This beautiful plant is undoubtedly an ornament of our planet. The chestnut tree belongs to the beech family. Scientists suggest that it existed in the Tertiary period. In the past, its distribution area was much larger than today: it grew in Asia Minor, on Sakhalin and the Caucasus, in Greenland and North America, on the shores of the Mediterranean. The homeland of chestnut is considered to be Asia Minor and the Caucasus.
A modern chestnut tree is about 2 meters in diameter, and grows to a height of 35 meters. There are exceptions, as the “Chestnut of a hundred horsemen” of gigantic size grew in Sicily, it was almost 20 meters across. The leaves of the tree are quite large - up to 25 cm in length, the width of the plate is 8 cm. On the shoots they are arranged spirally. The color of the leaves varies by seasons. In spring, they are brown-red, turn green in summer, and turn golden yellow in autumn. In adult trees, the crown begins from a height of at least 7 meters, the lower branches fall away. After the leafing of the plant immediately begins to bloom.
Fruits - the main wealth
People in ancient times realized that the chestnut tree can be used for their own purposes. Its nuts in some areas of the planet, where it is impossible to grow cereals, were the main component of human food. Flour obtained from fruits by the presence of nutrients exceeds wheat, and, mixing them, it was possible to much improve the taste and quality of bread. The nuts themselves were also used as food - they were boiled, fried, dried.
In the service of a man
Chestnut tree is widely used today. Its fruits are used not only in the food industry, but also in medicine, and excellent furniture is made from wood. Chestnut is an excellent honey plant, one adult tree can give up to 20 kilograms of honey. Wood is also used in construction, and natural dyes are obtained from bark and leaves. But the main wealth of chestnut is its fruit. Annual world production of nuts reaches one and a half million tons.
The right to be called a chestnut real, or noble, only the chestnut seed (Castanea sativa) has the right. But he has a relative who is by popularity significantly inferior to his fellow man, but is well known in Russia. This is an ordinary chestnut, in our country called horse. In these two species, only the fruits are similar, and the leaves and flowers are completely different. They even belong to different families. This belongs to beech, and horse - to horse-chestnut.
Tree - a traveler from the Balkans
More recently, horse chestnut was rarely found in central Russia. And although the city of Kiev was already completely decorated with these magnificent trees, in the territories north of the capital of Ukraine he was considered a heat-loving guest performer. Today, chestnut, the cultivation of which has become commonplace with us, is considered to be its own in many Russian cities. And few people remember that his real homeland is the forests of the Balkan Mountains. In Europe, horse chestnut has long been revered as an outstanding tree that can adorn any park. A special charm gives him an impressive stocky trunk, grayish-white bark and large seven-fingered leaves.
Horse chestnut. Plant Overview
Botanical name: Horse chestnut, acorn, Esculus (Aesculus), genus of the Sapindovye family.
Homeland of horse chestnut: Greece.
Lighting: light-requiring, shade-tolerant.
The soil: loose, fertile, deep, clayey, sandy, moderately wet.
Maximum tree height: 25 m.
Tree's average lifespan: 300 years.
Landing: seeds, cuttings and layering.
Horse chestnut tree: description and structure
Deciduous tree, up to 25 m, some forms are found in the form of shrubs, reach 1.5-2m. A leaf of chestnut is large, complex, five to seven palmate, with a long petiole. The leaves of the chestnut form a dense crown. The flowers are bell-shaped, bisexual, asymmetrical, irregular, fragrant.
The leaves of chestnut in the fall become yellow, brown, purple, purple colors. Inflorescences - large, pyramidal, erect brush. The axis of the inflorescences and the legs are pubescent. The flower cover consists of a green cup with 5 sepals accrete at the base and a whitish pink base of the corolla with 5 loose petals, one of them between 3 and 4 sepals, small, sometimes completely absent. 7 stamens with long and bent filaments. The pistil consists of 3 carpels.
The upper ovary is three-cephalic, each nest contains 2 ovules: one pointing up, the other down. The column is long. Flowering lasts from May to June. The nectar of chestnut flowers contains a lot of sucrose. Horse chestnut with double flowers has no nectar. From where the chestnut blossoms, the shape and size of its flower depends. In the south, chestnut blooms in red, white, beige and pink. The flowers have a strong, pleasant aroma. Photos of chestnut flowers:
The fruit is a spherical green box (walnut), 6-8 cm long, with three drop-down flaps, and is covered with spiny thorns. The fruit contains 1-4 seed. The fruits of chestnut ripen in September - October. Horse chestnut fruit begins in 15-25 years. The plant is an excellent honey plant. It has a decorative value. Horse chestnut winter-hardy, but young individuals in conditions of harsh winter can freeze slightly. Sensitive to dry winds. In the summer, leaves suffer from excessive heat and drought, fall off or dry out.
Photo of horse chestnut tree.
Where is chestnut growing and blooming?
Under natural conditions, the horse chestnut tree grows in southern Europe, northern India, East Asia, North America. Prefers a temperate climate, fresh, loose, fertile soil. In the wild, it is found in the forests of the Balkan Peninsula, in the north of Greece, Albania, Serbia and Bulgaria. Cultivated in Europe, China, Japan, North America. In total there are about 15 species of this plant. In Russia - up to 13 species.
For the first time the horse chestnut appeared in Constantinople (1557), then it was transported to Vienna (1588). Today this tree is spread throughout Europe. It is used in single and group plantings, in parks, squares and gardens. In Russia, cultivated in Moscow, St. Petersburg and other major cities.
Horse chestnuts are well tolerated in the urban environment, but in conditions of severe gas contamination may be damaged. The first 10 years grow very slowly. Intensive growth is observed at the age of 10-25 years.
Description of the plant horse chestnut with a photo of a flower: how it looks and when it blooms
Most species of horse chestnut are trees up to 30 m in height with densely leafy spherical or broad pyramidal crown, slender, massive dark gray trunks, initially smooth, covered with longitudinal cracks with age. Shrub forms are more compact, grow up to 4-5 m. The root system is surface, sensitive to compaction of the soil, in urban environments, powerful roots can even lift the road surface.
