purple hue, its pedicle is a thin tube that goes straight from the corm. This culture blooms in the fall, while the leaves grow after wintering the plant. In the same period, the fruits begin to form: leathery shriveled boxes with black seeds.
In nature, autumn crocus grows on dry and open places overgrown with grass: forest glades, meadows (including mountainous). It is still found uncultured in the Krasnodar Territory, the Caucasus, Stavropol and Transcaucasia.
Why "autumn crocus"
The plant got its name for a specific alternation of leaf growth and flowering. As is known, most herbaceous plants first release a rosette of leaves, and only then a peduncle. Colchicum autumn is arranged differently: leaves grow at the beginning of spring, but by the beginning of autumn they die off together with the bulb formed in the previous season. And only after that from the corm of renewal the peduncle appears. The boll, which is located in the peduncle, “hides” there until the next spring. With the onset of heat with the leaves, it appears above the surface of the earth and ripens in the first half of summer.
Choosing a place to place landings
Despite the fact that the autumn crocus belongs to very unpretentious plants, for its better development it is recommended to plant it in the sun. Since the plant withers at the end of summer, you can plant it among other perennials that bloom in the second half of July.
Colchicum autumn (photo presented in the article) looks great as a curb plant. In addition, he will decorate a flowerbed surrounded by a lawn, the shores of a small reservoir, as well as a rock garden or alpine slide. In short, this flower can be considered universal. By the way, a blooming autumn crocus acquires a special charm when planted in small vessels of glass or ceramics. Such original pots can be placed on the terraces and balconies.
Planting autumn crocus autumn bulbs and seeds
Let's look at several ways to grow a plant, known as autumn crocus. Planting and care in the open field, as mentioned above, do not require the application of large forces. A flower can grow safely in one place for several years. This culture can be propagated in two ways: with corms and seeds.
In the first case, it will be necessary to dig the onions out of the soil at the moment of the complete extinction of the aerial part, to dry them and leave to “rest” until the end of August. By the way, if you purchased an autumn crocus autumn bulb and planted it at the end of summer, flowering may occur as early as 3 years. However, this method has its drawbacks. The fact is that the diseases of the maternal plant are transmitted to the daughter of corms. Planting material from a crocodile is better to destroy.
Propagation by the autumn crocus autumn seeds makes it possible to obtain absolutely healthy plants. It is necessary to collect the seeds immediately after they ripen (from the first half of June to the end of July). They must be sown in the previously prepared soil immediately after harvest. Seeds will germinate next spring, but flowering will come only after 5-7 years.
Plant care: watering, feeding
In the care of autumn crocus autumn is not too complicated. For active growth and lush flowering, it is enough to transplant the plants to a new place every 7-10 years. Abundant watering of autumn crocus autumn, which was transplanted this season, does not tolerate. He has enough moisture, which comes to corms in the period of precipitation. If the plants are planted too often, thinning can be done. At the same time, it is recommended to pour a small amount of fertile soil into the released gaps.
The main measures for plant care are weeding and pest control. Slugs can harm the autumn crocus, the methods of control of which consist in their timely collection, loosening of the soil and introduction of granulated superphosphate to the beds.
Precautions for planting and caring for autumn crocus
Gardeners growing autumn autumn plant should always remember that this plant contains colchicine - a potent alkaloid that can provoke severe skin irritation and even burns. Contrary to popular belief, this compound is contained not only in corms, but also in leaves and flowers. You can even get poisoned by the water in which the cut flowers of the autumn crocus stood. When ingested, colchicine causes poisoning, symptoms of which are sore or burning sensation in the throat, dizziness and nausea, colic. In severe cases, the alkaloid causes paralysis and collapse.
To protect yourself from the toxic effects of plants, it is important to take precautions: wear gloves when weeding, transplanting and caring for plants. In addition, these measures should be applied to cut buds.
Medicinal properties of autumn crocus autumn
Despite the content of toxic substances, many are aware of the medicinal properties of the autumn crocus plant. Curative properties, oddly enough, are present in him due to the high content of colchicine. The fact is that in small quantities this compound contributes to the expansion of the smallest blood vessels - capillaries. It is this property that makes it possible to use corms and plant seeds as a medicine for gout, rheumatism and neuralgia. It should immediately be said that the difference between the therapeutic and lethal dose is very small, so the drugs based on colchicine are used under the direct supervision of specialists. In addition, colchicine is widely used in the treatment of skin cancer. This is made possible by the property of the compound to influence the process of cell division.
In conclusion, we recall that it is not safe to use any parts of the autumn crocus plant for the treatment of various diseases at home!
Choosing a place and time for disembarkation
Lovers of perennial flowers are highly valued for the exceptional simplicity of the autumn crocus, thanks to which they can be successfully grown in every corner of the garden. Their planting does not take much time, because to look for the most suitable place for a colchicum and to specially prepare the ground is not necessary.
These plants prefer a light, loose soil with admixture of sand, through which air and moisture pass freely to their roots. In such conditions, their flowering will be especially lush. In stagnant water, the colchicum bulbs rot quickly, so the ground must be well drained. Planting an autumn crocus is possible both in acidic and alkaline soil. It can develop even on clay soil, provided that it is relatively light and does not linger in it.
Illumination of the site for the autumn does not play a big role. Bright sun and light shading they tolerate equally well. The only thing that should be avoided when choosing a permanent place for a flower is the areas located under the spreading crowns of trees. In the thick shadow of it can destroy the invasion of slugs.
Planting an autumn crocus, which blooms in the fall, is closer to the end of summer. The optimal time for her is mid-August. In the life cycle of the plant is a period of rest. If you skip the recommended planting dates for colchicum, its corms, despite proper care, can release arrows with buds already in storage, without waiting for disembarking. Then there is a high probability that they will not suffer a frosty winter.
Colchicans can be propagated in two ways:
When sowing seeds Kolkhikum have patience: these plants will delight flowering only after 5-7 years. All this time, their bulbs will accumulate vitality in order to release the buds. Therefore, planting in a generative way is almost not practiced. Проводят ее чаще всего только для тех сортов, у которых не формируются дочерние клубнелуковицы.
Преимущество семенного размножения безвременника состоит в том, что он позволяет вывести сразу большое количество растений. Опытные садоводы используют его как дополнение к вегетативному методу. Пока цветущие растения из года в год будут украшать клумбу, постепенно старея, полученные из семян молодые безвременники наберутся сил для образования бутонов.
