Last year I planted white cabbage on my plot for the first time. But the harvest was very weak, because the heads of cabbages were poorly formed. And the neighbors cabbage grew the size of a watermelon! I asked them what grade they planted?
It turned out that the variety is the most common, they just carefully looked after the beds all the summer, periodically fed up vegetables. This year, I did everything according to their advice, now I’m not overjoyed with my huge heads! In this article I will list to you folk methods and chemical preparations that you need to feed cabbage for its growth and formation.
Type of cabbage
The most common cabbage on Russian beds - white cabbage! Other species are grown much less frequently, and not all without special care can fully mature in central Russia. If you still decide to grow an exotic species, then you need to take into account some of the nuances:
- Red - from the white differs only in the red color of the leaves, and feeding it requires a double quantity.
- Color - for her, one and a half times reduce the amount of nitrogen and potassium in fertilizers, but the amount of phosphorus, on the contrary, increases.
- Sheet - very easy to maintain. For her the main thing - good lighting, regular watering, one-time feeding manure.
- Beijing - it should be often watered and given almost all mineral fertilizers.
- Savoy - fertilized with minerals only during the setting of heads.
- Broccoli - does not like increased acidity of the soil. Nitrogen is added during planting and then twice fed with manure.
- Brussels - likes fertilizer on the basis of eggshell. But it is made only in the fall. Shells can be replaced with lime.
- Kohlrabi - so that it grows well, a solution of urea is added to the seedlings, and on open soil - manure. The earth should always be wet.
For the first time, seedlings, as soon as the first leaves appeared, are fed with an ammonia-based solution. To do this, in a two-liter jar of cool water add 10 grams of superphosphate, 4 grams of potassium chloride, 8 grams of ammonium nitrate. This solution is infused for about three hours before use.
In order for the vegetable to develop as it should, the beds before planting are fertilized with a special mixture. To do this, 1 kilogram of compost or humus is mixed with 3 teaspoons of superphosphate, then add 3 tablespoons of wood ash. Mix well, after which a handful of this mixture is put into each well.
Banana contains a lot of potassium, which is even more in the peel. Therefore, they can replace almost all potash fertilizers. To do this, one peel must first be dried, chopped. Then pour a liter of water. Leave for four days.
Then strain and water the cabbage beds, trying not to fall on the leaves. If you do not want to bother with the recipe, then during planting you can put a piece of fresh banana skins on the bottom of the hole.
With its help, cabbages will be able to form faster, since boric acid stimulates leaf growth. Therefore, the bushes are watered with this solution in early July.
In a glass of boiling water stir a teaspoon of boric acid. Then this slightly cooled solution is poured into a bucket of cool water. After that, they sprayed all the leaves, trying not to miss a single one.
To improve the root system of plants and protect them from disease, yeast should be added to the soil. Any suitable, both dry and fresh. For use in a liter of warm water pour 200 grams of fresh or 1 teaspoon of dry yeast. Mix well and leave for three hours.
After that, it is all diluted with 70 liters of liquid. But keep in mind that this tool reduces the amount of potassium and calcium in the ground. Therefore, after feeding with yeast, sprinkle earth with eggshell or wood ash.
In almost every garden you can find nettles, which is fully capable of replacing manure. But only young nettle will do, as the old one has fewer nutrients.
After you have collected half the nettle bucket, it is filled with warm water to the brim. Then put in a sunny and warm place for four days, so she fermented. Then filter and dilute the tincture of tincture in a bucket of liquid. Then you can already water the beds.
It contains a lot of nitrogen, which helps the cabbage to ripen faster, increase yields, improve immunity. It is usually made about three times during the whole season. It is best to give dressing in liquid form.
To do this in equal proportions mix the liquid and chicken manure. After which the container is closed with a lid and insist for three days. This tool can be stored for six months. They are watered between the rows and around the vegetables, trying not to fall on the leaves.
To protect seedlings from harmful bacteria, gardeners use a solution based on potassium permanganate, as it is an excellent antiseptic. In order for the cabbage not to hurt and ascend properly, in a very weak solution of potassium permanganate seeds are soaked.
And then potassium permanganate is used in July, when the heads of cabbages begin to form. For watering in a ten-liter bucket of liquid, dilute three grams of potassium permanganate. It is very important not to exceed the dose of potassium permanganate, otherwise the leaves and roots can get burned.
They can both be watered at the root, and spray bushes. But this procedure is done only in cloudy and dry weather or in the evening after sunset. In no case under direct sunlight.
Thanks to this tool, the plants will grow faster and become larger in size. In a ten-liter bucket of water dilute 40 grams of urea, then no more than 500 ml is poured into each bush. This procedure is usually done in June.
No one argues that it is manure that is the best natural fertilizer, as it contains almost the entire complex of mineral substances.
Therefore, they fertilize almost the entire garden. For better digestibility, one part of the manure is dissolved in ten parts of water. Then insist about seven days. After which it can be applied to the soil. During the summer, this procedure is carried out about three times.
It is rich in nitrogen, but in the preparation of the solution it is important not to overdo it with alcohol, as it burns the leaves. On a bucket of water is enough three tablespoons of ammonia. Then they are watered only under the root. Plants can be fed at their any stage of development.
It is easy to get in any pharmacy, inexpensive. Usually based on it make a solution for spraying seedlings. Hydrogen peroxide helps to rid the plant of many diseases, accelerates the growth of fruits, protects the roots from black rot, saturates the soil with oxygen.
To do this, pour 2 tablespoons of hydrogen peroxide into a liter of ordinary water. After which they are watered greens once a week. Also, in this solution, seeds are soaked for better growth before planting.
He is in every home. To cabbages do not burst, they are watered with soda solution in September. To do this, dissolve 20 grams of soda in a bucket and pour a cabbage bed with the help of a watering can. This can be done just before the collection, then even during storage, the heads will not crack.
It is also a common natural product that many gardeners fertilize their beds in order to normalize the balance of soil acidity. But for this, in the fall, they start a leisurely gathering of the shell, since it will need a lot in summer. Store it in a dry place.
