Now it is very difficult to find a plot where peas would not grow. Every person knows about the beneficial properties of the presented culture.
He is very fond of children and adults. Like beef, legumes contain a large amount of vegetable protein, which is very well absorbed by the body. Fresh and green peas contain vitamins of groups B and C.
In addition, it contains carotene, iron, phosphorus and lysine. For people suffering from cardiovascular diseases, the use of peas is mandatory. To grow pea cropsdo not need a lot of space. In extreme cases, it can be planted along the fence.
Description of the appearance of peas
Many people still do not know whether the peas are legumes? Undoubtedly, it is a legume culture. It branches and stems up to 250 cm long. The stem of the plant is hollow and the leaves are pinnate and complex. Scape, on which the antennae are located, cling to the support. In this way, the culture is kept upright. The root of the plant has a deep structure. The flowers are usually purple or white. Peas have the ability to self-pollination. The flowers begin to bloom after 60 days after sowing.
After disembarking you can see 8 leaves from the sinus. Late varieties have 24 leaves. Every two days, new flower stalks appear. Fruits are considered beans, depending on the type of plant, have a different color and shape. Beans include up to 10 smooth or wrinkled seeds, they have the same color as the pod peel. When a plant grows, good bacteria appear on its roots. Nitrogen is also released.digested by the plant from the atmosphere. Thus, the soil is nutritious at the planting site.
Conditions for planting and caring for peas in open ground
That the plant developed wellhe needs to create the necessary conditions. Sprouts are very fond of care, moisture, so that the seeds swell evenly, the ground should be well moistened. If the soil is well moistened, the plant grows quickly and the grower will get a rich harvest. Humidity is especially needed during sowing., budding and flowering.
- If the plant lacks moisture, then it sheds flowers and ovaries.
- Pea culture does not like if the groundwater is high.
- Plants can tolerate a small drought, because peas have a strong root system.
- Roots can get moisture from deep layers of the earth. By thermal conditions, the plant is unpretentious, the seeds begin to grow at plus 5 degrees Celsius.
- Sprouts are able to transfer frosts to minus 7 degrees Celsius. The optimal temperature for the appearance of ovaries is considered plus 15 degrees Celsius, legumes grow well at a temperature of plus 23 degrees Celsius.
Pea culture loves when the land is well processed and sufficiently moist. For the plant need the right care. If the sprouts are planned to be planted in sour soil, then it must first be lime. To do this, you will need 350 g of hydrated lime or 450 g of dolomite flour per 1 square meter. Ideally plant the plant in the soil, which is rich in humus loam.
Planting peas in the open ground
Before planting sprouts it is necessary to take into account that the plants that grew in this place will have a strong influence on the harvest. Plant plants better after beets, potatoes, carrots, tomatoes, pumpkins and cucumbers. No need to plant in the same place where the plant was in the past year, because it may be the likelihood of infection by diseases and pests. In the same area, the plant can be planted in no less than 5 years.
Soil preparation for sowing
To properly plant the plants and to bring a good harvest, it is necessary to carry out preparatory work with the soil. The work consists of sowing peas, preparing seeds, soil and proper planting. When preparing the ground you need to carefully to level and water well, and before planting peas in the soil should be well moisten the soil.
Then, in the ground, it will be necessary to make indentations with a depth of 7 cm, the distance between the beds should be no less than 25 cm. Planting peas does not have strict limitations, but experts recommend planting plants when the weather is warm. The optimal landing time is closer to May.
Rules for selecting seeds for planting
Before planting seeds you need to know how to choose them correctly..
- In order for the peas to produce a rich harvest, only healthy and high-quality seeds should be planted in the ground.
- Sick, feeble, and pea seed infested seeds will not work.
- To properly select the seeds, they must be placed in a saline solution.
- By planting fit those seeds that were on the bottom. Saline solution is very simple to prepare: for this you will need to dilute 1.5 tablespoon of salt in 1.5 liters of water.
Before planting, pea seeds should be soaked. In the water, they should swell for 17 hours. Water needs to be changed every 3.5 hours. After locking the seeds must be dried to a free flowing state.
Planting seeds in the ground
For planting peas do not need any special agricultural technician. The plan for planting seeds is very simple. Before planting seeds in the ground, make 8 cm deep grooves. The distance between each bed should be at least 60 cm. A mixture of ash and compost should be put in the grooves, then the fertilizer should be sprinkled with earth, but the depth of the pit should remain 4 cm. At 1 meter bed you must plant 19 seeds.
Between seeds, the distance should be no less than 8 cm. Then the grooves should be covered with earth, this will help preserve moisture. The first shoots appear 11 days after sowing. To prevent the birds from pecking the seeds, the area with the planted seeds must be covered with a fishing net or opaque film.
- The plant must be properly planted.
