Leaf lettuce is included in the diet of therapeutic and dietary foods, due to the rich vitamin composition. To please yourself and your loved ones with delicious, and most importantly, healthy dishes can be, if you plant the crop on the garden plot or directly on the windowsill.
With proper care and proper agricultural practices, even a novice can sow and grow lettuce.
The timing of planting lettuce seeds in the open ground
Planted salad in the gardenevery 2 weeks, taking a fresh crop throughout the warm season. Sowing dates are determined taking into account the characteristics of the variety.
Among the proposed varieties there are plants of different vegetation periods: early, mid and late. Matures culture for 25-50 days.
Works on planting begin in early spring, when the night temperature reaches positive indicators. In the middle lane this time falls April - early May. According to the lunar calendar, the so-called tops, to which the salad belongs, land on the growing moon.
Growing leaf and cabbage lettuce is possible in several ways:
The bed is organized in open ground, greenhouse and even on the windowsill. The seedling method is more suitable for regions with a harsh climate and in cases where there is a desire to get an early harvest.
Springtime is characterized by inconstancy of weather, and a high probability of night frosts. Seedlings should be planted on an open bed, when the threat of frost penetration of young shoots has passed.
Seedling method allows you to get an early harvest, which is ahead of the usual terms by 3-4 weeks.
The most popular varieties of leaf lettuce for growing in the country
A variety of varieties will satisfy the needs and desires of the pickiest gardener. And for those who are just beginning to master the technology of growing vegetable crops, it is recommended to purchase proven varieties.
Excitement - a plant of medium early ripening period with a growing season 64 days. The size of the fan-shaped sheet is quite large, the edge has a characteristic waviness. The structure of the green tender semi crunchy. The bush reaches a height of 25-27 cm, outlet diameter - 30-32 cm.
The weight of the head of the average size - 250 gr. Terms of landing: April May.
After the emergence of seedlings in the phase of formation of the first leaf, thinning the beds is performed, leaving an interval between shoots of 5-7 cm. After 2 weeks, extra sprouts are removed by selecting underdeveloped ones. The distance between the remaining - 25-30 cm.
Features of culture: a positive reaction to fertilizing and watering, but do not abuse food. Excess water leads to rotting of the roots.
The growing season lasts 65-80 days. Variety refers to the oily variety of lettuce. Mature shrub is characterized by a large size and semi upright shape. Yellowish-green sheets have a folded surface, but the structure is delicate. At the height and taste.
Benefits of Dubrava: resistance to gray rot and leaf burn.
The planting is recommended at the beginning of May according to the scheme: 25x30 cm, the depth of seeds is 2 cm. The yield per square meter reaches 2-2.5 kg.
Appearance of salad similar to white cabbage. The leaves during the formation of going to the core, forming a ball. The color of juicy crunchy greens has a whitish hue. The plant is weighty, large specimens reach 1 kg (average 300-600 gr.).
Technical ripeness of culture comes for 75-90 days. A special feature of the Iceberg is resistance to chaff and downy mildew. Grade value: high commodity and taste, a long period of storage of a fresh product (up to 3 weeks).
The culture of the average term of aging, the growing season lasts 85-90 days. Oblong leaves grow strictly vertically. The structure of greenery is crisp, but gentle on perception. The popularity of the variety is due to a very pleasant taste and juiciness.
The variety is very demanding for irrigation, it is impossible to allow the soil to dry out, the plant will wither. Feature of culture: high and stable yield (1-2.2 kg per 1 m2).
What kind of soil does a plant love?
Culture responds well to fertilized soil with drainage, which is enriched with mineral additives. If the medium is acidified, then it must be neutralized by introducing dolomite flour or chopped lime.
The place to plant is chosen well lit and ventilatedbut without drafts. Culture grows well in dispersed partial shade. If there is a choice between elevation and lowland, then preference is given to elevation. This reduces the risk of decay of the root system.