Before use, it is thoroughly crushed, then simply poured into fresh wells. Thanks to the calcium contained in the shell, the plants will actively develop. And with the help of the shell, you can get rid of the bear by simply scattering it on the ground.
They are convenient because you can buy them in finished form in gardening stores and not bother with the establishment of proportions, the benefit is all written in the instructions on the package.
Thanks to him, vegetables grow well, but it is important not to overdo it with the amount of nitrogen, otherwise the acidity of the soil may increase. This tool is contained in urea, ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate.
If you do not want to bother with these minerals, then in the gardening shop you can buy one of the following drugs: Kemira, Mortar, Criston. Usually this means is brought into the earth as soon as the first shoots appear.
Without it, the leaves will be weak, and the cabbages will not be able to form. Therefore, it is first introduced into the seedling two weeks after its landing in the open land. Then in the autumn, repeat the procedure 15 days before harvest. Especially it needs a late variety of vegetables.
The recipe is very simple: 10 grams of potassium and urea are stirred in a bucket of water, then 20 grams of superphosphate is added. Poured under the roots.
It is with his help that the head is formed correctly. But first you need to find out what kind of soil. If acidic, then phosphorus will be poorly absorbed. The best and most popular phosphorus-based fertilizer is superphosphate. It can be replaced with bone meal or diammophos.
But the first option is still better. This means fertilize cabbage only in the fall. Before using 100 grams of superphosphate diluted in a bucket of cold water. After that, they watered the whole cabbage patch.
Do I need to feed white cabbage planted in a garden bed?
To answer the question whether to feed or not, we should recall biology and chemistry, the order of plant nutrition and their growth. Nutrient components fall from the soil composition, dissolved in water, pass through the stem, penetrate into the leaves. From exposure to sunlight and water, carbon dioxide and mineral components, organic substances are created that are necessary for growth. From them and formed cells - the plant grows. The process is called photosynthesis.
The third dressing of cabbage is done on time.
Substances consumed by the roots of the earth, are divided into macro - and micronutrients. Most plants need:
In the trace elements the plant needs less, but they are necessary for normal development. This group should include:
Without nitrogen and phosphorous additives, cabbage will slow down in growth, foliage will change its shade. Lack of calcium will negatively affect the entire development of the plant, which will remain small. A copper-free vegetable will die even at the seedling stage. So it turns out that a normal crop can be achieved if you feed a crop transplanted into the soil in a timely and correct manner. So if you want the stalks to be plump and the heads are strong, you must fertilize the plants.
Top dressing of white cabbage
It’s still important to remember that fertilizers should be used in a timely manner. For example, from the beginning of germination of seeds and until foliage formation, phosphorus is most needed for a plant. And as soon as the root system begins to develop, it should be sprayed with nitrogen and potassium. But at the time of aging there is a need for nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus at the same time. Of course, cabbage care is a painstaking task.
In short, for the entire growing season, the vegetable must perform three to four supplements in order to achieve a good harvest. The first two (mandatory) are in the initial stage of growth, the third and fourth (if necessary) are performed in June and August, respectively.
Types of fertilizers for the correct fertilizer seedlings
The seedlings transplanted in spring into the open ground must be fed at least twice. The first procedure is carried out a couple of weeks after planting, the second - at the initial stage of the formation of the fetus (after picking - required).
For the first top dressing use potash, phosphorus and nitrogen fertilizing compounds at the rate of two hundred grams per hundred area. This is necessary to speed up the setting of a head of cabbage. But if organic matter, compost or humus were used for fertilizing the soil, then five hundred grams of ammonium nitrate should be added for each planting area. The second time it is necessary to process the days after twenty, for which it is necessary to pour chicken droppings and mullein, likes vegetable and slurry.
Nitrogen, it is good to pour under the root for the formation of the fetus
This group may include the following drugs:
- ammonium nitrate. It looks in the form of crystals of a dirty white color. The price of fertilizer is acceptable, the composition contains more than thirty percent of the nitrogen available to plants. Fertilizer composition is considered the most concentrated of the entire group. Applying it it is not recommended to exceed the dosage so that the culture does not accumulate excess nitrates in itself,
- ammonium sulfate. These are salts of sulfuric acid. In appearance, the fertilizer represents white crystals, contains about twenty percent nitrogen and a sufficient amount of sulfur. Make it at the rate necessary in the amount of one hundred and fifty percent of the nitrate to give the plants the right amount of nitrogen. But at the same time, remember that This fertilizer can increase the acidity of the soil composition.that is not very desirable. And it is not necessary to spray the plant to get rid of pests,
- urea. These are ammonium salts of carbonic acid. White crystals contain up to forty six percent of nitrogen, which entails a decrease in the additional feeding rate by one and a half times.
Potash need for growth head
Cabbage, like Bulgarian pepper, is in great need of potassium, which is necessary for the formation of roots and the development of the aerial part, so that the head can be tied, especially at an early stage of development. Otherwise, the plant will be tall, but empty. It performs an important function in the transfer of organic compounds. About this, you must always remember and feed the vegetable so that it forms a head with potassium-containing compounds:
- potassium chloride. In its pure form, it is represented by white crystals, resembling ordinary salt. In nature, it is rarely found in this form, but the natural version is distinguished by reddish tones. Available potassium in the composition - about sixty percent. Chances of soil acidification are high,
- potassium sulfate. These are potassium salts of sulfuric acid, containing up to fifty percent of the component. In most cases, the composition is used for chlorophobic crops, which do not include cabbage. It is possible to apply as top dressing structure.
Phosphoric, chemicals for processing at the end of the growing season
Phosphorus is not very necessary for cabbage, but it is not recommended to ignore its use. It plays an important role at the time of heading and a set of nutrients at the final stage of the growing season. Superphosphate treatment is most often used. The compositions can be of two types, according to the amount of phosphorus, so it is necessary to check the packaging.
Natural fertilizers - the ability to feed and pest control
Culture responds well not only to fertilizers purchased in the store, but also to nutritional formulations made according to popular recipes. They also help the plant to form a large and strong head.
