Meadow - a plot of soil in conditions of normal or high humidity, covered with perennial herbaceous plants, cereals and sedge. Usually they are used as pasture for domestic cattle. All meadows are characterized by the presence of grass and are classified by location on the mainland, mountain and flood (that is, located in the river valley above the water level in the river, why are periodically flooded during the flood).
Many different herbs and bright flowers grow here. In nature, they form groups that take root next to each other. Therefore, the grass stands of the meadows are different from each other - on some plants grow suitable for food, on the other - good honey plants, on the third - poorly used herbs.
Plots with herbs vary in location:
- Plains - occupy an area of high relief areas, moistened with precipitation or water flows.
- Swampy - are in the most wetlands and lowlands.
- Long-haul - located in places floods rivers, flooded for a period of not more than two weeks.
- Short-haul - flooded during floods for several days.
- Lowland - located in the lowlands, beams, ravines, take moisture from precipitation and groundwater.
The best, productive meadows are those that are located in river valleys, where trees cannot grow due to surface water.
- Numerous species of herbaceous plants that exist on the same meadow are called “grass”. Exceptions to them are cereals, legumes and sedge. Herbs are found in various types of meadows and occupy up to 60% of the stand.
- Cereals are monocotyledonous plants, which include wheat, corn, millet, and oats. They grow in all corners of the world. Even in Antarctica, the annual grass and the Antarctic grassland grow.
- Legumes are dicotyledons, many of which are edible. On the meadows most often grow ornamental and fodder legumes.
- Sedge - mainly perennial plants growing on floodplain meadows, along the banks of reservoirs.
Description of meadow plants
Most often, meadows are overgrown with certain flowers and herbs.
Spring adonis - poisonous perennial flower up to 40 cm high, it is also known as a medicinal plant. The international Latin name comes from the name of the mythical youth Adonis, who was distinguished by extraordinary beauty. Countless popular names associated with the brightness of the flower and the shape of the leaves: adonis bright, fire flower, yellow flowers, hare poppy. The plant is listed in the Red Book.
Astra chamomile - perennial growing on green meadows and river valleys.
Belozor marsh - A terrestrial plant that lives throughout Europe. It has an unusual structure: between the petals on the stamens are small pins that look like drops of honey. Belozor is used in folk medicine.
Siberian hogweed - umbrella plant. Despite its name, it grows mainly in Europe and Russia. He likes wet meadows. Used as feed for grazing animals.
Highlander distributed throughout the world, used in traditional medicine.
Dope - large grass. Folk names: grass sorcerers, vodyan, bodyak. The plant contains alkaloids, therefore in folk medicine it is used as an herb that causes hallucinations and a disorder of consciousness. Some types of dope are used in industrial pharmacology.
Yellowcrus Levkoyny grows in height to 120 cm. Most often found in flood meadows. Yellowberry is very poisonous. In pharmacology, the drug Korezid is made from it, which is prescribed to patients with circulatory failure.
Swinging panic - The national name of the plant is the tumbleweed. Kachima stems are very branched and form a kind of a bush in the shape of a ball. Then the dry stem breaks off, and the ball is carried by the wind to different places. Kachim loves dry places and grows only on dry meadows.
Clover - a common plant with trifoliate (occasionally with four) leaves. Flowers pink, white. Clover trefoil is considered a symbol of Ireland and is used in the emblems of Irish sports teams.
Buttercup caustic - A plant of the family of buttercups with yellow flowers. Buttercup is very poisonous, it contains anemonol substance with a pungent odor that irritates mucous membranes. It is widely used in folk medicine for the treatment of migraine, rheumatism and tuberculosis.
Chive - wild onions, used in food, rich in vitamins and minerals. In Siberia, chives are used for preservation for the winter.
Pyreus creeping is considered a harmful weed, grows throughout Russia, loves dry meadows, plains in the mountains. In medicine, it is used to treat pulmonary catarrhal diseases.
Common Thyme - perennial shrub, contains essential oils. Liquid extract is used in the well-known cough medicine Pertussin. In addition, thyme is used as a spice in cooking.
Sorrel - Another popular and famous plant. It is believed that its name comes from the Old Slavonic word "schav" and is closely related to the name of such a dish as shchi. Sorrel grows on all continents in temperate latitudes. He likes wet meadows and shores of water bodies. Used in cooking, for livestock feed and in industry - for tanning leather.
The meadows grow a huge amount of grass. For the growth of good green grass soil improve. Rare meadows are plowed and sown with seeds, marshy - dried. Apply top dressing with nitrogen, phosphate and potash fertilizers for better plant growth. Meadow grasses are a powerful forage base for domestic animals, and grasses growing here are a source of useful substances for the manufacture of medicines.
The concept of meadows and meadow grasses
Meadow - is a vast area of land occupied by perennial herbaceous plants, cereals, sedge. Most often, the site of grass stand is used as pasture for livestock.