A well-ventilated and lighted place is chosen for planting the salad.
How to prepare a bed for planting
Preliminary soil needs to be prepared. In autumn it is appropriate to enrich the future garden bed. humus. And in the spring, 2-3 weeks before the planting works, the land is dug up again and mineral fertilizers are applied, in particular potassium salt, ammonium sulphate, superphosphate and etc.
Preparation should begin in the fall, making fertilizer when digging the ground. In spring, the landing site must be disinfected with a weak solution of potassium permanganate or boiling water.
Before seeding, you need to level the ground well, break all any large lumps with a rake. Salad loves loose soiltherefore the dense ground makes it easier peat, river sand and humus.
Proper seed preparation before planting
Quality seeds are chosen for planting. high germination rate (not less than 80%).
Initially, the seed passes calibration: from the total, healthy and undeformed specimens are selected. Sorting also includes the rejection of small grains.
As practice shows, shoots sprouted from them are weak and small. The size of the seeds complicates the task, so gardeners use this method:
- to cook salt solution (3-5%),
- fill them with seeds and leave for 15-20 minutes,
- pop up seeds remove (those are considered suitable that remained at the bottom)
- gently drain and rinse the remaining seeds under running water through a sieve.
After drying, the seeds should be soaked in a weak solution of potassium permanganate for disinfection. The duration of the procedure is 15 minutes.
To do this, select a few pieces of each class and wrap them in a damp cloth. If after 1-2 days the seeds have spiked, you can plant them into the soil and count the number of sprouts.
The spring period is characterized by a deficiency of vitamins and valuable microelements for any person, so the early harvest will be good, and most importantly a useful addition to the table. Speed up the development of lettuce will help seed soaking in nutrient fluid.
The following fertilizers are recommended for this:
- Ideal (teaspoon per liter of water),
- Epin (2 drops in 100 ml of water),
- Epin-Extra (30 drops in a glass of water).
Other drugs that are aimed at plant growth promotion.
What scheme can sow seeds
There are several schemes for planting lettuce, the option is chosen depending on the characteristics of the variety. Summer residents who own small plots of land, manage to sow the plant in between rows, along the fence, between the beds of vegetable crops.
The bed is formed in the loose way and ordering. The interval stipulated by the salad planting scheme is observed only when transferring seedlings to open ground or a greenhouse. When sowing, the distance between the seeds is no more than 3 cm.
The scheme is designed for low-growing plants, recommends sticking to the interval between the bushes not less than 20 cm (20x20 cm). For tall crops the distance will be optimal 25-30 cm (25x30 cm). In the greenhouse, making furrows for rows with an interval of 10-15 cm. Seeds are immersed in the ground at a depth of 1-2 cm. It is impossible to replant the plant.
The technology of growing lettuce is quite simple, you only need to adhere to general rules and comply with the regime. And the harvest obtained through our own efforts is always tastier than purchased greens.
In open ground, early varieties of lettuce should be sown starting in April. At this time, the earth was already warm enough for them to ascend quickly. Late and mid-season species are planted a month later - in May, and up to the second decade of June.
The peculiarity of the ripening of lettuce is the predominance of bitter taste during the growth of the stem of the bush. Then the leaves become inedible.
In order to have sweet and juicy leaflets all summer, repeated sowing of seeds is practiced. Until the end of August, seeds are sown in the vacant space every 10 days. In addition, like all cold-resistant crops, lettuce tolerates low temperatures well, which allows it to be sown before winter (in October). Read: The use of ammonium nitrate!
Where better to plant?
Salad grows well in almost any soil, except for clay, but more lush bushes are obtained when grown in loose and nutritious soil. To do this, the allotted area in the fall to dig deep, pre-making humus (for each square meter of a bucket).
Immediately before spring sowing, feed the soil with mineral fertilizers, based on one square of soil:
With increased acidity, add additional wood ash.