Organic fertilizer cow dung
Sprinkle with manure - accelerate growth
This is one of the best options, especially if it is a white or color variety. Pre-manure is diluted with water at the rate of 1 to 5. For the first time such composition can be used two weeks after the seedlings are transferred to unprotected soil. After the procedure, the feed beds must necessarily spud. The second feed is performed before the formation of the ovary. But in this case, it is recommended to add wood ash in the amount of forty grams to the slurry.
The third time, manure is applied through a three-week interval after its second application. Watering with manure also allows you to save the plant from pests and save you from further trouble.. It is good for this to also sprinkle ammonia, this is both protection and fertilizer.
The use of yeast helps to save from disease
They contain a lot of useful components, vitamins and amino acids. Such an additive will help the seedlings fight diseases, and it is good to transfer the transplant, we do not need black spots on the leaves. This activates the development of the root system, improves the overall soil composition.
Yeast feeds three weeks after the introduction of the first feeding composition. Two hundred grams of dry yeast is diluted with a liter of warm water, a teaspoon of sugar, infused for two hours. Then the whole mass flows into a bucket of water. The consumption of the resulting composition should be from three hundred to four hundred grams per plant,
Urea, popular source of nitrogen
Chemical compound, originally obtained from the product of human activity. Today, urea is produced from mammalian proteins and individual fish individuals. With this feed, the plant gets the right amount of nitrogen, gaining more quickly in green mass. Before dressing should be thirty grams of urea diluted in a bucket of water. Under one plant poured half a liter of the composition.
How to treat cabbage before planting?
As soon as the saplings form two or three leaves, it is allowed to transplant it into an open garden bed. For its good adaptation it is necessary to begin gradual tempering in advance.. Кроме того, рассаду подкармливают гуматными растворами или применяют минеральные удобрения, примерами которых можно считать Агриколу, Кемиру. Но выполняют это только в том случае, если почвенный состав содержит малое количество полезных элементов.As a preventive measure against harmful parasites, spraying the leaves and dusting the beds with tree ash are performed. This will protect the plant from pests such as slug, flea and caterpillar.
Organic fertilizer - ash
How to water after planting in open ground
Water culture should be carefully, observing some interval in a couple of days during the first two weeks. Water consumption for each square of the plot should be from seven to eight liters. Then the number of procedures can be reduced to once a week, pouring ten to twelve liters per square meter of beds.
Often, water treatments are combined with the application of fertilizers. This helps the root system better assimilate the beneficial components entering the soil.
It should be noted that the application of fertilizers should be performed on cloudy days or in the evenings, combining them with abundant watering. Compliance with all recommendations will help you grow a rich harvest of this tasty and healthy vegetable.
How to feed the cabbage after landing in the ground? Loves cabbage phosphate and potash supplements. Suitable mullein, bird droppings, nitrophoska, ash, urea. But all cabbage fertilizers need to be applied in accordance with the growth and stages of cultural development.
To feed the cabbage is necessary phosphate fertilizers, which make the cabbage sweet and juicy. Most of this component is needed in July and August. With a lack of phosphorus, the leaves darken, curl, and the taste of the vegetable becomes bitter. If phosphorus is applied to the second dressing, then the root should not be watered. Processed space between the beds.
For the cabbage to grow big, dense and useful, boron and molybdenum are needed. Their use increases the density of the head, increases resistance to various insect pests and immunity from many diseases.
There is an acceleration of weight gain. When molybdenum in insufficient quantities is contained in the soil, the leaves are deformed, and the tip begins to rot. Boron deficiency is manifested by brown spots on the leaves.
Boron and molybdenum recommended to make the first time at a time when the sprouts appear a couple of leaves. Ammonium molybdate and superphosphate containing molybdenum are used as molybdenum fertilizers.
For spraying the upper part of the plant, boric acid and ammonium molybdate can be added to a bucket of water. Molybdenum and phosphorus are introduced during the sowing of seeds in open ground.
For rapid growth, you can feed the cabbage with urea. Vegetable becomes a source of nitrogen and improves the development of green leaves. If the leaves become yellow and thin, urea is especially needed: a solution based on it must be watered at the base.
The steps of making nutritional ingredients
How to feed the cabbage seedlings depends on many factors. The first feeding is associated with the introduction of nutrient composition into the soil before planting or after the picking procedure.
What dressings choose before planting a vegetable? If the land does not meet all the requirements, then it is necessary to plant it in a hole with wood ash, humus and superphosphate. Then, after 1.5 weeks, the seedlings planted are treated with chicken manure, mullein and herbal infusions.
If the soil is rich in nutrients, the initial feeding is carried out 12 days after transplanting. In this case, potassium chloride, ammonium nitrate and superphosphate are added to the water for irrigation.
Cabbage seeds begin to plant in March in a greenhouse or in pots at home. Feed in this case is shown after the picks. Additional nutrition in this case will help develop better leaves.
Cabbage for growth recommended to pour a solution based on chicken droppings with water in a ratio of 1:20. The second time you can use wood ash and superphosphate, previously diluted in water.
When all these stages of feeding were missed, it is not too late to add fertilizer to the third week of seedling growth. Suitable recipe on the basis of manure: pour water and let it brew for a day. The resulting solution is treated with each root planted in the garden.
Manure as feed should be mixed with water in a ratio of 1: 5. Before watering, the beaker of the resulting solution is diluted with a bucket of water and 30 g of superphosphate is added. You need to water at the base, counting the liter on the root.
Feed the cabbage in open ground can be urea. Urea is allowed to be applied immediately after planting the vegetable. Two weeks later, when the plant takes root and gain strength. The water is diluted with urea, potassium and superphosphate. Urea can repel insect pests. To fight against insects, it is recommended to sprinkle urea with earth in springtime.
How to feed a vegetable for the third time? When the formation of the head begins, the cabbage needs a special additional feeding. The third feeding is prepared on the basis of mullein and superphosphate. We must not forget that at this time the vegetable needs abundant watering. If summer is characterized by prolonged rains, then limit the consumption of cabbage liquid to avoid cracking.
