Along with the advent of polycarbonate greenhouses, questions arose on my site on how to optimize watering of cultivated crops. It is especially interesting to solve the problem of watering cucumbers - this culture is extremely demanding for a stable water supply.
Extremely thermophilic culture grows well only in conditions of full supply of water. A good harvest is obtained in the open field, but early cucumbers can be obtained only in greenhouses and greenhouses protected from frost.
Growing under the protection of a film or other transparent coating without additional heating makes it possible to lengthen the period of obtaining green leaves from the beginning of April to the end of October. Therefore, the need for regular watering is very relevant.
The Internet is replete with recommendations about watering. Here you can find quite contradictory sentences. The authors write very funny that they water cucumbers once every two weeks. It does not work, this plant requires more watering than all the others.
Especially demanding cucumber plants in the period of growth and ripening of greens. Those who saved on water received small and bitter fruits. If you completely restrict watering, then in the conditions of the greenhouse they will stop growing and turn yellow quickly. Then it will be useless to wait for a harvest.
Even more surprising are the recommendations to cover the walls with solutions of lime or chalk. Cellular polycarbonate is too expensive material to destroy it in a similar way within two years.
Watering in small greenhouses
If the hothouse economy is small, there is a standard type structure (3x6 m) with an arched base, then many plants will not fit inside such a structure. With permanent residence near such a greenhouse, watering can be done from a regular watering can.
However, there are features of this operation. To the question: "How to water"? Experienced gardeners recommend the following.
- To prevent water from spreading over a large area, a small depression is made near the plant.
- Water from a watering can is poured at the root in small portions. It is necessary that it is absorbed in the radical part, and not spread in a wide stream.
- In the evening, you can lightly water the foliage, but it is better to use a garden sprayer or spray gun to create a slight mist.
Important. For cucumber plants in the composition of the sprayed solution is recommended to add a few drops of iodine. It is possible to dissolve urea at an early stage (2 tablespoons per bucket of water), then you will receive a foliar bait, which is useful during the period of growth before flowering.
How to optimize watering in a small greenhouse
To save water, you need to create water batteries. Sphagnum moss is used as a natural accumulator of moisture. This plant has a peculiarity: when watering with water, it can absorb ten times more moisture than it weighs.
The moss is laid in the soil before planting, deepening it by 10 ... 12 cm into the ground. Then, when watering, some of the water will not be filtered into the lower layers of the soil. They will accumulate in the moss, and then the cucumber's roots will collect the accumulated moisture while reducing the soil moisture around the plant.
Those gardeners who followed this advice claim that even on a hot day, when the temperature of the air in the shade rises above 25 ... 30 ° C (the greenhouse even during ventilation, the temperature rises above 43 ° C) the plant shows no signs of overheating. Moisture in the root part is enough to maintain vitality and develop.
It is often asked what temperature should water be used for irrigation? Very important question. Some write that water from the water supply, laying a hose on cucumber beds.
Here it should be borne in mind that the water supply in most localities does not heat the moisture. The average temperature is 7 ° C. This is too little. Plant watering is shocked.
Its growth stops for several hours (a cucumber plant is a vine that grows constantly). The minimum normal temperature is considered to be 15 ° C. It is better if it is higher, but not more than 27 ... 28 ° С. Further increase detrimental effect on bacteria living in the root zone.
To use warm water, you need to warm it. Capacities installed inside or near the greenhouse will help here. In them during the daylight liquid will heat up. Then you can water the plants with it.
Creating a mini-greenhouse inside the greenhouse
Among the ways to optimize watering there is another interesting approach. Work begins in the period of planting seedlings to a new place. You will need:
- five-liter tank in which drinking water is bought,
- a knife to cut plastic or scissors,
- hydrogel in granules,
- a little mosquito net.
The procedure is as follows.
- Small pockets are made from a mosquito net to fit 3 ... 5 g of hydrogel.
- At the tank cut the bottom and neck. It will serve to limit the space for growing a cucumber plant.
- Dig a hole to fit a trimmed plastic container. It is desirable that the sides be 2… 3 cm above the ground level (it will be more convenient to pour water during irrigation).
- Approximately at a height of 1/3 from the bottom put a pocket with a hydrogel.
- Fill the container with primer.
- Planted seedlings (usually they are planted in a peat pot).