Note! The composition and type of meadow grasses depends on the type of terrain: soil quality, river spill, groundwater level, wind direction. Species of birds and insects that spread seeds also play a role in the formation of a community of meadow grasses.
According to the location of the meadows are divided into 2 types: mainland and floodplain. Depending on the type of meadow, the types of grass are different. According to the usefulness of growing grass, the meadow can be suitable for feed, honey-bearing, and also of little use.
Meadow formation occurs in 3 stages:
- Annual and creeping grass grasses sprout. They are characterized by shallow rooting, form the surface of the turf by its root system.
- Loose-leafed species of meadow grasses appear on the first layer of humus. Characterized by deeper rooting, feeding from the underlying soil layers.
- The stage of vegetation thickening and soil acidification. Some of the meadow plants are dying due to insufficient aeration. Their place is occupied by the usual types of herbs.
In floodplain (floodplain) territories there are about 50 species of meadow grasses. Representatives of sedge occupy the upper tier, meadow tea is most common in the lower tier. Suchodol (about 80 species) occupy a significant part of the community of meadow grasses: clover, fodder, short and tall grasses, meadow bluegrass.
The composition of the meadow grass community:
- Forbs. It takes up to 60% of herbage. These are various types of grass, weeds, with the exception of sedge, cereals and legumes.
- Cereals. Monocotyledonous plants: oats, millet, wheat, corn.
- Legumes are represented by ornamental and fodder species. These are dicotyledonous plants, most of which are suitable for food.
- Sedge. Perennial plants of floodplain meadows, banks of reservoirs.
Varieties of meadow grasses
White clover (creeping) is a perennial meadow grass of the legume family. The leaves are trifoliate, and occasionally there are quatrefoils. Flowers white, pink. Flowering begins from the end of May and continues throughout the summer period. It grows in meadows, pastures, fields, pastures, along roadsides. Pink clover surpasses white in honeyedness, but inferior to red.
Meadow grass with white flowers - yarrow. The herbaceous perennial of the Aster family grows as a semi-shrub, up to 100 cm high. The leaves are alternately carved or pinnately-dissected. Common inflorescence - corymbose, consists of small baskets. The flowers are white. Widely distributed in Europe and Asia.
Siberian Hogweed is a biennial or perennial herb of the Umbrella family, growing to 190 cm. The leaves have an ovoid shape. The inflorescence is represented by a complex umbrella with flowers of yellowish and greenish hues. Hogweed starts blooming in June and continues to bloom for about 26 days. Distributed in Europe, Western Siberia, Ciscaucasia.
The dandelion medicinal is a yellow field grass, a perennial belonging to the Astrovye family. Height - up to 50 cm. The leaves are lanceolate, serrated. The floral arrow ends with a single inflorescence in the form of a basket, with a diameter of up to 5 cm. The color is golden yellow.
Melilotus (Latin name - Melilotus) means "honey" and "forage grass". It can also be called wild hop, vargun, stable, wild buckwheat. Belongs to the family Bean. This fragrant meadow grass with yellow flowers grows all over the field. The stem is tall, reaches 2 m. The flowers are yellow or white, small, gathered in the form of brushes. Three-toed leaves are evenly spaced on the stems. Melilot has a strong smell of coumarin flavor. Good honey plant. Grows in Asia and Europe.
Grass with yellow flowers, goose onions, reaches no more than 15 cm in height. Small bright yellow flowers have a honey aroma. The leaves are elongated, grow from the roots. It grows in the Caucasus, Siberia, the Far East.
The cornflower is a perennial of the Aster family. It grows from 30 cm to 1 m. The diameter of the flower basket is from 1 to 2 cm. The color is mauve. Flowering begins in the second half of June and ends in September. It has the properties of honey. It grows in Eurasia.
The grass with purple flowers, Jungar Aconite, is a shrub up to 2 m high. It has dark purple, large, five-petalled inflorescences. The leaves are rounded.
Beautifully stands out against the background of green lilac grass, whose name - meadow geranium. This is a perennial meadow grass that grows up to 80 cm. Lilac large buds have five petals each. Leaves below are divided into five parts, on top - on three.
The meadow carnation is a perennial flower, up to 50 cm high. It is a dicotyledonous plant of the carnation family. The leaves are opposite, lanceolate forms. On the top of each shoot is a single flower. Petals jagged, painted pink, more like a purple color.
Valeriana officinalis is a perennial herb of the Valerian family, which reaches a height of 1.5 m. Erect stem is covered with petiolate leaves (in the first year), lanceolate, nonpaired (in the second year). Inflorescences are corymbose. Flowers are small, pale. By color - pink, white or purple. Flowering begins in the second year, from June to August. The flavor of valerian is extremely like cats, no wonder it is called "cat grass". It grows in Asia, Europe and America. Ubiquitous in Russia.
