The hybrid form of the grape "talisman" has many different names. In the market it can be found under the name "cache", "cache muscat", "super cache" and under some other names. The variety is bred by Russian plant breeders SKZNIISIV and VNIISPK. "Talisman" was successfully tested in the North Caucasus region and quickly spread to many regions of Russia.
Grape "mascot" refers to varieties of early-medium ripening period (130 days). This variety is considered one of the best white grape varieties.
The grape bush is very strong. Because of this feature, when planting grapes one should select a place where there will be at least two meters to the nearest plant.
Grape "talisman" has predominantly female flowers that require pollination. The flowers hold for about two weeks, so they manage to pollinate perfectly. Grapes "talisman" is best planted near such pollinators as "raisins", "aleshenkin" and "kamakod".
The variety is characterized by high yield at any time of the year. Berries ripen well. To increase the yield and improve the quality of berries, it is recommended to leave no more than 35 paint buds on one bush.
According to the description, the grape "mascot" gives a stable harvest. He has a fairly large brush, weighing up to a kilogram. Some specimens may be larger.
Berries "talisman" elongated, greenish-white, weighing up to 18 grams. When fully ripe, they have a bright aroma and a pronounced muscat flavor. The grape mascot is very sweet, so children eagerly eat it.
The variety has one feature: when ripe, the berries are on the brush for a long time, without falling off. After harvesting, the grapes can be transported, while it does not lose its qualities and has an attractive appearance.
The merits of the variety
Like all grape varieties, the "talisman" has its advantages. These include the following qualities:
- Excellent taste characteristics.
- High yield in all weather conditions. The bush produces in heat, cool, rainy weather, sudden temperature changes.
- When transporting hand preserve the appearance.
- The variety grows well on all types of soil and does not require special care.
- Easily propagated. When rooting cuttings, out of ten copies, nine will give roots.
- Resistance to diseases.
It is necessary to refer high frost resistance to advantage. At -25 gr. the roots of the vine do not freeze. Even if the twigs are frozen, the plant can come to life by growing new twigs from the roots.
In the description of a grape variety "talisman" it says that he is able to produce a high yield. He laid a lot of carved branches. In order not to overload the bush, it is recommended to remove most of the flowers. This will help to distribute the load on the plant and will give the opportunity to form brushes with large berries.
Removing excess carotid buds is one of the shortcomings of the variety. Another one - female type of flowering. The plant has no male flowers, so it needs pollination. To do this, next to the Talisman planted varieties of pollinators with male types of flowers.
Grape "mascot" grows best in sunny areas. Sunlight should reach the plant at least seven hours a day. Ideally, it should shine on the plant all day.
When choosing a place is to give preference to the southern side of the site without drafts. If the garden plot is located in a place where the winds are constantly blowing, then you should think about planting grapes behind the house or near tall buildings, fences.
The soil under the plant should absorb water well. The black earth possesses such properties. However, the "talisman" feels great on sandy types of soil.
The roots of the vines go deep into the ground. In order for the plant not to rot, it is important to know at what distance the groundwater is located (the minimum permissible groundwater level is 2.5 meters). If the water is too close to the ground, the vine will rot.
For planting grapes, pits with a size of 0.6 x 0.6 m are prepared. The bottom of the planting pit is loosened to a depth of twenty centimeters. This will help the plant to take root faster and easier. Humus is introduced into the landing pit by mixing it with the soil selected from the pit when it is excavated.
According to reviews, grape "talisman" has an increased resistance to a number of very different diseases. He rarely suffers from mildew, gray mold and other diseases of grapes.
Of the pests most often the plant is damaged by wasps. Sweet and fragrant berries attract insects that eat up juicy berries. To protect the crop from wasps, the vine is covered with a fine mesh. You can use traps for wasps, which are located around the perimeter of the vineyard. Usually used sweetened water with the addition of any poison for insects.
Many gardeners who grow mascot on their plots speak of high taste, stable yield and excellent frost resistance of the variety.
As mentioned above, to obtain large berries and large brushes, it is necessary to control the number of carotid buds. Some gardeners conducted an experiment. They left the vine untouched to see how she behaved. As a result, many fruits were formed on the bush, but the berries had different sizes - from small to large in one hand. The weight of the brush itself did not exceed five hundred grams. Those plants that were properly cut, gave large, smooth berries. The weight of the brush was about a kilogram each.