Is done. Now turned miniparnik. If necessary, it can be additionally covered during the cool springtime after planting.
Watering cucumbers, pour the liquid only in the limited plastic space. At first, only about 0.5 liters of moisture is required. It does not spread over the entire area of the garden, but remains inside. Penetrates down and accumulates in the hydrogel.
Growing, the roots penetrate deeper. They completely envelop the bag. Small roots even penetrate through the cells.
Attention! Instead of a hydrogel, you can use small pieces of foam rubber. It retains moisture well, but gives it less willingly than gel.
The frequency of watering with such an organization of planting in the spring is 2-3 times a week. In summer, when flowers bloom - every other day. When the greenhouses appear you will have to water daily. Water consumption will be about 2 liters of water. But then you can take at least two cucumbers of an acceptable size every day.
When planting gherkins on a similar technology every three days from four bushes, you can get greens for canning 1 liter jar. During the growing period, 4 plants will fill at least 7-8 liter cans with small tasty cucumbers.
It is not necessary to pour out all the liquid at once. It is more convenient to maintain soil moisture at 80 ... 85% for a long time. Here come the various technical devices. The easiest is to use a plastic capacity of 1.5 ... 3.0 liters.
It is enough to make a small hole in the cork and turn it down. Then you need to fix the container so that it maintains this position.
Within a few hours, liquid drop by drop will flow out and water the root of the plants. The system works flawlessly, without causing complaints from gardeners. Water enters only the root area. They are used only by cultivated plants.
Experienced gardeners use mulch from cut grass as a supplement. Mulch reduces the temperature of soil heating in a polycarbonate greenhouse, and at the same time it limits the evaporation of moisture from the surface of the soil where cucumbers are grown.
Drop irrigation is also organized for a group of plants grown inside the greenhouse. To do this, lay the pipelines in all beds.
To limit the flow of moisture and create a drip mode, it is convenient to use ready-made medical devices used as droppers in medical institutions. There are ready-made devices that are easy to adjust the desired frequency of the appearance of a drop.
For storage of liquids for irrigation use barrels. They are usually installed inside a protected ground structure. Some greenhouse manufacturers complete their products with special barrels to organize drip irrigation.
Along the way, drives are equipped with timers. They automatically open the water supply according to the program at specified intervals.
The convenience of using large-capacity containers lies in the fact that the plants in the process of growing season must be fed. It is easy to dissolve the fertilizers that will be fed to each plant in a dissolved form.
In practice, it has been proven that a balanced supply of chemical fertilizers is not dangerous. Productivity increases by 30 ... 40% (often much more). The growing period itself is stretched for a longer period.
The organization of watering in the industrial cultivation of cucumbers
Industrial production involves the use of large areas for growing cultivated plants. Here it is necessary to obtain a stable yield.
Many greenhouse farms practice subsurface irrigation. For its implementation, pipes are buried in the ground, through which irrigation moisture is supplied not from above, but directly to the roots. On the surface is not visible, hidden from the bottom of the pipeline. Such an organization of irrigation saves water, which is very important for large-scale production.
Some greenhouse complexes practice outdoor irrigation, for which they dispose of sprayers over the plants. Under pressure, water is supplied in the form of fine mist. She slowly settles on cucumber bushes. So carry out foliar feeding, which causes rapid growth and accelerates the entry
Conditions for growing cucumbers
In the first place cucumber seedlings should provide the necessary amount of light. Twelve hours a day can significantly increase the yield. In addition, in such conditions, the rate of development of cucumber bushes also increases.
Like any light-loving vegetable, cucumber does not want to grow when it is darkened. The lack of light can lead to the weakening of plants, accelerate their aging, reduce immunity to diseases. The development of the vegetable depends on how often you water the cucumbers in the greenhouse after planting.
Also important is the observance of the correct temperature in the greenhouse. On average, it should be +22. +26 ° C. At temperatures below +14.5 ° C and above +42 ° C, the development of the plant will stop. If the temperature is kept below +12 ° C for a long time, the roots can not take moisture from the soil, and cucumbers stop growing.
How to water cucumbers so that they do not get bitter?
Even the most reverent care of cucumbers during their growth does not guarantee that during the tasting of the harvest you will not feel the bitter taste of the vegetable. Nevertheless, experienced growers use a number of tricks that help reduce the concentration of bitter substances in cucumbers.