Ripe seeds are sown immediately after harvest. The longer they are stored, the less chance of their germination. The soil is slightly moistened before planting. It should be loose and contain many nutrients. Bury seeds deeply is not necessary.
Secrets of rooting bulbs
The vegetative propagation method of autumn crocus is simpler, and its result becomes visible more quickly: the planting of a large onion can end with its flowering in the first year. Preparing for it starts in the middle of summer. Carrying out the usual care of plants, closely monitor their appearance. The ideal time to collect the bulbs will come when the flower seeds are ripe, and its leaves wither and fall to the ground. Getting to the future planting material is not easy, it is located at a depth of 30-35 cm. They dig up corms very carefully.
After extraction, they are thoroughly cleaned from soil, leaf residues and old maternal bulbs. Do this carefully so as not to damage the scales covering the tuber. The tubes that they form are not cut very tightly, it is for them that the stalks with buds will pass in due time. Then the bulbs are washed with water and kept for 30 minutes in a steep solution of potassium permanganate for disinfection. Preparation for planting drying is being completed. The tubers are laid out in a dry, well-ventilated dimly lit place, where the temperature does not rise above 24 ° C, and stored there before being placed in the ground (at least 2-3 days).
Proper planting of autumn crocus considers bulb sizes:
- for medium-sized tubers make holes 6-8 cm deep, leaving between them a gap of 10-15 cm,
- large bulbs for germination and harmonious development of seedlings require a lot of space. The depth of the hole is adjusted to 12-15 cm, and the free space between them is increased to 20-25 cm.
Soil requirements are minimal: they must be loose and fertile. After the planting is done, it remains only to provide him with competent care.
Fertilizer and watering
Colchicans belong to those rare flowers that do not need watering. It is even harmful to them: in wet soil, the bulbs become very vulnerable to rot. Most of the life cycle of the plant is enough water, which it receives naturally. Even in the hot summer, the care of the autumn crocus precludes watering. But he may need, when kolhikum bloom, if autumn will stand out dry.
Regular feeding will help you get a healthy and strong plant. It is recommended to plant a flower in the soil, which contains elements useful for its harmonious development. Experts advise using a mixture of wood ash (1 l) and superphosphate (1 tbsp. L.) As a fertilizer for the autumn crocus. Scatter the prepared composition on 1 m² of soil.
After planting the colchicum continue to feed the entire spring, capturing and the beginning of summer, when there is an active development of the leaves and stems of the flower. Make a nutrient mixture is not too often - 1 time in 2-3 weeks. Use for dressing complex compounds with a high content of nitrogen. Such care will positively affect not only the leaves of the plant, which will become strong and large, but also on its bulbs. They will be able to accumulate more nutrients, which means that flowering will be more lush, and wintering will be easier.
Trimming: Pros and Cons
Kolkhikum will not bring unnecessary trouble and in terms of pruning: it does not need it. Since the plant has a specific life cycle and its leaves wither and turn yellow in the first half of the summer, many gardeners cut them off to return the attractive flower garden to the flower garden. For aesthetic purposes, they also remove dried flowers in the fall.
In order for the bulb to accumulate more vitality on the eve of winter, and its maturation is successfully completed, you should not interfere with the natural process of plant development. Colchicum will be stronger and better endure adverse conditions, if you let its leaves and flowers die off on their own.
Proper care of a flower bed with Kolkhikum is not in getting rid of his dry parts, but in the proper selection of his neighbors. Next to the crocus, well looked shrub garden plants with large, rich green leaves. They will cover a yellowed Kolhikum. It can be peonies, hellebore or juniper. Low annual plants with bright buds that bloom in summer will help to divert attention from a low-growing autumnal plant.
If autumn crocuses are constantly in the shade or in areas with high humidity, they often suffer from slugs and snails. These pests are to taste the succulent leaves and flowers of the plant, which they can greatly embrace. The care of the Kolhikum in this case includes a periodic inspection for the appearance of garden destroyers. The observed slugs are harvested, and they are fought with snails by installing traps or using special means - molluscicides (metaldehyde, methiocarb).
For the prevention of gastropods invasion arrange mechanical barriers. Middle-gravel, crushed egg shells or shells are scattered between the rows of crocodiles. Effectively prevent plastic gutters from moving them. They are laid out around the perimeter of the site and filled with water.
If the summer was too wet or the colchicum was often watered, it can be affected by a very dangerous disease of fungal nature - gray mold. It is important not to miss the moment and detect its signs in time to prevent further spread. Care for diseased flowers is in the treatment of their fungicides ("Topaz", "Champion", "Kuproksat"). But this event makes sense when the stem and leaves are slightly damaged. If the gray rot lesion is extensive, then the affected parts of the colchicum should be removed and the watering removed.
In addition to fertilizer and pest control, care for the autumn crocus includes regular weeding and loosening the soil. To preserve the attractiveness of planting it is important to remove the buds that have faded. Most of the species and varieties of Kolkhikum are not afraid of even severe cold, so the bulbs are left to overwinter in the ground. But some varieties of plants that are particularly sensitive to frost will need shelter. This mainly applies to the colchicum with white and terry petals. When they fade away, they are covered with dry leaves. You can use a special non-woven covering material.
With the arrival of spring, do not forget to remove the shelter in time so that the water from the melted snow does not accumulate under it and the soil does not swamp.
Colchicum grows well, so every 6-7 years you need to change the place of its landing. Professionals advise to do this even more often, once every 2-3 years. If we neglect the transplant of a plant, then its corms will multiply strongly and begin to interfere with each other, and the flowers will decrease in size. Kolhikum may completely stop producing buds. Repot it in August, following the same rules as during planting. If the plot is left unchanged, then they dig up the earth on it, having previously scattered there a full bucket of humus and ½ buckets of sand.
Colchicum is a very unusual plant, the fragile charm of which can not leave indifferent. Not all its varieties bloom in the fall. There are those who will delight delicate buds with the arrival of spring, but they are less popular with gardeners.
The specificity of the colchicum is not only in the special life cycle, which, at first glance, contradicts all the laws of nature, but also in its extreme virulence. All parts of the plant contain colchicine alkaloid, which, when it comes into contact with the skin, causes severe burns. Therefore, to work with the colchicum will require protective gloves.
The exceptional unpretentiousness of this flower turns its cultivation into sheer pleasure. Even absolute beginners in gardening can breed it. It is only necessary to plant the bulbs and fertilize them several times in a season, and the colchicum will decorate the site with lovely flowering. And he will do it at the moment when he is not expected at all.