Cabbage for the formation of a head of cabbage and increase in weight and for protection against diseases and pests should definitely be spud. Spud first at the time of the head of the ovary, the second time recommended during the rapid growth of the vegetable. Hilling is carried out in rainy weather. If there was no rain for a long time, then abundant watering of the earth is recommended before hilling.
What fertilizers can I choose in the store? Store shelves offer a lot of ready-made fertilizers, rich in nutritional components necessary for the development of cultivated plants. For cabbage after planting in the ground may be useful the following feeding.
Good composition possesses Zdraven turbo for cabbage. Able to increase the density of the head and increase the mass. It improves taste and makes it possible to store vegetables for a long time. Fertilizer Zdravnas contains all important trace elements, including molybdenum, boron, zinc, magnesium, and potassium.
It is better to dissolve the required dosage in warm water (the standard dosage is 15 g per 10 liters). Root feeding may be accompanied by a similar solution on the 12th day after landing in the ground. Foliar dressing of cabbage is carried out every two weeks.
Agricola - fertilizer number 1 - used for root feeding and spraying the leaves. Thanks to this feeding, cabbage grows and gains strength faster, increases disease resistance, contributes to better absorption of vegetables with nutrients and vitamins.
Is it possible to use fertilizer colloid sulfur? Many gardeners advise: "Use the composition to combat fungal and other diseases, with insect pests among vegetables." It is advisable to use the solution for spraying the leaves in the morning and evening. In rainy weather is not recommended to use the composition. Leaves must be processed on both sides.
Colloidal sulfur is non-toxic for plants, can be combined with other pest control agents, does not affect the soil composition. Acting begins 3-4 hours after treatment. Colloidal sulfur protects against infection for up to 10 days. Fertilizer re-treatment is carried out no earlier than two weeks.
Colloidal sulfur can be introduced into the soil several days before planting seedlings. In 10 liters of water, 50 g of the solution is gradually dissolved until a homogeneous suspension is obtained. Colloidal sulfur requires caution. During use, do not smoke or eat. After the procedure, open areas of the body are washed with soap and water.
Dolomite flour is a mineral fertilizer often used for cabbage growth. Dolomite are fighting pests and diseases. How to use? It is best to apply at the preparatory stage. Dolomite flour can be introduced into the soil in the spring, but most often it is processed in September. After harvesting, sprinkle the powder in the open ground.
Dolomite flour nourishes the root system, nourishes with nutrients, improves taste, is used as a growth promoter.
Dolomite flour is introduced into the soil only after determining the level of acidity. The dosage is calculated based on the level of acidity. Dolomite flour can be used simultaneously with compost, boric acid, copper sulphate.
Many gardeners prefer natural ingredients to chemical fertilizers. The use of homemade recipes requires the correct calculation of the dosage of each component. How to fertilize the beds:
- In June, the ground and the leaves can be treated with a composition with boric acid. The composition will accelerate the growth of the plant. To do this, dissolve 5 ml of boric acid in 250 ml of boiled water. Before watering, the resulting solution is again diluted with water.
- To make the cabbage grow quickly, use yeast, which contains phosphorus, nitrogen and vitamin-mineral complexes. They cultivate the land twice in the summer with an interval of one month. Fresh yeast is dissolved in water and left to ferment for a day. It is necessary to water in the warm evening, previously diluted in water (1:10). As the yeast suspends the absorption of potassium, it is recommended that the soil be treated with wood ash after a couple of days.
- As a fertilizer use baking soda. The composition is able to maintain the integrity of the formed heads, prevents the appearance of cracks and prolongs the storage of the harvested crop. In addition, soda solution acts as an antiseptic and prevents from many diseases. Soda powder is diluted with water and watering the beds with a watering can.
- Banana peel will save from potassium deficiency. Some gardeners can use it as a fertilizer. Peel can be dried and chopped, and then sprinkle the cabbage at the base. You can make a tincture. The peel of several bananas is soaked in water for three days. Then the resulting solution is useful to water the beds.
- The use of eggshell will help fill in the soil lack of calcium. The component contains many other trace elements. The shell can be crushed and sprinkled on the ground, and you can make the tincture. The shell of three eggs is poured with water and left to infuse for three days.
- A good cabbage can not grow without iodine, which improves the condition of the leaves, makes the head elastic. In addition, this component acts as an antiseptic and increases the resistance of the vegetable to many diseases. In a liter of water dissolve two drops of iodine. The resulting solution can be foliar application.
Before feeding the cabbage in open ground, it is necessary to determine the composition of the soil and the appearance of the plant. Harm can be caused not only by the lack of some nutrients, but also by their excess. Observing the scheme of fertilizing, you can achieve a large and healthy harvest.
Top dressing cabbage: why it is necessary
The seedling in the first days after planting in open ground is very vulnerable to various kinds of external influences. If the seedlings are grown in a greenhouse, top dressing in the first days is not so relevant, since with a favorable temperature and optimum humidity of the air, it will grow well without feed. However, in the open air cabbage seedlings certainly need to be fertilized after planting. The first feed is very important. It helps the seedlings adapt to fresh air, to new conditions. Fertilizing cabbage in the first days after planting is necessary because:
- Top dressing after planting is the best prevention of bacterial and fungal infections,
- Many mineral and organic fertilizers increase resistance to dangerous pests,
- If you fertilize cabbage from the first days, she would make heads of cabbages earlier,
- Regular application of fertilizing after planting will help early cabbage to better tolerate unstable weather, which often happens in late spring - early summer in many Russian regions.
Before landing, it is necessary to fertilize the ground manure and humus. Then the gardener forms the wells for planting. Each such hole can be put a little ash and ground into egg shell powder. Ash is rich in potassium, and eggshells are in calcium, these nutrients will have the most beneficial effect on seedlings after planting.
Cabbage, especially early, responds well and organic and mineral fertilizers. However, feeding the plant should be carefully, strictly observing the dosage of fertilizers. Before choosing fertilizers for feeding cabbage, it is recommended to analyze the chemical composition of the soil.