Violet grass is often present on the meadow - Delphinium. This is an annual plant belonging to the family Buttercups. Branched, erect stem grows up to 50 cm. The leaves are small, openwork. Small flowers resemble a hatchet. Color - purple, blue, sometimes it is pink. Distributed in the European part of Russia.
Wild onion is a bush perennial. Height - up to 50 cm. The leaves resemble onions onions, but the arrows are narrower, tough. Pink bell-shaped flower is located on a long stalk. Wild onion is used as a seasoning for first courses and salads.
Meadow mint is a perennial with a branched stem and jagged oblong leaves. Flowering period - from May to October. Flowers - lilac. Due to the large amount of essential oils in the composition, the mint aroma is characteristic of the plant.
The use of meadow grasses
Wildflowers and herbs can be both beneficial and harmful. Some plants are rich in proteins and nutrients: clover, alfalfa, red clover. There are also poisonous representatives: wild radish, dope, buttercup, poisonous milestones, larkspur and others.
Medicinal Dandelion contains about 50 medicinal ingredients. Bitter substances (taraksiny) are used in the treatment of the liver and gallbladder. The roots contain beta-sitosterol, an anti-sclerotic agent. In France, dandelion is grown for salads.
Jungar aconite is used as a medicinal plant for arthritis, diabetes, anemia, psoriasis, infertility, cancer, ulcer, pediculosis, angina pectoris, and many other ailments.
Jungar aconite is used for arthritis.
Clover is used to treat coughing, cramps and as a wound healing agent.
Siberian Hogweed has the property of treating sexual disorders, diseases of the digestive system, convulsions, inflammation of the joints, arthritis.
Important! Hogric acid based preparations increase skin photosensitivity due to the furocoumarin content.
Yarrow is a broad-spectrum medicinal plant. But care should be taken when taking it inward, as overdose leads to skin rashes and dizziness.
Rhizomes and roots of valerian meadow is used to reduce the excitability of the central nervous system.
Mint is able to treat almost all colds and lung diseases. It is used for problems with the digestive system. Estrogen in mint has a rejuvenating effect on women.
Tea with mint is used for colds
Now it has become fashionable to engage in the cultivation of meadow flowers in the country and garden plots. Meadow grasses are able to bloom magnificently until November. Greens look beautiful in combination with bells, daisies, cornflowers, poppies, clover and other flowers. A colorful composition can be created from vervain, meadowsweet, phlox. Flower carpet not only decorates the area in front of the house, but can also be beneficial due to the healing properties of plants.
Decorative herbs (cereals, sedges) will be able to decorate any garden, thanks to beautiful narrow leaves, elegant stems and inflorescences. They not only form the basis of lawns, but also create a feeling of airiness among other plants in the flower garden. Decorative cereals can be grown with seeds sown in the ground. Most often in the areas there is reed molinia, Chinese miscanthus, pampas grass, viviparous rodents, blue fescue, reed grass, hair-like feather grass.
The vegetation cover of our climatic zone - as, indeed, of the whole of Europe - was formed mainly under the influence of glaciations, moreover, since the Neolithic era, man has been increasingly influencing it. A characteristic feature of meadows and fields is the species diversity: several dozens of plant species can coexist here simultaneously.
Meadow formation occurs in three stages. First annual plants and creeping grasses grow, such vegetation takes root shallowly and its roots, creeping shoots and rhizomes form a dense surface of turf. Then, when the seedlings become thicker and the first humus forms on the ground, loose sprout herbs appear, which take root deeper and can use nutrients from the underlying soil layers. The last stage in the formation of the meadow is the further thickening of the vegetation and acidification of the soil. As a result, the roots of some herbs cease to suffice, some species die, and ordinary herbs grow in their place, and sedge and rush in the wet areas.
Meadows and fields are a dynamically changing, rich community of diverse plants that compete for light, water, and nutrients — mineral salts and trace elements. Light-loving plants form the upper tier, double-leaved plants are rare here. The lowest tier consists of species that tolerate a lack of light. The composition and type of meadow plants depends not only on human activity, but also on the nature of the terrain: soil quality, river flooding, groundwater level, wind direction, as well as insect species and birds — potential seed carriers.
From this point of view, meadows are subdivided into lowland and marshy reclaimed, floodplain and dry-growing, as well as mountain pastures and glades. Floodplain or floodplain meadows are located in the valleys or where water spills or soils in the spring. There can be about 50 species of plants.
The vegetation of the upper tier of flood meadows is represented by vascular plants of the sedge family, which are excellent for acidic soils. В нижнем ярусе заливных лугов можно встретить вербейник монетчатый, или луговой чай — красивое стелющееся растение из семейства первоцветных.Его побеги, достигающие 60 см в длину, покрыты множеством овальных листочков. Довольно крупные жёлтые цветки, растущие из пазух листьев, цветут с июня по сентябрь.
