Most commonly used: spherical (f. globosa) - with a dense spherical crown and slow growth, it is grafted onto the main species both in shtamb and root collar, which results in an original bush shape, standard form is used in allelic and single plantings, grafted in root collar - for decorating large parterres and lawns, hand cut (f. palmatifida) - spectacular form with dark green leaves separated to the base, Domemonda (f. Drummondii) —with white-leafed leaves, pink on blooming, small groups of this form produce a stunning impression with their unusual beauty and lightness.
Photo Kondyreva I.V.
There is only one golden form for the Norway maple (Acer platanoides), and even that is very rare (the height depends on the location of the vaccination). This is the form 'Golden globe', which is a tree with golden foliage and a spherical crown. These trees are well suited for use in groups, alleys, as a tapeworm in regular as well as landscape gardens.
'Cleveland'A tree of medium size, 12–15 m high, 6–8 m wide, the crown shape is widely ovate, with age it acquires an almost round crown, the branches are directed upwards, very short, not drooping, fast-growing. Flowers of corymbose inflorescences in April, even before the leaves blooming, fluffy flowers resemble the smell of fruit, it blooms very unusual and attractive. Fruits imperceptible. The leaves are 5-palmate-lobed, in April, light green, later dark green, in the autumn - bright yellow, from October to November.
'Columnare'A small tree, 8-10 (12) m tall, 3-4 m wide, young plants are strictly columnar, become more open with age, conical, the branches are directed upwards, short shoots, slow-growing. Flowers of corymbose inflorescences in April, even before leafing, fragrant flowers resemble the smell of fruit, it blooms very unusual
and attractive. The leaves are 5-palmate-lobed, spring red, later dark green,
autumn yellow, from October to November.
'Crimson king'(synonymous with' Schwedleri Nigrum '). The tree reaches 20 m in height, for this it will take 30-40 years. The shape of the crown is very similar to the typical Norway maple, but the leaves have a rich purple, almost black color throughout the season. When blooming, they are blood-red with pink cataphylls, then become darker, almost burgundy, and in the fall the upper side of the leaf acquires a purple ebb. In the autumn, there are no bright shades that other purple-leaved maples have. During flowering the contrast of yellow-orange flowers with red blooming leaves is spectacular, making the tree unusually beautiful. But during the fruiting of his red lion almost not visible against the background of foliage. The photo is a variety ofCrimson centry', which in the cold winter of 2002-2003 in the Moscow region froze. Propagated by vaccination. Seed viability of 76%.
'Crimson Sentry'. Slender large tree, 15-20 m tall, 8 m wide, the branches are directed upwards, almost not wilted, relatively fast-growing, with an age of 40-60 cm per year. Flowers yellow corymbose inflorescences in April or May. The leaves are 5-palmate-lobed, early blooming at the end of April, bright red, unusually decorative in autumn, from October to November, not so dark as in the variety `Crimson King '.
'Deborah'. Srednerosloe (about 15-20 m in height, 12-15 m wide) tree with a widely rounded crown. The leaves are five- or seven-lobed, about 15 cm long and 20 cm wide. When blooming, they are shiny, have a purple-red color on top and dark green below, then turn green, turn brown-green, and turn yellow-orange in autumn. The difference of this variety is that the leaves have a slightly wavy edge.
Acer platanoides Drummondii
Photo of Natalia Mikhailova
'Drummondii'. The tree is up to 6-10 m (sometimes up to 12 m) in height and about 7 m in diameter. In our conditions, this size becomes, only after living for thirty years, or even more, in one place. Leaves with a wide uneven stripe of cream-colored, pink when blooming, small in size. The crown of his beautiful, wide-pyramidal in his youth, and then rounded. This is one of the most spectacular forms of Norway maple. On some leaves, white is more than green, so from a distance the tree looks like a very light, almost white. Young shoots and leaves sometimes with a pinkish tinge. The shape of the leaves is clearly delineated, with sharp edges - ornamental. The tree remains light even in the shade. Looks very nice near. Virtually no blooms. Propagated by cuttings. By autumn, the edges of the leaves turn brown. There are two varieties - white-bonded and yellow-bonded. The Norway maple has other interesting spotted forms, but much less common. Among them are white-and-variegated ('Albo-variegata') with leaves covered with large white spots, golden-edged ('Aureo-marginata') - with leaves bordered with a yellow stripe and, in addition, sometimes unevenly spotty. The latter form is very similar to 'Drummondii', but grows slowly, growing in a small tree with an almost spherical crown.
'Emerald queen'A tree of medium size, 12–15 m high, 7–10 m wide, the shape of the crown is initially ovate, later rounded. Flowers yellow corymbose inflorescences in April. Fruits imperceptible. The leaves are 5-palmate-lobed, when blooming bronze-pink, then green, in the fall - yellow.
'Faassen's black'. A tree (15 m high, 10 m wide), a fast-growing plant at a young age, with purple leaves about 15 cm wide. When blooming, they have a light red color, then its saturation increases, and they become shiny, almost black, with a purple-violet hue. In May, yellow flowers appear on the background of blossoming foliage, effectively contrasting with it.