- The crop yield is affected by watering, feeding, garter bushes and loosening the soil.
- How quickly sprouts will erupt, depends on the regularity of the fluid in the ground.
The basis of care for the culture is abundant and proper watering. After planting, care must be taken that there is enough moisture. If moisture is not enough, then, most likely, the plants will die. Fruits ripen in the lower part of the sprout, peas bloom in the middle of the plant, and buds form at the top. In order for the plant to develop well, it must be well watered. When fruits are formed, watering abundantly at this time is not necessary. This can lead to the spread of infection.
Proper care of peas
When an active growth of culture occurs, it is necessary to loosen the soil well between rows. Nodule bacteria and roots, thus, receive oxygen, important for life. The beds can be harrowed when the first shoots appear and they reach a height of up to 6 cm. This is necessary so that the root system is not damaged. Loosening between the furrows should be done up to 4 times to a depth of 8 centimeters.
Top dressing of peas
Fertilizer must be applied under plantsto get a bountiful harvest. Fertilizer stimulates the flowering of crops, and it is necessary for tying new beans. When the first shoots appear, the plants need to be fed with infusion of weed. This is necessary when nodule bacteria develop and they are still too weak and peas lack nitrogen.
It is useful to feed sprouts with mineral fertilizers when the fruits are tied and before flowering. When fruits are tied up, it is recommended to plant the plants with complex fertilizer at the rate of 4 g per 1.5 liters of water. Watering should be done between the beds, while you need not to fall on the leaves of plants. Before flowering plants need to be fed dry fertilizer, at the rate of 26 g per 1 square meter.
Rules for garter bushes
Plant stems very weakwhen fruits appear, the plant bends under the weight. During this period, the stems need to be tied up.
- As a rule, plants are tied to metal rods or wooden pegs, they must be stuck along the bed.
- The distance between the pegs should be 1.5 m. On these pegs, you must pull the string or wire in a horizontal position.
- On the rope you need to lean shoots with tendrils.
- This is necessary so that the fruits are ventilated and heated.
Diseases and pests
The most common pest of peas is considered to be a leafworm, a cabbage moth, a garden moth, and a pea moth. Scoops and moths on pea leaves lay eggs. Caterpillars shovels that have just been born, eat the front of the plant. The larvae are wrapped in leaves, they feed on them. Pea butterfly lays eggs on the leaves and fruits. After a week, it becomes food for the larvae.
The main diseases of peas are powdery mildew and mosaic. Mealy dew is a fungal disease, in which the bottom of the plant is covered with a friable white bloom. Following this, the entire culture is covered in this bloom. Due to the disease, the fruits die, and the shoots with leaves die off and turn black. Mosaic refers to an incurable, viral disease that can be avoided if you follow the rules of crop rotation. To avoid disease, it is necessary to carry out the appropriate treatment of seed. Signs of a mosaic are considered slow growth, leaf curliness and the appearance of teeth at the edges.
How to get a rich harvest of peas
Peas ripen in late June. The ripening period depends on the outcome and flowering of the shoots. If the plant bloomed early, the peas will ripen faster. After floweringwhen the first fruits appear in the lower part of the plants, it is necessary to start harvesting sugar varieties after 1.5 weeks. During this period, the peas are tender and tasty.
- Peas must be harvested when the shoulder blade is ripe and ripe, but not over-ripe beans can be removed.
- Usually they have green and juicy sashes.
- The pod in length reaches 8 mm. If the weather is warm, then you can collect peas 1 time in 2 days.
- In cold weather, collecting peas is necessary once every 4 days.
- If the fruits are not collected on time, then the following fruits ripen with a delay. Experts recommend harvesting in the morning when it is not too hot, otherwise the pods of the plant may wither.
Pea refers to legumes. The branches of the stem reach a length of 250 cm. The root of a pea has a deep structure. Flowers are purple or white. Flowers have the ability to self-pollination. Peas demanding to the landing site. When a site is selected for disembarkation, attention should be paid to the land and neighboring plants. In order for a pea to produce a rich harvest, it needs to create suitable conditions. Pea likes moisture. It is necessary so that the fruits swell evenly. Peas should be planted only in wet soil. When the plant blooms and buds ripen, moisture is especially needed. If there is not enough water, the peas will drop flowers and ovaries.
Peas should not be planted in that placewhere he grew up last year. Because there will be a probability of damage to the plant by infections and pests. At the same place the culture can be planted after 5 years. Before planting seeds in the ground, the ground must be well leveled and moistened. To properly select the seeds, they must be placed in a saline solution. It is necessary to take for planting those seeds that were on the bottom. When the seeds are planted, you need to ensure that they have enough moisture.