To cucumbers are not bitter, above all, moisten the soil on timeDo not allow drying out. Use only warm water, watch the temperature in the greenhouse, it should be within +23. +24 degrees.
The regularity of watering cucumbers in a greenhouse made of polycarbonate should be increased in particularly hot weather. Based on how often the temperature changes, the decision is made about the need for watering.
Cucumbers are very sensitive to weather changes. If at least four days in a row will be hot, the number of bitter cucumbers in the garden will increase significantly. The lack of moisture in the soil will also lead to a deterioration in the taste of vegetables. Consider that cucumbers planted on clay or sandy soil will definitely be bitter than usual.
Why is temperature required?
Observance of the correct temperature regime will provide cucumbers with comfortable conditions for quick and successful ripening. Consider that it is best to grow cucumbers in heated greenhouses.
During the day, the temperature should be maintained at +20 ° C and about +17. +18 ° C at night. This regime must be maintained until the fruiting period begins.
Further, the vegetables will need even more heat, and if by that time it will not be hot enough outside, you should continue to heat them yourself. If it is overcast outside, it means that the temperature in the greenhouse should vary from +21 to +23 ° С, and in sunny weather - +24. +28 ° C. At night, you can not warm the plants so intensely, enough to support +18. + 20 ° C inside the greenhouse.
- For watering suitable extremely warm water - +20. +25 ° C. When heated, do not bring it to a boil.
- Keep the purity, in the composition should not be harmful salts and fluorine.
- Hard water needs to be softened by adding a little wood ash at the rate of 5 tsp. 10 liters of water. Stiffness will affect how many times a week water cucumbers in the greenhouse.
For watering you can use a hose, a watering can or a bucket. In all cases you need to ensure that the stream of water fell exclusively on the ground:
- If your choice fell on the hose, then adjust the weak and gentle pressure of the water. For more control of the jet, use special nozzles that disperse and reduce it.
- Watering is better to use for additional sprinkling of cucumbers on particularly sunny days in the proportion of 4-5 liters per 1 m 2. This procedure allows you to quickly reduce the temperature in the greenhouse and moisten the air well.
- Watering from a normal bucket is also effective, but takes more time. This method allows you to more accurately pour water through the grooves, keeping the roots and stems of the plant intact.
For all the time growing cucumber bushes require a different approach to the care and watering. So, let's see how the frequency and volume of irrigation of cucumbers varies depending on the stage of development.
In order to determine how often cucumbers should be watered in a greenhouse after planting, consider the need of a plant for moisture at different periods of growth. In order for the seedlings to take root well in the new place, immediately after disembarking it should be poured abundantly. After that, the intensity of irrigation should be reduced to once every few days, 3-5 liters per 1 square. m. This mode should be observed until the beginning of flowering.
Watering is carried out every 3-4 days (if it is hot, you need to water every day). If the air temperature rises above 25 degrees, irrigate the cucumbers. This procedure is carried out daily, thereby reducing the temperature of the leaves and flowers, do not fade the ovary.
In the heat and in rainy weather
Cold and damp weather reduces the need for watering cucumbers, during this period it is better to track the level of soil moisture and air. Together with the fall in temperature, the soil itself cools and re-humidified, which contributes to the decay of the roots and wilting of the plant.
If it is overcast in the street, but it is warm, cucumbers can be watered. in the morning or late in the evening. The success of growing vegetables in a polycarbonate greenhouse depends on what time you water cucumbers. Water from the beds can flow into the tracks, so to avoid mudflows, overlay them with a film along the borders.
Most gardeners are puzzled by the question of how to properly water cucumbers in a greenhouse in the heat. Hot weather is bad for the growth of cucumbers. In order to achieve a cooling temperature, it is recommended to apply refreshing or venting. This means that, in addition to the main abundant irrigation, it is necessary to treat water bushes, paths, shelves and walls of the greenhouse at the rate of 1-1.5 l / sq. m
Growing cucumbers and drip irrigation
Automatic drip systems are the most popular method of irrigation in both industrial and home greenhouses, where more than 50 plants are grown. Drip method has several advantages:
- saving time
- system durability
- perfect balance of moisture in the soil
- ease of installation and low cost,
- weather resistance,
- the soil does not erode,
- the roots don't get bare
- automated system operation,
- suitable for large sites
- use warm water, which is a prerequisite for the proper irrigation of cucumbers in a greenhouse made of polycarbonate.