The beds for the salad is better to break in a sunny place, avoiding shading. Salad grows well after cucumbers and potatoes. In the summer, you can do the combined planting with tomatoes, onions or radishes.
How to plant?
On a loosened and fertilized area make shallow grooves (up to 1 cm) and put seeds in them. Since the bushes grow quite lush, you need to make the width between the rows to 20 cm.
For greater convenience, small seeds can be mixed with sand.
Sowed beds well watered. For early spring sowing, it is recommended to cover it with a film in order to accelerate germination.
How to care?
When all the seeds have risen, and the seedlings grow a little, they should be thinned, leaving between the bushes:
- from 6 cm - for leaf lettuce,
- from 10 cm - for heading varieties.
Watering the planting is necessary once a week, and when the heads of cabbages start to be tied - even less often. After each irrigation, loosen the soil so that it does not take a crust.
As for dressings, on the condition of pre-planting fertilizer, nothing more should be added to the beds. The only exceptions are lettuce varieties, which mature longer than leafy ones. They should be watered once with infusion of mullein or grass.
Lettuce is resistant to cold. In the greenhouse it can be grown from early spring, and if it is heated - grow even in winter. Seeds can erupt at a temperature of 5-6 ° C, young shoots can withstand a decrease in temperature to -2 ° C. For good growth and development, the optimum air temperature is 20 ° C.
Choose cold resistant varieties.
When and how to sow
Flatten the plot. Start sowing when the temperature of the air inside the greenhouse at night will not fall below 0 ° C (in an unheated greenhouse this is approximately the middle-end of March).
- Make rows at a distance of 10 cm from each other.
- The depth of seeding should be 1-2 cm.
- The weather is changeable, therefore, under the threat of severe frosts, gurgle the soil with fine humus.
The cultivation process will take about 1 month.
How to break through and whether to dive?
Salad growing from seed when planted and how to care
- Leave a distance between plants of 15-20 cm minimum to get large leafy sockets.
- Many practice a pick of lettuce, the plants are really taken and soon give a good harvest. However, it should be noted that you lose a couple of weeks of precious time.
- It is much easier, faster and more profitable to sow the necessary area immediately and simply break through the extra shoots, than to engage in unproductive picking.
Conditions for growing lettuce in the open field
In summer, leaf lettuce can be grown in the open field. To get fresh greens until autumn, sow every 14 days.
Choose varieties by maturity: early, medium, late ripening. Information about sowing and harvesting dates is indicated on the seed package. Each variety has its own characteristics: strictly follow the recommendations of the breeders on planting dates, so that instead of a crop of greens do not get arrows with peduncles.
For leaf lettuce it is preferable to place in light shading: the greens will turn out very tender and juicy.
Site preparation is carried out similarly to the greenhouse: autumn digging, fertilization.
How to sow
- For sowing, make grooves about 1-2 cm deep.
- Sow less often, it is advisable to leave between the seeds of 1-1.5 cm
- The distance between the rows is 15-20 cm.
- Smooth the soil, water well.
- To accelerate germination for the first few days, cover the crops with a film.
Follow standard care procedures (similar to greenhouse): water, loosen the soil, remove weeds. When the plants grow, thin them several times, leaving a distance of 15-20 cm in the end.
Growing leaf lettuce at home in the winter on a windowsill
Leaf lettuce on windowsill and balcony photo
To get lush greenery in wintertime, you can make a small garden on a windowsill or a covered balcony. Growing leaf lettuce in room conditions is not difficult, even inexperienced gardeners can handle it.
Preparation of soil and tanks for sowing
Deep tanks are required - about 35 cm.
Soil for planting can be purchased at the store or cook yourself. Take the land from the site, add rotted manure, peat, mix in equal proportions. As a fertilizer, use nitrophosphate and urea.
Be sure to lay a drainage layer at the bottom of the tank (expanded clay, small pebbles, walnut shells can be used).