Leaves in all species without stipules, very large, long-petiolate, opposite, rounded palmate-complex shape with 5-11 dentate lobes. Flowers are brightly colored, up to 2 cm in diameter, bell-shaped, gathered in high, up to 30 cm, erect pyramidal inflorescences-brushes, called thirs. Each chestnut flower has four to five tiles arranged in a tile, different in size, free petals and five partially fused at the base or free sepals. The color of the petals can be white, pink, red. The flowering time of chestnuts depends on the species, the most common forms in Russia bloom in early May, some bloom in early June, others - in July and August.
The fruits ripen in September-October, are fleshy globular tricuspid boxes with a diameter of 6 cm, green, with a prickly surface. Inside the fruit usually contains one large, shiny, slightly flattened, covered with a thick dark brown skinned seed.
Currently, the plant is widespread in the temperate and subtropical zones around the world, but mainly consists of cultural plantings. Considering the question of where chestnut grows in natural conditions, we note that most species are of North American origin, only a few forms can be found in the mountain forests of Southeast Asia and India, and only one - two species are found in southern Europe. Significant rupture of habitat indicates a much wider distribution of the genus in the geological past, which is confirmed by paleontological studies.
How and where does the horse chestnut tree grow in Russia?
Many members of the genus are distinguished by their high ornamentation, considered to be one of the most beautiful park trees. They are attractive throughout the year, in spring, when the chestnut blooms, it is decorated with large erect candles of inflorescences, in summertime a thick spreading crown provides extensive shade, in autumn a bright brown-yellow foliage gives the tree a colorful look. In addition, horse chestnuts - plants unpretentious and well adapted to urban conditions, they are resistant to gas and dust, almost not affected by diseases and pests. The undoubted advantages include high durability, as the chestnut grows, especially during the first 10 years, very slowly, under natural conditions, its life expectancy can reach 200-300 years, in cities and parks with proper care it is also very significant.
Not surprisingly, the planting of these wonderful trees can be found in various parts of the world. In Europe, they are bred as an ornamental culture from the second half of the 16th century, after the famous Austrian botanist Clausius grew seedlings from seed obtained in Turkey in 1575 and planted them in Vienna. After 30 years, horse chestnut plants appeared in France, then spread throughout Europe, then came to North America.
In Russia, horse chestnuts do not grow in the wild, but have long been widely used as a park culture, they are habitual inhabitants of the streets and green zones of Russian cities.
Some species have healing properties, so they are used in folk and traditional medicine. The first known description of chestnut as a medicinal plant was given by Italian physician Pietro Mattioli, who recommended the use of fruits for the treatment of shortness of breath in horses. Later, decoctions and tinctures from the bark, flowers and peel of the fruits began to be used to treat people, externally - for arthritis, gout, rheumatism, inside - for asthma and bronchitis. In the twentieth century and official medicine recognized the beneficial properties of chestnut, finding in it substances that help reduce blood clotting. Preparations of the fruit is recommended for the treatment of thrombophlebitis, hemorrhoids, and even the disease of the century, atherosclerosis.
On the territory of Russia, 13 species of horse chestnuts are grown, photos and descriptions of some of the most common are given below.
Horse horse chestnut(A. hippocastanum), a powerful tree growing up to 25-30 m in the southern regions of Europe and in Ukraine, 12-15 m in central Russia, where conditions for it are not so favorable.
Horse chestnut ordinary looks like - known to any citizen of our country, since it is this species that is commonly found in our parks, squares, and is widely used for landscaping streets both in the south of the country and in more northern regions. The tree has a beautiful crown with a slender trunk and sprawling, in the lower part with the branches hanging down almost to the ground itself. It has large long-leaf palmate leaves with a ribbed surface, pale green, painted with bright yellow tones by autumn. Flowering occurs at the beginning of May and lasts up to 3 weeks, at this time the branches are covered with numerous candle-shaped white inflorescences, the size of which can reach 30 cm.
Homeland plants - mountain forests of the south of the Balkan Peninsula, but it is so plastic that it adapts to any conditions.
In the north of Russia, in the Arkhangelsk region, the tree grows no higher than 2 m, often freezes, but it is successfully restored, it can freeze to the soil level at Khabarovsk latitude, but then grows from the root, and despite fairly severe winters, it blooms successfully. and even bears fruit.
Horse-chestnut eight-tongued or yellow(A. Octandra) - North American species, as well as the previous one, not bad growing in central Russia. It has a similar crown and similar size, differs in smaller, up to 10-15 cm, inflorescences of pale yellow with purple-pink speckled flowers, blooming from late May to late June. Its light green below and dark green above the leaves are painted in bright colors in autumn, but they fall early.
Horse-chestnut small-flowered(A. parviflora) - shrub species, endemic to the states of Georgia and Alabama in the United States, more suitable for growing in the southern regions of our country.
At home, his crown reaches a height and diameter of 4 m, in Moscow, in protected places, does not exceed 0.5 m. It is distinguished by large, up to 40 cm, oblong paniculate inflorescences of yellowish-white color, which bloom profusely in July-August. Needs a winter shelter. Interestingly, where the chestnut of this species blooms in nature, it is pollinated by nocturnal butterflies and hummingbird birds.
Horse Pavia Chestnut(A. pavia) - the inhabitant of the Atlantic coast of North America, is popular in Europe, in temperate regions of Russia it freezes slightly and does not bloom. Under natural conditions it grows up to 10 m, in culture it is no higher than 3-6 m, it is valued for bright, rose-red flowers blooming in May, gathered in fluffy panicles up to 15 cm long.
His hybrid with chestnut eight-tongued, so-called horse hybrid chestnut(A. x hybrida)more winter hardy In our climatic zone, it does not reach a height of 20 m, as in the south, limiting to 6–9 m, however, it successfully blooms and bears fruit, while flowers of different shades can bloom on one tree, which makes it even more decorative.
So, how does a chestnut differ from most other trees? Why did he become a regular at many city parks? Can I own it plant and growwithout some knowledge of horticulture and crop production? Our task is to try to understand all this together.
A bit of history
Chestnut is considered one of the oldest plants. Scientists believe that it successfully grew on Mother Earth long before the appearance of the first homosapiens. In the prehistoric era, it was located in the vast territories modern Greenland and North America. Met on Sakhalin. Occupied the Mediterranean subtropics no worse than the Holy Roman Empire did in its time. Although the real middle name of chestnut is called Asia Minor and the Caucasus.