Flora of dry meadows
Of all the species, dry meadows occupy a large part of the total area of perennial green land. Here, on light and medium soils, an average of 80 different species grow, including high and low herbs, forage plants and clovers. Almost everywhere you can meet gentle, leafless panicles of grass bluegrass - its root system is well developed, so that the plant forms a strong turf, resistant to trampling.
Fescue is characterized by a significant variety of morphological features - for example, red fescue can withstand frost and survive even for two months even under an ice crust, and in the absence of frost it does not even dry in winter. Fescue in June blooms, and in summer its leaves grow almost in front of their eyes - at a rate of up to 4 mm per day. She is not afraid of trampling, light-requiring, and without harm to herself, endures flooding with water for 10–15 days.
The root system of the perennial, or ryegrass, forms dense turf, but its roots do not go down to a depth of more than 10 cm. This valuable forage is sensitive to water deficiency, it blooms in June-July and continues to grow until late autumn. Ryegrass requires light, but tolerates trampling well, and its nutritional value for livestock is due to the fact that this meadow plant accumulates significant amounts of minerals and trace elements: calcium, sodium, silicon, magnesium, potassium, sulfur, copper, molybdenum. Flat ryegrass ear reaches a height of 20 - 25 cm.
On the contrary, flax laxative - an annual plant with filamentous stems up to 30 cm tall and a weak root - is a small weed, and the poisonous linamarin contained in it can be harmful to animals.
The leaves of Hypericum perforatum, which is also a widely used medicinal plant, look as if they were really someone who has perforated. In fact, the highly translucent places are nothing but glands filled with essential oils.
Plantain large - a perennial rosette plant with a short thick rhizome and a bundle of cord roots. Long ears on high stalks are covered with tiny fruits that birds love very much. This plant blooms and bears fruit from April to September, and it is completely undemanding to the type of soil and is found almost everywhere in our nature.
Probably the most famous among the weeds is the dandelion officinalis: its sunny yellow flowers can be seen in May-June, and sometimes it blooms again in the fall. Dandelion flowers unfold under the sun, closing on cloudy days and in the evening, and the ripened light seeds, supplied with “parachutes”, are carried by the wind over considerable distances. Dandelion is very difficult to destroy: the taproot of this plant reaches 5–50 cm in length, and if the aerial part of the plant is torn off, it grows back from the root, in addition, in places of damage, the dandelion root forms brood buds, from which new plants appear. Dandelion can only be destroyed by chemical means or by depriving it of light.
Nettle has excellent healing properties. Nettle is a perennial plant that propagates by seed, as well as a variety of underground shoots. It blooms from May to late autumn and is pollinated by the wind. Very small and light seeds ripen from nondescript flowers. The above-ground part of the nettle is covered with burning, hard hairs filled with a liquid with a high content of formic acid and histamine - when touched, they easily break off and pierce the epidermis. Nettle leaves contain a lot of chlorophyll, vitamins, tannins and mineral salts.
Speaking about the flora of dry meadows, it is impossible not to mention the family of legumes, or moths, represented by creeping clover and meadow, and also mouse peas.
Due to the beautiful flowers, perennial daisy and a number of plants potentially dangerous with its poison are also noteworthy: spring adonis, yellow iris, purple foxglove, buttercup.
On dry meadows with wet soils, you can also find the following types of trees and shrubs: wart birch, black alder and common viburnum. In the drier areas, the common barberry, turn, rock oak and dog rose are found. The grass of mountain pastures and glades depends on the climate and location.
In the lower part of the mountain forests, meadow plants growing on different soils are distinguished by species diversity and yield rich harvests of good hay, mowing them, as a rule, twice a year. Here you can see, in particular, cuff, European swimsuit, perennial chaff. Cuff-high-protein, rich in minerals feed, well tolerated by bleeding and trampling - usually reach a height of 40 cm and bloom, depending on the type, from May to September. The flowers are inconspicuous, yellowish, and the leaves are round and jagged.
In the territories located higher in the mountains, nature is often protected by law, and since the local forests are not touched by the human hand, the latter are gradually replacing the meadows. Above the forest, on the rocks covered with poor sour soils, the meadows are overgrown with belous sticking out, field vole and heather common
Any person who has ever seen a blooming field will not be able to forget this wonderful sight: a solid carpet of flowers and herbs that sways from the slightest breeze. And what a smell - it is impossible to convey in words, the flowers are heated in the sun, and it seems that the smell is only increasing.
The colors of wildflowers are also very diverse: yellow, white, purple, crimson, bright blue and many others. One color does not even have analogues among other colors - it is cornflower blue. You will not find it anywhere else, a small number of artificially bred flowers have the same color, but there is no other such in nature.