'Farlake's Green ' The tree is of medium size, 12–15 m high, 6–8 m wide, initially strictly vertical, later the crown form becomes ovoid, the branches are directed upwards, and it is fast-growing. Flowers yellow corymbose inflorescences in April, fragrant flowers resemble the smell of fruit, it blooms very unusual and attractive. Fruits imperceptible. Early blooming of leaves at the end of April, spring bright red, dark green in summer, bright yellow in autumn.
'Globosum'A small tree, 4-6 (7) m tall, 3-5 m wide, initially strictly spherical, later gradually becomes ujnpe, the branches are asymmetrically but compactly, very slow-growing. Flowers yellow corymbose inflorescences in April, fragrant flowers resemble the smell of fruit, it blooms very unusual and attractive. Fruits are invisible. The leaves are 5-palmate-lobed, early blooming at the end of April, when blooming is bronze, then dark green, in autumn yellow-orange. The root system is shallow, heart-shaped, sensitive to compaction of the soil, well strengthened. It tolerates high temperatures, is frost-resistant, adapts very easily, is not demanding, it is stable in urban conditions, it is wind-resistant.
Acer platanoides 'Nowusch'
Photo Ganova Andrew
'Golden Globe' A small tree, height 4-6 m, width 3-5 m, the shape of the crown is rounded, very slow-growing. The leaves are pyatilopast, when blooming is light green, in summer it is yellowish green, in autumn it is yellow. The root system is sensitive to soil compaction.
'Royal red'. The tree is about 8-12 m tall. It grows quickly only at a young age. Thus, at about 10 years of age, its height is about 5 m. It is interesting with its leaves, which, when blooming, have a bright red color, then become brilliant black and red, turning into bright red again in the autumn. In May, blooms with yellow flowers that look very impressive against the background of red foliage.
'Reitenbachii'. A tree up to 15 m high. The leaves of this variety, unlike 'Schwedleri', begin to turn red in the second half of summer. And at the beginning of the summer it differs little from the usual Norway maple. In autumn, its leaves are steadily dark red. Yellow-green flowers are arranged in bunches. Thick beautiful foliage, straight trunk - attractive qualities for planting on a large plot.
'Stoltii'. This variety has large, usually three-lobed leaves, which, when blooming, have a purple color and then turn green. The tree grows quickly, especially at a young age, up to 15 m.
'Schwedleri'. Beautiful powerful (20 m high, 10 m in diameter) tree with an open broad-pyramidal crown. It grows quickly, especially at a young age. When blooming, the leaves (20 cm wide) are bright red, then in the second half of summer they become more and more green and become brilliant bronze-green. In this case, the leaf veins and petioles remain purple. Autumn maple is dark green. 96% seed viability. Rooted 7% of summer cuttings.
All forms of winter-hardy to -35 degrees, have good pobegoobrazovatelnoy ability and retain the typical form of growth for the species. Recommended for single landings on lawns and in contrasting combinations.
'Laciniatum'. In GBS since 1963, 1 sample (1 copy) was obtained from the Netherlands by saplings. Shrub, height 5.0 m, crown diameter 300 cm. Plant grows from late April-early May to early October. It grows slowly. It blooms in the first half of May, the fruits ripen from late September. Winter hardiness is low. Decorative, but due to insufficient winter hardiness for widespread use in landscaping of central Russia is not recommended.
Norway maple - description
A tree up to thirty meters or more is distinguished by a rounded crown, fissured, brownish-gray bark on the trunk.reddish gray and smooth bark on young branches, opposite, simple, palmate leaves. Each sheet consists of five to seven large-toothed blades, which are pointed at the ends. In summer, the leaves of Norway maple are dark green, and in autumn they turn orange or yellow.
In early May, bud-inflorescences are formed on the tree, which consist of a large number of yellowish-green fragrant flowers. At the end of the summer ripening and until the end of winter the fruit-lionfish, which contain two seeds each, does not fall from the tree. In central Russia, maple seeds ripen in September. They have a flat shape and covered with thin skinned top.
In the landscape design of the garden is most often used maple (Acer platanoides) with a spherical shape. This appearance of the plant is achieved by grafting in the root neck or stem. Slow-growing trees are used in single and walkway plantings.
- Cleveland - a tree up to fifteen meters in height, the crown width can have from six to eight meters. In adult plants, the crown is spherical. In April, Cleveland leaves are light green, they darken in summer, and turn bright yellow in autumn.
- Farlakes Green - a plant up to fifteen centimeters tall is distinguished by an egg-shaped crown and bright yellow leaf color in the fall.
- Royal Red is a tree with blood-red leaves in spring that become shiny and black-red in summer and redden again in autumn. Plant height can be from eight to twelve meters.
- Faassens Black is a variety with leaves up to fifteen centimeters wide, which, when blooming, have a light red color. Closer to the fall, they become shiny with a purple-violet hue. The tree grows to a height of fifteen meters.
- Emerald Queen is a fast-growing tree with a crown of up to ten meters and a height of up to fifteen meters. It has bronze palmate-lobed leaves that turn green in summer and yellow in autumn.
- Deborah - a variety with leaves up to twenty centimeters wide, and up to fifteen centimeters long. The width of the crown can reach fifteen meters, and the length of the trunk - twenty meters. The leaves in spring are purple-red from above and dark green from below. In autumn, the foliage acquires a yellow-orange color.
- Crimson Sentry - the tree is distinguished by upwardly directed branches, which makes it slim. The diameter of the crown at Crimzon Sentry - 8 meters, with the length of the trunk - up to 20 meters. Bright red, palmate-separate leaves consist of five parts.