A colchicum (Colchicum) is also called a colchicum, as well as an autumnal. It relates to the genus of flowering perennial plants of the ever-growing family. Under natural conditions, such a plant can be found in Western and Central Asia, in North Africa, in Europe and in the Mediterranean. This genus includes about 70 species of different plants. The Latin name of such a plant comes from the word “Kolkhis”, which translates as “Kolkhida” - an area in the Black Sea region, the fact is that there you can meet several species of autumn crocus. In the people such plant is called "untimely color" or "autumn color", and all because there are several types of autumn crocuses that bloom in the deep autumn. Cultivate such a flower in all areas where there is a temperate climate.
Features of autumn crocus
Such a herb is a perennial, and it is also an ephemeroid. It has a large number of short shoots, on which large lanceolate elongated leaf plates are located. They grow and develop during the spring, and by the beginning of the summer period they completely die. On the surface of corms is a shell of brown color. Such a shell forms a long tube that covers the bottom of the flower. Most species of autumn crocus blooms in springtime. However, in some species, flowering occurs in spring. From the soil grow single flowers funnel-shaped. The length of such a flower, along with perianth that has grown together in a tube (most of it is located under the surface of the soil) is 20 centimeters. The fruit is a three-fold oval spherical box. Such a plant contains poison, Dioscorides himself mentioned this in his works. It should be remembered that the poison is in any part of the plant.
Growing an autumn crocus from seeds
Seed propagation of the autumn crocus takes a lot of time. The fact is that a plant grown in this way begins to bloom only 6 or 7 years after the bulb grows and gains strength. However, this way you can multiply only a few species of this plant, which bloom in the spring, and even the species that do not form daughter bulbs (for example, autumn crocus yellow). For the sowing of seeds, a moist, loose soil saturated with nutrients is used. Mature seeds are sown almost immediately after harvest (usually at the beginning of the summer period). Immediately before sowing, they are immersed in clean water for a while. Close up the seeds are not deep. In the event that it was not possible to sow the seeds immediately after harvesting, then before direct sowing they will need to be subjected to semi-annual stratification. To do this, they must be placed on the shelf of the refrigerator. Instead of soaking the seeds, it is recommended to put them in a sock or stocking, which should be fixed inside the toilet cistern. After each washout, the seeds are washed, thereby removing the inhibitors, and this contributes to a significant increase in seed germination.
Seeding should be done in open soil. Before sowing the seeds, holes are made on the bed, at the bottom of which you need to place a good drainage layer, and not a lot of sand should be poured over it. The first shoots can be seen only with the onset of the next autumn period, but sometimes seedlings appear a little later. Caring for seedlings of autumn crocus is not difficult. So, it is necessary to thin out the seedlings and when it is necessary to water them, the watering stops when the leaf plates die, and also do not forget to perform regular weeding. And still young plants need to be covered in the fall that they did not freeze out in the winter. In order to grow such a flower from seed, experience and patience are required.
What time to plant
It is recommended to choose well-lit areas for planting colchicum, but in a small shade they grow and develop quite well. But it should be noted that if such a flower is planted in a shady place under the trees, then slugs can start on it. Soil plants need well-drained, because their root system reacts negatively to stagnant water. For planting, you can choose alkaline or acidic soil, as well as not very heavy clay, which should not be oversaturated with moisture. Next to such flowers, it is recommended to place a juniper or peonies, the fact is that their beautiful leaves will distract from the autumn crocus when its foliage turns yellow and inconspicuous.
Those species, which bloom is observed in autumn, should be planted in mid-August. If the bulb is large enough, then it can bloom in the first year.
How to plant an autumn crocus
When planting such a plant in open ground, it is necessary to maintain a distance of between 10–20 centimeters between copies. Small onions should be planted to a depth of at least 8 centimeters, and large ones - no more than 20 centimeters. During the planting of the bulbs in the soil you need to make wood ash (1 liter of substance per 1 square meter), as well as superphosphate (1 full big spoon per 1 square meter). During planting, special attention should be paid to the tubes on the bulb, which are formed by scales. They must necessarily look out of the ground, because of them subsequently appear buds. To cut such a tube should not be, because in this case, the resulting bud will need to push the heavy layer of soil to get to its surface. Before planting, the soil must be prepared; for this, during digging, half of a bucket of sand and 1 bucket of humus are put into it per 1 square meter. Crostchless planted onions begin to bloom after 1.5 months.
Caring for autumn crocus
In the care of such a plant is nothing complicated. Watering should be done only at the time when the plant is flowering, and then it should be done only in the period of prolonged drought and heat. At other times, watering such a flower should not be done, because it will lack natural precipitation. Remember to avoid over-wetting the ground.
Fertilizing produce 2 or 3 times per season. To do this, use a complex mineral fertilizer (30 grams per 1 square meter), while preparing a weak solution (2 grams of the substance per 1 liter of water). Remember that the fertilizer must necessarily include nitrogen. In autumn, compost should be applied to the soil. You also need to systematically loosen the surface of the soil and remove weeds.
How to transplant
At the same place this flower can be grown long enough (about 6–7 years), then it must be transplanted to a new place. However, experienced gardeners advise to transplant at least 1 time in 2 or 3 years, otherwise the onions grow and become very crowded, with the flowers becoming smaller.
The best time for planting and transplanting such a plant is considered to be August. At this time, autumn crocus is in a state of rest. However, the digging of the bulbs must be done in advance, after the leaf plates turn yellow, as a rule, this time falls on the second half of June. With lukovichek need to carefully remove the soil, as well as remove the remaining leaves. Make the separation of the daughter onion from the parent, while it should be noted that the latter are not used for subsequent planting. Then onions should be gently washed in running water, after which they are placed for 30 minutes in a solution of manganese potassium for disinfection. Then the tubers need to be thoroughly dried and stored for storage in a dry dark place, while the air temperature should be approximately 24 degrees. With the onset of August, separated daughter bulbs should be planted in the ground. At the same time, the landing rules are exactly the same as those used for planting an autumn crocus (described above). Do not forget to pre-fertilize the soil.
Diseases and pests
On such a flower can live snails, as well as slugs. Such pests feed on its leaves. If the soil is constantly constantly re-moistened, then this may cause the development of gray rot. In order to avoid the appearance of slugs, the surface of the rows should be covered with a layer of crushed shells, fine gravel or eggshell. And along the perimeter of the site you can place plastic gutters into which you need to pour water. They will become an insurmountable barrier to slugs and snails.