When choosing a method of watering cucumbers in a greenhouse, you can experiment with various schemes. All existing systems have their advantages and disadvantages: drip irrigation, moistening through soil grooves and sprinkling. By trial and error method, combining these techniques, you are guaranteed to get an ideal irrigation system for your conditions, which means a rich harvest of delicious cucumbers.
What conditions love cucumbers
Cucumber culture loves water. She needs to irrigate not so much the roots as the leaves and the soil around the plantations. In the greenhouse, this is done by hand using a conventional long rubber hose. Water is poured into the aisle at the track.
Seasoned gardeners also advise sprinkling the outer walls of greenhouses. This should be done not with simple water, but with a liquid chalk solution. Such dew persists for a long time, without evaporating, and helps maintain an optimally humid environment, and reduce the temperature inside during extreme heat.
Особенно хорошо поддерживает тепло и влажность в любое время года теплица из ячеистого поликарбоната. Летом надежная мембрана уберегает огурцы от перегрева и ожогов на листьях ультрафиолетом.
Огурцы хорошо развиваются и растут при условии:
- proper watering
- creating an enabling environment
- constant optimum temperature.
To monitor the good nutrition and health of the cucumber culture is an indispensable condition for obtaining abundant fruiting bushes. But no less important is watering the plant.
How to water cucumbers? How often?
Crop irrigation mode
Watering culture in the winter time is reduced to a minimum, is made not more than twice a week. The procedure is carried out in cycles, the regularity of watering cucumbers depends on the season. Moderation in the supply of abundant moisture to the root system is observed in spring and in cold weather during the summer months.
Plentifully need to water cucumbers in the warm season. But even in this period there are unwritten rules for irrigation.
To answer the question of how often water cucumbers in a greenhouse, you need to know the stage of plant development. After planting seedlings in the ground need moderate watering. This provides abundant culture budding and a smaller increase in hardwood mass.
During flowering cucumbers are also watered moderately. Thanks to this regime, a smaller amount of barren formation is achieved. Bushes are watered every other day. Unplanned watering is done only in the case of drying leaves.
How to water cucumbers during fruit set and their development? Abundant irrigation bushes require immediately after flowering. At this time, frequent regular watering of cucumbers provides a strong ovary, which over time will not crumble. When the fruits are in growth, watering is necessary moderate. The frequency of irrigation increases after harvest.
The development of bushes and crop yield depends largely on the correctness of watering cucumbers. Do not pour water directly under the roots of plants. This is easy to achieve leaching of the soil, stagnant moisture at the roots, the appearance of mold at this place.
It should make a neat groove near the root of each bush. The incoming water rushes there and provides good soil moisture and nutrition of the roots of the culture.
Water used for irrigation only defended warm. Do not boil it, and then cool. Boiled water is dead, does not contain much-needed minerals.
Watering planting is best in the morning and evening, when the sun's rays are not so aggressive.The acceptable time is until ten in the morning and until seven in the evening. Watering at a later time will lead to the retention of moisture on the aerial parts of the plant during the cool night. This often leads to a rotting green mass of plants.
During the period of the formation of the fruit a good solution is to water the cucumbers with milk. This provides a favorable nutrient medium in the soil around the bushes. The plant is well fruited.
Landing irrigation methods
Of great importance is the method of watering the bushes. The uniformity and correctness of the process depends on it. There is a manual and automated methods.
Watering cucumbers in the greenhouse in a manual way involves the use of buckets or a hose, as well as periodic sprinkling. Manual watering is a laborious process, because it is impossible to disturb the upper soil layer, to damage above-ground parts of plants.
Sprinkling is carried out using a watering can or a hose with perforated nozzles. Leaves, flowers and a growing ovary are sprinkled in this way. It is difficult to evenly distribute moisture in all parts of plants.
An alternative is drip irrigation of cucumbers. It provides automation of the process of supplying moisture to the landings. Its use makes it possible to save water, and also helps to distribute it properly and evenly to the planting. Water does not flood the roots, does not expose them.
Thanks to drip irrigation for cucumbers, many problems can be avoided:
- root rotting
- drying the root system
- the appearance of mold
- the development of fruit diseases.
Drip irrigation of cucumbers in the greenhouse does not require constant attention and participation of the gardener. On the owner of the landing works automation.