- Crimson King - a tree with a typical form of maples can have a height of up to twenty meters. In the spring, its leaves are bright red, in the summer they darken, and in the fall become burgundy with a purple tint.
- Globocum is a plant with a height of only seven meters and with a crown diameter of up to five meters and is distinguished by pink young leaves that turn green by summer, and in the fall acquire a yellow-orange color. The leaves are made up of five parts.
Planting maple in open ground
Seedlings of Norway maple in the garden can be planted in the fall or early spring. For them, select a slightly shaded, well lit place with drained soil. Pits for planting seedlings do from each other at a distance of two and a half - three meters. To create a hedge plants are planted in steps of two meters.
The depth of the landing pit should be equal to the length of the root system, and the width is four times more than the earthen clod with roots. If at the site the groundwater is high, then the hole for planting maple is dug, taking into account that a fifteen centimeter layer of drainage enters.
Landing pits fill nutritious soil mix which has to consist of the following components:
- turf ground - 2 parts,
- humus or peat compost - 3 parts,
- sand - 1 part,
- nitroammophoska - 120 grams per well.
The seedlings placed in the holes are covered with prepared soil so that the root collar is several centimeters above the soil surface. Every plant is watered three buckets of water. When water is absorbed, the near-stem circle is filled with dry earth or a layer of peat three to five centimeters thick.
If the Norway maple saplings were bought a few days before planting, they should be soaked in water. Otherwise, the root system may dry out.
Peculiarities of care
Norway maple needs regular watering. Freshly planted young plants should be watered often, making sure that the soil around them does not dry out. Mature trees in spring and autumn they are watered once, and in summer, in hot and dry weather, watering is carried out every week. Under each plant poured two buckets of water. You can learn that the maple needs watering by its drooping leaves. If the soil is too wet, then the foliage will acquire a light green tint.
Also, do not forget to weed pristvolny circles and loosen the soil after watering around the trees. This is necessary so that the soil does not become covered with a crust, and oxygen is supplied to the roots.
Young, just planted in a nutrient soil mixture in the first year of seedlings in the feed do not need. The following year, in spring, the tree trunk circle is mulched with rotted manure. As a mineral dressing, you can use special complex fertilizers in the form of tablets. They are placed in the ground near the trunk. and slowly dissolve. In the spring they are used every two weeks, and in the summer once a month.
In the spring before the beginning of the growing season, sanitary pruning of trees is carried out. To do this, cut dry, frozen, broken, affected by pests and diseases of the branches. You should also remove the root growth.
The adult Norway maple is frost hardy, and young plants should be sheltered for the winter. The root collar is covered with spruce branches, and the tree trunks are wrapped with sacking, which is fixed with a string or a rope. Such a shelter plant will save not only from frost, but also from rodents.
It is recommended to sow maple seeds bought in a store in the garden in the fall so that they pass through a natural stratification during the winter. If the crops are planted in the spring, the seeds are placed in the sand and kept for one hundred twenty days in the bottom drawer of the refrigerator. In late April or early May maple seeds are planted in the garden. In the ground they are placed at a depth of four centimeters. The distance between the seeds can be any, because in the future the sprouts are thinned.
In about three weeks, shoots should appear that need regular watering. It is also necessary to remove weeds from the garden and loosen the soil. In summer, young plants are recommended to pritenyat so that they are not burned by direct sunlight.
With the right care, by the autumn the trees will grow up, get stronger and reach a height of about forty centimeters. For the winter they will need to be covered. Young maple trees are transplanted to a permanent place in two or three years.
Reproduction by root layers
Root growth is formed around the maple each year, which should be removed in the spring so that it does not take food from the main tree. However, some processes can be used for reproduction. To do this, choose more shoots and make cuts on them near the ground. After that, the cuts are processed by any of the drugs to stimulate the formation of roots and processes are curled. In the spring and summer they will need to be watered and spudded, and in the fall to cover them so that in winter the shoots will not freeze. The following spring, a sprout with roots is dug out and transplanted to a permanent place.
Reproduction by air layouts
To implement this method of reproduction in spring, a healthy branch is selected, on which several oblique cuts must be made with the help of a sharp sterile knife. They must necessarily be located next to each other. The incisions are treated with Kornevin or another drug to stimulate the formation of roots.Grains of polyfoam are inserted into wounds that will not allow them to grow. After that, the branch in the place of the cuts turns into wet moss. To keep the moss dry, a plastic bag is put on it, which is tied to a branch below and above the cuts. From above, everything is wrapped in foil or canvas that will protect the moss from the sun.
After some time, in places of incisions appear, and roots will grow. Next year in spring, when the growing season begins, the air layer is separated from the tree, released from the shelters and, together with moss, lands on a permanent place in the ground.
Maple pests and diseases
From insects on the leaves of trees can settle:
- Leaf weevils. You can destroy them by spraying the foliage with a solution of Chlorophos, which is previously diluted in accordance with the instructions.
- Mealybug. A pest resembling fleece pieces feeds on sap of leaves, as a result of which they dry out and fly around. In order to avoid the defeat of the plant with a mealy scarlet, trees are treated with Nitrafen in the spring before the buds swell.
- Whitefly. The branches affected by the pest are cut and burned, and the rest are treated with Ammophos.