If an autumn crocus is regularly watered abundantly for a long time, then gray rot may appear on it, which belongs to fungal diseases. In the event that the flower is not very infected, you can try to cure it. To do this, it is recommended to make the treatment of the bush with the Champion, Topaz, Kuproksat or other means similar in action. Before processing, it is necessary to cut and burn those parts of the plant that are severely affected. Then you need to revise the schedule of watering.
There are such gardeners who, to preserve the attractiveness of the flower garden, cut off the faded flowers and leaves of such a plant. However, this is by no means necessary. The fact is that the maturing onion requires all the vital forces. В связи с этим убирать с участка надо лишь те части, которые отпали самостоятельно.
Безвременник желтый (Colchicum luteum)
Такой вид в природных условиях предпочитает расти в кромках каменистых ледников Гималаев, Памира, Тянь-Шаня и Тибета. Культивируется с 1882 г. Цветение такого растения начинается сразу же после схода снежного покрова. Трехсантиметрового диаметра цветочки имеют насыщенно-желтый окрас, при этом их высота не больше 15 сантиметров. Плоские листовые пластины, окрашенные в темно-зеленый цвет, вырастают одновременно с цветками.
Безвременник венгерский (Colchicum hungaricum)
Hungary is considered the birthplace of such a flower, but it can also be found in Greece, Albania, and also in the territory of the former Yugoslavia. Flowering is observed at the end of the winter period or in early spring. In pink-purple or white flowers have anthers dark maroon color. The upper part and the edge of the leaf plates, which grow at the time when the plant is in bloom, have a thick hair covering on their surface. The most popular variety is Velebit Star.
Colchicus ankarski, or three-leaved, or Biberstein (Colchicum ancyrense, Colchicum biebersteimi, Colchicum triphyllum)
This plant is considered the earliest ephemeroid. So, in some cases, its flowering begins in the last days of December, and ends in April. Under natural conditions, this kind can be met in Moldova, in the south-western regions of Ukraine, in the Crimea, as well as in the western regions of Turkey. Each specimen has 3 narrow, oblong, grooved leaves of a gray color, the edge of which is ciliate, and also from 2 to 4 flowers of pink-lilac color.
Colchicum, or Kesselring (Colchicum regelii, Colchicum crociflorum, Colchicum kesselringii)
Under natural conditions, it is most often found in subalpine and alpine belts, which are located at a height of at least 2 thousand meters above sea level. And this kind can be met in the Tien Shan and the Pamirs. There is an oblong bulb and 2–7 obtuse, grooved leaves, the edges of which are finely toothed or smooth. There are from 1 to 4 flowers of white color on the specimen, on the seamy side of limbs there are violet-purple stripes. Flowering begins immediately after the snow comes down.
And more popular with gardeners are such species as: Sovic, water-loving and beam-like.
Colchicum autumnale (Colchicum autumnale)
Prefers to grow in meadows and forest glades. Under natural conditions, this kind can be met in European countries from the Carpathians and Latvia to England and Western France. It is sometimes encountered at an altitude of more than 2 thousand meters above sea level. The bush of such a plant in height reaches no more than 40 centimeters. The flat, erect, oblong-shaped leaf plates grow in springtime, and by the beginning of summer they turn yellow and fade. From one onion grows from 1 to 4 flowers, painted in pale lilac or white color, the diameter of which is equal to 7 centimeters. Such forms are more popular:
- Autumn white - this form in nature can be met infrequently. On the same bulb from mid-September, 5–7 flowers appear, the length of which is no more than 15 centimeters. Their center is yellow, and the perianth is white.
- Autumn terry - The length of purple flowers is about 12 centimeters, while their diameter is 5 centimeters. Each flower has many petals (about 35 pieces). The length of the dark green leaf plates is 25 centimeters, and their width is 4 centimeters. Flowering begins later than other species, namely, in the last days of October.
- Autumn white terry - each terry white flower has about 45 petals. The plant blooms from mid-September.
- Autumn Neddist - This form is derived in the Czech Republic. The flowers are light pink.
And there are those forms in which the flowers are painted in dark purple or purple. The flowers of the Baconsfield variety have a white center and a purple-pink color.
The homeland of this species is Turkey, the Transcaucasus and the northern part of Iran. The height of the bush about half a meter. The length of the saturated green leaf plates is about 30 centimeters, and their width is 6 centimeters. The leaves have a wavy edge. They die off by the beginning of the summer period. Large flowers are painted in lilac or mauve, they have a long tube of white color. Flowering begins in September. This type has many garden forms, for example: dark red, Turkish, white, giant, etc. The most popular varieties are:
- Huxley - mauve flowers gradually change their color to rich purple.
- Waterlily - double flowers of lilac color.
- Prime minister - this variety of late flowering. His flowers are very bright and have a purple-pink color.
In addition to these autumn-flowering species, they also grow such as: Fomina, Stevin, Trudi, Sibtrop, Jerusalem, shadow, bright, Pannonian, Neapolitan, Kochi, Cilician, Byzantine, variegated, Bornmuller, dark purple, etc.
Among the hybrid forms, the most popular are: Autumn Herald, Princess Astrid, Dick Trotter, Violet Queen.
For the autumn garden to be decorated with the autumn crocuses, you need to remember to plant them in August. Read about the rules of planting this “late crocus” below.
When, against the background of withered foliage, flowers of an autumn crocus suddenly open up, it seems as if real magic happens. These plants are not small and are good even one by one. And if the corms are planted with a group, you get a bright lilac-pink spot.
A distinctive feature of the autumn crocus is the leafless flowering in late autumn, when the bulk of garden flowers have already retired.
The annual cycle of autumn crocus is somewhat unusual in comparison with other flower plants. In the spring leaves appear. As such, the plant remains until about mid-June. But, not pleased with the flowering, it begins to wither and by the end of June on the surface of the earth can be found only dried leaves.
Colchicans are very similar to crocuses, but bloom in autumn, not in spring.
How to plant croatia?
A place for an autumn crocus choose open or in a light shade near bushes. In general, this flower is undemanding soil, but it develops better in friable, fertile, compost and leaf earth. Prefers wet soil with added sand.
Corms depending on size planted at a depth of 10-15 cm and at the same distance from each other. If there is a lot of planting material, it is possible to plant flowers and more densely - then the blooming curtain will be very effective already in the first year.
Seasoned trees grown from corms bloom in the first year after planting
Corms are planted in August, but also planted later, they bloom normally and on time and then overwinter.
Features care culture
Colchicum winter hardy, but to hedge, for the winter landing you can to cover peat or foliage.