Chestnut was introduced to Europe in the 15th century. At that time, the botanist Lucluse was introduced in the form of nuts, of which the biology lover was the first to grow a tree as an ornamental plant. After some time, the chestnut began to be planted everywhere, using for gardening. Chestnut fruit is also not in vain. They fattened pets.
In the XIX century, researchers and researchers discovered that chestnut can be used not only as a decoration of parks, but also in medicine. Fruits, leaves, flowers, and even bark have healing properties of this tree. All this successfully used in the modern pharmaceutical industry, as well as in traditional medicine. Preparations made on the basis of chestnut fruits are widely used against varicose diseases, thrombophlebitis and many other ailments, fairly annoying man. To obtain a healing effect, the drugs are taken both orally and externally. They perfectly relieve severe pain and inflammation.
Where does chestnut grow in our time
Chestnut is not a rare tree and not a museum piece. Nowadays, it has spread like a wild plant across Southern Europe and India, Albania, Serbia, Greece and the Balkans. It is also quite common in North America. And because the famous tree is famous for its incredible healing properties, it is grown and used for industrial purposes in Japan and China, along with most countries in southern Europe.
A mature tree looks quite beautiful. It pleasantly pleases the eye with a thick wide, rounded shape, a green crown, a powerful and high trunk, often reaching several tens of meters. In girth trunks special giant individuals reach up to a meter and even more. Straight, strong and tall trunk covered with thick brown-brown bark. The root system of chestnut is powerful enough to match the tree itself. He is not afraid of strong winds. Due to the mighty branched roots, the tree stands firmly, like a giant!
Листья на ветвях каштана имеют зубчатую резьбу по краям. Они довольно крупного размера, чуть вытянутые и расположены друг против друга на длинных корешках. With its thick foliage, chestnut creates a cool shade during the summer heat and gives unprecedented magnificence to any garden or park.
Chestnut blooms in the second half of spring and blooms for several weeks. Often this happens at the beginning of summer. It all depends on the weather and the type of plant. In the period of flowering on the crown of the tree appear slender, cone-shaped, inflorescences white and pinkish color. If you look closely, you can see that each inflorescence is made up of many small flowers, fragrant pleasant aroma, thereby attracting travelers to come and enjoy the unforgettable superb spectacle of a flowering and beautiful tree. It is impossible to take your eyes off and stop looking at the magnificent, lush tree. This is truly an amazing time!
Fruits on chestnuts ripen in early autumn. When they appear, they are like small green boxes with spiked snuff boxes. When ripe, the fluffy snuff-box opens into several pieces and throws a nut over the ground. Nut itself is a shell, under which the seeds of flattened form, dressed in dark skin, hid. Chestnut nuts of some species are used in food by many nations. They are eaten in roasted and baked form, added to pastries and flour to obtain higher taste. Inedible fruits are used in medicine or for landscaping, but this has already been mentioned above.
Chestnut wood in its strength and appearance resembles oak. It is used in the furniture industry, the manufacture of plywood, as well as for other household needs.
Growing and growing process
It was for the lush beauty that Europeans first grew chestnuts strictly for aesthetic pleasure. And unpretentiousness, resistance to drought and frost, only contributed to the breeding of those in the urban parks of the old woman in Europe. In our country most common The two main types of chestnuts are the noble (European or sowing) and the horse. The fruits of the noble chestnut are quite edible, while the horse is often used as seeds for decorative purposes. It is the horse chestnut trees that can be seen in the city parks. They look good and smell good during May flowering, but their fruits are absolutely unsuitable for food.
Chestnut grows relatively quickly. The average growth duration is about 30 years. It has the ability to let healthy young shoots from old stumps. Very strong and tenacious, picky for the weather. Although it grows mainly in temperate areas. There are about fifteen varieties of chestnuts. However, gardeners prefer horse chestnut most of all for its fluffy rounded crown and the fragrant aroma of its inflorescences, and also for the simplicity of planting and growing this species.
In order to properly plant a chestnut, it is important to remember that he loves open space, as he spreads his branches widely, and his roots under the ground also spread far from the trunk. Therefore, planting chestnuts is recommended for 7-10 meters from fences and other buildings.
It should also be remembered that under the dense crown of an adult chestnut a dense shadow is formed, which often does not allow even the grass to grow at the foot of the tree. Therefore, if you thought up plant a chestnut in your garden, then prepare more space for him and do not forget that he loves the light. Look for a place where it will be lit from all sides. By the way, under the branches of a tree you can perfectly arrange, for example, benches or children's swings. Then the foot of your tree will eventually become an ideal place for recreation and children's entertainment in the hot summer.
Before you do one of the important things that a person should do in this life, namely, to plant a tree, you need to decide how you will do it. Need also have clear ideas about the features of the tree and the intricacies of its planting and cultivation. Since chestnuts are still heat-loving plants, regions with a moderate, not hot, climate and humidity of at least 70% are most suitable for growing them.
- Chestnut breeding methods.
There are two traditional ways of breeding chestnuts. One of them is the vegetative method. Simply put reproduction by layering, cuttings or using root processes.
Another way of growing with the help of seeds, by virtue of its simplicity, has found the greatest popularity among fans ornamental plants. It is just suitable for those who intend to grow a tree at home. Here we will talk about this method in more detail.
No special knowledge is required to use the seed method. The main thing is to pick up already fallen and well-ripened fruits - nuts.
Seeds need to undergo a stratification process, in other words, simply prolonged aging at the desired temperature. Although in the fall you can immediately plant the seeds in the open ground, pre-saturated with crushed leaves, fallen from the trees. According to scientific such the procedure is called mulching. Having made this way, planting in the fall, already next spring, you can observe how your seeds will give small sprouts, which will soon reach for the sun. The only problem of seed method of cultivation is rodents. In winter, from an insufficient amount of food, they can simply gobble up the seeds or spoil them, preventing them from turning.
With the spring planting of chestnut stratification procedure, which is mentioned a little higher, is required. To do this, the seeds are pre-placed in a cool place in a moist soil for several months (as a rule, from two to five). Just before plant seeds in open ground they should be soaked in water at room temperature for a short time. Thus, the water will soften their thin-skinned clothing, and then the shoots will look out of their temporary “shelters” much faster.
The next step will be planting babies on the garden for their further germination. The depth of planting small shoots is 8-10 centimeters, with a distance of about 20 cm from each other. Young shoots must be constantly maintained, weeded, loosened the ground and watered when necessary.