There are a great many wildflowers, according to scientists, about five hundred thousand species, although only 290 of them are described. Most wildflowers have medicinal properties that have been used since ancient times. The most prominent representatives are: chamomile, cornflower, bell, violet canine and many others.
Recently, it has become very fashionable to grow wildflowers in home gardens. Some species are even used to make lawns. The most popular among gardeners are bells, chamomile, poppies. Field cornflowers are now practically not planted, instead of them, garden cornflower is bred, which has not only a cornflower color, but also pink, white and some others.
Meadow flowers. Types of perennial flowers and herbs
In most cases these are light-loving plants with brightly colored flowers and predominant vegetative propagation.
Suhodolny meadow.Cereals play an important role in the formation of a dry meadow. These are rhizomatous plants, grow, are brought closer to each other. Possessing a well-developed root system, they displace other meadow plants in competitive struggle. By the nature of the shoots and the location of the leaves on the stem, the grass is divided into high and lower, less light-loving plants. Representatives of the legume family are also of great importance among meadow plants. Deeply penetrating root system and the presence of nodule bacteria on it, assimilating atmospheric nitrogen, allows them to get along well with cereals, improve soil structure and increase its fertility. From legumes on a dry meadow there are various types of clover - red, pink, white, meadow, pea, g. Mousy, rank, greenwood, alfalfa.
Among other plants belonging to forbs, are: cornflower, knautia Field, Dandelion, dandelion, daisy, yarrow (family Asteraceae), burnet ordinary, goutweed, chervil, thyme (a family of celery), meadowsweet, erect cinquefoil, cuff (family Rosaceae ). In addition, there are also representatives of yasnotkovyh, buttercup, norichnykh, cloves.
Lowland meadowsThey are characterized by high humidity and hygrophytes settle here. The most characteristic plants of such meadows are various species of sedges, bluegrass and marsh. (Roa palustris), mytnik (Pedicularis palustris)buttercups (Ranunculus sp.), a series of tripartite, water pepper, serpentine, cyanosis, burnet.
Alpine meadowsmake up part of the alpine vegetation and are distributed mainly in the mountains of temperate latitudes. They develop under conditions of deepwithgentle cover, fast daily change in temperature and humidity, short growing season. Alpine plants (cereals, gentian, primroses, saxifrage, etc.) are mostly short-grown (10-15 cm), with small leaves. The bright color of the flowers is an adaptation to insect pollination and the prevention of overheating. Alpine meadows rich in fodder grasses have long been used as summer pastures. The characteristics of the flora and the structure of the high mountain meadows of different mountain systems differ significantly.
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What is a natural meadow community?
Any natural community is a collection of plants, animals, fungi, microorganisms that interact with each other and their environment. Dominating importance in the ecosystem of the meadows is the flora, consisting of grass and grass. Its diversity contributes to soil quality and water regime.
Meadows, depending on location, are divided into inundated, dry valley, mountain and subalpine. Vegetation of meadows varies significantly depending on the degree of soil moisture and climate. Some representatives of the fauna are relics of the biocenosis that preceded the meadows.
What organisms make up the meadow ecosystem?
The main plants of the meadow community are various perennial grasses. On one square meter you can count up to one hundred species. They form several tiers. Annuals, which have been brought from forest or marsh natural communities, are receiving lush development. According to the economic value, it is customary to divide plants into cereals, legumes, forbs, and sedges.
The fauna of the meadow is closely intertwined with vegetation. Insects feed on nectar, while they themselves serve as food for small birds and mammals. Those, in turn, are the source of food for birds of prey. Rodents, insectivorous and small predators take an active part in the life of the natural community of the meadows.
Flooded meadows are flooded with water from rivers during floods or floods. Because of this, the species composition of plants is poor. Water carries with it a large number of suspended particles, which after sedimentation turn into wastewaters. On the high areas, wormwood, yarrow, caraway and burnet are found. In the marshy parts of the meadow grow cereals. Here you can find marinas, canary, bluegrass, meadow fescue, etc. The flood meadows give a high harvest of hay.
The soils of dry meadows were once formed under the forest. They are much leaner than in flood plains. Despite this, several dozens of herbs can grow here at the same time. Bluegrass meadow thanks to the root system forms a solid turf, resistant to trampling. This plant is found everywhere. Ryegrass is of particular value as a fodder grass. A lot of medicinal plants grow in dry meadows: nettle, dandelion, plantain, St. John's wort, holey, and laxative. From the legumes can be distinguished mouse peas and clover. In the first half of summer irises, daisies, buttercups and foxgloves bloom.
Mountain and subalpine meadows are characterized by high and colorful grass cover. Intense solar radiation, temperature differences and strong winds are a real test for vegetation. In a short period, the herbs have time to bloom and produce viable seeds. The most widespread fescue, other cereals do not play a big role. The mountaineer meat-red and the initial letter grandiflora grow in clusters. Flowers of pyrethrum, forget-me-not, serpentine head, cornflower and lilies form a motley carpet.