With a lack of water, the plant dies, not having time to show the first shoots. With irrigation can not overdo it, especially at a time when fruits are formed. Too abundant watering leads to the spread of infection. When the peas are actively growing, the ground should be loosened. Thus, the plant receives the necessary oxygen. Garden beds need to be harvested only on dry ground.. This is done in order not to damage the root system.
When to plant peas in open ground?
In different regions of Russia, the time of sowing such a culture is different and it depends on climatic conditions. Be aware that seeds can germinate at a temperature of + 2 ... +5 degrees and they are not afraid of small frosts (up to -5 degrees).
Agronomists recommend that such a crop be sown as early as possible. This allows peas to be less affected by diseases and pests. When is it necessary to do? As soon as the soil is completely thawed and warmed to a suitable temperature, then you can begin to sow. It is not necessary to wait until it is completely warmer, since pea moistureloverand after winter the soil is wet, which is required for good germination.
Many gardeners practice podzimny sowing. For this, dry seeds are planted in frozen soil when there is no heat. At the same time, the seeds should not be processed so that they do not germinate, otherwise they will die.
To harvest in different periods, plant peas should be in 10 - 12 days. For early pea seedlings can be grown at home, after which they are planted in the ground. To determine when to plant peas on seedlings, it is necessary to know the characteristics of the variety and the desired time of harvest.
If you want to get peas in June, the seedlings should be planted in March, and varieties for this choose smooth or superereamy wrinkled. To harvest in August, sowing is carried out in April - May. Summer sowing is completed until mid-July in order to get a crop in September-October, but on condition that ultra-early varieties will be planted.
Pea fruits can be enjoyed the whole summer, as it can be planted several times. Planting varieties carried out in the last days of April, when it begins to warm the sun, and the soil moves away after the winter cold. Then it is recommended to sow peas at the end of June. In this case, the fruits fully ripen in mid-August.
Before planting it is necessary to prepare the seeds. If the peas were harvested independently, then heavy peas should be selected. To do this, the seeds must be soaked in salt water. Usually, empty and unusable floats to the top, but the full-bodied material remains below.
Collected rejected peas must be discarded, after which the water is drained and the remaining seeds are dried. So they quickly sprouted soak them should be a day before planting. For this, natural fabric is plentifully moistened with clean water, peas are wrapped in it and placed in a plastic bag.
Growing peas in the open field provides for compliance with certain conditions: the plot should be sunny, and groundwater - lie deep, because the roots of the plant can go down a meter and water can damage them. The soil in which the crop will be grown should be light, but fertile.
Peas do not like poor soil, as well as a soil that is rich in nitrogen. Some gardeners recommend planting a plant in the stem circles of young apple trees, since their developing crowns do not block it from the sun, and at the same time the peas begin to enrich the soil with nitrogen, which is necessary for the trees. In this case, fertile soil with a height of 10 - 12 cm should be poured into the tree trunks of apple trees.
Although peas are beginning to be grown from seed in early spring, the soil for it is best prepared in autumn. To do this, they dig it up and add 50 g of superphosphate and 20 g of potassium salt to each m2. If the soil is acidic, it should be neutralized with wood ash. Next spring, 10 g of saltpeter per m2 should be added to the ground. It is forbidden to use fresh manure as a fertilizer, because the plant does not like it.
After that you can sow the seeds. Peas grow well after the following plants:
Cultivation is not carried out in the soil in which they grew:
How to plant peas in open ground?
Before sowing, the soil should be leveled and watered. How to properly plant peas? The scheme of planting culture is very simple: in the beds you need to make furrows 15–20 cm wide and 5–7 cm deep at a distance of 50–60 cm from each other. Compost mixed with ashes is introduced into the furrows, and sprinkled with garden soil on top of it. Sowing is carried out in such a way that the distance between the seeds is approximately 6 cm.
Fissures should be sprinkled with earth, then it should be compacted so that moisture remains in the ground. To protect peas from birds, you need to cover the area with a transparent film. The emergence of seedlings is expected in 1 - 1.5 weeks. Between peas between rows you can grow lettuce or radish.
Seeds can germinate at a temperature of 4 - 7 degrees, but the most comfortable temperature for them is 10 degrees. This plant categorically does not tolerate heat, so the seeds planted in hot weather will not give flowers later.
Caring for the crop means proper watering and further loosening while weeding the site. The first time you need to loosen the soil 2 weeks after the shoots appear, with the pea bushes should spud.
As soon as the plant is extended to a height of 20–25 cm, it is necessary for the row put the supports. Peas on them will climb up.
To grow peas and get a rich harvest should be as early as possible pinch the top of the stem. In this case, he begins to let the side shoots, which then also need to pinch. Такую манипуляцию лучше всего осуществлять ранним солнечным утром, чтобы к вечеру ранка подсохла.