AT watering even in the hot summer the plant does not need - its large corm has time to accumulate moisture in reserve and for the short life of the leaves it is enough.
Dig out corms once every 5 years. After yellowing the leaves of the dug corms, the children are separated, dried and planted in a permanent place in August.
Curtains of colchicum look great in the autumn garden
Likely problems with the plant
Colchicans rarely get sick. Only in a rainy autumn can they begin to eat slugs. These pests are harvested by hand from flower petals.
Prolonged cold, rainy weather can damage plants. gray rotthat often leads to death. When this disease occurs, the affected specimens are destroyed and the soil in this place is replaced. As a preventive measure, in an unfavorable period in summer, plants are sprayed with fungicides.
Colchicans are wonderful plants for the autumn garden. They look good on the lawn, among shrubs, in borders, mixborders, alpine slides, as well as in gardens and parks.
Growing an autumn crocus: the choice of location and rules of care
Plant autumn croissant photo care and cultivation in open ground
Autumn tree is surprisingly unpretentious to conditions. Prefers moist and oily soil. Without transplantation can grow 5-6 years. If it stops blooming, it means that too many young daughter bulbs have formed in the nest and the plant should be seated. It is usually placed in a sunny or shade location. Ideal for planting place under garden trees.
In spring, leaves of the autumn crocus appear at a time when the trees do not give much shade. Sun is enough for him. And with further disclosure of leaves on trees, the foliage no longer needs a lot of light, because this time he is already beginning to fade. Land for planting should be light, loose, moderately nutritious. Watering is practically not required. In the spring, when leaves develop, there is still enough spring moisture. In the summer the plant sleeps. In the fall, it is watered gently in the absence of rain, trying not to wet the flowers - when they get wet they quickly lose their shape.
Top dressing and watering Kolkhikum
Feed in the spring with the appearance of leaves with nitrogen fertilizers - this helps to form large and strong leaves, which in turn will enable the bulbs to be fed with useful substances and accumulate strength for future flowering, and in the fall after flowering - with complex fertilizer or sprinkle with organic matter, followed by loosening.
In the spring do not water. The soil is quite wet after melting snow. By the beginning of summer, the autumn crocus vegetation ends - the plant falls asleep. He does not need moisture at this time. When flowering, if it was not raining, it is watered once a week.
The most productive way is reproduction by young bulbs.
How and when to replant the Colchicum autumnale photo
When to plant a crocus?
Autumn crocuses, blooming in spring, are planted in early autumn, blooming in autumn - in August on an open sunny, protected from the wind place. The soil for planting is prepared in advance - they put in humus 6 liters and 100 grams of superphosphate per 1 sq. M. They are planted at a distance of 20-30 cm from each other, after which the soil is moistened and mulched.
How to replant an autumn crocus, look at the video:
If the autumn tree grows long ago, in the middle of summer you can disturb the landing site and carefully dig up the overgrown bushes. By this time, the old bulb usually dies off.
- After the plant has completely faded, dig the bulbs out of the ground, taking care not to cut them with a shovel.
- Dry for several weeks in a dark, dry room. Then clean them from dead leaves and roots.
- In August, separate the new corms from the main ones, soak for 5 minutes. in a solution of hydrogen peroxide (2 tablespoons per 1 liter of water), lightly dry and land in the ground at a previously prepared place at a distance of 20 cm from each other.
- Phosphate fertilizer and humus are applied to the intended landing site when digging.
- Plant, deepening down on 3 diameter of a bulb. After falling asleep with soil, the landing site is well spilled and carefully mulched, preventing the formation of a crust on the soil. At early planting of a plant from large bulbs can bloom this fall.
Useful properties of Kolhikum
It is used with success in the treatment of various diseases. Self-treatment is strictly prohibited, since it is extremely poisonous. For drugs, corms are used, on the basis of which ointments, tablets, tinctures, rubbing are made. They are used in the treatment of cancer, urolithiasis, as a local anesthetic for rheumatism and gout.
Colchicum autumn Colchicum autumnale var. minus / autumnale var. minor
It grows in wet meadows and glades in the warm regions of Europe, is most common in culture among amateur growers. The rosette of leaves appears in early spring after the snow melts, simultaneously with the fruits. Plant height is 35-40 cm. The lower internodes of the stems form a corm covered with leathery scales, on which there is a renewal bud. An old, bloom drained corm decomposes.
As the onion grows, the leaves give it nourishment and gradually die off. Colchicum falls asleep until autumn. They wake up with the beginning of autumn, releasing pink-purple bell-shaped flowers 7 cm in diameter from 1-4 from one bulb. After a brief flowering underground, the fruit and seeds develop, which will appear only next spring.
There are many decorative forms:
- ‘Roseum Plenum’ variety is distinguished by double flowers,
- snow-whitish with a bunch of large flowers
- Terry form very late blooming with purple flowers with a diameter of 5 cm and a huge
the number of petals, flowering can continue after the snow falls,
- white densely terry form, the flowers of which resemble dahlia inflorescences,
- atropurpureum with purple or dark red flowers,
Colchicum borncueller colchicum bornmuelleri flowers photo
The birthplace of this species is the mountains of Asia Minor, Iran. Looks like a lily in miniature. The leaves are about 35 cm long. It blooms in autumn with pale lilac flowers with a bright inner spot. It blooms from late September to frost. Loves well lit places.
Colchicum buzantinum / autumnale var.majus / autumnale var.major colchicum
Colchicum buzantinum autumnale Colchicum autumn crocus var.majus autumnale var.major photo
It grows in the heat-measuring zones of the Mediterranean, in the south of Europe. The flowers are purple-pink wide oval, slightly larger than the autumn. Very large corm 7 cm in diameter, irregularly shaped forms a bouquet of 10-12 buds. Folded leaves are lanceolate up to 30 cm long. Flowering from August to frost.
Colchicum gorgeous colchicum speciosum photo
Most loved of all. In the spring it produces leaves up to 50 cm in height. It blooms in the fall and is the ancestor of modern varieties. Flowers solitary or in inflorescences of 1-3 pieces. large size with a long white tube and a cold lilac color of the corolla up to 15 cm in diameter.
- Turkish form with purple goblet flowers,
- cheametselistnaya form with folded leaves and large purple flowers,
- ‘Premier’ variety with very late flowering pink flowers,
- variety ‘Huxiey’ with large leaves and flowers that change color,
- ‘Waterlily’ variety with charming purple terry flowers,
- ‘Atrorubens’ variety with lilac-watercolor petals blurred to white,
Colchicum Agrippinum Colchicum
It has pink inflorescences with purple strokes or spots. It is characterized by tall leaves with a wavy edge, pink-lilac with a whitish tube, flowers with charming orange-red strokes at the base of each stamen, blooming at the end of summer. Differs from other unusual chess stains on the petals.