Planting seedlings on a permanent place
In a year, thinning of seedlings can be done, again, if the situation requires it. It is recommended that young chestnut shoots be placed on a permanent landing site no earlier than the third year in southern latitudes. In moderation for the fifth year. Wherein should be considered those features which we have already mentioned above. Namely, do not save space for trees, because firstly, they themselves love the open space, and secondly, when the seedlings grow and turn into mature trees, they will need many times more space than their initial planting.
About suitable soils
Chestnut is preferable to grow on black soil or loamy soil, because those better retain moisture and nourish the tree. However, it should be noted that the plant still does not tolerate excessive amounts of water. therefore in loamy soil you should add sand before planting a tree there. Perhaps because of the nature of the soil will have to build something like a drainage system for the discharge of excess water.
We advise you to carefully consider all the nuances before refining your site with green plantings and then for many years You will admire the beauty of a majestic chestnut with a spreading crown and relax with your family under his shadow on hot days.
How to distinguish between edible and inedible chestnuts?
These trees have the same name due to the appearance of smooth brown nuts, but differ in botanical classification and other external features. The inedible horse chestnut belongs to the Sapindo family, the noble horse belongs to the Beech.
Where grows edible chestnut Castanea sativa
The plant easily takes root in regions with a subtropical and humid temperate climate, grows in natural conditions and is cultivated in the countries of the Mediterranean and South-Eastern Europe, in Armenia, Abkhazia, and Azerbaijan.
On the territory of Russia it grows in the Krasnodar Territory, the Crimea, the republics of the Caucasus. North of these regions in natural conditions is not found. Attempts to grow in the middle lane are sometimes pumped successfully: seedlings freeze slightly, but survive, grow stronger with age and become more resistant to frost.
Before planting, consider the following factors:
- The plant loves light and heat, develops better in a sunny, windless place. It grows in the shadows too, but it blooms and bears fruit worse.
- The crown increases to 3–4 meters in diameter, therefore for normal growth you need up to 5 m of free space without other landings and buildings.
- Stagnation and excess water destroys the plant, it is important to drain the soil before planting.
- Chestnut prefers loamy chernozem mixed with sand with neutral or weak acidity 5 - 6. Calcareous soil is not suitable.
In regions with prolonged frosts below 20 ° C, it is better to choose other types of chestnut with edible nuts: American dentate or Japanese crusot. They are able to withstand frosts up to 28 ° C.
The process consists of the following steps:
- Dig a cubic hole with a depth and width of 0.5 m.
- 200 g of mineral fertilizers with potassium, nitrogen, phosphorus are added to the bottom, and drainage from a mixture of rubble and sand 20 cm high is laid out.
- The soil is mixed with humus and sand in a ratio of 1: 0.5: 0.5, if the soil is acidic, add 500 g of dolomite flour.
- The bottom is covered with the prepared substrate, poured over with water, a sapling is placed in the center of the fossa, it is covered with soil and lightly tamped.
- Planting mound elevated to 15 cm above ground level, taking into account the subsidence of the soil. The basal neck is placed 8 cm above the knoll.
In conclusion, the sapling is tied to a support from 4 sides and watered with two buckets of warm water, moistened again after a week.
For germination using fresh intact, hard nuts, they are collected in the fall after maturation from the ground. To embark start in November or March. In the fall, this will take less time: plants develop according to the natural cycle.
The nucleoli are placed in a container with sand and kept for 10-14 days in a cool place at a temperature of 6 ° C. Then they put it in open ground: dig holes 6 cm deep, put a nut on the bottom and warm it with a layer of leaves 10 cm thick, do not throw it with earth. To protect against rodents, planting is covered with metal wire boxes. By spring, shoots appear, leave strong and viable at the site.
In regions with severe winter and spring frosts, it is better to grow seedlings at home:
- The main condition for prosperous growth is to keep the nuts in the cold, so from autumn they are placed in a container with sand and stored for 4 - 5 months in a refrigerator, cellar at 6 ° C or dropping capacity at the site.
- At the beginning of March, the nuts are removed and soaked for 5-6 days to soften the shell and accelerate the formation of embryos, the water is constantly changing.
- When sprouts are planted in separate containers with a wet substrate. Drainage is placed on the bottom of the container, special soil is not required, soil from the store will do. It is better to make the wells to a depth of 4 cm: with a greater distance, the sprouts will not sprout, with the surface planting the nuts dry out.
- The pot is put on a sunny place, periodically watered. Shoots germinate after 2 - 3 weeks, they are transferred to the site at the end of May.
When home planting germination is higher, by next winter, seedlings become stronger and tolerate frost better. In cold regions, seedlings are left in the greenhouse for the first 3 years, in the summer they are put on the street.
Seedlings need care the first 4 years, it includes the following items:
- Watering. Saplings are watered regularly when the soil dries. Moisture helps to quickly strengthen the root system. Adult plants need it only in a strong drought.
- Nutrition. The tree is fertilized once a season in the spring: in 15 liters of water dissolve 1 kg of cow manure, 20 g of mineral feed and saltpeter, 10 g of urea. Before placing it in the soil, it is better to pierce holes 30 cm deep so that fertilizer penetrates the soil.
- Formation of the crown. Chestnut pruned to bud swelling in early spring: the upper shoots are shortened by a quarter, remove the frozen, growing inward branches.
- Caring for the pristvolny circle. Soil is loosened 3 times per season, weeds are removed, they mulch late autumn: they cover with a layer of fallen leaves or peat 15 cm thick. Sawdust increases the acidity of the soil, it is better to refuse them.
- Pest protection. More often the tree is affected by chestnut moth, powdery mildew and tree mite. For prevention, the leaves are sprayed twice a month with fungicides, karbofos, to combat the moth using a solution Lyufoks 105.
If you follow the recommendations of experienced gardeners, chestnut decorate the area, begin to bear fruit 8 years after planting, and live up to half a century and more.
What are chestnuts
In our country, you can find two types of chestnuts. The first variety is common everywhere. This is horse chestnut. It is easy to grow near the house, in gardens, squares, along roadsides. The tree has a broad crown, a massive trunk and large leaves, somewhat reminiscent of the outline of the hand. In May, the branches of the tree are covered with large flowers, similar to candles, from which green round fruits with spikes appear. In the fall, the green balls fall, crack into three parts, freeing the shiny brown core.