Такая культура не переносит жару, поэтому в сухую погоду ее нужно усиленно поливать. Особенно горох нуждается во влаге при появлении цветков. If before the plant is usually watered once a week, then during flowering and fruit formation, watering is carried out twice a week. Also, the peas should be watered as often as possible in the heat and quite plentiful. After watering, the plot is weeded and loosened.
Watering culture should be combined with dressings. Before watering, you need to dissolve a tablespoon of nitroammophoska in 10 liters of water - this is how much solution is needed per square meter of pea beds. After that, it is recommended to make a solution of mullein. Before flowering make:
- potassium phosphate fertilizers,
- dry organic matter (humus, compost).
And the second time they make after flowering, as well as in the fall, when the soil is treated. Nitrogen fertilizers should be applied to the soil in the spring.
In such a culture, the stems are rather weak and during the formation of the fruits they begin to sag under their weight, so they need to be tied to a support. As it uses metal rods or pegs, which stick along the row at a distance of 1.5 m from each other. They are horizontally tensioned with a rope or wire. Shoots with tendrils should be directed along these stretch marks so that the plant is aired and warmed up in the sun, rather than lying on the ground and rotting from damp.
Pea has a deep root system. The height of the branching hollow stem can reach up to 250 cm, which directly depends on the variety (standard or ordinary). Complicated pinnate leaf plates have petioles terminating in antennae. The plant they clings to the support, which helps keep the bush in an upright position. Bisexual self-pollinating flowers, as a rule, are painted white, but they are also purple. Pea flowering begins 30–55 days after sowing seeds. In an early variety shrub, spitting of the first peduncle is observed from the sinuses of 6–8 leaf plates, while in late-maturing varieties - from the sinuses of 12–24 leaflets. 1 time in 1 or 2 days grows new flower spike. The fruit is a bob, which can have a different color, shape and size depending on the variety. Inside the beans there are 4–10 seeds that can be wrinkled or smooth. You should know that the skin of the pod and the seeds inside it have the same color.
Peas, like all other plants belonging to the legume family, contribute to the enrichment of soil with nitrogen. During the growth of bushes on their root system, the development of beneficial microorganisms is observed. This bacteria fixes nitrogen, which they absorb from the air.
What time to plant
Peas are quite demanding in the care culture. However, if you follow all the agrotechnical rules of this crop, it will be quite easy to grow peas. Sowing of seeds in open soil should be carried out in the last days of April (approximately from the twentieth number), after the snow cover is completely gone and the soil dries out slightly. Emerging seedlings grow well and do not die even when not very large frost. If the variety is early ripening, it will be possible to sow the seeds from spring to the end of the first decade of July. Experienced gardeners recommend sowing the seeds of this crop in open soil several times from the last days of April to the first - July, and between the crops should be kept at 1.5 weeks.
Seeds need preplant preparation. To do this, they need to be heated in a hot (about 40 degrees) boric acid solution for 5 minutes, to prepare it, mix 1 bucket of water with 2 grams of acid. As a result, the plant becomes more resistant to harmful insects and diseases, for example, to the nodule larvae. When the seeds in the acid solution swell, they will need to be thoroughly dried. If you suddenly failed to wet the seeds before sowing, they can be sown in open ground dry, after a few hours they will swell right in the soil.
In order for cultivation of this crop in open soil to be successful, it will require familiarization with several rules and sticking to them:
- The site should be well lit.
- Groundwater should lie deep enough, otherwise the root system of the bushes, extending deep into the soil by 100 centimeters, can be significantly affected.
- Light peas are ideal for peas, rich in nutrients, and the pH should be 6–7. When grown in acidic soil, the bushes will be weak and sick.
Poor soil is not suitable for growing such a crop, but one that contains a large amount of readily available nitrogen. There are gardeners who sow peas directly into the stem of a young apple tree. The crown of a young tree is just beginning to develop, so the sun is enough for the peas. The pea itself contributes to the enrichment of soil with nitrogen, which is very good for the growth and development of apple trees. If you want to resort to this method of growing peas, then in the tree trunk circle it is necessary to fill a layer of nutrient soil with a thickness of 10 to 12 centimeters.
Experts advise preparing the ground for planting such a culture in advance. To do this, in the autumn time, the plot should be digged, while from 50 to 60 grams of superphosphate and from 20 to 30 grams of potassium salt per 1 square meter should be introduced into the ground. If the soil at the site is acidic, then it can be corrected by adding wood ash into it, while from 1 to 4 kg per square meter is taken, the final amount of ash depends on the acid index value. With the onset of the next spring period, saltpeter should be added to the soil (per 1 square meter of 10 gram each). It must be remembered that this culture reacts extremely negatively to the introduction of fresh manure into the soil, but it grows well on the land that was harvested when other plants were grown on it. The best predecessors of such a culture are potatoes, cucumbers, tomatoes, cabbage, and pumpkin. And it is not recommended to sow it in those areas where beans, lentils, peas, beans, soybeans and peanuts were grown before it.