Colchicum cilicicum Colchicum
Colchicum colchicum Colchicum cilicicum Dammer flowers photo
Height is about 60 cm. From one bulb at the time of flowering 15-25 violet-pink flowers with a white tubular core are produced. It blooms in late autumn when the first frost begins. Distributed under natural conditions in Turkey.
Colchicum Yellow Colchicum luteum
Colchicum yellow Colchicum luteum flower photo
It is found on the fine-earth and rocky slopes near the melting glaciers, on the meadows of Kazakhstan, in the Western Tien Shan. It blooms from the moment of melting snow until early June. Corm oblong to 33 cm long and 2.5 cm wide and brown covering scales. A shortened stem with ribbon-like leaves coming out of the ground with the beginning of flowering.
Single flowers up to 10 cm in height with narrow linear golden-yellow tepals, fused below in a long tubule of purple hue. The fruit is a box with three nests filled with seeds. Propagated by seeds. Resistant to frost. Very rare plant - listed in the Red Book. Some species successfully caught on flowerbeds flowerbeds.
Colchicum regelii, Colchicum kesselringii
Colchicum regelii, Colchicum kesselringii flowers photo
The homeland is the foothills and mountains of Central Asia. Amazing beauty and miniature. Up to 10 cm high with white flowers blooming with the advent of April. Perianth with purple stripe. Leaves appear after the start of flowering. Varieties with cream flowers and a characteristic purple stripe on the outer side of the petal are derived.
Colchicum Hungaric Colchicum
Colchicum Hungaric Hungarian Colchicum Photo
Found recently in the mountains of Croatia. Differs from fellow expressive black stamens. Prefers accommodation in the open sun. In culture, it is successfully divorced and selected in Latvia.
Colchicum trifolllum Colchicum triphyllum photo
Found in Moldova, Crimea, Bulgaria, Romania. Up to 15 cm high. From one corm blooms up to 6 medium-sized pink-purple flowers. It is recommended to place on the alpine hills.
Colchicum szovitsii Colchicum Colchicum
Colchicum szovitsii Colchicum autumnal flower photo
It grows in wet alpine meadows. It blooms in spring with white and pink flowers. Unpretentious and hardy, despite the appearance of pampered appearance. Successfully grows in bright sunlight and does not require shading.
Colchicum bifolium Colchicum
Colchicum bilobate Colchicum bifolium flower photo
Unusually tender and fragile flowers grow on the slopes of the mountains of Armenia near the melting snow. Pink and purple tones of color predominate, the shape and color of which are highly variable. Not afraid of the first night frost. Requires a deep, nutrient-rich moist soil.
Colchicum is extremely popular among amateur flower growers, especially autumn species. It is pleasant to see a flock of soft-colored buds looking here and there in late autumn among withered foliage. Растение отлично подходит для расположения куртинами в приствольных кругах садовых деревьев, для бордюров, в миксбордерах и цветниках как растение переднего плана.
Великолепно выглядит в обособленных посадках на газонах, у стен дворовых и хозяйственных построек. It is wonderfully combined with any other garden flowers, since it blooms at a time when only green leaves and fallen leaves remain from other perennials, enlivening fading nature with delicate lilac-purple flowers. Looks attractive among the host and other decorative leafy flower crops, decorating them with different colors. Even the first frosts and light snowball are not terrible for him.
Bold bouquets look on unusual light snow. Anywhere in your backyard will create a nostalgic reminder of the outgoing summer. Planting this plant once, for many years you will admire the enchanting creation of nature.
Autumn tree, autumn crocus, colchicum - it's all about one plant
Due to the fact that one of the regions of Western Georgia, Colchis, is considered to be the historic birthplace of the flower, he received another name: Kolkhikum. In general, this perennial is rich in names! Do not be surprised if you meet such a plant name as “autumn tree” or “seedling”, this is due to the flowering time. Europeans are accustomed to call it meadow saffron, and the British linked the name to the fact that the flowers appear on it in the absence of leaves. Therefore, residents of Britain often call him "naked lady."
We will acquaint you with an interesting plant closer, we will tell how to plant and care for it.
Colchicum eyes biologist
The flower, which because of the time of its flowering is called the autumn crocus, is a perennial plant. Determining its place in the vast flower world, botanists include the colchicum to the Seedless family, which belong to the Liliaceae family in order with the other families.
Imagine a detailed description of the flower. In spring, in April, 3-4 large leaves with an elongated shape appear in a low collarless flower. The leaves of perennial are painted green, have a glossy surface. The leaves are erect, during this period the plant can reach a height of 30-40 cm.
With the onset of summer time begins to wither and die leaves. A flowering of autumn crocus falls in autumn. Externally, the shape of a flower with 6 petals resembles a bell or a funnel. At the time of flowering, the autumn crocus is also low: a tube rising from the ground and decorated with a flower has a height of 20-30 cm.
Autumn crocus autumn - bulbous plant. From one bulb 3 or 4 flowers are formed, in rare cases the buds are a little more. Flowering plant for 3 weeks. Flowering is accompanied by a pleasant and delicate aroma. Flower petals can be simple and terry. Color Kolhikuma varied. Most often there are flowers of different shades of purple, but often the plant pleases florists with white, yellow or pink flowers.
Video "Unpretentious flowers for the garden - autumn crocus"
First of all, you need to take care of a place suitable for a colchicum. Consider that he likes areas that are well lit by the sun. In the small penumbra the flower of the autumn crocus will also feel quite comfortable, but the place that remains in the shade most of the day, for example, under thick trees, is not suitable for him.
Sour or alkaline soil in the place of your choice will not matter much. After all, an autumn crocus can grow and develop even in clayey territory, if it is not too heavy and marshy. To stagnant water plant is intolerable! It is most preferable for perennial well-drained, loose sandy sand mixed with compost and humus.
Do not water the flower of the autumn crocus as often as other plants or flowers in your area! It is quite enough to carry rainwater and subsoil water to the plant, which is heavily carrying excess moisture.
Slight soil moistening is allowed when the autumn crocus blooms or during particularly dry and hot periods.