Salad growing technology
The content of a huge amount of vitamins will benefit the skin, improve the complexion and accelerate cell regeneration. Juice obtained from this plant contains:
This food is ideal for hair. They shine, stop falling out and grow faster. At the same time for the greens do not have to go far. We can grow it in our garden, in a greenhouse and a window sill in a pot.
When is it better to put lettuce
Terms for planting and care will depend on the subspecies:
By the end of the XVII century, the French began to grow leaf, after a century began to cultivate the head of the product.
The cabbies are not afraid of cold, so they are planted in the ground in March, it is possible to plant in late autumn. Seeds are hardened, which provides strong and rich greens that are resistant to frost and disease. Young shoots can withstand four degrees cold, and adults - eight degrees.
It is useful to land lettuce before winter, but only under certain conditions. Beds for planting must be thoroughly loosened, completely free from litter and roots. This is necessary so that in the spring, as soon as possible, the sun will heat the loose earth. Do not forget to add rotted manure and ash, this will be a wonderful environment for seeds.
For growing onions Choose beds on the heights. Lowland is not suitable because the plant loves a lot of sun. It is advisable to start sub-winter sowing in late November - early December. Seeds are sown in already frozen ground, to a depth of no more than 5 cm, sprinkled with deciduous soil. Be prepared that it will take three times more for the sub-winter sowing of grains.
Some of the seeds will not be able to survive the frost, or, if they huddle too thickly, the bed will have to be thinned out. Sowing is often done without gaps.
Growing in a greenhouse
Sow on seedlings begin from the end of February - the beginning of March. Growth of seedlings and planting lettuce in the ground is taken from one month to 40 days. And mid-season varieties grow up to 2 months.
There are late varieties that ripen in the very middle of summer. But you can grow lettuce on the schedule several times per season, one month after the last sowing. The final sowing can be done at the end of August.
If you are sowing in a greenhouse, then the final sowing can be postponed to the end of September, and you will enjoy fresh greenery in early November. The main condition - you can not perederzhivat lettuce in the garden because the leaves begin to taste bitter. It is best to use juicy young greens. Salad is an annual plant and is designed for one growth cycle. The bitterness of the salad is similar to the bitterness of the radish.
For planting in the soil during the winter and spring sowing, it is necessary to loosen the beds, after two or three days you can make seeds.
If you are going to sow grains in April, and the ground is not yet warm, it is desirable to shed prepared furrows with boiling water. Seeds deepen no more than one centimeter. After prodding the roving varieties, the plot should remain according to the scheme 25 by 10 cm. If all four seeds come up, gently pull or cut weak bushes.
Seedlings should appear on the third day, provided that the lettuce was not grown for 2–3 years at this place, as this slows the growth of lettuce. The best plant after cabbage or radish.
Если посадка латука оказалась рядом с редькой или редисом, то выросшая зелень поможет избавиться от земляных блошек, потому что это насекомое не переносит запах салатов. However, he himself is subject to attacks by aphids. It would be nice to plant a bow next to it, its smell will scare away aphids from greenery. Cucumbers and tomatoes, beans and peas can be good neighbors, which cannot be said about corn or sunflower. They are not harmful, but will simply shade a small plant.
Cabbage Lettuce can accumulate nitrates, which began to study the effect in the forty-fifth year of the last century, in connection with a disease such as methemoglobinia. This is a disease in which hemoglobin ceases to carry oxygen in the blood. The accumulation of toxic doses of nitrates is a proven cause of the disease. Lettuce does not need nitrogen fertilization, so it does not need to fertilize it. Like any plant, salad loves water. Knowing this feature, very often it is grown on an industrial scale not in the ground, but in a nutrient solution.
Growing lettuce in hydroponics
Seedlings are planted in several tiers in the shape of a pyramid, which effectively save space. Greens do not have to extract useful microelements for themselves, which makes it grow more rapidly.
When grown in hydroponics, the harvest will ripen faster in ten days, it happens that in just 20 days.