Seeds are sown in grooves with a depth of 50 to 70 mm and a width of 15 to 20 centimeters, which must first be done on the bed. The distance between the grooves should be equal to 0.5–0.6 m. Mix the compost with wood ash and pour the resulting mixture into the grooves, the resulting layer should be sprinkled with garden soil. After that, the depth of the grooves in the bed with heavy soil should remain about 30 mm, and with light soil - about 50 mm. During sowing on 1 m of the groove should be from 15 to 17 seeds. For this, a distance of approximately 60 mm should be maintained between seeds. After the grooves are covered with soil, the surface of the garden must be properly tamped, which will help to keep it moist. The beds must be protected from birds that can pull peas out of the ground. To do this, they should be covered from above with a fishing net or a transparent film. The first seedlings will have to appear after 7–10 days. Between the rows in the garden with peas, you can sow lettuce or radish.
The germination of pea seeds begins already at air temperatures from 4 to 7 degrees, but the process is best carried out at 10 degrees. It should be taken into account that such a culture reacts extremely negatively to heat, and if it is sown on a hot day, then it is likely that the grown plants will not bloom.
Peas must be watered properly, after which the soil surface in the garden should be loosened, as well as weed grass should be removed. The first time you need to loosen the surface of the bed after half a month after the seedlings seem, and the seedlings will need to be tucked away. After the height of the bushes will be 0.2–0.25 m, you should install supports along the row, on which the seedlings will climb up.
To make the crop more abundant, you should pinch the tips of the shoots and do it as early as possible, after which the bushes will start growing several side shoots. After some time, you can make them and nip. It is recommended to pinch the bushes early in the morning on a fine day, in this case the wounds will be able to dry up well before evening. There is a possibility that harmful insects may settle on the bushes or they can be affected by the disease, so you need to be prepared to immediately begin treating the plants.
How to water
This culture reacts extremely negatively to the high air temperature, which is why, during a prolonged drought, the frequency and richness of irrigation should be increased. Special attention should be paid to watering at the time when the bushes bloom. Before flowering, water the beds should be about 1 time in 7 days. When the peas will bloom, as well as during the formation of the fruit, the frequency of watering increases and two times in 7 days. On hot days, peas should also be watered a couple of times a week, with 9 to 10 liters of water per 1 square meter of land. When the bushes are watered, the surface of the soil must be loosened, while removing all the weeds.
Peas are recommended to feed with watering. Before proceeding to watering, in 1 bucket of water you need to pour 1 tbsp. l nitroammofoski and mix everything well, this solution should be used for watering 1 square meter of planting. Replace nitroammofosku can solution of mullein. Humus and compost, as well as phosphorus-potassium fertilizers should be applied to the soil first before the bushes bloom, and then after the flowering has ended, and the last time this is done in the autumn time during the treatment of the plot. Nitrogen-containing fertilizers are applied to the soil in springtime.
The shoots of pea bushes are rather weak, and therefore in the process of the formation of the fruits, their lodging is observed under the weight of the pods; therefore, they simply need a garter to the support. This support can be made of metal rods or pegs, which should be installed by sticking into the ground along the row, while between them it is necessary to keep a distance of 50 cm. It is necessary to pull the rope or wire on them, while it should be horizontal. The stems of plants on which there are tendrils must be directed along this support, in which case they will receive a sufficient amount of sunlight and be blown by the wind. If the support is not installed, the bushes will fall down and begin to rot from dampness and lack of light.
Pests and pea diseases
On the bushes of peas can live such harmful insects as the leaf-worm, pea moth or garden and cabbage moths. Leaflets and shovels on the leaf plates of the plant make egg-laying. The leafworm larvae eat the foliage while wrapping themselves in it, and the caterpillars scoop the parts of the bush that are located above the ground. At the same time, butterfly moths arrange their egg-laying on the surface of foliage, fruits and flowers, and already after 7 days the larvae appear, which begin to actively devour peas.
The most dangerous for peas are diseases such as powdery mildew and mosaic. Mosaic is a viral disease, today there is no effective drug for its treatment. For the purposes of prophylaxis, one should not forget about the rules of crop rotation and agrotechnology of this crop, and also make sure that the seedbed preparation is done. In the affected bushes, growth initially slows down and leaf curliness appears, and cloves form at their edges. After some time, necrotic spots appear on the leaf plates, while the veins lose their color.
Sphereoteka (powdery mildew) is a fungal disease. On the surface of the aerial part of the infected plant, a frivolous patina of whitish color is formed, at first it appears on the lower part of the bush, and then covers it completely. As the disease progresses, cracking and death of the fruit are observed, and the infected stems and foliage turn black and die.