In private greenhouses, owners who cannot allow automatic watering of cucumbers use home-made devices. Thanks to them, a mechanized drip irrigation system is provided. Water is supplied to the beds with the help of drift or pumped. Self-made drip irrigation includes the following scheme: hose - tank with settled water - water source.
Hoses are laid between the rows and have perforated punctures along the entire length at an equal distance. Water enters the hose from the barrel with a tap, which is attached to the dais. In the barrel on the other hand is connected to another hose that supplies moisture from the water supply system or the well.
Self-made drip irrigation systems from factory hoses with built-in perforated nozzles along the entire length proved to be especially good. Watering cucumbers with them is uniform. The hose does not leak, does not clog, durable in operation.
To make cucumber patches easy to care for, they need to be properly planted. The distance between the seedlings in the row should be about 55 cm, between the rows themselves not less than 75 cm.
Growing densely planted cucumber bushes is much more difficult. Plant growth slows down, fruiting is reduced. Sunlight will hardly penetrate through the greenery in the greenhouse, so the roots will keep an excess of evaporated moisture. Increases the risk of fungal diseases, settlement of pests. In addition, excess moisture leads to rotting.
The roots of densely planted cucumbers in the greenhouse will be intertwined, it is wrong to grow and develop. Thick, twisted roots will absorb a lot of moisture when watering, and the soil will always be dry. If you slightly exceed the volume of liquid, bacteria and fungi will begin to develop in the soil.
Caring for a greenhouse plant becomes difficult. It is more difficult for gardeners to weed beds, monitor the emergence of stepsons, the irrigation regime is disturbed. Therefore, cucumbers should be provided with free space so that light and air can easily flow to all parts of the stem.
How to water cucumbers in a greenhouse, important rules
It is very important that the water for watering cucumbers in the greenhouse is warm. What is the normal water temperature intended for soil moistening? It should be about +20 degrees. It is best to collect water in large tanks and allow some time to settle. Cold water reduces the immunity of cucumbers, slows growth and development, vegetable crops are more often sick and resistance to pests is reduced.
In addition to water temperature, there are other rules for watering cucumbers.
- It is necessary to moisten the soil well, but avoiding stagnant moisture. In this case there will be a big crop of cucumbers, without bitterness in taste. The soil should be light, enriched with peat and sand.
- After each watering it is recommended to make a shallow loosening with simultaneous hilling of bushes. In this case, the roots will receive sufficient oxygen and nutrients.
- Watering cucumbers in a greenhouse should be carried out with water without harmful additives (for example, salts or fluorine). If it is tough, then it is useful to mix with wood ash. It is enough to dilute 55 g of ash in 10 liters of water.
- Watering cucumbers in the greenhouse should be carried out once a day. If the question is, when it is better to water cucumbers in the greenhouse, in the morning or in the evening, it is best to choose the evening hours. The best watering time is two hours before sunset. Cucumbers grow more actively at night, so the moisture that came in the evening will be useful. A good time for watering is also early morning, at 6-7 o'clock.
What time to moisten the soil depends largely on weather conditions. If it rains for a long time, then cucumber irrigation is reduced. During such a period, it is imperative to monitor the air parameters in the greenhouse. On cloudy days, watering cucumbers is best during the daytime.
If you water cucumbers in a greenhouse in the middle of a hot day, then the high probability that the plant will get burned will turn yellow and die. Mulching will help retain moisture in the soil and prevent crust formation. An additional layer of sawdust, straw, peat or film protects the ground from overheating. In addition, there will be no excessive evaporation and in the greenhouse the humidity will not exceed the norm.
How to water cucumbers in a greenhouse during different periods of development
Watering cucumbers in the greenhouse after planting should be systematically, evenly with the same amount of liquid. If this rule is not followed, the root system may rot. In the case when several waterings are missed, you should not fill them with a large volume of water. The previous volume of fluid returns gradually with each subsequent irrigation.
Cucumber seedlings can be grown both at home and in the greenhouse. After the first shoots appear, it is necessary to water it with a spoon or a small cup in order not to damage the roots. As soon as a 2-3 leaf develops, cucumber seedlings grow stronger. For cucumber seedlings in the greenhouse, it is better to choose thawed or ordinary filtered, warm water. It is useful to water the seedlings by adding nutrients. As a top dressing for cucumbers, watering with a yeast, grass or ash solution is used.