Those who believe in omens collect horse chestnut because, according to popular belief, its fruits bring good luck. To fortune did not leave, you need to put three nuts in your pocket and carry them all the time with you.
The second variety is a noble chestnut from the family of beech plants. In central Russia, it is difficult to grow it, because the tree likes a humid climate and warmth. It has thin narrow leaves, the fruits are in round spiny boxes. In autumn, they open up, and 1–4 small nuts fall out of them, which have a sweetish sweet taste.
If you believe in ancient signs, these fruits are able to attract money. You only need to carry 2 nuts in a bag next to your wallet and never leave them at home.
Growing from seed in a garden
Planting a chestnut tree near the house is a matter of responsibility, despite the fact that it does not need special care. Many gardeners are interested in how to plant chestnut walnut.
- In the fall, collect ripe large fruits under a tree.
- For planting in late October, you need to prepare the seeds in advance. Pour them in a deep tank with coarse sand, put in a refrigerator for two weeks or go down to the basement.
- After such a stratification procedure, you can plant a nut in the country.
If you plan to deepen the seeds in the ground in the spring, then chestnuts need to be prepared differently. When the tree gets rid of all the fruits, collect the best seeds and put in storage in the basement. In the spring, 5 days before planting near the house, put the chestnuts in a bowl and cover with warm water. Pour cool liquid several times a day and add warm water. Due to this, the walnut shell will become soft and the embryo inside it will swell.
In the spring, dig holes 20 cm deep and place nuts in them. Sprinkle with earth and water carefully. A young sprout will quickly appear above the soil surface, and in a few years it will be possible to transplant it to a permanent place.
Chestnuts gathered in autumn can be used for a talisman. Spread 2 fruits on all cabinets and open shelves in the house. Ancient omens claim that happiness can be attracted in this way.
Horse chestnut is undemanding, it does not need regular complex care. It sprouts beautifully in a flowerpot on the windowsill.
How to plant a chestnut to quickly see the shoots?
- To do this, in the fall, after stratification of seeds, prepare a pot, pour a thin layer of drainage into it, add soil mixture from a store, and pile up a chestnut at a depth of 5 cm.
- Water thoroughly and place on the sunny side of the house.
- Such care will ensure germination, and in the spring the tree can be transplanted. Pick him a place near the fence or on a wide lawn.
Some folk signs do not recommend planting horse chestnut walnut alone. In the old superstitions it is said that a tree planted this way takes health from its owner. Believe in signs or not, everyone decides for himself. If you wish to grow a chestnut near the house is easy to seedlings.
Popular tree species
Chestnut is the common name for beautiful, spreading trees that can often be seen in city parks. They have a slender trunk and sprawling crown with large and beautiful leaves. At the beginning of summer chestnut trees begin to bloom - their branches are covered with beautiful white or pale pink flowers.
Interesting and fruit - many types of chestnut has edible and very useful green spiny boxes that contain several seeds. The gifts of the tree help the circulatory system, cleans venous blood stasis. The flesh is used not only inside, but also externally - it has anti-inflammatory and in addition anesthetic effect.
In nature, chestnuts can be found in the south, at least - the middle belt of forests or wooded slopes of Europe and the CIS. Some varieties grow in the Caucasus and Asia.
Choosing a grade for the dacha
Before you start growing such beautiful trees, you need to understand which variety you want to see in your land. Большое распространение в нашей стране получил конский каштан — его увидеть можно практически повсюду, и плоды дерева для размножения добыть легче. Однако существуют и более интересные варианты.Let's take a closer look at them.
Chestnut tree - a description of varietiessuitable for our summer cottages:
- Horse chestnut is a beautiful, tall and powerful tree with inedible fruits. The horse chestnut acquires a particularly attractive appearance in spring, during flowering. This tree has a huge sprawling crown and will help you find the shade on the hottest summer day. Horse chestnut is cold-proof enough, most pests and diseases are not afraid of it. Good honey plant. Like most of his fellows, horse chestnut grows to gigantic proportions. The visible part extends 30 meters upwards and gives a huge shadow, while the underground part (roots) grows to six meters in diameter.
- American (gear) - this species grows about 60 years and can grow to a height of 35 meters. Its fruits are edible and very tasty, actively used in cooking and medicine. The American representative has excellent frost resistance - able to survive the cold to -30 °. The best grades: Watson, Otto, Murrel, Dulenay.
- Another tree that bears fruit is European chestnut. He perfectly tolerates the Russian winter and, with proper care, is able to delight with his beauty for about five hundred years! It blooms in June, becoming covered with amazing white flowers, and after the foliage has subsided, in November, it begins to bear fruit. The older the tree, the greater the amount of edible nuts you can get from it.
It should be noted that the bark of these trees actively absorbs and accumulates heavy metals.
How to grow chestnut?
If you are ready to plant such a magnificent plant on your plot, then you should start by choosing future seedlings. You can get sprouts in the following ways:
- Seeds, although they have one unpleasant feature - low germination, so that the first shoots will have to wait long enough.
- Fruits allow you to grow a new tree under special conditions.
- The easiest and easiest way is to buy already grown chestnut seedlings. In this way, you can independently choose the desired variety, plant it in the ground and is guaranteed to get a beautiful, large and strong tree.
Growing chestnut nuts
If you want to grow a sapling from fallen fruits, then choose the most beautiful and healthy in appearance, with a strong skinned. Tearing chestnuts from a tree for future planting is ineffective. If you plan to grow just a couple of seedlings, collect more nuts from the ground - about five. Not the fact that each of them quickly sprout.
The rules of the autumn and spring planting
As soon as you have collected the fruits - the chestnut loses them in the fall, they should be immediately prepared for planting. Few nuts survive until spring, for such a long time they become dry and it is very difficult to grow strong sprouts.
After the autumn harvest nuts stand about a week in the cold, and then planted in the ground where you want to see a large and spreading tree, and wait for spring. The depth of the fossa should be 2-3 diameter of the fetus. In this case, you can rely on the grace of nature, however, you can and work a little on spring to plant sprouts in open ground, for this the seeds will have to be subjected to forced stratification.
Before spring planting, seeds should be stored in a refrigerator or basement, peppered with sand. You can also put the seed tank under the snow. In early spring, before direct planting, they are soaked for 5 days in water, which is regularly changed. Swollen fruits are transplanted into moist soil.