Having determined the chemical composition of the soil, a novice gardener will easily understand which fertilizers should be applied first and with which you can wait. It should be borne in mind that with an excess in the soil of some chemical elements, for example, nitrogen, harmful salts, such as nitrates and nitrites, accumulate in vegetables.
How to feed the cabbage after planting in the ground: industrial fertilizer
Many gardeners are accustomed to feeding plants with fertilizers of industrial production, since it is much easier to use them than to invent something yourself or look for “grandmothers” feeding recipes. With slow growth in the open field as a top dressing is most often used ammonium nitrate. When it comes to feeding cabbage, seasoned gardeners remember, first of all, saltpeter. This fertilizer is very effective in slowing the growth of cabbage seedlings in the open field and in delaying the formation of heads, because:
- Saltpeter enriches the soil with nutrientsnecessary for the proper development of young cabbage,
- Regular use of nitre helps to increase yields and the formation of tight, large heads,
- Top dressing saltpeter increases seedling resistance to many diseases and pests,
- Ammonium nitrate much cheaper than complex fertilizersbut it works much more efficiently. Using ammonium nitrate is a great way to get a good harvest and save a substantial amount of money.
Also available fertilizers for foliar feeding cabbage. They are worn on the leaves of the plant by spraying. It is necessary to apply such fertilizers before a full head has been formed. The less “chemistry” gets on cabbage heads, the better both for the plant and for the gardener, who will later eat this cabbage as food.
Than to feed cabbage in an open ground: top dressing without chemistry
There are gardeners, who in the old manner prefer to use for feeding cabbage means that have been used by Russian farmers for centuries. it manure, mullein, peat and humus, as well as ash. The most useful organic fertilizer for cabbage is ash. Getting ash is easy. In the autumn, when gardeners traditionally plant campfires at sites for burning tops, branches and garbage, you need to wait for the fire to attenuate and carefully, with a tin or plastic scoop, collect the ashes into a large bucket.
Keep it in a bucket covered with a lid. If even a little moisture gets on the ashes, it will become unusable, therefore, this valuable fertilizer should be stored only in an absolutely dry place. During the collection of ashes at the extinguished campfire, care should be taken to avoid rubbish and stones in the ashes. Ash is a very useful plant for cabbage, because:
- It contains a lot of potassium, much more than industrial fertilizers,
- Ash provides cabbage with essential nutrients and helps to improve the taste of the vegetable,
- Regular introduction of ash contributes to the proper formation of the root system of the plant,
- Ashes, like fire, are afraid of many dangerous pests of cabbage, for example, the bear and the cabbage tree. To scare away harmful insects, ash is not only introduced into the soil, but also sprinkled with ash the top layer of earth. You can sprinkle ashes and cabbage leaves, then "uninvited guests" will definitely not risk them.
Early cabbage also responds well to top dressing liquid mullein. It must be made strictly in the soil so that it does not fall on the leaves of cabbage. Getting this powerful organic fertilizer on cabbage leaves will inevitably lead to a burn and subsequent death of the plant. It is most convenient to fertilize the soil with a mullein, using a small watering can or an old children's scoop. Use mullein preferably immediately after breeding.
Also seedlings respond well to peat. It can be brought to the site from nearby marshes. If the marshland is far away, you should not be upset. Peat fertilizers can be purchased in specialized stores. Peat makes the chemical composition of the soil more diverse, and also increases the fertility of the soil. Regular application of peat will help the gardener to get a wonderful harvest of early cabbage in the shortest possible time.
How to choose a dressing for cabbage
It should be selected based on the needs of the plant. If she suffers from an invasion of cabbage moth or a bear, it is recommended to abundantly feed it with ashes, and sprinkle ashes on the plants themselves. If the early cabbage turned yellow and wilted lower leaves, perhaps the fact is that the plant lacks nutrients. В этом случае лучший выбор – аммиачная селитра или комплексные удобрения для ранних овощей, которые имеются в продаже в специализированных магазинах. Если анализ почвы показал, что почва бедна азотом, лучшим вариантом подкормки будет комплексное удобрение «нитрофоска».
Не стоит покупать удобрения «с рук» у частников. Ни в коем случае нельзя покупать минеральное удобрение, если оно помещено в пакет без всяких опознавательных знаков. Each package with fertilizer must be indicated
- The name of the fertilizer (the official name and commercial, known to gardeners),
- Chemicals that make up the top dressing,
- Shelf life,
- Detailed instructions for use.
- Store fertilizer only in the original packaging. If you keep an open plastic bag with fertilizer uncomfortable, you can put it in a bucket, pot or jar. On the tank should make a mark that it is fertilizer.
Safety when working with cabbage fertilizers
When working with cabbage fertilizers, follow safety precautions.
Many mineral fertilizers are present when they come in contact, eyes and mucous membranes can cause burns. If while applying the fertilizer the gardener felt a burning sensation in the mouth, pain in the eyes or severe skin irritation, it is necessary to immediately stop working with the fertilizer. Next, wash the eyes, face and hands with plenty of water several times. If the discomfort is worse, you should consult a doctor.
In no case can not be used for feeding the mullein in its pure form, undiluted. Concentrated mullein will not bring benefit to the plant, but only harm. It is recommended to plant a mullein in a galvanized or enameled bucket.
Feeding cabbage after planting it in open ground is a very important event for the care of this plant. Proper use of various types of fertilizer will help amateur gardener to get a wonderful harvest of cabbage, and the cabbages will grow large, elastic, crispy. The main thing is to follow the basic rules of fertilizer application.
Feed the cabbage with minerals after planting in the ground
Mineral fertilizers allow you to saturate the cabbage with useful substances. Top dressing is done by watering the plants after planting in the ground. Morning or evening is chosen for work, when there are no direct sunlight.
When working with mineral fertilizers precautions are taken. Do not allow contact of minerals with the skin, mucous membrane of the eyes, respiratory system. To feed the cabbage, you must strictly observe the dosage in order to avoid burns of leaves and roots.
The first dressing of cabbage is made 14 days after the plant is moved to the ground. At this stage, the plants require nitrogen to build up the green mass. The source of this element for plants is urea. This is a universal fertilizer, having in its composition up to 46% nitrogen.