Of the diseases maple is most often affected by coral spotting. With this disease, burgundy spots appear on the bark, and the branches die off. To prevent the disease from spreading to the entire plant, the affected branches are cut with a decontaminated shears or other garden tools. Slices treated with garden bar. The tool used to remove the branches should be decontaminated again.
Norway maple is adapted to air pollution and urban conditions, therefore it is widely used for landscaping streets and parks. It is planted in the alleys, group and single plantings, not only in the city, but also in the garden plots. In summer, the maple is decorated with parks and gardens with lush greenery, and in the fall - with rich leaf colors.
Description of varieties
Fan maple in the wild nature is represented by shrubs and small trees with a height of 2 - 4 m. For gardeners, the culture fell in love with the umbrella-shaped crown formed by graceful branches, which are covered with carved foliage resembling a fan. The bark is smooth, without cracks, painted in gray. The green color of leaves with the arrival of autumn changes to yellow. When flowering, which is celebrated in the second half of spring, purple inflorescences bloom.
Among the most popular varieties stand out:
- Fan Maple "Orange Dreams" - a spectacular variety, different color of openwork foliage, which from yellow-orange to summer changes to a lime tone.
- "Garnett" - decorative representatives of the variety are characterized by large foliage, dissected into 5 - 9 segments. In spring, leafy plates are painted bright red, which by the autumn acquires a purple hue.
- Fan maple "Atropurpureum" - a spreading shrub or a small tree with a beautiful crown of red color, which over time becomes even deeper.
If the gardener decided to grow a spectacular representative of exotic flora, then acquiring very expensive seedlings, the following recommendations should be taken into account:
- Place of purchase. Quality planting material should be purchased in specialized stores or nurseries.
- Root system Saplings with a closed measles system, which is located in a container with a “native” earthy clod, have the greatest survival rate.
- Condition. Before buying a seedling is examined for damage or illness.
For fan maple sunny areas are chosen with the presence of free space, which should be enough for the development of a lush crown of a tree or shrub.
The plant prefers a fertile soil, so it is recommended to pre-prepare the site and enrich the soil with nutrients.
Planting a maple with a closed root system can be carried out throughout the growing season according to the following scheme:
- In the selected area, a planting pit is dug with dimensions corresponding to the seedling's root system.
- At the bottom is placed a drainage layer of broken brick, which will protect the roots of fan maple from stagnant moisture.
- A bucket of water flows into the pit, after which it is absorbed, the seedling is lowered.
- Planting material is filled up with extracted soil mixed with peat.
Agrotechnics of cultivation and care
When cultivating fan maple in the garden, basic agrotechnical requirements should be adhered to.
- Watering. The plant loves well-moistened soil. In the absence of natural rainfall, it is recommended to water the maple every 3 days. During periods of drought, so that the leaves do not begin to dry and fall, should be sprinkled crown.
- Loosening and mulching. In the spring period after the establishment of heat, as well as in mid-autumn, it is necessary to mulch the trunk circle in order to prevent too rapid evaporation of moisture and freezing of the roots in winter. It is recommended to periodically loosen the soil under the tree to ensure an appropriate level of soil looseness and breathability.
- Top dressing and fertilizer. In order to maintain a fertile layer of soil, it is recommended to apply fertilizers to the tree trunk every month during the spring-summer period. Fertilizers are used with a high content of phosphorus and potassium. An excess of nitrogen can cause a loss of decorative culture. The representative of the exotic flora perfectly responds to organic fertilizers - compost, humus.
The description of the holly maple in botanical reference books begins with the Latin name. Norway maple in Latin sounds like Acer platanoides. According to the translation of the scientific name, it is called platanoid or platanolist; another synonym is common maple.
The tree belongs to the Sapindov family, the distribution area of maple is Europe and South-West Asia. Maples grow in steppes, deciduous forests, singly or forming thickets. In Russia, it is cultivated for decorative purposes - used to design urban parks and squares, planted along roads. The life of a maple is 200–300 years.
Maple is a deciduous treewhich can reach a height of 28−30 m. Leaves form a dense spherical crown. The main characteristics of the maple leaf are:
- The form is simple, palmate.
- The location on the branches - opposite.
- The edge is coarse toothed, with blades; the edge of the blades is pointed.
- Size - up to 18 cm in length and 20−22 cm in width.
- Coloring - dark green, in the fall - orange-yellow, red various shades.
- Petioles - long, up to 15 cm; when broken, they produce a milky sap.
Depending on the climate, maple blooms from March to May, the flowers near the tree are small, yellow-green in color, with a pleasant smell. The flowers are collected in corymbose inflorescences, flowering occurs before the leaves bloom or at the same time as it. Female and male flowers of maples bloom on different trees, pollination occurs with the help of insects.
Fruits ripen in September or October. The structure of the fruits of maple is unique, they can not be confused with other fruits. This is a double lionfish, in each wing of which there are flattened seeds. On the forums you can find a question from gardeners about how the maple seeds are called. They are called so-lionfish. Thanks to flat wings up to 7 cm in length, ripe seeds fly away with the slightest breeze of wind over long distances. Maple begins to bear fruit over the age of 17 years, annually forming a large number of easily germinating seeds, so in nature the tree can reproduce in unlimited quantities.