Another spring planting option - plant a nut in a flower pot medium size (300–500 ml) with any type of soil can be planted in the ground from the dacha. Planting chestnut seed is recommended to a depth of 3–5 cm in moist soil. 2-3 weeks after planting, the first sprout should appear. For six months he will grow into a strong seedling, which quickly grows into a big tree.
Many people choose exactly the spring method of cultivation, because it allows you to get strong seedlings with a high percentage of germination. Autumnal planting is dangerous because not all seeds are able to survive the winter, even under snow.
It is easy to care for such a plant as a chestnut (tree) - planting and care are simple enough even for novice gardeners.
Young bush is watered regularlySince its root system is rather weak, no watering is required at all in the future. It should be remembered that the chestnut does not tolerate the overwetted soil, so it requires a high-quality drainage layer. Before watering, make sure that the soil is really dry. The optimum irrigation regime is a pair of water buckets every 4–5 weeks in the evening.
The wood of a young tree is quite fragile, it can suffer from strong winds. Therefore, when the weather deteriorates, it is desirable to tie it to a wooden peg.
It is worth preparing for the fact that a beautiful tree with a rich and lush crown will grow very, very soon. At the end of the second year of growing, the seedling will increase by only twenty centimeters. And by the end of the fifth year, it will be possible to admire a process of 1.5 meters. A beautiful crown will begin its formation by the beginning of the tenth year of life. Therefore, at the age of ten years, the seedlings are ready for full-fledged growth in the open field.
To chestnut brought many healthy and tasty fruits and regularly blossomed, you must feed a sapling twice a year:
- Springtime sometimes requires watering with the addition of urea (calculated 15 grams. Powder per 10 liters of pure water) or more simple fertilizing with mullein.
- In the autumn, you need to take care to add nitroammophoska (in the same amount) to the water.
Also once every 3-4 years it is recommended to add compost or a small amount of rotted manure.
Proper care of the branches and the regular formation of the crown - a pledge of a beautiful and healthy tree with many fruits and beautiful flowers. In the first spring after planting, the side shoots are shortened by half, and the upper shoots, traditionally appearing in summer, are left. The following year, the shortened branches are removed, repeating this work annually, until the bush grows at the desired height. After that, the five main laterals are defined, which will form the lower tier.
A three-year-old seedling can begin to cut branches and form a crown. This is a regular lesson, which is usually planned for spring. Remove weak, damaged and sprouted branches in the crown. Also, the height of the plant is cut off by about a quarter, cutting off the central trunk. Lateral branches are only slightly pruned.
In the summertime, you can remove the extra young shoots, fresh slices can be poured with garden pitch.
Many gardeners are interestedwhen chestnut blooms. The first beautiful flowers begin to bloom after a ten-year milestone, but some varieties may require more time. For blooming chestnut buds require a temperature of 15-18 degrees for several days.
Despite the fact that chestnuts are quite frost-resistant, during the first five years they must be carefully prepared for the onset of frost. To do this, the soil around the trunk is mulched using peat or fallen leaves with a layer thickness of 20 centimeters. The trunks themselves wrap with sacking in several layers.
If in spring, when inspecting trees, bark will be noticeable, cracked due to severe frosts, then it must be treated. Damaged places are smeared with antiseptics and watered with garden pitch.
To chestnut please the eye, you must regularly carry out preventive measures to protect it from diseases and pests. This plant is quite resistant to various diseases, however, they are not excluded.
Basic chestnut disease:
- Leaf spot may be perforated, black, red-brown, brown. It is necessary to carefully select the damaged leaves, burn them. The tree must be done extraordinary feeding, reduce the number of waterings or make a small shelter with a few pegs and film.
- Mealy dew occurs due to hot weather or an oversupply of nitrogen fertilizers, lack of phosphorus and potassium supplements. In the evening, the tree can be poured with fungicides: Topsin, Bayleton, Fundazol, Fitosporin-m.
- Necrosis is caused by a sharp rise or fall in temperature, mechanical damage. An adult plant will quietly survive such a nuisance, and the young may die. To avoid this, the damaged area is cut out, the rest of the bark is watered with disinfectant and garden pitch. To avoid necrosis, you must carefully whiten the tree in spring and autumn.
- If there is rot on the bark, the chestnut can not be saved. It is cut down and burned. Liming the soil and fungicide treatment will help prevent this unpleasant disease.
It is easy to purchase a young biennial tree in a special nursery. Rooting of a sapling is allowed in the spring, in the beginning of May, or in the autumn when leaves fall off from trees.
- Choose a suitable plot in the country. It is important that the distance between the trees was not less than 3 meters, otherwise the chestnut will not be able to fully develop, despite the competent care.
- Dig holes 50 cm wide and 50 cm deep. Connect them to humus and river sand in a ratio of 2: 1: 1. Stir and add 500 g of slaked lime and dolomite flour. Such a soil is ideal for chestnut.
- Put a thick layer of expanded clay on the bottom of the pit. Instead, you can use pebbles or broken bricks. Sprinkle with the prepared soil and place 200 g of nitrogen-potassium fertilizer on top.
- Fill the hole with 2 buckets of water, put a seedling and cover it with earth, tamping it gently with your hands.
- Water the tree again and slightly roll it up. The mound will gradually settle under the influence of the rains.
- To prevent the fragile branches of the seedling from damaging the wind, place a support near it and tie it up.
Now you know how to plant a chestnut near the house. There is nothing complicated about it. The tree can be grown in any soil, but it will be better to bloom in loamy black soil. This is a frost-resistant plant, the trunk of which should be covered only with very cold weather.
How to care
Caring for chestnut tree in the country does not require special skills. Timely loosen the soil, get rid of weeds. It's enough.
Properly grow a tree will help moderate watering. If the summer is very hot, water it once a month with 7–10 l of water. Above all, do not moisten too much. Chestnut has a powerful root system that penetrates deep into the soil and supplies water to the plant.
In the spring it is advisable to prune the upper shoots to a quarter of the length. From this procedure, the crown will be formed thick and fluffy.
When horse chestnut blooms, rest more in the shade of a tree. If you believe in omens, a blooming flower that fell from a branch to a person guarantees good luck and happiness in the current year.