If the peas are hit by a mosaic, then all diseased bushes are removed from the soil and destroyed. The site itself must be shed with a sufficiently strong solution of manganese potassium. It is forbidden to grow something on this plot for at least 1 year. To combat the powdery mildew, various fungicidal preparations are used, for example: Topaz, Fundazol, Quadris, Topsin or Scor. If desired, you can use in the fight against this disease and folk remedies, for example:
- One bucket of water is mixed with 40 grams of grated household soap and the same amount of soda ash. This solution will need to process the affected bushes 2 times with a break of 7 days.
- 10 liters of water should be combined with 0.3 kg of foliage field sap. The composition must be brewed overnight. Strained infusion need to process bushes 2 times with a break of a week.
- It is necessary to fill the bucket with half weed grass, after which it is filled to the top with hot water. The infusion will be ready in a few days. The filtered means is diluted with water (1:10), after which they are treated with affected bushes.
It is necessary to spray the foliage in the evening, otherwise on the place of the formed droplets sunburn may appear. To get rid of the caterpillars of leafworms, shovels and moths, it is necessary to spray the plants with infusion of garlic or tomato tops. To make a tomato brew, it is necessary to mix 3 kg of finely chopped tops with a bucket of water, the product will be ready in 1-2 days. Strained infusion will need to be sprayed with pea leaves. 20 grams of garlic, crushed with garlic crushers, connect with 1 bucket of water. The tool will be ready after 24 hours, after which it is filtered and used for processing plants. These infusions will help get rid of aphids.
Cleaning and storage of peas
About 30 days after the plant has faded, you can start harvesting. Duration of fruiting of this culture from 35 to 40 days. Such a plant is multi-assembly; therefore, its fruits are assembled every 2–3 days. Fruits, which are located in the lower part of the bush, ripen first. During one season, about 4 kg of fruit can be removed from a 1 m 2 bed, but this is only under favorable conditions.
Most often, gardeners cultivate the shelling and sugar varieties of this plant. The important difference between sugar peas and shelling is that it does not have a parchment layer in the pods; therefore, young fruits can be eaten with the pod if desired. Gentle pods of plants of this variety are harvested as they reach technical maturity, starting in the second half of June. In order for the bushes to begin re-flowering in August, and they gave a second crop, it is necessary to systematically pluck all the pods from plants to one. Harvesting is carried out very carefully, so as not to injure the delicate shoots.
The harvest of the shelling varieties is carried out from the last days of June until the autumn as they mature. Since this variety is grown for green peas, the fruit must be removed while it is still smooth and has a uniform color. Pods with a drawn grid can be used only for grain.
Green peas, in fact, are unripened, and experts say that the fruits are at the stage of technical maturity. It can not be stored fresh for a long time, so it is either frozen or canned. There is another way to save the harvest. To do this, pour the peas into hot water and allow it to boil for 2 minutes. Then it is thrown back into a colander and rinsed with very cold water. After that, it should be laid in a drying cabinet, heated to 45 degrees, where it should stay for 10 minutes. Pulled out peas need to be cooled at room temperature for 1.5 hours, after which it is again removed to a dryer heated to 60 degrees. Peas, if desired, can be dried in the oven on a baking sheet, but in this case you will need to add sugar. When the peas are ready, it will acquire a dark green color, and its surface will become wrinkled. It can be stored for quite a long time. Peas in the stage of biological maturity can be stored for several years, if done correctly:
- fruits must be fully ripe,
- before you store, peas are well dried,
- for storage it is placed in a place where there is no access by insects.
Before removing the peas for storage, it should be husked and dried in a well-ventilated room for 2-3 days, while sprinkling it on clean paper sheets. Fabric, paper or plastic bags are not suitable for storing finished peas, as insects penetrate into them with ease. Experts recommend the use of glass cans with a metal twist lid for storing peas. The fact is that covers made of kapron will not be able to reliably protect it from pests.
Types and varieties of peas
There is a type of pea vegetable, or seed (Pistum sativus), it is distinguished by genetic diversity. Its subspecies differ from each other in flowers, foliage, seeds and fruits. Однако данная классификация представляет интерес лишь для специалистов. Для огородников важным разделением сортов гороха является по срокам созревания: поздний, средний и раннеспелый. Также сорта делят по целевому назначению, ниже будет дано их описание.
Лущильные (Pisum sativum convar. sativum)
Семена у таких растений гладкие, в их состав входит большое количество крахмала, но сравнительно немного свободных сахаров. К лучшим сортам данного вида относятся следующие:
- Дакота. Раннеспелый сорт отличается устойчивостью к заболеваниям и урожайностью. Горошины обладают большим размером.