To get, as in the photo, grapes "mascot", you need to know some secrets of growing. This applies not only to this variety, but also to other vines.
- To the berries ripen well, they need to provide sunbathing. To do this, next to each brush pritenyayuschie its leaves are removed. Such an action will help to accumulate a lot of sugars in the berries.
- Lower leaves are removed from the plant. They overload nutrients and slow down the development of fruits.
Removing the leaves will not only improve the quality of the crop, but also protect the plant from disease.
"Talisman" refers to table varieties. It can be used to get juice, cook compotes, make jam. The high level of sugars allows you to make strong white wines from it.
High yield and excellent appearance allows you to grow vines for sale harvest. Stability of the variety will allow gardeners to make a good profit from each plant every year.
Often, the "talisman" is used as a stock for other varieties. This is due to a large growth force and a very powerful root system. The resulting plants can quickly braid arches, awnings. The very "mascot" perfectly complements the landscape design and can be used as a ceiling decor in gazebos, sheds. His huge brushes hang beautifully, giving refinement.
Grape variety Talisman tolerates frost up to 25 degrees. With a stronger decrease in temperature, the vine freezes out without shelter.
Some winegrowers successfully grow Talisman on arches as unopen, placing it on protected areas. In this case, the brush can weigh a half to two and a half kilograms. But there is a risk of being left without a crop.
The talisman loves warmth and sunshine, so it ripens badly in cold summer.
Grape Talisman is pollinated well. But as neighbors, he needs a couple of bushes of another variety. There are almost no polishes.
The brush is large, conical, medium dense (Kesha is denser). Its weight reaches from 1 to 2.5 kilograms (on the arches). Length about 20 centimeters. The berries are oval, white in color, fully ripe amber, "yellow tan", of the same size (3.1 × 3.5 cm). The skin is dense. The weight of one berry is 10-12 g, but it can reach 20-25 g. Each contains one or three bones.
Taste grapes Talisman sweet, slightly sour. When fully ripe, it has a nutmeg flavor. If it lingers on the bush, it gets tastier. Sugar in it from 17 to 23 percent. Acids - 6-8 grams per liter of juice. The berries are fleshy and juicy.
Forming a bush
Talisman - grapes are very fruitful, 80-90% of its stems are fruitful. Traditionally advised to leave two, less often - three brushes on the shoot.
They say that if they are formed more, then the berries will be smaller and will not ripen. But many growers are pruned for 10-15 and even 20 buds and claim that in this case the variety is much more productive. And the size of the berries 12 grams suits them perfectly. It should be borne in mind that with such pruning bush will require significantly more space on the trellis. Even bushes with six sleeves are formed. But we must avoid overloading the bush with a crop. To do this, thin out thin, frozen shoots. The bush should have a good supply of old wood. If there are many sleeves, it makes sense to place them in different directions. Then on a horizontal harvest will ripen a week earlier.
With this formation of the bush is difficult to remove the branches for shelter for the winter. But he grows strong, is not afraid of drought and gives a good harvest.
Transportation, storage of crops
Berries are well kept, suitable for transportation.
Can hang on the bush to frost, without losing taste, even improving them. Fresh can eat up to four weeks. Well kept in the fridge. For two weeks only scallops dry up on the balcony, and the berries do not spoil.
Talisman, like all varieties, is bred by grapes, cuttings or layering. The bush is tall and strong, cuttings are easy to prepare. They are well rooted, seedlings quickly begin to bear fruit. Usually with good care this happens in the third year. But you can achieve the first harvest and the second. For this you need to increase the growing season in the year of planting, planting in the spring first in a container or placing it in warm sawdust.
Grape seedlings should be ready for planting.
To do this, you need the root system:
- matured well
- Not dried in the process of transplantation.
An indirect indicator of seedling readiness is the fact that in the fall the leaves on it fell naturally.
A sapling is formed in such a way that it has one escape, and the latter is shortened by two or three buds. Roots are slightly trimmed with a pruner and dipped into a clay mash.
It is better to prepare pits from winter. They have the shape of a cube with a side of 80 cm. They need to be half filled with earth from the upper layer, rotted manure, ash (2 buckets in each), with the addition of superphosphate (300 g per bush). If you dig a hole significantly smaller, the bush will grow, and the crop will give a meager. Digging a hole doesn’t make any more sense, since the roots of the grapes do not penetrate below 60 cm from the ground.