To grow chestnut, you need fertilizer. Without it, care will not be complete. Top dressing is made in the early spring. For it will need:
- 15 liters of water
- 20 g of ammonium nitrate,
- 1 kg of manure,
- 15 g of urea,
- 25 g of nitrogen-potassium phosphate fertilizer.
The components will need to be mixed together and moisten the soil with a solution.
Diseases and pests
Horse chestnut is hardy and rarely gets sick. But still there are a number of diseases that a tree is prone to.
- Mealy dew. This is a fungal disease in which white bloom appears on the leaves. They dry, turn black and fall off.
- Red-brown and brown spotting. Symptoms of the disease are similar. Leaves spoil, covered with black dots and spots.
In order to prevent the spread of the disease, collect fallen leaves and burn. Remove affected branches in time, heal wounds on the trunk, and avoid over-wetting. If the disease does not recede, spray the crown according to the instructions fungicides.
Great damage to the tree delivers chestnut moth. It infects the leaves, and if the parasite is not destroyed, the plant may eventually die.
The insect is very tenacious, conventional pest control methods do not help. The mole gets inside the sheet plate, which protects it from the effects of chemicals.
Good results are shown by processing by system insecticides. For wetting the crown will need a powerful sprayer. Remember to work with gloves and a respirator to keep your hands and lungs safe.
Completely save the tree from moths can be a special injection. This new development is quite expensive and not everyone can afford it. But if you have a lot of chestnuts growing in front of your house, it is better to invite a specialist to make the system insecticide inject properly.
So, chestnut is definitely worth growing near the house - according to old beliefs, it protects people, absorbs all the negative energy. As a result, households experience headaches, their mood improves and forces for new achievements appear.
Chestnut is useful to young girls. In the old days, under a flowering tree, they made cherished wishes. Signs claim that voiced dreams always came true.
Planting and care
Propagated by plant seeds. Seed germination is high. Sowing occurs in the spring, the end of April, the beginning of May. Planting depth is up to 8 cm. 40 seeds are sown per 1 meter. In the first 10 years, seedlings grow very slowly, so at this age it is better to transplant with a clod of earth. After planting, abundant watering is required, then the plants will take root well. The distance between the trees should be about 6 m. For planting suitable turf and leaf land with a sand content and low acidity. Lime is added to acidic soils. Fertilizer should be applied in early spring: mullein and urea, diluted in water. In the autumn applied fertilizer nitroammofoska. In the dry season, the plant needs regular watering. When weeding the soil should be loosened. Pristvolny circle mulch wood chips or peat compost. Periodically clean the tree from the prong shoots and dry branches.
Decorative forms of horse chestnut propagated by offspring, layering, grafting and cuttings. Seed breeding method is considered the easiest.
In ornamental gardening, the following horse chestnut forms are the most popular, propagated vegetatively: pyramidal, short, weeping, columnar, variegated, umbrella-shaped, with terry flowers.
Pests and diseases of the horse horse chestnut
The most dangerous pest of horse chestnut is considered a tick. For the prevention of wood every 2 weeks treated with karbofos or phytoseater Plants help fight with pests decoctions of hogweed dissected and black henbane. To get rid of stains on the tree, it is treated with Bordeaux liquid or foundation. To prevent damage to young individuals by severe frosts for the winter period, the root neck of the plants is covered with fallen leaves. The first two years after planting the headquarters of grafted trees wrapped with sacking. When frost cracks appear, they are treated with an antiseptic and garden pitch.
Horse chestnut seeds
Horse chestnut seeds are rich in water and starch. Used for the preparation of natural soap. In a small amount of seeds go to feed cattle, because they have a specific taste, are given in the form of flour, which is sprinkled with food or fed with root vegetables. Of them receive technical starch and printing glue.
The trunk and branches of a tree have tannins, a glycoside esculin, a saponin escin. That is why drugs that contain horse chestnut in their composition, reduce blood clotting, strengthen the walls of veins, prevent and dissolve blood clots in blood vessels.
What is rich chestnut leaf in the fall?
Chestnut paste is used in traditional medicine. The chestnut leaf is rich in vitamins C and B. The flowers and bark of this tree are used as anti-inflammatory and astringent. The bark is antipyretic. Fresh juice and bark decoction treat skin diseases. They are used in the form of baths and compresses.
Extract and infusion of fruits in cosmetology is used to remove edema on the face. Chestnut honey is very useful for colds, different liquid consistency, bitter taste, rapid crystallization, has no color. In the Middle Ages, snuff was made from the fruits of horse chestnut. Horse chestnut wood has a fairly low quality, so no value in the industry is not.
Horse chestnut fruits
In the old days, horse chestnut fruits were dried, ground into flour and mixed with alum. Thus, bookbinder received special, binding glue. Books bound with this glue have been stored for a very long time. The wood of this tree served as a material for the manufacture of musical instruments, shoes and dentures. Thanks to its softness and ease of processing, household utensils, boxes for storing tobacco and cigars, and turning crafts were made from it. Fishermen used horse chestnut fruit powder, which in standing water caused fish poisoning.
People are not recommended to eat horse chestnut. There have been cases of severe poisoning of children and pets that ate the fruit. Wood dust and sawdust of this tree can cause allergic reactions.
Collection and harvesting of raw materials and chestnut flowers
Для изготовления лекарственных средств, настоев и отваров применяются плоды, листья, цветки, кора и ветви каштана. Сбор коры приходится на весенний период. Кору делят на части, сушат на открытом воздухе, а затем досушивают в проветриваемом помещении. Flowers harvested in late spring. On the first day they are dried in the sun, then under a canopy. The leaves are harvested from May to September. Dry in a fresh air under a canopy or in a well-ventilated area, spread out in a thin layer. Fruits are harvested fully ripe. Dried under a canopy or indoors at temperatures up to 25 degrees.
Horse ordinary chestnut: description and photo
Deciduous tree, a type of horse chestnut family, horse-chestnut family. The height reaches about 36 m.
The barrel is a regular cylindrical shape. The bark is dark brown, lamellar.
The root system is powerful, with a tap of the main root and side roots. Young shoots and seedlings are large.
Buds are large, sticky, red-brown color. The crown is wide, dense.
The leaves are opposite, petiolate, palmatological, rounded, up to 25 cm in diameter.
The flowers are white or light pink, collected in inflorescences.