How often cucumbers should be watered are affected by their development period. Given this factor, it is possible to significantly reduce infection by infections, prevent the attack of pests and get a quality crop. How many times should moisten the soil depends on the age of the seedlings. The first watering of cucumbers after planting in the greenhouse is carried out immediately after transplanting seedlings. Subsequently, it is enough to water 1 time in 5 days.
A young plant has roots about 4 cm in length, so the rate of liquid consumption will be about 4 liters per square meter. m. The length of the roots of an adult vegetable about 15 cm, so the amount of liquid increases to 15 liters.
Watering cucumbers in the greenhouse until flowering is recommended to be carried out at a moderate frequency, while consuming approximately 4.5 liters per 1 square meter. During flowering and formation of ovaries, it is necessary to water the beds more often. During this period, it is recommended to water cucumber beds at intervals of one day. The water should go about 11 liters per 1 sq.m. If it's hot outside, then it is recommended to water once a day and to sprinkle.
Experienced growers advise that the frequency of watering during active fruiting should be reduced. This will stop the growth of tops and accelerate the ripening of fruits. The plant will direct all forces and nutritious components to the formation of fruits, not greens.
How to water cucumbers in polycarbonate greenhouses in combination with top dressing
After watering cucumbers in a polycarbonate greenhouse, it is recommended to apply fertilizer. It is useful to carry out not only root, but also foliar feeding. How often fertilizer needs to be applied depends on the appearance of the plant, the quality of the soil and the conditions in the greenhouse. It is recommended to fertilize at least four times during the entire growing season.
Root top dressings begin after the appearance of the first leaflets and repeat with an interval of two weeks. What fertilizers to make, will tell the appearance of the plant. For example, gardeners recommend: "If the leaves are pale green in color, the plant develops slowly, pour seedlings with water with nitrogen, urea, or nitrate nitrate."
A useful fertilizer for cucumbers is a mixture of urea (15 g), superphosphate (25 g) and potassium sulfate (17 g). All components pour 10 liters of water. A similar solution is enough for about 12 cucumber bushes.
The following feeding is carried out after about 2.5 weeks. By this time, flower formation and formation of ovaries should begin. Saplings at this time it is useful to prepare the composition on the basis of mullein. The selected component is left to infuse in water for about three days. You can add 200 g of wood ash. Prepared solution of mullein before watering diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 6. You can add superphosphate 50 g.
For the third and fourth time, cucumbers are fed during the period of mass ripening of fruits. Spend them at intervals of two weeks. Foliar nutrition of cucumbers by spraying allows you to absorb nutrients through the leaves. You can use the same compositions as for root feeding, but the concentration should be less.
How to water cucumbers in the greenhouse
There are some rules for watering cucumbers in a greenhouse. It is not recommended to pour water under the root during watering so as not to provoke rotting. It is better to leave the ground around the base of the stem dry. Cannot be used for irrigation hoses. Under the pressure of water around the stem will erode the earth, exposing the root system.
In a greenhouse made of polycarbonate, heat is well retained, but in hot weather this can cause overheating of the plants. When planting cucumbers in a greenhouse, you need to follow these tips.
- The room must be ventilated. Do not open the vents, which are located opposite each other, as cucumbers do not tolerate drafts.
- When caring for beds, it is useful to carry out a sprinkling procedure, which helps to cool the greens.
- It is possible to darken the roof of the greenhouse at the time of direct sunlight.
Popular is drip irrigation beds. Drip irrigation mode allows the moisture to come exactly to the root system, while the top layer of soil remains dry. Underground watering also reduces the risk of top rot. It is easy to build a drip irrigation system in a greenhouse with your own hands. They take an ordinary plastic bottle, cut out the bottom of it, and close the neck with a lid. Small holes are pierced through the entire area of the bottle.
The prepared container is driven into the ground near each cucumber bush cut bottom up. As needed, the container is filled with water, and it slowly seeps through the holes and will flow to the roots.
How to water cucumbers in the open field
Watering cucumbers are in the evenings. At this time, the plants are most prone to watering, and there is no strong heat. Water until morning manages to soak into the ground, and the drops of dew dry up without causing burns on the leaves, and the gardener needs to know:
- It is not recommended to water cucumbers in the morning and afternoon, because in this case the water evaporates quickly, not reaching the roots, and condensate forms at night, which leads to the development of various diseases.