The sapling is set to a depth of 30-40 cm. Sprinkle first with fertilized earth (10 cm), then the rest. Sand is added to the clay soil to allow air and water to pass through it. Condense and water the earth. About a sapling leave a hole with a depth of 5-10 cm.
The distance between two Talisman varieties can be 2–3 m, if you intend to use a single-plane trellis, and 1–1.5 m, if two-plane.
You need to water until the period when the seedling is rooted. Then it is better to do this with the help of drainage. But you can grow a good harvest, not watering and not fertilizing the bush in the process of growing.
The stepchildren are regularly removed so that they do not thicken the bush, do not take away the useful substances. Although the talisman has buds on the stepchildren, also fruit. Sometimes they yield at the end of September (if there is no frost).
The talisman is a grape that loves regular root dressing with lots of fertilizer. Needs phosphorus and potassium.
The variety is not very fond of pests. But tick grape pruritus does a lot of damage. Because you need to spray 3-4 times the poison from ticks.
To protect against wasps, which, although not very, but spoil the berries, hang syrup bottles near the bushes.
"Talisman" - a variety that will delight you with its qualities
This variety was obtained as a result of a well-thought-out selection of Russian scientists who used such parental forms as “Frumoasa Albe” and the rather well-known “Delight” for this.
Thus, table grapes were obtained, which gained its popularity not only as a fruitful culture, but also as a parent form for obtaining new hybrid forms. In breeding "Talisman" is a donor of sustainability and good yields, it is especially often used for this purpose by amateur growers.
It is very important to note that the popularity of this grape sometimes plays a cruel joke with it: among the people and among the professionals, the Talisman has a very large number of names, and therefore its seedlings can be very difficult to find.
In particular, such names as “Kesha-1”, “Kesha-2”, “Kesha Muscat”, “Super Kesha” and, finally, “FV-6-6”, designate the same “Talisman”. The thing is, he almost identical with the brand "Kesha", has similar qualities and the same parents, but is more fruitful and has better taste.
The Talisman grape has been zoned very widely, since it has time to ripen even under conditions with a relatively short summer period and is sufficiently resistant to unstable weather. The bushes of this grape showed themselves well in the southern regions, and over the territory of the northern climatic zone.
Clusters of "Talisman": a description of the main characteristics, as well as features of the berries
The brushes of this grape are very large, which attracts winegrowers. The average weight of one bunch can vary from 0.8 to 1.2 kilograms.
Good agricultural technology and attentive care of the bush can significantly improve these indicators. As for the other characteristics of the cluster, it is worth noting that they have a medium-dense structure and very rarely friable. The shape of the brushes of this grape variety is usually conical, in rare years with poor pollination, they can be shapeless.
Berries also characterized by large sizesthat can be understood by the following parameters: the average length of a berry is 3.5 centimeters, and its width is about 3.1. From this it can also be concluded that they have a more oval shape than an elongated one.
The weight of one berry can be from 12 to 16 grams and more, if you provide the bush during fruiting with the necessary amount of nutrients. These berries are distinguished by the white color of the skin color and an unusually good and harmonious taste. At the time of full ripening, Talisman grapes acquire nutmeg aromawhat is strikingly different from Kesha.
But, besides the pleasant aroma, the berries also have a good sugar-accumulating ability, which gives their flesh a very good sweetness. In particular, the level of this indicator in the pulp of the berries of the described variety can vary from 17 to 23%. At the same time, their acidity does not rise above 8g / l.
Discussing the question of fruiting grape bush "Talisman"
As for the yield, the described variety is able to please you very much, since it can bear fruit at a very high level. First of all, thanks to a vigorous shrub and a huge number of fruitful shoots.
Speaking of the latter, it is worth noting that among the total number of shoots of a bush, their number is about 75-90%. Not surprising that the fertility coefficient of this variety is quite high - 1.4-1.8. This indicator is evidence that less than 2 inflorescences are usually not formed on one shoot, sometimes there are three (but in this case it is better to do the rationing of the crop).
One bush without fear can be loaded with eyes in the amount of from 24 to 32 buds. Experienced experts note that with good care, it is possible to achieve record volumes of crops and sizes of grapes not only for this variety, but also in comparison with others.