Tree bark changes according to age: in young maples it is smooth, gray-brown in color, over time the trunk is covered with longitudinal cracks, acquires a rough texture, darkens almost to blackness. The root system is shallow, so the maple takes all the nutrients from the surface layers of the soil, does not allow to feed and germinate other trees and shrubs.
Planting maple trees
Maples can be propagated in several ways: by means of seeds, seedlings and layers. Under planting emit well-lit areas, as the maple trees in the light form a thicker crown. With a lack of light, the leaves become small and lose their color saturation.
Features of reproduction of a tree in various ways:
- Seeds. The seeds collected in the fall before planting are stratified - kept in sand or peat at a temperature not higher than 3 degrees Celsius for 3 months. Husking seeds from the wings is not necessary. In April, sowing is carried out - the lionfish is placed in moist fertilized soil to a depth of 4−5 cm. After 2−3 weeks, shoots appear that begin to grow rapidly. The annual growth of young trees is 45–60 cm in height. After about 7 years, the tree reaches two meters in height, continues to grow in height and width to 25 years, and later grows mostly in breadth. After 50 years, maple growth slows down or stops.
- Saplings Maple seedlings can be planted in a new place in early spring before bud breaks or in the fall after leaf fall. They buy ready-made seedlings or dig up young trees that have grown after maple sowing. To make the tree better, you need to monitor the integrity of the root system: for this, seedlings with a large lump of earth are bought or dug around the roots. A landing pit is dug not less than 50 cm deep, and humus is poured at the bottom. The tree is placed in the center, covered with earth. If a tree is planted without a coma around the roots, before filling it is necessary to gently straighten the roots so that there are no creases. After filling the roots, the ground is slightly tamped down, watered abundantly.
- Layering. For reproduction by cuttings in the fall cut off woody twigs 20−25 cm long. Cuttings are added dropwise in the sand, so that they do not freeze, it is better to store them in the basement. Spring sprigs planted in fertilized soil. Maple can be propagated by layering in the spring: the cut stalk is treated with a growth stimulator, planted, covered with a film or a cut plastic bottle.
When planting between trees, you must observe a distance of 2−4 m, so that mature trees do not interfere with each other.
Maple trees are rarely affected by pests and diseases, but when the humidity is high, coral spot appears on the bark. A sign of the disease - pink or reddish spots on the branches. To combat the disease, pruning of diseased branches is carried out 15 cm below the infected areas. Cut branches are destroyed, garden tools are disinfected, cut areas are treated with garden pitch.
To prevent fungal diseases, trees are recommended to be treated with fungicide solutions before bud break.
Maples can be attacked by harmful insects: weevils, maple whitefly, mealybug. Nitrafen sprayings are carried out to control pests.
Preparation of medicinal raw materials
Maple has not been used in official medicine, but folk healers use different parts of the plant for the preparation of healing compositions. Leaves, bark, buds, flowers, maple sap are used as medicinal raw materials.
For each type of raw materials there are certain rules for procurement:
- Leaves. Gather young leaves in the first half of summer, while choosing leaves that are not very thick petioles. When collecting pay attention to the leaves there was no trace of fungal diseases. The collection is carried out in dry weather, the collected leaves are dried in the sun, then transferred under a canopy.
- Bark. The bark of young trees has medicinal properties, the old bark contains a lot of cork tissue and few active substances. The raw material harvesting period is early spring, when sap flow begins. To remove the bark, make two horizontal cuts on the tree at a distance of no more than 30 cm, connect them with vertical cuts and peel the bark. Do not sock off the bark so that pieces of wood do not get into the raw material. If you remove the bark from a small section of the trunk, the tree will be able to grow over the damaged area, with great damage the maple will die. Therefore, it is best to harvest bark on those trees that are felling. The collected bark is cut into small pieces, dried in the shade with good ventilation.
- Kidney. Gather in the period of swelling, but before blooming. The buds that have started to bloom, lose their healing properties. Therefore, the collected buds are dried in a cool room to prevent their disclosure.
- Flowers Gather at the very beginning of flowering, dried under a canopy, to prevent direct sunlight. Properly dried flowers should not lose their color after drying.
- Maple Juice It is harvested in February or March, before the kidneys swell. For this, a hole no deeper than 3 cm is made in the bark of an adult tree (at a height of 50 cm from the ground). A tube is inserted into the hole and a container is inserted. After collecting the juice, the hole in the bark is tightly capped with moss. Over time, the maple sap becomes cloudy and thick, it is stored in a cool place without heat treatment, or maple syrup is prepared from it.
To speed up the drying of raw materials, you can use electric dryers, which set the temperature at 50-60 degrees. The dried parts of maple are poured into paper bags, stored in dry ventilated areas for no more than two years.
Use in traditional medicine
Maple has healing properties due to its alkaloids, tannins, carbohydrates, sugars, flavonoids and vitamins. Medicines made from maple have choleretic and diuretic effects, reduce pain and inflammation, accelerate wound healing. Infusions and decoctions of bark and leaves are used to combat various infections, to raise immunity, improve skin and hair. A large amount of antioxidants in the maple helps to combat poisoning and aging of the body, accelerates recovery from a cold.
Antibacterial properties of the plant are used in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, bronchitis, inflammatory processes in the bladder and kidneys.