Fruits of horse chestnut - rounded boxes (nuts). When ripe, they open with three leaves. Ripen in August - September. The seeds are large, flattened.
Where does horse horse chestnut grow
It grows mainly in mountain forests in the Balkans, northern Greece, Albania, Serbia and Bulgaria. Wild chestnut settles in deciduous forests with alder, hornbeam, linden, oak and other trees. As a cultivated plant is widespread in the subtropical and temperate zones of the Northern Hemisphere. In Russia it grows in the south of the middle belt. It is used as an ornamental tree for landscaping parks, squares, gardens. Horse chestnut ordinary durable. Under favorable conditions, can live up to 300 years. It is not subject to pests and diseases. Adults are well tolerated transplant. Shade-tolerant Prefers friable, deep, moderately wet soils. Poor tolerates excessively wet and saline soils. Sensitive to hot winds - dry winds, from which the leaves turn yellow, dry out and fall. Winter hardy Young individuals are damaged during severe frosts.
Horse horse chestnut seeds
The seeds of this plant are similar to the seeds of edible chestnut. They have a rounded, oblong shape, up to 5 cm in diameter. In dried form they are smooth, shiny, brown in color with a gray spot at the base. Chestnut tree seeds are used in medicine.
Growing plants ordinary and wild chestnut
Horse chestnut is planted in a soil mixture containing turf, humus and sand. The distance between the trees when planting should be at least 5-6 m. The root neck after soil subsidence should be at ground level. Slaked lime is added to the landing pit (100-200 g), a drainage layer is made of rubble (10-20 cm). In early spring, the plant is fed. As a fertilizer suitable composition of mullein, urea and ammonium nitrate, diluted in water. In the autumn using nitroammofoski. When planting and the next 4 days, regular and abundant watering is obligatory. The tree tolerates drought well, but during dry periods, young individuals require intensive watering. Loosening is necessary to remove weeds and saturate the soil with oxygen. Periodically pruning dried and damaged branches, cleaning the trunk from the shoots. Mulching of the trunk circle with peat, peat compost and wood chips.
Horse chestnut leaves
They contain tannins and pectin substances, vitamin K, glycosides. Used in traditional medicine for the preparation of decoctions and infusions used for internal bleeding. Harvest horse chestnut leaves from May to September. Dry them in the attic or in a dark, well-ventilated room. Lay out a thin layer. The finished raw material has a pleasant aroma and becomes dark green in color.
Application of horse chestnut nut
Chestnut plant has a decorative value, is used for landscaping streets, creating alleys, parks and squares. Differs thick, sprawling, beautiful crown and patterned large leaves. Especially attractive during flowering, during this period its crown is decorated with numerous erect inflorescences resembling a candle. Blooms profusely on the edges, lawns and in single plantings.
The fruit of the chestnut - walnut is used for the manufacture of women's jewelry.
From chestnut seeds produce drugs that have venotonic, antithrombotic effects, as well as drugs used in venous stasis and varicose veins.
Chestnut nut is not suitable for food, bitter and poisonous. When consumed, you can get food poisoning. For some animals, horse chestnut fruits serve as food.
Wood does not have commercial value, but is durable and light, so small household utensils, boxes and souvenir handicrafts are made from it. The bark of this plant contains tannins. The leaves are rich in vitamins C and B.
Honeybees get nectar with high sugar content and pollen from chestnut flowers, glue (propolis) in spring. Previously, horse chestnut seeds, rich in saponins, were used to bleach hemp, flax, silk and wool.
The wood of this tree is very durable, therefore it is often used in joinery as an array and in the form of veneer. The structure of the chestnut is stratified, the wood itself is grayish. The structure of a chestnut tree resembles an oak tree, but in a section, unlike this massive tree, it does not have a characteristic luster.
The edible chestnut is used in the production of furniture, it is well-cut and cut, it is easily subjected to any processing. Its soft wood has a uniform density, is well polished, varnished and tinted. Products made of oak and chestnut differ only in weight, it is difficult to distinguish them externally with appropriate toning and selection of the structure.
Application of horse ordinary chestnut in cooking
The seeds of the plant are used as surrogate coffee. Before this, toxins are leached from them, the seeds are dried and crushed. But this process eliminates many minerals, vitamins and beneficial trace elements. Ready seeds are roasted.
Horse chestnut seeds contain water, starch, protein and toxic saponins, which are pre-leached, for harmless consumption of seeds. For this, the nuts are slowly burnt, cut into small pieces, put into a fabric bag and washed for 2-5 days in running water. But even after such careful processing, chestnut seeds in large quantities is not recommended.
The use of a leaf of horse chestnut in folk medicine
Horse chestnut plant is used in medicine as an analgesic, anti-inflammatory and astringent. Preparations from this plant constrict blood vessels, increase pressure, heal wounds.
Horse chestnut has a diuretic, tonic, wound-healing, antipyretic effect. Used for the treatment of vascular diseases, varicose veins of the lower extremities, hemorrhoids and frostbite.
Tea from the bark of horse chestnut drink with dysentery, for the treatment of lupus erythematosus and dermatitis. Chestnut leaf tea is used to treat fever and whooping cough.
Seeds are expectorant, decongestant and tonic.
Oil obtained from the seeds of this plant, treat rheumatism.
Eating horse horse chestnut seeds is not recommended for liver and kidney diseases.
Saponins contained in horse chestnut seeds replace soap. These substances are obtained by grinding the seeds into small pieces and washing them in water. Soapy water is used for washing, washing and other household needs. However, do not forget about the persistent smell of chestnut.
Starch is obtained from the seeds of chestnut, which is added during washing to impart rigidity to the fabric.
From horse bark of an ordinary horse a yellow natural dye is obtained. Tree flowers contain quercetin - a yellow antioxidant dye.
Souvenirs and charcoal are produced from wood.
From the history of chestnut
For the first time this unusual, beautiful tree was brought to Europe in the 15th century by the botanist Charles de Lucluse from Istanbul. At first it was grown in Vienna from seeds. After a while the tree became popular in all European countries. Used for landscaping streets and garden design. The fruits served as feed for livestock. The healing properties of this plant were discovered in the 20th century.
About chestnut folded a lot of signs and superstitions. It is believed that chestnut should be carried with back pain, rheumatism, arthritis, asthma and chest problems. If you carry three chestnuts with you, it will help to get rid of headaches and dizziness.