In addition, the Talisman bushes begin to bear fruit very quickly, literally in the second year after planting at a permanent place of growth of a two-year sapling.
In terms of ripening "Talisman" rather can be attributed to the early-medium grades. The full period of the growing season of the bush from the moment of blooming of the kidneys and until the onset of absolute ripeness of the fruits, takes 127-135 days. This allows by the beginning of September to begin tasting and full break of fruits. Such terms quite allow to grow the described grapes even slightly north of the middle band.
The qualities and characteristics of the "Talisman", which are considered to be his calling card
- Very high yields and large sizes of both bunches and berries on them.
- Good taste of berries.
- Crops have a long storage period. Moreover, even upon the onset of removable maturity, they are capable of maintaining their presentation and taste for a long period of time.
- Fruits are also easily transported, keeping a beautiful look of clusters.
- The bush responds very well to top dressing with the help of mineral fertilizers (potash salt + superphosphates).
- It boasts excellent rooting of cuttings, which greatly facilitates the process of reproduction of this variety.
- With regular preventive spraying of the bush from fungal diseases, manifestations of mildew, gray rot or oidium are not observed.
- The low temperature tolerance of the Talisman is excellent. His vine is not afraid of frost at -25ºС. But, in spite of this, it refers to covering grapes.
- It is recommended to grow these grapes on rootstocks with perennial wood, since in most cases it is precisely because of this that high rates of fruiting are achieved.
Under what conditions do grapes best grow and bear fruit? Choosing a place to land
External conditions can be very strongly reflected in the vine, because the external environment is the source of nutrients for this plant. Thus, it is impossible to release this important moment from attention and carefully choose a place for planting grapes.
First of all, this culture is best planted where it could receive the maximum amount of sunlight. Therefore, choose a place on your site that is not shaded almost the entire light period of the day. Its southern side will approach, well, or at least the south-western one.
Secondly, it is equally important for grapes to be protected from winds through, which are very strong if they blow from the north. In this regard, experienced growers strongly recommend planting grapes behind houses, other buildings or garden trees, which will serve as a shield for this plant.
Another important point concerning the choice of a place for grapes is the features of the terrain. The fact is that it is better not to plant vines in lowlands or valleys, since cold air flows in such places often stagnate. Under their influence, grapes can either get sick, or partially lose their harvest. thus, a low hill or artificial elevation is best suited to this culture.
Of particular importance are also the characteristics of the soil on which grapes should grow. Even if its fertility is not particularly high, the main thing is that according to its type it was easy and easily let in water. The ideal option would be black soil, but with the growth on loam grape bushes "Talisman" also showed excellent results. With insufficient fertility, the bush will need to be regularly and very richly fed.
The root system of grapes is developing to a very large scale, especially strongly it goes deep into the soil. For this reason, it is very important pre-check the groundwater level. They will not interfere with the bush in any way if the level of their occurrence is at least 2.5 meters.
Kut planting scheme: how not to thicken the vineyard
Since the Talisman grape bushes have a great growth force, they should be planted widely. It is optimal to make the distance between two bushes of one row in 4 meters. Thus, there will be enough space both for the growth of the shoots and for the roots.
With not very fertile soil, it is also possible to slightly increase this distance, due to which the area of bush nutrition will also increase. If you plant bushes in several rows, it is best to leave a distance of 5-6 meters between them.
What is the most suitable time for planting grapes to grow?
The time of planting grapes can be very prolonged and will greatly depend on the method of reproduction.
First, it is possible to plant bushes of this culture both in the spring, and in the fall. There are no principal differences and advantages in this or that planting, everything will depend on when you purchased the sapling.
In early spring, around the end of March, you can start planting "sleeping" seedlings, grafting cuttings and breeding grapes with branches. At a later and, at the same time, warmer time, it is possible to plant green seedlings, inoculate the cuttings “green to green”.
The advantage of spring planting is the ability of a young bush to adapt well to a new place of growth and grow better, in order to survive the winter easier and more stable.
Autumn planting is less stretched in the temporary space and is more suitable for the reproduction of grapes "sleeping" materials. This concerns saplings and cuttings, which, by the way, are harvested in the autumn.