- Овощное чудо. A variety of medium ripening, disease resistant. The length of the pods is about 10–11 centimeters, peas have excellent taste, they can be preserved and eaten fresh.
- Ding. This early variety is created by German breeders. The length of the slightly curved pods is from 10 to 11 centimeters, they contain 9–11 peas of a dark green color. They can be canned or eaten fresh.
- Somerwood. This medium late coarse-grained variety is distinguished by its yield and disease resistance. Pod length from 8 to 10 centimeters, they are 6-10 seeds.
- Jof. This medium late variety is resistant to diseases. The length of the pods from 8 to 9 centimeters, they are sweet pea.
- Bingo. This late variety has high yield and disease resistance. Beans on average, there are 8 peas each, which are distinguished by high taste.
Brain (Pisum sativum convar. Medullare)
In the stage of biological ripeness, peas in such varieties become shriveled, but they are recommended to be used in the stage of technical ripeness. The composition of the peas is a large amount of sugar, in this regard, they canned and used for freezing. The most popular varieties:
- Alpha. This is the earliest ripening variety. It is a bush variety. The growing season is about 55 days. The beans have a saber-like slightly curved shape with a sharp tip. The length of the pods is about 9 centimeters, there are 5–9 peas in them, they have high taste qualities.
- Phone. This amateur late-ripening variety has a high yield and very long shoots (height about 300 cm). The length of the pods is 11 centimeters, in them there are from 7 to 9 sweet large peas of green color.
- Adagum. It is mid-season variety. Ripe peas are colored green and yellow, and they have excellent taste.
- Vera. This early ripe grade differs in high productivity. The length of the beans is 6–9 centimeters, they contain from 6 to 10 seeds.
Sugar (Pisum sativum convar. Axiphium)
These pea varieties are very shriveled and small. In the pods there is no parchment layer, so that peas can be eaten with the pod. Popular varieties:
- Ragweed. This variety is early ripening. Bushes need support.
- Zhegalov 112. This mid-season variety has a high yield. The length of the slightly curved or straight pods is 10–15 centimeters, the tip is dull. Inside they are from 5 to 7 sweet and sweet peas.
- Sugar Oregon. The variety is medium early. The length of the beans is about 10 centimeters, they contain from 5 to 7 peas.
- Miracle of Kelvedon. This early ripe grade differs in high productivity. The length of the beans is from 6 to 8 centimeters, they contain 7 or 8 smooth large seeds of dark green color.
Pea: a characteristic of culture
Many still wonder: are peas beans or not? He really belongs to the legume family, other information is erroneous. The branching stalks of the plant reach 250 cm. The stalk is hollow and the leaves are pinnate, complex. Scape, on which there are tendrils, cling to the support, and thus keep the culture in an upright position. Pea root has a deep structure. The flowers are usually white, but they are also purple. Due to their ability to self-pollinate, they bloom 45-55 days after sowing. In the early varieties of peas, at the first flowering you can see 7-8 sheets of sinus, and up to 24 leaves - in later varieties.
Every two days there are new flower stalks. Characteristic peas can not do without a description of the fruit. They are beans, and depending on the plant variety, have a different shape and color. Beans contain up to 10 wrinkled or smooth seeds, and their color is the same as the peel of the pod. During the growth of a plant, useful bacteria develop on its roots, and nitrogen also appears, which absorbs peas from the atmosphere (this nourishes the soil).
Climatic conditions for growing peas
In order for a pea plant to develop well, it is important to create suitable conditions for it. The plant is very fond of moisture, so that the seeds evenly swell, and there were friendly shoots, the peas need to be planted early in a moist soil. Due to the large amount of precipitation, the plant grows faster and yields increase. During the period of budding and flowering, moisture is especially necessary. If water is scarce, the plant sheds ovaries and flowers.
However, the peas do not like if the groundwater is too high. He is ready to endure a short drought, as the strong root system of peas uses moisture from deep layers of soil. Peas are unpretentious to heat and seeds germinate at a temperature of + 5 ° С. The shoots are able to tolerate frosts up to -6 ° C, and the optimum temperature for the formation of the ovaries of the plant is +13. + 15 ° С, for the growth of beans - from +17 to + 22 ° С.
What kind of soil loves peas
Pea loves when the soil is well processed and sufficiently moist. If the selected soil for planting is sour, then first it is necessary to lime. This will require 300 g of hydrated lime or 400 g of dolomite flour per 1m². An ideal place for planting will be loam-rich humus, as well as well-fertilized, moist soil.
Best pea neighbors
Before planting pea seeds, keep in mind that previous plants that grew in the same place, quite a strong influence on the crop. It is best to plant the described crop after potatoes, carrots, beets, cucumbers, tomatoes, and pumpkins.
Peas should not be returned to the place where it grew last year, since there is a high probability that the plant will be affected by diseases and pests, therefore, the possible dates for planting peas in the same area are no earlier than in 3-4 years.