The main animals of the meadow are considered to be mouse-like rodents and insectivores, which are attracted by the abundance of food. These are shrews, moles, voles. On warmed and non-flooded areas there are snakes, lizards and a few frogs. Diverse species composition of birds. In the meadows inhabit the lark, wagtail, quail, lapwing, snipe. From predators dominates the fox, weasel and ferret.
The fauna of the meadow is closely related to the vegetation. There is no such species diversity of the fauna as in the forests. Large mammals cannot find shelter in forbs. Flowering honey plants attract pollinating insects, bees, wasps, butterflies and bumblebees.
Ecological links of the meadow community
All organisms of the natural community exist in close symbiosis. Plants are an important component in animal life. They feed on nectar, phytomass, distribute seeds. Digging activity of rodents improves soil condition, creates conditions for seed germination. Many insects and mammals are organic medic nurses.
Herbivores save meadows from numerous weeds and harmful plants. Predators create a balance between different populations.
The role of the meadow ecosystem for humans
Most plants are a vitamin feed source for livestock. For a long time, man uses meadows as pasture, harvests hay for the winter. During the flowering of honey plants, bees flock here from the nearest apiaries. Meadow honey has a delicate aroma and delicate flavor. Throughout the summer, man harvests medicinal herbs. It deals with young leaves, flowers, roots and stems.
Human influence on meadow ecosystem
To improve the quality and productivity of herbs, a person changes the composition of the grass stand, changes the conditions of growth. Grazing and mowing have the greatest impact on the ecosystem. Improper hay activity disrupts the rhythm of seasonal vegetation, limits the spread of seeds. As a result of mowing, the bare soil quickly dries out, loses its thermal regime. If such events are held over a long period, then there is a change in the species composition of meadow grasses.
More serious impact is grazing. Moving across the meadow, animals trample down the plants with their hooves. As a result, plants that are resistant to trampling remain on pastures. The impact of the hooves deforms the topsoil. As a result of the deposition of excrement, vegetation can be completely destroyed. However, if camps change regularly, the destruction of vegetation does not occur. Since the soil gets active organic during the grazing season, grass cover is restored quite quickly.
The problem of conservation of meadows is global. All plant species are sensitive to environmental factors. Frequent grazing leads to reduced grassland. The restoration of cover takes at least three years. If more than half of the territory was bare, the person needs to seed it manually.
If mowing is rarely done, the whole territory suffers. A dense layer of old leaves is formed on its surface, the period of snow melting is delayed, rodents and pathogenic bacteria start up. For the healthy development of the meadows, haymaking is necessary. It allows you to maintain species diversity.
Fertilization greatly affects the composition of herbs. As a result of nitrogenous feedings, grass plants grow, and forbs and legumes are significantly reduced. Competent selection of fertilizers will keep the species composition, protect the meadows from yield fluctuations by year.
A person should avoid using plant protection chemicals. For the health of the meadows ecosystem, it is necessary to combine the time of mowing, the intensity of pasture loads, competent application of fertilizers and sowing of herbs.
Description of meadow flowers
Meadow flowers amaze with the variety, simplicity and at the same time beauty. These flowers in their natural environment grow in meadows and fields, on the forest edges.
By the way, herbalists noted that the flowers collected from the meadows have greater power in the treatment of diseases compared to artificially cultivated, precisely because people did not interfere in their growth and development.
There are a lot of types of meadow flowers and in the article we will look at some plants, their description and photos, which can be found not only in the meadows, but also in our garden plots, and everyone will be able to decide what to collect in the summer for a first-aid kit and what to plant in a flower bed .
Tips for choosing
If you observe meadow flowers in your natural environment, you can easily understand that they love a lot of bright sunny color and do not tolerate shade, except for flowers that can grow in the forest, too, for example, willow-tea.
If you want to have them in your flower bed, you will need to provide them with light: always plant on the first line. Moreover, most of the representatives of meadow flowers are low and medium.
Meadow flowers are not afraid of weeds, because they are accustomed to live in close cooperation with hundreds of neighbors in the meadow. Их корни переплетаются, создавая ковер, который хорошо впитывает дождевую воду и также достает влагу из самой почвы – поэтому уход за такими растениями будет минимальным.
Многолетнее травянистое растение, вырастает до полуметровой высоты. Листовые пластинки растут непосредственно на стебле, чем выше, тем мельче листы. They have an oblong-pointed shape and a shade of green. The buds grow at the crown of the stem singly, and have a soft pink color.
The plant has an average frost resistance, which, nevertheless, allows it to grow well in central Russia, including in the suburbs.
This is the wild ancestor of cultural amaranth. Gardeners are more familiar as shchiritsa, malicious weed. But not everyone knows that it has a high nutritional and medicinal value.