For 10 liters of water requires 15 g of urea.
Urea is highly soluble in water and easily absorbed by plants. The resulting solution is treated with 10 square meters. m landings.
Another option of feeding after planting cabbage in the ground is the use of ammonium nitrate. It contains sulfur, which helps plants get nitrogen and produce protein.
An additional property of sulfur is scaring off pests and preventing the development of a harmful fungus. Therefore, using ammonium nitrate can not only feed the cabbage, but also protect it from diseases.
The rate of ammonium nitrate is 15 g per 10 liters of water.
When working with this fertilizer, you must comply with the prescribed dosage. Otherwise, the cabbage will begin to accumulate nitrates. For this reason, nitrogen fertilization is stopped 2 weeks before harvest.
A universal way to feed the cabbage is nitrophoska. Its composition includes potassium, nitrogen and phosphorus, which are necessary for the growth of any plant. For fertilizing, nitrous sulfate is used.
Nitrophoska (50 g) is diluted with water (10 l) and introduced into the soil.
Fertilizer is made by irrigation. Pre-moisten the soil, then use the solution. This will allow the beneficial components to be evenly distributed in the soil.
The second time the cabbage is fertilized using a solution of mullein (cow manure). First, 0.5 kg of organic fertilizer diluted with 10 liters of water. The solution is infused for 3 days, then the method of irrigation is processed open ground.
Mullein contains nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium. These elements contribute to the formation of the head and improve its taste.
Fertilizer based on manure can be replaced by yeast fertilizer. Yeast is rich in proteins, amino acids, trace elements.
Yeast processing has the following advantages:
- increases the endurance of culture,
- green mass grows faster
- yeast bacteria crowd out harmful microorganisms.
Brewer's yeast has the greatest benefit, but other types of cabbage can also be fed. To prepare the solution requires 100 g of yeast, 30 g of sugar and 10 liters of water. The resulting mixture is placed in a warm place for 3 days.
The solution for irrigation is prepared on the basis of yeast starter and water in a ratio of 1:10.
Yeast top dressing works only in warm weather, when the soil warms up and the air temperature reaches 20 ° С. It is necessary to process saplings three times with an interval of 10 days.
Top dressing with ashes
Ash includes a whole range of useful substances necessary for plant development. If you feed them with ashes, they will get calcium, magnesium, sodium
Cabbage begins to grow actively with a constant flow of calcium. This element affects the passage of metabolic processes, gluing plant cells together and the absorption of vitamins. Magnesium helps cells produce energy, and sodium - to activate enzymes.
Wood ash can be placed in open ground before planting.
It is possible to start fertilizing with ashes 15 days after planting. To do this, prepare a solution containing a glass of ash in 10 liters of water. Means left to infuse for 5 days, then filtered and used for irrigation.
2 weeks after the first treatment, the second feeding with ash is carried out. Additionally, you can spray the ashes on the bed between the rows with seedlings. So the cabbage will be protected from slugs and other pests.
Foliar dressing of cabbage
Sheet top-dressing allows plants to assimilate useful substances faster. Cabbage is sprayed. Pre-prepared solution of useful components, which is then applied to the leaves.
It is necessary to process the seedlings in cloudy weather so that the leaves do not get burned in the sun.
You can feed the plants with boric acid. To obtain a solution you need to place 1 tsp. substance in a glass of hot water. The resulting mixture is added to 10 liters of cold water and used for spraying.
A good harvest depends on the nutrients that cabbage received during its development. Feeding plants after transfer to the open ground is carried out every 10-14 days. First you need to provide them with access to nitrogen to increase the green mass, then add fertilizers based on phosphorus, calcium, and potassium.
After using mineral substances, planting is fertilized with organic substances. Another processing method is foliar feeding. The use of fertilizers stimulates plant growth, protects seedlings from pests and diseases.
Information about culture
Depending on the purpose, vegetable cabbage cultures are divided into the following groups:
- Cabbage for summer consumption,
- To bookmark for fresh winter storage,
- For fermentation.
Currently, the following types of cabbage vegetables are popular among summer residents and gardeners:
- White-headed. This traditional and familiar type of cabbage, is known for its excellent taste and healing properties. The leaves of the vegetable concentrate a large amount of vitamins and trace elements necessary for the normal functioning of the human body. It is no wonder that cabbage is called a natural “nurse” - due to the content of lactic and acetic acid in leaves, suppression of putrefactive bacteria in the intestine occurs, and its microflora is improved. It is known that the minimum heat treatment of cabbage allows you to keep a maximum of vitamins and nutrients, so it is best to use it fresh, as part of various salads,
- Red-haired. This beautiful variety of white cabbage attracts attention with its unusual red-violet color. It differs from its “sister” not only in the color shade, but also in a strongly pronounced cabbage flavor and a coarse, hard-to-digestible texture, which enhances intestinal motility. Red cabbage heads contain a significant amount of sugar, proteins and mineral trace elements. The number of useful vitamins of group A, C and B1 in it is the same as that of the white one, and the amount of vitamins B2 is 3 times more than that of the white haired woman. To keep a multivitamin supply, red cabbage is recommended to be consumed raw,
- Colored. The cauliflower fruit resembles a large inflorescence collected from small clusters of tiny inflorescences. It contains a large amount of pectins, malic and acetic acid. Due to the presence of cellulose, which has a delicate structure, cabbage is easier to digest in the intestine. Therefore, it is so often recommended for diet. Vitamins A, B, C, K, folic and nicotinic acids, trace elements sodium, kalya, magnesium, copper, phosphorus - this is such a storehouse of nutrients contained in cauliflower. This cabbage variety is best cooked in a small amount of water, because during cooking some of the mineral components turn into liquid. Therefore, delicious cauliflower soup is prepared on cauliflower broth, and the broth can be used to make delicious sauces,
- Beijing. The head of the peking has an elongated oval shape and is similar in color to white cabbage. Due to the dietary and medicinal properties of this vegetable is recommended for persons suffering from cardiovascular and peptic ulcer diseases. In the East, peking is considered a source of health and longevity, since its leaves contain a significant amount of amino acids, which in the human body are responsible for the dissolution of proteins, help purify the blood from harmful microbes and strengthen human immunity,
- Savoy. This cabbage variety with a delicate leaf structure is popular in European countries. According to the content of vitamins, proteins, microelements, Savoy cabbage occupies a leading place among its “relatives”. In addition, elements of sodium and cobalt are present in its leaves. Savoy cabbage is recommended to be consumed fresh in various salads,
- Brussels sprouts. Kachan cabbage is formed from small coaches, composed of delicate small leaves. Vegetable culture has excellent taste and is suitable for the preparation of various dishes. This type of cabbage contains a large amount of vitamin C (from 152 to 247 mg%) and, most interestingly, the amount of vitamins does not decrease during storage. Such a record amount of such a useful vitamin makes Brussels sprouts a valuable nutritional product and increases the resistance of the human body against colds. The vitamin line is successfully supplemented with carotene, mineral salts, amino acids and other useful trace elements. Eat only after cooking. During cooking, Brussels sprouts increase in volume,
- Broccoli. The appearance of the vegetable is reminiscent of kinship with cauliflower and has a distinctive bright green tint of inflorescences. This type of cabbage belongs to low-calorie foods - 100 grams contains only 25 kcal, due to this, the vegetable is recommended as a diet food. No wonder broccoli is called the “vitamin bomb”. Cellulose, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, manganese, vitamins of groups C, B, E, K, provitamin A - this is an incomplete list of nutrients of broccoli. With the systematic use of this type of vegetable culture increases the body's resistance to stress, improves immunity, prevents the development of anemia, tumors, and slows the aging process. Broccoli is eaten raw cooked, added to soups and vegetable salads.