For fertilizing, which is advisable to hold during the season 2 or 3 times, you can use any complex fertilizer designed for flowers. Prerequisite: the fertilizer must be nitrogen-containing! For feeding you need to prepare a solution by adding fertilizer to the water in the following proportion: 2 g of fertilizer and 1 l of water. Add the prepared solution to the soil (per 1 sq. M - 30 g).
Remove weeds regularly. Do not allow excessive plantings and density. Loosen the soil regularly, it will enrich it with oxygen, very useful for the roots.
Pest and disease protection
In rainy time or when excessive watering occurs difficult for the plant period. This is due to increased activity at this time of slugs or snails. Take care in advance about uninvited guests. Fighting slugs will help you to create uncomfortable conditions for them. River shells, egg shells, pre-ground, become a problem for slugs and force out of the plot. Therefore, it is worth sprinkling the soil between them Kolkhikum. By cutting a plastic bottle in length and filling it with water, you can get a good snail-trap. Spread these traps around the perimeter of the flower bed, so you can protect your crocus from clam.
Fungal diseases of the flower (for example, gray mold) are also associated with high humidity. When it appears, it is necessary to remove the diseased parts of the flower and shed the soil with a fungicide (for example, Topaz) for disinfection.
Video "Flower of the autumn crocus - autumn snowdrop"
With the help of seeds
It is possible to increase the planting of the colchicum using seed of the plant for reproduction. The boll appears in the center of the leaf bundle in the spring, and by mid-summer it has time to fully form and dries. From the dried open box seeds are scattered into the soil. At this time, ripe seeds can be harvested for reproduction. To collect the seeds choose the box, which is just beginning to turn black. Cutting off, it is left in a dry cool place (it is possible in the open air, under a canopy) for final drying. Flower growers should take into account that autumn crocus seeds intended for breeding are not stored! It is better to use them for planting immediately at the beginning of the summer period. You can collect seeds in July.
Under certain rules, sowing seeds will not cause difficulties.
- Before planting, soak the seeds in water and leave for a while. Rinse with water several times during this time.
- Prepare shallow wells for seeding. Fill them in the following order: drainage, sand, loose soil.
- Moisten the soil in the prepared wells.
- Place the seeds in the wells and sprinkle them with earth. Deep laying seeds of an autumn tree is not necessary!
Special care, except for regular watering, sown seeds do not require. In the spring of next year there will be seedlings, which will also be quite unpretentious. You will only need to water, loosen and thin out them.
If autumnal efforts did not allow you to sow an autumn crocus plant in the fall, you do not need to wait a whole year until next autumn. You can spend spring sowing seeds. But before spring comes, they should be stored in a cool place (cellar, refrigerator).
The cultivation of autumn crocus seeds has a number of advantages:
- The ability to grow plants of a certain color.
- Growing absolutely healthy plants.
However, seed propagation has serious disadvantages. The main thing is considered the duration of waiting for flowering, because after sowing seeds such colchicums will bloom only in 6-7 years. At the same time, the varietal characteristics of the plant will not survive. Therefore, when collecting terry-seed seeds, it should be understood that it will not be possible to grow new terry flowers with the same terry flowers; therefore, another method is most often used - bulbous breeding.
With the help of bulbs
Bulbs for planting autumn crocus can be purchased at the distribution network of gardening shops, and you can prepare yourself. The harvesting time is midsummer, July. Signs of the fact that you can dig out the bulbs for reproduction, it becomes ripening seeds in a box and yellowed, withered leaves of the plant.
Professionals advise to follow the following sequence of actions:
- Gently digging the bulb and carefully peeling it. When removing old leaves, be careful not to damage the scales that cover it. Do not cut the tube formed by the scales, keep its length!
- Washing the dug bulbs in water.
- Place the bulb in a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
- Drying planting material at room temperature. A dry, dark place is suitable for drying.
- Soil preparation. To provide the plant with nutrients, add per square meter of soil for a bucket of humus and 0.5 buckets of river sand. Dig a flower bed. Starting the planting, continue working with the soil, using superphosphate (1 tbsp) and wood ash (1 l) for fertilizing each square meter.
- Proceed to planting the bulbs.
According to legend, the ancient Greek god of the underworld of the dead, Hades, kidnapped the daughter of the goddess of earth, Gaia. The grieving mother so hard endured separation from her daughter that everything on earth became gray and dull. To give her mother a clue where she is, her daughter, the beautiful fertility goddess Persephone, sent a bright autumn crocus to the earth.
Plant a legendary flower in your plot, it will delight you with its flowering and help you cope with autumn sadness.
Brief description of the plant
Kolhikum is a perennial plant whose flowers bloom only for 4-5 years of life. It is literally in every component (roots, leaves and flowers) found a toxic substance - an alkaloid, which is used for the manufacture of medicines. Do not be alarmed, because toxic substances are released during special processing, and the cultivation of this flower is not dangerous.
- Roots - oblong bulbs collected in the tuber, the height of the tuber from 3 to 5 centimeters. From each bulb grows up to 3 peduncles (some species can have up to 20 flowers from one bulb).
- Stems - bare, upright and low, 10-50 centimeters, covered with rare leaves.
- Leaves - long, olive, with smooth edges, glossy, grow in early spring, and fall to the beginning of flowering.
- The pedicle is bare, its height is 20-25 cm, flowers bloom at the top.
- Flowers - can be of different colors: white, purple, pink, purple. Their diameter, depending on the variety, reaches 7 centimeters, the shape of a funnel, with elongated petals.
The photo shows different varieties of autumn crocus, they all mostly bloom closer to autumn (there are varieties that bloom in spring), this period lasts one month.
- A beautiful autumn crocus blossoms in September, the flowers are painted in a light purple hue, the variety is considered large, its height is 30 cm or more. Hybrid forms can have various colors of colors: white, dark red, violet.
- Cheerful kolkhikum - flowers have a bright monophonic color, bloom in the autumn, turning a flower bed into a carpet. In winter, during warming, new sprouts can grow and even bloom.
- In August (just then the plant is at rest), the bulbs are planted in open ground to a depth of 20 centimeters, it depends on the size of the plant. The distance between them should be at least 25 cm.
- Before planting, the soil is improved with the help of humus and sand, and the main fertilizers are applied: superphosphate and ash.
- Plentifully water and mulch a piece of land with bark or peat.
Attention! Do not allow long-term stagnation of water at the root system, drain well the soil, removing excess moisture.
Care and feeding during the growing season
After the introduction of basic mineral and organic fertilizers, in a month, the autumn crocus is fed during irrigation. Manure is diluted in water, insisted for a day, then produce basal watering. On 1 plant - 1 liter of infusion. For a season do 1-2 top dressing.