There are no problems with the implementation of the farmers, because everyone knows the taste and vitamin qualities of the salad, they are always on top.
The best varieties for planting
Lettuce is a salad familiar to our eyes., leaves are light green with a lighter heart, curled at the edge.
- Lollo Rossa - the same lettuce, but with curvature brought to the limit. It also amazes the eye with its beauty or violet color scheme. Because of the color qualities, all restaurateurs love it, decorate the table with them, and it is included in many dishes. To grow Lollo Ross, enough for one and a half months. The leaves are tender and crunchy.
- Romano first discovered the ancient Romans, hence the name. Even in those days it was eaten as a separate dish, green salads are popular in Italy to this day. It is referred to the heading, although it is loose, like a regular leaf. The leaves are juicy, pale green, crunchy.
- Iceberg resembles white cabbage, one bush weighs up to 400 grams and is distinguished by high crispness. The original name was “crispy salad,” but the Americans noticed that this salad was best kept near ice, hence the word Ice. In the summer of growing this salad is very difficult because of his love of cold, it is best to plant in late autumn, in winter, in early spring.
- Oaklif looks like oak leaves, hence the name "oak leaf", also resembles a loose head, like Romano salad. This salad is characterized by a special tenderness, oiliness and very short periods of preservation. It can be eaten right away on the garden, metal cannot be used during collection and storage, delicate leaves may oxidize, causing deterioration.
- Frieze has such a feature that in the first phase of growth it does not need light at all, this produces an inhibin that multiplies red blood cells. For people with low hemoglobin, doctors are advised to add to the food exactly Frieze. It comes from the class endive (and lettuce from chicory), has a powerful root. The roots of these salads give bitterness, they make cocoa substitutes on the basis of milled roots. This cocoa has a nutty flavor.
- Corn has small leaves, folded in the form of roses. Can be stored, basically, 3 days in the refrigerator. In dishes it is used only with balsamic oil; in our region, which is used to sunflower oil, it is used extremely rarely.
- Arugula is chicornic, has the same bitter-nutty taste, resembles rosemary in appearance. In our region, it was called “wild mustard”, its height reaches up to 70 cm.
- Radicchio - burgundy color with a white core, also likes to grow in the dark, hence the color, due to the lack of photosynthesis. The bitter taste will change to a sweet one, if the leaves are slightly scalded, the rest are eaten raw.
- Cross-salad, pleasant to the eye with small leaves in the form of a heart. Belongs to the aphrodisiac group, improves potency.
No matter when you grow a salad, the main thing for him is care:
- loose soil
- watering every other day
- good lighting,
- in winter, additional lighting lamps.
The minus of lettuce is that it can not be subjected to preservation or freezing, but its cultivation is possible all year round, and this is a plus.
We grow up salad in the greenhouse
Due to the fact that lettuce is a cold-resistant plant, it is possible to start growing it in the greenhouse already in early spring. And if the greenhouse is heated, then even winter plantings are possible. In general, the sowing of lettuce seeds can be carried out at a temperature of 5-6 C, and the seedlings can tolerate slight frosts up to minus 2 C. The optimum temperature for a good growth of this crop is 20 C. Moreover, you can additionally protect yourself from death or poor germination greens, choosing cold-resistant varieties of leaf lettuce.
Despite the simplicity of the plant, it is necessary to prepare for its early-spring plantings in the greenhouse. First of all, in the autumn they prepare the ground - they apply organic fertilizer to the soil, thereby leveling the soil to a slightly acid or neutral acidity level. If the soil is acidic, then lime is added in addition to normalize acidity.
In addition to organic matter, the land in the greenhouse can be fed with potassium chloride (15 grams per 1 square meter of land) and superphosphate (40 grams per 1 square meter of land). In order for the fertilizers to be applied to, inter alia, to the deeper layers of the soil, in the autumn they carry out a careful digging of the soil in the greenhouse, level the soil and leave it alone until early spring.Video about growing seed salad in a greenhouse
As soon as the weather conditions allow (the temperature inside the greenhouse does not fall below zero even at night), leaf lettuce can be planted. As a rule, in the mid-end of March, landings can already be made. Leaf lettuce, in contrast to the rocked, the landing of which is made in the seedling boxes, immediately planted directly into the ground.