The above varieties of cabbage - the most popular and favorite varieties of garden plants that can be eaten throughout the year. For growing cabbage in summer cottages and own gardens, it is recommended to familiarize yourself with the rules of cultivation of this crop and find out how to feed the cabbage after planting in the ground.
Top dressing cabbage
Growing cabbage and getting a good harvest is unthinkable without the timely introduction of plant-stimulating substances. The planting of cabbage culture is performed by seedlings, followed by picking or without it. Growing cabbage in a dive method puts the seedlings under great stress, so the plant needs additional feedings. Feeding cabbage after planting in the ground stimulates the vegetative mass of green shoots, and also contributes to the development of the root system. To understand what is put into the earthen hole when planting cabbage in open ground, it is necessary to become familiar with the main types of fertilizers for vegetable crops.
The active development of cabbage seedlings requires the availability of beneficial trace elements, plant growth is provided by nitrogen and phosphorus, and potassium is needed to strengthen the immune system.
All of these important trace elements are part of supplements, which are divided into the following types:
Many gardeners believe that the use of organic matter for the growth of seedlings and stimulate the development of strong cabbage heads contributes not only to the growth of seedlings, but also provides an environmentally friendly crop. Modern studies show that the most effective result of feeding cabbage after planting in open ground gives the combination of two types of fertilizers: mineral and organic.
If for some reason it was not possible to fertilize the ground during the planting of the seedlings, then in this case the first dressing is made two weeks after planting the seedlings. First, it is necessary to “saturate” the plants with nitrogen. As is known, this important element is included in the composition, as well as organic and mineral fertilizers.
Experienced gardeners recommend the following recipes for these purposes:
- In a container designed for 20 liters of water, 1 liter of mullein is added in liquid form, it is possible to water the seedlings with this composition at the rate of 0.5 l per plant,
- It is possible to dilute 40 g of ammonium nitrate in 20 liters of water and pour cabbage seedlings with this compound.
Instead of feeding “under the root”, you can perform extra root feeding of seedlings. To do this, dissolve 2 matchboxes of nitre in 20 liters of water and spray the leaves of cabbage culture.
The second feeding period comes in the last days of June or in the first decade of July. If at first the plants were fed with mineral fertilizers, it is recommended to use organic matter for the second stimulation.
You can feed the plants with the following types of organic fertilizers:
- Cow and horse manure,
- Chicken litter.
Sometimes gardeners have difficulties with the purchase of manure and chicken manure and ask a fair question: how to feed the cabbage for growth in open ground?
There is a wonderful natural fertilizer - ash from the burning of tree species. For feeding, ash solution is used, which is calculated at the rate of 2 liters of water and 2 cups of ash. Infusion infused for 4 to 5 days, filtered, then the solution is ready for the gravy under the young cabbage. In addition to top dressing, spraying with ash solution protects plants from harmful insects and various pests.
The famous scientist - agronomist Alexander Ganichkin, in his popular book “Golden six hundred square meters” advises to feed the cabbage a second time with an interval of 12 days after the first feeding with the following composition: 500 ml of liquid mullein or chicken droppings and 1 tbsp are added to 10 liters of water. spoon Kemira fertilizer. The resulting composition is watered plants at the rate of 0.5 liters per seedling. This complex tool can fertilize all types of white cabbage.
The third feeding is recommended to be carried out 12 more days after the previous one. To do this, dilute 1 teaspoonful of superphosphate, potassium sulfate and special fertilizer “Agricola for cabbage” in 10 liters of water and water the plants with a flow rate of 3 to 4 liters per 1 m².
These dressings are made for both early and late varieties of cabbage. Late varieties of white cabbage, intended for long-term preservation, are fed at the end of August with the following composition: 60 g of superphosphate must be added to the mullein infusion. Before the beginning of the harvest in two weeks produce a final feed, contributing to the long-term preservation of the crop. An aqueous solution of the following composition is prepared: 1 liter of ash infusion or 80 g of potassium sulphate is dissolved in 20 liters of water.
A very common folk feeding method is the use of brewer's yeast based on an aqueous solution. Watering the yeast composition produced exclusively in the dry warm, when the earth is well warmed. Another popular folk version of vegetable dressing, which can be used for a small garden bed with cabbage, is watering with an infusion of dry rye bread crusts. To do this, in a ten-liter bucket put crackers on one-third, pour water and insist day.