How to prepare the soil for planting peas
When preparing the soil, it should first be leveled and watered properly, and moistened again before the direct planting of peas. Further in the soil it is necessary to make grooves with a depth of 6 cm, keeping the distance between the beds of at least 20 cm.
Preparing peas for planting
Before planting the plants also need to know how to choose the seeds of peas. Consider that only high-quality, healthy seeds are required for planting. Feeble, sick and infested with pea weevil specimens should not be planted.
Since before planting you need to germinate the seeds of peas, you will need to perform some more simple actions. After selecting the seeds, they should be soaked in warm water and left to swell for 16 hours, changing the water every three hours. After soaking the seed material, it is dried to a friable state.
How to sow peas
Peas do not require the use of any special agricultural technician and the planting pattern is quite simple. Before placing the seed material in the ground, in the beds should be made furrows 6-7 cm deep. The distance between them should be 45-55 cm. A mixture of compost and ash is put into each furrow, then it is sprinkled with earth, but to keep the depth of the pit 2-3 cm. For one meter of furrow, 17-18 seeds will be required, thus the distance between the pea seeds will be up to 6-7 cm. Next, the seed pit must be densely covered with earth, which will help retain moisture.
To protect the pea seeds from birds, it is recommended to cover the area with the sowing with fishing nets or with a translucent film.
First actions after sowing
On what day the first stalk of peas will appear, first of all, depends on the regularity of the introduction of liquid into the soil. Proper and abundant watering - this is the main care of the plant. After sowing, you need to carefully monitor that the peas have enough moisture. If it is not enough, the plant will die, not having time to show the first shoots. While fruits are ripening in the lower part, peas are blooming in the middle, and the tip is still growing and forming buds, watering is especially important for the normal development of the plant.
During the period of active growth of peas, it is necessary to pay special attention to loosening the soil between the rows.Only in this way, the roots and nodule bacteria will be able to receive such necessary oxygen. At the first shoots, reaching a height of 6 cm and forming 4-5 leaves, the beds will need to be harrowed, but this should be done at a time when the ground is dry. This is necessary in order not to damage the root system. Despite what will be the compaction of the soil and the growth of weeds during the growing season, loosening between rows should be carried out up to 3 times (to a depth of 7 cm).
Features feeding peas
Fertilizer must be applied under the pea to increase the yield, stimulate the flowering of the plant and to tie the beans. At the first emergence of seedlings, peas should be fed with infusion of weeds. This is necessary when the work of nodule bacteria is still too weak and the plant suffers from a lack of nitrogen. Fertilizing with mineral fertilizers during fruit set and before flowering will be very useful. In the first case, it is recommended to water the plants with a solution of complex fertilizer (3 g per 1 liter of water). It is necessary to water between rows, without falling on the leaves of the plant. Before flowering, peas are better to feed dry fertilizer, at the rate of 25 g per 1 m².
Since the pea stalks are rather weak, and at the first appearance of the fruit, the plant falls from gravity, it needs garter bushes to support. In the role of support use metal rods or wooden pegs that need to stick along the row, at a distance of 1.5 meters from each other. On pegs or rods, you need to tighten the rope or wire in a horizontal direction. Shoots with tendrils are supported on the rope. This is necessary so that the peas are aired and warmed up.
The main diseases and pests of peas
The most common pests of the pea are the moth, garden and cabbage moth, and the pea moth. Shells and scoops lay eggs on pea leaves. Caterpillars scoops, even those that have just hatched, eat the ground part of the plant. Larvae moths, wrapped in leaves to feed them. But the pea butterfly - moth, lays eggs on the leaves and fruits. After a week, they become food for the larvae. Powdery mildew and mosaic are among the main diseases that can cause peas.
The first is a fungal disease that covers with a loose, white bloom, first the bottom of the plant, and then the whole crop. After that, the fruits die, and the shoots with leaves turn black and die. Mosaic is an incurable, viral disease, the appearance of which can be avoided by observing crop rotation and appropriate treatment of seed. Slow growth, the appearance of teeth at the edges of leaves, as well as their curliness are all signs of a mosaic.
Peas: how to get a rich harvest
Harvest can be by the end of June. How much pea grows also depends on how much the plant grows and blooms. If it bloomed early, then the peas ripen faster.
Collect peas, you need when his blades ripen and you can remove the filled, not overripe beans. The valves have juicy and green, and grains in length reach up to 8 mm. In warm weather, it is better to collect peas on a scoop as often as possible (for example, every 2 days), while in cool weather - it is enough every 4 days. If you gather ripe peas at the wrong time, then there will be a slowdown in the ripening of the next fruit. Harvesting is best in the morning when it is not too hot outside, otherwise pea pods may quickly wither.