- Cucumbers require abundant daily watering, especially if it is hot, dry weather.
- For irrigation it is necessary to use an irrigation can with a dissector, irrigate the entire planting, including the leaves of plants and the soil around them.
- Use better warm water heated in the sun, because the roots of cold water of cucumbers die. If there is a strong heat, you can additionally place the containers on the cucumber with water - evaporating, the water increases the humidity, which favorably affects the condition of the plants.
- If the air temperature has dropped and it has started to rain, daily watering is no longer required, but you need to monitor the condition of the soil and water cucumbers as needed.
- Over-wetting of the soil leads to decay of the roots and the growth of fungal infections. The soil around the roots should be covered with humus or peat to avoid drying and retain moisture.
Watering cucumbers: methods
Although the advantages of irrigation are obvious, it is worthwhile to consider its possibilities in more detail, choosing the method most suitable for the situation. It should be noted that it is acceptable for greenhouse conditions, which is not better for open ground. Plastic containers can:
- dig in to the ground to a minor depth
- set close to the cucumber bushes,
- fasten to suspended structures.
Varieties of drip irrigation bottles: hanging, digging, standing, with dispenser, cans, bottle dispenser and dispenser for pipes.
Suitable for open ground and for greenhouses at the same time. To make a miniature irrigation system from a bottle, it is necessary: after measuring 3 cm from the bottom of the bottle, with a heated needle or a thin nail, pierce the holes. They are located in 3-4 rows, can be placed in a checkerboard pattern.
Bottles are driven in between cucumber bushes - the second method is similar to the previous one, but in this situation the bottom is reduced: the holes are made in the upper part of the container, next to the neck. You can not do punctures, the bottle is tightly filled with foam, this option is suitable for very heavy loams, sandy open ground, the liquid flows out instantly.
Cover the cap, lower the bottle with the neck. To prevent the rapid evaporation of moisture, the bottom bottom can be placed on top, it is more convenient to simply turn it. Some people advise not to cut it completely and pour water, slightly bending it.
If on the site for a long time there is no possibility, use five-liter plastic bottles:
- the holes in them are punched on one side over the entire surface of the container,
- in the wall on the opposite side, the hole is cut, which is enough to fill the water,
- the bottle is lying down, with small openings down.
In this case, the self-watering period will be extended by several days. Five-liter bottles will supply cucumbers with water for several days.
There is another option when the bottles do not fit into the soil, but are suspended above the plant. The method is good for greenhouses:
- the soil near the roots is not blurred,
- the water in the tank is warm,
- создается оптимальная влажность.
Здесь отверстия сделаны в крышке или около шеи, вы можете их вообще не делать, просто отрегулируйте колпачок так, чтобы вода вытекала сама по себе в небольшом количестве:
- Заполняя резервуар водой, его необходимо подвешивать вверх дном.
- Полив будет происходить сам по себе. But this method is more complicated due to the installation of the carriers with their own hands, and water sometimes falls on the leaves, which is undesirable. This can cause burns in sunny weather.
- To avoid this, containers are suspended close to the ground. In open ground bottles can simply be spread out on the beds, pre-puncture holes.
In this video you will learn how to make drip irrigation for cucumbers from plastic bottles with your own hands.
Thus, make a choice of watering you, watching the effectiveness of each of them.
Rules for watering cucumbers in the greenhouse
For the full development of cucumbers, after planting you can water them in any way, but you need to ensure that the soil around the base of the stem is always dry, since excessive moisture in this place threatens to rot the roots. For irrigation it is recommended to use hoses with special nozzles, systems with drip irrigation or home watering cans. Fluid temperature should be about 22-25 degrees, it is very important, because too hot or cold water can severely damage the root system of vegetables and the plants will die.
To fully grow cucumbers in greenhouse conditions, they need a fairly high humidity of air and soil. Therefore, it is best to water the plants with a method of sprinkling, due to which the indicators of moistening increase, especially when hot days come. In cold weather, the need for watering should be judged by the condition of the soil.
Basic irrigation recommendations
So that the vegetables in the greenhouse always get enough moisture, they must be watered as follows:
- After planting seedlings, the soil should be in a semi-dry state for three weeks, because with regular irrigation young cucumbers will not develop. Lightly moisturize the soil only if it becomes completely dry.