Amaranth reaches a height of 1 meter. The leaves are alternately arranged and oblong. At the top of the stem the leaves are smaller, at the bottom - larger.
The flowers are very small, almost invisible, have a yellowish-green color and make up inflorescences in the form of an ear. It is not exacting to soil and weather conditions at all.
A perennial plant that grows up to 40 cm. Leaf blades grow alternately, larger at the bottom, compared with the top. Flowers on thin legs, large, tricolor. Frost resistance is high. Habitat is very wide.
It grows in the form of a bush and reaches two meters in height.
Small bluish-green leaves grow all over the stem, from bottom to top. Blooms profusely.
Four-petal buds, white, and more often - a crimson hue with a rich smell, up to 4 cm in diameter, are collected in umbrella inflorescences. Winter-hardy, unpretentious.
A perennial flower growing to a height of one and a half meters. Stem bare, little covered with leaves. The buds are small, of a pale pink color, gathered in umbrella inflorescences, very fragrant. The habitat is wide, but due to high demand, it can be difficult to find.
Has found application not only in medicine, but also in the cosmetic industry, for these purposes it is cultivated artificially.
A long-term representative of meadow flowers, growing to a meter long and considered a weed, especially on cereal fields. The leaves have an elongated oval shape, pubescent, green with a bluish tint. The buds are pale pink in color, about 5 cm in diameter.
Mouse polka dots
A perennial flower, with a creeping stem, reaching a length of one and a half meters. Leaf blades are miniature, inconspicuous, ash-green hue. Buds do not differ in large size, but they have a rich purple-pink color.
Perennial flower, growing to 40 cm. Leafy plates pubescent, have a linear shape. The buds are red, pink, less white color, petals gear. Treats the rare, protected plants.
A perennial representative of meadow flowers, growing to 80 cm. The lower leaves are divided into five parts, the upper leaves - into three. Five-petal buds, numerous, large, are lilac color. Very widely represented on the map of Russia.
The perennial representative of meadow flowers, growing 90 cm. Belongs to the Grechishny family. The stem is straight and thin, densely covered with leaves. Leaf blades are pen-shaped. Buds are small, snow-white, are collected in inflorescences in the form of an ear.
Perennial flower, reaching half a meter long. Stem creeping, strongly branched. Leaf blades are small, opposite, densely covering the stem.
Buds ugly, white, located in the axils of the leaves.
The highlander bird has good winter hardiness and high nutritional properties. It is used in folk medicine and as a fodder plant.
Perennial flower in the form of a bush, reaching a length of one and a half meters. Stems erect and dense. Leaf blades are dark green, opposite. The buds are blue, blue or purple, shaped like a bell, rather large and growing one by one. The habitat is wide.
A long-term representative of meadow flowers, growing up to 50 cm. Leaf blades are assembled into a rosette, very long and thin. The buds are small, yellowish, with a honey smell. The plant is thermophilic.
The representative of meadow flowers, growing in the form of a bush and reaching a height of one and a half meters. Long dark leaf blades form a rosette. The buds are large, orange-yellow like a large chamomile, but the petals are much narrower. The root has medicinal value and is used in cosmetology.
Perennial flower in the form of a bush, reaching a length of one and a half meters. Leaf blades form a rosette and are shaped like arrows. Peduncle long, forms a pyramidal inflorescence with many small, but catchy buds, snow-white, pink, blue, lilac, red and yellow shades. The flower is thermophilic. At home from the delphinium prepare soap.
A perennial representative of meadow flowers, growing a bush and reaching half a meter in length. Leaf blades look like homemade feathers, but not so thick and fleshy. The tall peduncle is crowned with a ball-shaped inflorescence. It has nutritional value. The habitat is wide.
Perennial flower, reaching a length of two meters. Leaf blades oppositely or in pairs located on the stem. Buds are small, yellow or white, very fragrant. It is famous as a honey culture and a medicinal plant.
A perennial representative of meadow flowers, growing to 80 cm. The upright, hard stem is covered with a large number of small dark green leaves. The buds form yellow inflorescences on the tops of the stems. It is found both in Russia and in Ukraine. Used to treat various ailments.
A perennial representative of meadow plants, growing by thirty centimeters.
Leaf plates oval-shaped with carved edges, assembled in three.
Shoots creeping, rooted easily forming roots on them. Flowers are small, white. The fruit is a red oval small berry covered with bare oval seeds. It has nutritional and medicinal value. Heat-loving, but tolerates the climate of central Russia.
Rhizome species of meadow flowers, reaching a length of sixty centimeters. Leaf blades form a rosette, flat and have the shape of a sword. The bud is gracefully beautiful, it is formed on a high bare stem and has a different color: yellow, purple, snow-white, purple, maroon and pink tones.
Kiprey narrow-leaved (Ivan-tea)
Long-term representative of meadow plants, growing up to one and a half meters.