Care is that the land is constantly loosened and renewed mulch as needed, and fallen leaves and flowers are removed from the flower bed.
How colchicum breeds
At one place, the plant can grow safely for 6-7 years, during which time corms increase in quantity, it becomes crowded with royal rhizomes. It is time for their seating and removal of old bulbs.
Reproduction of autumn crocus bulbs
This method is simple and affordable even for the most inexperienced gardener. Breeding work begins in mid-summer:
- In July, the adult bush is dug out completely,
- clean and wash the tubers,
- the stems are cut off, leaving petioles 10-15 cm tall,
- they are divided into bulbs, old ones are removed, they are no longer suitable for breeding,
- for 30 minutes, young saplings are kept in a solution of potassium permanganate for disinfection and prevention of diseases, dried in the air,
- Planted bulbs no later than 3 days after harvesting, at this time they need to be stored in a dry form.
Colchicon seeds are harvested in June, they are processed in a solution of potassium permanganate, soaked for several days, then planted in a loose substrate. They overwinter in this soil, and sprouts appear the following year. The flowering period begins only after 5-7 years, therefore, breeding in this way is used for breeding work on the breeding of new varieties, and the method of propagation by the bulbs is popular, it is simple and fast.
What hurts colchicum and its pests
The autumn crocus, as we have already noted above, is a poisonous plant, and this property repels many harmful insects. Sometimes he is attacked by garden snails, a measure of the fight against them - spraying fungicides.
In addition to toxicity, colchicum is highly resistant to diseases, it is almost never affected by fungal diseases, and does not cause unnecessary problems for gardeners.
Neighborhood with other plants
Landscape designers choose plants with bright, dense foliage for the neighborhood with the autumn crocus, compensating for this almost leafless colchicum. Peonies and juniper, in this regard, are excellent neighbors, complementing the blooming carpet with bright greens, as well as hiding the faded and fallen leaves of the autumn crocus. The contrast in height of these plants: low autumn crocuses and high neighbors, favorably distributes the number of floors of plantations. Thick, bright buds with various shades further emphasize the beauty of tall handsome men, attracting the eyes of lovers of autumn colors.
Planting and caring for the colchicum (in brief)
- Landing: mid August.
- Bloom: in the fall.
- Lighting: bright sun, light partial shade.
- The soil: well drained, moderately wet and not too heavy, the composition and level of acidity are not of great importance.
- Watering: only during the flowering period, if there is a drought.
- Top dressing: 2-3 times per season with complex mineral fertilizers containing nitrogen. In the autumn they bring compost into the soil.
- Reproduction: seeds and daughter corms.
- Pests: slugs and snails.
- Diseases: gray rot
Flower autumn crocus - description
The Perennial herbaceous perennial plant is an ephemeroid with numerous short stems with large elongated-lanceolate leaves that develop in spring and die off by early summer. Corms are covered with brown shells, forming a long tube, covering the lower part of the plant. Colchicon usually blooms in the fall, although some species bloom in spring — single funnel-shaped flowers rise from the ground, up to 20 cm in length, together with the perianth, which has grown into a tube, most of which remains underground. The fruit of the autumn crocus is an oval spherical three-capsule box. The autumn crocus is poisonous, as Dioscorides wrote about, and all the autumn crocus parts, both aboveground and underground, are poisonous.
When plant croatia.
Autumn crocuses like sunny areas, although they grow well in light penumbra. If you plant an autumn crocus in the deep shade of trees, it will be easy prey for slugs. The land-croppers love well-drained soil so that the roots do not freeze from stagnant water. The colchicum grows in both acidic and alkaline soil, it feels good even in clay, if it is not too heavy and not oversaturated with moisture. As neighbors for the autumn crocus it is preferable to have peonies and juniper, which by their bright greens can distract the eye from its yellowed foliage.
Planting time of autumn crocus blossoming in the fall - mid-August, when the plant is in a dormant period. A large onion crocus can give a flower in the first year.
How to care for the colchicum.
Flower care of the autumn crocus is not complicated at all: the need to moisturize the soil only during the flowering period, but only if it is hot and dry during this time. At any other time, it is not necessary to irrigate the autumn crocus; natural precipitation will be sufficient - overmoistening is absolutely contraindicated for it. Seedflower is fed two or three times per season at the rate of 30 g of complex fertilizers per 1 m² in the form of solutions (2 g of the drug per liter of water). Fertilizers must contain nitrogen. In the fall on the site make compost. Well, of course, during the loosening of the plot, remove the emerging weeds. As you can see, planting and caring for the autumn crocus will not tire you.
Autumn crocus transplant.
На одном месте безвременники могут расти шесть или семь лет, после чего их нужно пересаживать, хотя лучше это делать каждые 2-3 года, иначе луковицы сильно разрастаются, им становится тесно, и цветки безвременника мельчают. Когда пересаживать безвременник? И сажать, и пересаживать луковицы безвременника лучше в августе, когда у растения наступает период покоя, но выкапывать клубнелуковицы нужно, как только пожелтеют листья безвременника – в середине или конце июня. The bulbs are carefully cleaned from the ground, freed from the remnants of the leaves, the daughter bulbs are separated from the parent, which are no longer suitable for germination. After washing under a stream of water, corms are pickled for half an hour in a solution of potassium permanganate, dried and stored until planting in a darkened dry room at a temperature of about 24 ºC. When August arrives, the young autumn crocus bulbs are seated according to the scheme already described, having previously introduced fertilizer into the soil.
Pests and autumn crocus diseases.
Autumn crocus slugs and snails, eating the leaves of the plant. In chronic overmoistening, the plant can become sick with gray mold. So that you don’t have to fight with slugs, fill the aisles with fine gravel, crushed shells or eggshell. Plastic gutters can be expanded around the perimeter of the site and filled with water - this will be a mechanical barrier for gastropods. Gray rot is a fungal disease that occurs during prolonged excessive watering of plants. If the infection is not total, you can treat the autumn crocus with Topaz, Champion, Kuproksat or other similar preparation, but the strongly affected parts of the plant must be cut out and the watering balanced.
Autumn crocus after flowering
Some gardeners, trying to preserve the attractive appearance of the flower garden, prune faded flowers and yellow leaves of the autumn crocus. But it is better not to do this, because the onion will need all the vital forces for ripening, and interfering with the natural process will not lead to anything good. Therefore, remove from the site only those plant residues that have fallen off by themselves.