The planting of greenery in the greenhouse is carried out in a well-sifted soil, making each next row after 10 cm. Seeds are sown to a depth of 1-2 cm. Approximately a month is given for growing lettuce with proper care. If you want to get a fresh salad regularly, then the planting of greens is done every 2 weeks.
As you know, the weather in spring is highly variable, therefore, if a friend resumes strong cold and the temperature begins to be released well below zero, you should mulch the landing sites with small humus.
The planting of greenery in the greenhouse is carried out in a well-sifted earth, making each next row in 10 cm
The care of leaf lettuce in a greenhouse should be as follows:
- plentiful watering. It is necessary to water the greens infrequently - once or twice a week, but quite plentifully. The water used is not warm, as many beginning gardeners mistakenly believe, but cool. When watering, make sure that the water does not fall on the leaves.
- fertilization. Feeding for good growth of this culture is necessary. Fertilizers - a mixture of ammonium nitrate and potassium chloride is applied 2 times during the vegetative development of the plant.
- loosening. In order for the soil not to be overwetted, which leads to the appearance of fungi, the land between the rows is loosened regularly,
- weeding. Weed removal is done as needed.
We grow leaf lettuce in open ground
In the summer, along with other greens, such as leaf and stalked celery, you can grow leaf lettuce in the open field, periodically, about once every 14 days, produce new sowing in order to get fresh greens throughout the summer and early autumn. Be sure to pay attention to the varieties of lettuce. Today, early-ripening, mid-ripening and late-ripening varieties are on sale, which affects the planting time.
The best predecessors of the salad are tomatoes, peppers, potatoes, cabbage. These greens get along well with cucumbers, cabbage, beans, radishes, radishes, onions, which, by the way, is useful in that it will scare away aphids, one of the main pests of leaf lettuce. Among the unfavorable neighbors - carrots, beets, and those plants that have broad and dense foliage. The fact is that the salad loves a slight darkening, but not a complete shadow.
The best predecessors of the salad are tomatoes, peppers, potatoes, cabbage.
Land preparation for planting should take place in the fall. Humus is introduced into the ground as a fertilizer and it is carefully dug up. As noted above, too acidic soil is lime to reduce acidity. In addition, when digging, it will be useful to make mineral fertilizers: potassium salt, superphosphate.
Planting seeds in open ground can be carried out in the second decade of spring, when the frosts disappear completely. The prepared place must be carefully gouged so that the soil is soft without blocks and large lumps.
For lettuce in the ground, grooves are made with a depth of not more than 1 cm. The distance between the rows is 15-20 cm, between the seeds is 1-1.5 cm. After sowing, the bed should be carefully watered. In order not to form a firm crust on the ground, the garden can be covered with a film for the first few days, which will accelerate the germination of the culture.
Care for the salad in the open field, similar to greenhouse care. Those. requires watering, loosening, fertilizing and timely removal of weeds. By following these simple recommendations, you can enjoy delicious lettuce leaves and get vitamins throughout the spring-summer period.
We grow leaf lettuce on the windowsill
If there is a possibility, a little time and desire, in winter you can make a garden on the balcony and grow greenery even when there are severe frosts outside. In fact, the cultivation of lettuce at home on the windowsill is quite simple and the beginning gardener can cope with it, and even the one who is far from gardening. So, let us analyze in more detail how to grow leaf lettuce at home:Video about growing lettuce on the windowsill
Lettuce likes high humidity, so experienced gardeners recommend spraying the plants daily.
Creating a green garden on your windowsill, you will provide yourself and your loved ones with natural vitamins all year round.