Каждое растение поливается 1 л настоя. По отзывам многих огородников, этот простой и эффективный способ подкормки позволяет отказаться от всякой химии, значительно увеличить урожайность овощной капустной культуры и получить экологически чистые овощи.
Для формирования тугих кочанов капусту можно полить под корень йодным составом, состоящим из 10 л воды и 40 капель йода. Под каждое растение допускается использовать по 1 литру смеси. Йодный состав используется и для внекорневой подкормки капусты. In this case, the proportions of the mixture change and for every 10 liters of water, add 5 drops of iodine. Such processing also performs protective functions - cabbage will not hurt with gray rot.
When carrying out all kinds of dressings, it is important to clean off the remnants of fertilizer from the green leaves of cabbage with clean water.
You can plant cabbage, grow it and get a good harvest by performing simple standard agricultural practices and methods:
- Soil preparation
- Correct watering
- Timely and necessary feeding,
- Loosening the soil of the beds,
- Destruction of weeds.
It is important to plant cabbage seedlings on time: early varieties are usually planted between April 25 and May 5, and later it is recommended to survive from May 10 to 20. The deadline for planting should be no later than June 1.
Cabbage should be protected from harmful insects, pests and viral diseases. To protect against cruciferous fleas, sprouted seedlings are lightly sprinkled with dry ashes of tree species. To prevent diseases of cabbage seedlings, plants are watered with a weak solution of potassium permanganate or an aqueous solution of ammonia (liquid ammonia). Tobacco dust, nettle extract, calendula - all these famous folk remedies are used for the preventive treatment of cabbage.
Read on Dacha
Starting to feed the cabbage should be from the very beginning of its growing season, even at the seedling stage. Many summer residents enrich the nutrient compounds in the wells in which they plant cabbage.
After planting in open ground, early ripe cabbage is fed twice per season, and medium and late ripening varieties - from 3 to 4 times.
I suggest you step by step instructions on feeding white cabbage. Alternatives will be considered at each stage. The final choice is yours.
Fertilizer seedlings white cabbage
First feeding (10 days after picking): dilute 4 g of superphosphate, 2.5 g of ammonium nitrate and 1 g of potassium chloride in 1 l of clean settled water.
Second feeding (10-12 days after the first one): 3-4 g of ammonium nitrate are dissolved in 1 l of water.
Third dressing (shortly before transplanting in open ground): In 1 liter of water, dilute 8 g of superphosphate, 3 g of ammonium nitrate and 2 g of potassium chloride.
What to make in the landing holes
If you haven’t prepared a special bed for planting cabbage since autumn, haven’t applied the necessary mineral and organic fertilizers to the soil, you can correct the situation during planting.
Option 1. Add the following complex mixture to the well. Mix with garden soil 500 g of compost (or humus), 1 tsp. nitrophos (or superphosphate), 2 tbsp. l shredded wood ash.
Option 2. Garden soil mixed with a large handful of compost (or humus) and a handful of chopped wood ash and add the mixture in the planting hole.
Top dressing cabbage after planting in open ground
First feeding. If you have completed the previous item and well planted landing holes, then you can skip 1 dressing. If not, spend it 15-20 days after landing.
At this stage, for the full development of green mass, the plant requires nitrogen fertilizers, and nitrogen can be in the form of organic and mineral form. Under each plant should be poured about half a liter of dressing.
Option 1. For 10 l bucket of water, take a 0.5 l liquid mullein.
Option 2. In 10 liters of water, dilute 30 g of urea.
Option 3 (spraying on the leaves). In 10 l of distilled water, dilute 1 box of ammonium nitrate.
Option 4. In a 10 l bucket of water, dilute 20 g of fertilizer with potassium humate at the base.
Option 5. In 10 liters of water, add 200 g of chopped wood ash and 60 g of superphosphate.
Option 6. In 10 l of water dilute 20 g of superphosphate, 10 g of potassium chloride and 10 g of urea.
Option 7. On 10 l bucket of clean water, add 20 g of ammonium nitrate.
Second feeding. It is carried out 10-15 days after the first. Under each plant pours 1 liter of nutrient.
Option 1. Add to 10 liters of water 0.5 liters of liquid mullein (or 0.5 kg of chicken manure), 30 g of Azofosca, 15 g of top dressing with trace elements (Kemira, Criston, Mortar).
Option 2. Dilute in 10 liters of water 2 tbsp. l nitrofoski.
Option 3. Dissolve in water bird droppings in the ratio of 1 to 15.
Option 4. For 10 liters of water, take 0.5 kg of compost (or chicken manure) and 1 liter of ash infusion (1 cup of wood ash pour 1 liter of water, leave for 3-4 days, drain).
Option 5. Infusion of cow dung in a ratio of 1 to 10.
Third dressing (10 days after the 2nd). This and the next clause apply only to late varieties. Per 1 m2 should be made from 5 to 8 liters.
Option 1. Take 10 liters of water: 0.5 liters of liquid cow dung (or 0.5 kg of chicken manure), 30 g of superphosphate, 15 g of micronutrients.
Option 2. For 10 liters of water take: 15 g of fertilizers with trace elements (Kemira, Kristalon, Mortar), 2 tbsp. l superphosphate.
Option 3. Infusion of cow dung in a ratio of 1 to 10 + 30 g of superphosphate.
Fourth dressing (20 days to harvest). It is suitable only for late-ripening varieties. Its main goal is to improve the safety of the heads after collection.
Option 1. 10 liters of water + 40 g of potassium sulfate.
Option 2. 10 liters of water + 0.5 liters of ash infusion (1 cup of wood ash pour 1 liter of water, insist 3-4 days, drain).
It should be noted that the introduction of ash by dusting cabbage leaves is useful during the entire vegetative period from the time of planting in open ground at a frequency of 1 time per week. The procedure is performed after watering, rain or in the morning (when dew), so that the ash powder better adheres to the leaves. This is not only a useful natural fertilizer, but also an excellent remedy for most pests.
The above-described dressing spend in the evening or cloudy weather, after a preliminary abundant watering with soft settled water from the barrel or rain.