- When the ovaries begin to form and the first flowers bloom, vegetables should be watered often and abundantly. At 1 square meter will need about 30 liters of water. The irrigation procedure should be carried out in the morning or in the evening, depending on the ambient temperature, at least 4 times a week.
- After moistening, shallow loosening of the soil and the introduction of peat into it is recommended, since it prevents the evaporation of moisture and keeps the surface of the soil in a loose state.
- If the leaves of the cucumbers start to wither, you need to urgently begin to regularly water the plant and it is advisable to do this in the morning.
- Do not forget that cold water can cause root rot and other diseases.
- You can not water the vegetables under the root system, because it is bare and it negatively affects the development of fruits. To avoid this, it is necessary to pour humus near the base of the stems and watering in small ditches between the beds.
- It is necessary to try to avoid strong drops in the level of soil moisture in the greenhouse. If the soil has dried out, then water cucumbers should be gradually, using a small amount of water.
- To accelerate the ripening of the crop, you can after the first cucumbers appear, water the vegetables less often and lower the moisture level in the greenhouse. Because of this, the plant will begin to intensively feed the fruits and they will begin to grow and develop faster.
What is good drip irrigation method
Today, many gardeners, in order to save their time and energy when caring for greenhouse vegetables, install homemade or industrial devices in their greenhouses to organize drip irrigation. When growing cucumbers, the method of moistening the soil with the help of such devices is most appropriate. Agrotechnical stores can buy such systems, they are quite compact and designed for use in small greenhouses, but some amateur gardeners prefer to make them themselves.
The advantages of such systems are as follows:
- Watering is carried out automatically, which is very convenient.
- Exact distribution of the amount of water, which allows it to economically spend.
- You can water large areas of plantings.
- The water dispenser is quite easy to use.
- The system is resistant to temperature effects.
- When exposed to water, the soil surface is not washed out.
- Thanks to this method of watering, the appearance of fruit plants and the quality of their harvest are improved.
Self-made device with gravity feed water
To make a drip irrigation system where the water supply is carried out by gravity, it will be necessary: a large container for the liquid, a support for it, a faucet with a gate, a hose with holes made.
On a strong stand with adjustable height is set a large barrel of water, which is well fixed. At a distance of 10–12 cm from the bottom of the canister, a faucet with a gate is pierced. After that, a hose with holes made along the entire length is connected to the tap, and then it is placed along the beds with plants. After water supply, it starts to drip through the holes of the hose onto the soil, gradually moistening it.
Experienced gardeners recommend seedlings before planting pour the soil through the drip system, then land on it cucumbers.
Watering by connecting the hose to the water supply
You can connect hoses designed for drip irrigation to the faucet, but then you will need to install a water pressure regulator to limit the force of its supply. Those who decide to use this method should not forget that such water is always served cold, but for cucumbers this is unacceptable.
Useful tips on feeding cucumbers
Small shoots that have recently appeared after planting can be fed with nitrogen-containing fertilizers. Thanks to their action in the future, crop yields are significantly increased. During flowering, it is imperative to apply potassium sulphate (10 grams per 10 liters of water) to the soil where cucumbers grow, and when forming fruits, you can use complex mineral fertilizers (30 grams per 10 liters of water).
It is recommended to feed plantations once a week. You should also not forget to periodically add to the soil after irrigation and organic fertilizers, no less useful for the full development of cucumbers.
Possible problems when growing cucumbers in the greenhouse
Frequent problems while caring for growing vegetables may be:
- The plant almost does not form the ovary. In this case, it is necessary in the evenings to necessarily ventilate the greenhouse and lower the air temperature to 17-18 degrees. Feed vegetables in this case is recommended bird droppings. All these actions must help to grow the full-fledged fruit.
- The minimum number of fruits, despite the abundant ovary. In this case, fertilizing plants with a mullein can help. A solution of a small amount of humus and urea, which needs to be watered cucumbers 1-2 times a week, will also work.
- If the leaves of plants have a pale color, it means that they lack nitrogen. To remedy the situation, urea should be added to the soil (50 grams per 10 liters of water). Watering cucumbers with this composition is necessary 1 time in 7-10 days.
- Fruits grow quickly, but flowering is very insignificant - this may indicate a high nitrogen content in the soil. In this case, you will need potassium phosphate fertilizer. For a group of 7–10 plants, 10 liters of fertilizer will suffice.