Terms of preparation of funds from maple raw materials:
- Decoction. A tablespoon of crushed dried raw materials is poured 200 ml of water and boiled for 20 minutes in a water bath in a sealed container. After cooling for 10 minutes, the broth is filtered through a cloth or gauze, boiled water is added to make the broth a volume of 200 ml. The broth is taken orally on 1-2 tablespoons 3-4 times a day, used for compresses and rinses. Well helps a decoction of maple leaves in diseases of the kidneys, SARS, pharyngitis, bronchitis, hepatitis. Broth bark prescribed for diarrhea, intestinal colic.
- Infusion. A tablespoon of leaves pour 200 ml of water and boil for 10 minutes, then infuse for an hour. The liquid is filtered, the volume is adjusted to 200 ml. Infusion of leaves drink 50 ml 3 times a day with impotence, sand in the kidneys, cystitis. Infusion of the cortex is used for compresses with radiculitis and polyarthritis, taken orally with flatulence and diarrhea.
- Tincture. For its preparation use vodka or alcohol with a strength of 70%. A tablespoon of raw materials pour 100 ml of alcohol or vodka, insist in a dark place during the week. The finished tincture of leaves and bark is used for joint pains for rubbing diseased joints, taken orally, 20 drops 3 times a day.
The uniqueness of the common maple lies in the fact that this tree is widely distributed in Russia and is not considered an unusual plant, but its medicinal properties make us think about the benefits and importance of maple stands.
Features of Norway Maple
Norway maple has a height of about 30 meters, sometimes it can be higher. The surface of the trunk is covered with fractured bark of gray-brownish, almost black color. The bark on young branches is gray-red and relatively smooth. The shape of the crown is rounded. The branches are powerful wide, they are directed downwards. Simple flat leaf plates are opposite to each other, large-toothed blades (it can be from 5 to 7 pieces) are pointed at the ends. The front side of the foliage is dark green, and the purl side is light green. In autumn, the leaf plates become orange or yellow color. If you break the stalks or veins of the leaves, then the juice of the milky color will appear on the site of the damage. Flowering is observed in the first half of May. The thyroid inflorescences consist of 15-30 fragrant flowers, painted in greenish-yellow color. This tree belongs to dioecious plants, so it can be either male or female flowers. Pollination occurs due to insects. Nectary has the form of a ring of a flat shape, the bases of stamens are immersed in it. It is located between the petals and the ovary. The fruit is a lionfish, which splits into 2 single-seeded fruitlets. Fruit ripening occurs in the last summer days, while they can remain on the branches until the end of the winter period. Norway maple is a good honey plant.
Such a tree looks similar to another kind, namely, sugar maple, or Canadian. These plants can be easily distinguished by the color of the sap that stands out from the petioles, so it is transparent in sugar maple. Также у остролистного клена не такая шершавая и грубая кора, как у сахарного клена, а в осеннее время его листовые пластины приобретают менее яркий окрас. У клена остролистного форма листовых пластин более разлаписта. Почки у остролистного клена окрашены в светло-красный цвет, при этом у сахарного клена они насыщенно-зеленые.
Посадка клена остролистного
It is recommended to plant the Norway maple in the open ground at the very beginning of the spring period or in the fall. When choosing a place for planting, it should be noted that the distance from a seedling to any other plant should be at least 2.5–3 meters. If maples are used to create a hedge, then between them should maintain a distance of 2 meters. For planting choose a well-lit area, or one that is in light penumbra. The soil should be well drained. When digging a hole, it should be noted that its depth must be identical to the height of the root ball. At the same time, the width of the fossa must be made 4 times the coma of the roots. In the event that the groundwater is too close to the ground surface at the site, the depth of the pit should be increased, since a drainage layer should be made at its bottom, the thickness of which should not be less than 15 centimeters. To create this layer, you can use crushed stone, broken brick or screenings.
In no case should the seedling root system dry up before planting. Therefore, it is recommended to immerse it in a container with water for several hours.
To fill the landing pit, you should use a nutrient mixture consisting of humus (peat compost), sand and sod land (3: 1: 2). First, it is necessary to pour from 120 to 150 grams of Nitroammofoski into the pit, only then the root bed of the seedling is placed into it. When the roots are neatly straightened, the pit should be filled with a nutrient mixture. After planting, the root neck of the plant should rise a few centimeters above the surface of the site. Planted maple must be watered using 30 liters of water. After the liquid is completely absorbed, the root neck of the seedling should fall to the level of the surface of the plot. Do not forget, in the first days after planting, to thrash the tree trunk circle using dry soil or peat, the layer thickness should be within 3-5 centimeters.
Caring for the maple leaves
The recently planted Norway maple needs frequent watering. Even after the plant grows stronger and grows, it will need systematic watering, especially during the summer months. In spring and autumn, watering of wood is done 1 time in 4 weeks, and in summer time this procedure is carried out 1 time in 7 days. When watering a young plant, 40 liters of water should go away; if the tree is an adult, then 20 liters will be enough for it. But it should be noted that if the color of the foliage of the tree became pale green, this suggests that the soil is very much overmoistened. If the plant feels the lack of water, then he leaves willow plate. After watering, it is necessary to systematically loosen the surface of the wheel circle, at the same time pulling weed grass.