The stem is erect, thick and juicy, densely covered with linear-lanceolate leaves. The buds are purple-pink, forming apical racemes. The habitat is wide. Used to treat various ailments and is the raw material for making tea.
A long-term representative of meadow flowers, growing to 80 cm. The stem is upright and strongly branched. Leaf blades are oval-shaped and assembled in three. Buds are collected in spherical inflorescences, painted in pink and crimson colors. Nitrogen fixer. Used as a honey plant, fodder and medicinal plant.
The bell is ordinary
A two-year-old representative of meadow flowers, growing to 70 cm. The stalk is straight, slightly covered with small leaves, having a regular arrangement. The buds are purple, gathered in inflorescences-panicles. Rare protected plant, grows in temperate climates.
Long-term representative of meadow flowers, growing up to 80 cm.
The stem is straight, ends with a single flower of blue-lilac color.
Leaf blades form a rosette and have a lanceolate form. Good honey plant.
A long-term representative of meadow flowers, growing up to 40 cm and belonging to the genus Lilein. The stem is thin, naked, upright. Leaf blades are large, oval-elongated, form a basal rosette, from which a thin stem comes out with small white flowers.
The buds form a spike inflorescence and are shaped like bluebells.
Rare protected species listed in the Red Book.
One-year-old representative of meadow flowers, growing to 80 cm. The stem is erect and erect, ends with a pedicle with a blue flower. Leaf blades are small, arranged in pairs along the whole stalk. Seeds are edible and used to make butter. The stem is a source of fiber for tissue production.
A perennial representative of meadow flowers, growing up to 90 cm. The stem is erect, densely covered with small, pointed leaves. Buds are pale yellow with an orange center.
Long-term representative of meadow flowers, growing in the form of a bush and reaching 120 centimeters long. Stems are straight, strong, ending with racemes of blue-violet color. The leaf plates are palmate, form a rosette and partially cover the stem. It grows well in central Russia.
A perennial representative of meadow flowers, growing to 30 cm. The stem is erect, ends with a flower stem with a single yellow flower. Leaf blades are smooth on top, pubescent from below, form a rosette that appears after the flower withers.
A perennial representative of meadow flowers, growing to 60 cm. The stem is erect, hollow inside, contains milky juice and ends with a single flower of bright yellow color. Leaf blades, elongated in the shape of a feather, form a basal rosette.
One-year-old representative of meadow flowers, growing to 60 cm. The stem is straight, branched at the base, ends with a flower with white petals and a yellow heart.
Leaf plates elongated narrow and carved. Has found application in traditional and traditional medicine and cosmetology.
A long-term representative of meadow flowers, growing up to 80 cm. The leaf blades on long legs have a finger-like shape. The buds are small, numerous, painted white and pink.
The perennial representative of meadow flowers, having the form of a semi-shrub, related to Complicated The stem is straight, covered with feathery, complex leaves and ends with numerous baskets of inflorescences, with white or pink-white flowers.
Perennial herb, reaching a length of one and a half meters. Leaf blades on thick petioles form a rosette. The stem is erect and branched. The root and leaves are used in cooking and medicine. The habitat is very wide.
Long-term representative of meadow flowers, reaching a length of one and a half meters. The stem is straight, very strong, forks and ends with numerous flowers of blue-blue color.
Leaf blades form a rosette and partially cover the stem. The habitat is very wide. Used in cooking and as a medicinal plant. From the roots they prepare a drink that tastes like coffee.
A perennial representative of meadow flowers with a creeping stem, growing to 40 cm. The stem is covered with small oval-shaped leaves and ends with pink-purple buds. All parts of the plant are very fragrant and are used for tea, as a seasoning, in medicine and cosmetology.
Long-term representative of meadow flowers, reaching a meter height.
Stalks and leaves produce a yellow thick juice that can cause allergic irritation, however, it is used in the treatment of warts and papillomas.
The buds are bright yellow, gathered in inflorescences, umbrellas.
Long-term representative of meadow flowers, reaching a meter height. Stem straight rough. Leaf blades are wide, oval-shaped. The buds are large, up to fifteen centimeters in diameter, gathered in the inflorescences of the basket. The color of flowers covers all shades of pink or red-brown.
A perennial representative of meadow flowers, growing up to 45 cm. Very light-requiring. Buds are white or orange, cup-shaped. Begins to bloom early, from the beginning of June and blooms until frost.
Rules for harvesting medicinal plants
- need to collect plants in a well-defined time frame
- collection to produce in sunny weather, after complete drying of the dew,
- collect clean plants, away from sources of pollution,
- after collecting the grass is washed in cold water,
- during drying, use shading from the sun or electric dryers, setting the temperature to no more than 50 ° C,
- Drying is done to breakage. Undried parts of the plant can become covered with mold fungi and lose their strength,
- grass should be stored in paper or cloth bags no more than two years.