In that case, if all the necessary fertilizers were added to the planting pit, you do not need to feed the plants before the end of the current season. After spring comes, the maple will need to be fed, for this the surface of the tree should be covered with a three-centimeter layer of rotted manure. Also, for feeding you can use special tablets with a slow release of nutrients. They should be decomposed in the root zone. From the beginning of the growing season and until the end of spring, such feeding is necessary 1 time in 2 weeks, in the summer it is carried out 1 time in 4 weeks, in the autumn it is not necessary to feed the maple.
The dormant period of a tree begins with the first frost and lasts until March. If the maple is still young, then in the winter he will need a good shelter. His shtamb need to wrap sacking, which is fixed with a rope. This will protect the plant from both severe frosts and rodents. The root neck of the plant must be covered with spruce branches. As the plant grows, frost resistance increases, and soon it will not be necessary to cover it for the winter.
Maple needs only sanitary pruning, during which all frozen, injured, dried out or injured from diseases and pests of the branch and stems should be cut. Still need to cut out all the root shoots. If desired, you can shorten those stems that stick out in different directions, and also remove the shoots growing inside the crown. Formative pruning is not necessary, since the natural spherical shape of the maple is very attractive without it.
Diseases and pests
If the tree began to die off the branches, and small patches of burgundy color appeared on the surface of the bark, this indicates its infection with coral spot. Those branches that are affected, it is necessary to cut and destroy, and slice the place slices garden pitch. Garden tools should be disinfected both before and after trimming.
Whitefish, mealybugs and leaf weevils can live on the maple pests. The branches affected by the whitefly larvae must be cut and destroyed, and then the plant is processed by Ammophos. As a preventive measure, from mealybugs, maple is processed according to a sheet by Nitrafen to swelling of the kidneys. To get rid of weevils, you need to treat the tree on a sheet with a solution of Chlorophos, which is prepared strictly according to the instructions.
Norway maple is simple enough to propagate by seed. Their seeding is done in the autumn time in a seedling bed, during the winter they will undergo a natural stratification. In springtime, seedlings will seem; they will only have to be seated. If you wish, you can sow the seeds in March, but before that they will need to be stratified. To do this, pour the seeds into a container filled with moistened sand, which is removed for 5–7 days in a refrigerator on a shelf for vegetables.
How to multiply air layouts
Select the branch from which you will air lay. Take a sterilized knife and make it a few cuts on the surface of the bark, which should be located obliquely. Then it is necessary to treat the incisions with a means that stimulates the formation of roots (Kornevin or Heteroauxin). In order for the edges of the cuts not to be joined, they need to place grains of foam. Then the incisions are covered with moistened moss, this part of the branch must be wrapped with a plastic bag, which is tightly fixed just above and below the wounds. Then it is necessary to close the package with aluminum foil or canvas to prevent the sun's rays from falling on it.
Over time, young roots will appear in the places of the cuts, they will grow into moistened moss. With the onset of the next spring, when the growing season begins, it will be necessary to separate the layering from the tree, while neatly removing the fabric or foil and removing the bag. It is not necessary to remove the moss, plantings are planted in the open soil with it.
In height, such a tree can reach 20 meters. The shape of the crown is typical for this species. All season its leafy plates are painted bright magenta, almost black. When the leaf plates begin to bloom, they have a rich red color with pink cataphylls, after some time they darken and turn burgundy. In autumn, a violet hue appears on the front surface of the leaf plate.
Such a plant is distinguished by its slimness. It can reach a height of about 20 meters, while the diameter of its crown is approximately 8 meters. The branches are directed upwards. The composition of the finger-divided sheet plates includes five parts, they are painted in a rich red color.
The height of such a tree does not exceed 20 meters, and the diameter of its crown can reach up to 15 meters. Five to seven blade sheets have a slightly wavy edge. The length of the leaves is about 15 centimeters, and their width is 20 centimeters. When the leaves bloom, their front surface is red-purple, glossy, with the wrong side painted in dark green. Gradually, the color of the front surface of the leaves turns green, and then completely brown. In autumn, the leaf plates change their color to orange-yellow.
Such a plant is characterized by rapid growth, its height can reach up to 15 meters, and the diameter of the crown does not exceed 10 meters. The shape of the leaf plates is palmate-lobed, when they only open, they have a bronze color, which gradually turns green. In autumn, the leaves turn yellow.
The height of the tree is about 15 meters. The width of the sheet plates is about 15 centimeters. During blooming, they are pale red, but then become glossy and gradually change their color to almost black with a purple-purple tint.
The height of such a plant can vary from 8 to 12 meters. During the blooming, the color of the leaf plates is red-bloody, then it changes to a glossy red-black. In autumn, the leaves become red again.
Foliage when blooming is colored red, gradually changing to dark green. In autumn, she becomes rich yellow color. Plant height varies from 12 to 15 meters, the crown has an ovoid shape.
The height of the tree does not exceed 12–15 meters, while the diameter of its crown, having a broadly ovate shape, is 6–8 meters. After some time, the crown acquires a practically spherical shape. The leaf plates are palmate-lobed, they consist of 5 parts. In April, they are painted in a pale green color, which gradually changes to dark green. In autumn, the leaves become saturated yellow.
Norway maple in landscape design
In gardeners of countries such as Germany, England and Holland, large trees with foliage with a variegated or saturated color are quite popular. And since the Norway maple has a large number of varieties, there are plenty to choose from. For example, if you decorate the slope of a mountain or ravine with such trees with foliage of yellow, purple or variegated color, then it will look like a decoration to a fairy tale.
If there is a desire to decorate a garden or a dacha, then it is better to choose the Krimzon King variety. Even one such tree will make your site unusually colorful, and if you make a composition with it with other bushes and trees, you can make your garden or country house uniquely beautiful. Of course, to compile a successful composition, certain knowledge will be required, since it will be necessary to take into account the color compatibility of plants and their future value. However, the end result is certainly worth your effort.
- 1. Listen to the article (soon)
- 2. Description
- 3. Landing
- 4. Care
- 4.1. How to grow
- 4.2. Pruning
- 4.3. Pests and diseases
- 5. Reproduction
- 5.1. Seed propagation
- 5.2. Reproduction by air layouts
- 5.3. Reproduction by root layers
- 6. Grades
- 7. Application in landscape design
Planting and caring for the maple (in short)
- Landing: in early spring or autumn.
- Lighting: bright light or light partial shade.
- The soil: well drained, fertile, containing peat compost and humus.
- Watering: after planting - frequent, in the future - regular: water consumption for one watering on an adult tree - 2 buckets, for a young one - 4. It is especially important that the soil is timely and sufficiently wet in dry and hot weather.
- Top dressing: from the second spring, the near-stem circle is mulched with a layer of rotted manure 3 cm thick, and during the season, tablets with a slow release of nutrients are laid out in the root zone at such intervals: until the end of spring - twice a month, before the end of summer - once.
- Trimming: only for sanitary purposes in early spring, before the awakening of the kidneys.
- Reproduction: seeds, air and root layers.
- Pests: mealybugs, whiteflies and leaf weevils.
- Diseases: coral spotting.
How to grow a maple maple.
After planting, maple must be watered frequently. But not only saplings, but already matured and even adult maples need regular watering, especially in summer. They are watered in spring and autumn once a month and every week in summer. Consumption per adult plant - about 2 buckets, and young maples need water twice as much. However, if the leaves of the tree become too light green, then it means that you have overdone it with the moistening of the soil. And drooping leaves are a sign of insufficient watering. After moistening the ground, the trunk circle is loosened from time to time, at the same time removing weeds that appear in the root zone.
If you were planting fertilizer in the pit, maple will not need fertilizing until the end of the current season. From the second spring, rotted manure is used as a fertilizer, with a layer of 3 cm thick, the tree trunks are evenly mulching. The plant responds well to tablets with a slow release of nutrients that are laid out in the root zone twice a month from the beginning of the growing season to the end of spring, and then once a month until the end of summer.
The rest period at the maple lasts from the first frost until March. Young plants need to be sheltered for the winter: the holly maple stem is wrapped with sacking and tied with a rope, both from frost and rodents. Be sure to cover the root neck of a tree with spruce branches. With age, the hardiness of maple increases, and these measures will become redundant.
Pruning of Norway maple.
Pruning maple pruning is carried out exclusively for sanitary purposes: they remove broken, frozen, dry or diseased or pest shoots and branches, as well as root growth. To make the tree have a neat appearance, you can shorten the shoots sticking to the sides and cut those that grow inside the crown. The beautiful spherical crown of Norway maple does not need to form pruning.
Breeding of maple with seeds.
Maple is easily propagated by the seminal method. Sow the seeds in a seedling bed in autumn so that they undergo a natural stratification during the winter months. In the spring there will be friendly shoots that will need to be planted. It is possible to sow in March as well, but in this case it will be necessary to stratify the seeds for 5-7 days in the vegetable box of the refrigerator, placing them in a container with wet sand.
Propagation of the maple of Norway leaves with air layouts.
On the branch from which you are going to make cuttings, you need to cut the bark several times obliquely with a sterile sharp knife and process the incisions located next to it with a root forming agent (Hetero-auxin or Kornevin). In the incisions, so that their edges do not close again, they insert polystyrene grains, after which the wounds should be covered with moist moss, and a plastic bag should be put on this part of the branch, securing it tightly above and below the incisions. After that, cover the bag from the sun with a linen cloth or aluminum foil.
Gradually, in the places of incisions roots will grow, which will be immersed in a humid sphagnum. The following spring, at the time of active growth, the layers are separated from maple, freed from polyethylene, foil or fabric and planted with sphagnum in the ground.
Reproduction of Norway maple with root layers.
On the root shoots closer to the surface of the earth, several cuts are also made, treated with a solution of a root-forming agent, and the spud is high, covering the cuts with earth. During the season, water and spud otvodok: by next spring, he will develop their own roots, and you can dig it out and plant it at a new place.
Norway maple in landscape design
Gardeners in England, Germany and Holland often use large trees with variegated or brightly colored foliage in landscaping, so the varietal diversity of the Norway maple opens up great opportunities for landscape designers. For example, the slope of a ravine or a mountain, seated by maples with purple, yellow or variegated foliage, looks like a decoration to a fairy tale.
As for the design of the dacha and backyard plots, even a single spicy maple of the Crimzon King variety introduces a unique flavor, and if you compose a composition of ornamental shrubs and trees with his participation, you can achieve much greater success. This task is not easy, because when planting seedlings, it will be necessary to take into account not only the color compatibility of the plants, but also their future dimensions. However, with the right calculations and good theoretical preparation, this task is doable.