In connection with the last factor, it is precisely at this time that it is most logical to plant the grapes. The optimal time is mid-October, or a little earlier / later, depending on the weather and climatic conditions of your region. The only drawback is the high risk of frost damage to seedlings, although with good covering for the winter, they endure frosts perfectly.
Grafting "Talisman" grapes to the stock: what are the features and tricks?
Regarding the "Talisman" variety, this type of breeding is the most acceptable, allowing the shrub to grow and enter fruiting much faster. To have a good vaccination, it is very important to properly prepare the cuttings:
- Long cuttings are not needed, 2-3 eyes are enough.
- The lower part of the cutting is recommended to cut on both sides. A stalk placed in this way will have closer contact with it and will be able to settle down faster.
- In order to keep the cutting for longer the moisture, you can wax it.
- Before direct grafting, the lower trimmed part of the cutting is placed in water. You can also dip it in a solution with a stimulator of root formation, which is prepared on the basis of the drug "Humate".
When preparing the stock, the most important thing is to remove the old bush. The cut after this should remain smooth, the height of the hemp is about 10 centimeters. After that, the cut surface needs to be perfectly leveled, and also wiped off with a wet cloth from dirt.
The split for the cutting should be done exactly in the middle of the stock. Do not split it sharply or strongly, as this may damage the stock. You can plant several cuttings at once, if the stock allows it and you want to get a big bush.
The essence of grafting is that only the trimmed part of the cutting is lowered into the split, so that all its eyes are above the stock. After this, the graft must be very tightly clamped to increase the contact between the stock and the handle.
Also, it is very important to lubricate it with wet clay, which will help retain moisture and protect it from exposure to adverse conditions. Inoculation is completed by watering the stock and mulching the soil.
History of breeding varieties
This kind of grapes created by Kuban breeders. This culture is a hybrid. The latter was obtained by crossing the Moldavian variety White Beauty and Delight. And the latter is also derived in the Kuban Institute.
The name Kesh is used not only for this variety. There are several cultures with a similar name, with similar features.
Variety retained features inherent in parental forms. In particular, grapes received the ability to withstand the effects of many diseases, and provides a high yield of each vine.
Description of grapes Kesha
There are two varieties of grapes of this variety: Kesha-1 (Talisman) and Kesha-2. The latter is also a hybrid. To get the second grade, crossed the first culture and Kishmish Radiant.
The description of this variety says that grapes are among the early ripening crops. Berries are ready to make wine after about 140 days after the start of flowering. Fruits can be collected closer to the end of August.
From the shoots of this culture grows 5-meter vine. The plant is self-pollinated. That is, there are flowers of both sexes on the vine.
The clusters are characterized by large size and lack of pea (plant growth is not accompanied by the formation of small berries). Each fruit has a dense and elastic consistency. The total length of each bunch reaches 24 centimeters.
Brushes, as they grow, take the form of a cylinder or a cone. In mature plants, the weight of the bunch reaches 1 kilogram. Because of such high rates, more than two brushes should not appear on one shoot.
During the period of ripening on the vine green berries are formed, which, having reached the technical ripeness, acquire a light yellow color. Fruits have a uniform structure and a sweet aftertaste.
The skin of the grapes is dense, but it is easily chewed during the meal. Thanks to such a shell, the clusters are not damaged during transportation. Therefore, Kesh grapes are often grown for sale.
The following features are characteristic of the fruits of this culture:
- sugar concentration is 20-25%
- the acid content is 4.8-8 grams per liter,
- weight reaches 14 grams.
The shape of the berries is round, and inside the fruit there are no more than three seeds.
Kesha-1 is characterized by high (more than the related forms) resistance to negative temperatures. In this case, if the grapes are grown in the middle lane of the country, it is recommended to plant the vine inside the greenhouses.
The talisman has a good immunity to most varieties of pathogenic fungi. The pathogens dangerous for the variety include mildew and gray rot. An important feature of the Talisman is that there are only female flowers on the vine. Therefore, together with Kesh-1, it is recommended to plant on the site other varieties that can pollinate the plant.
The talisman is growing rapidly, so it requires constant trimming. The ripening of grapes takes up to 135 days. The total weight of the bunch on an adult plant reaches 1 kilogram. Brushes, as they grow, become conical or loose form. Ripe berries have a light red hue.
Kesh-2 (Kesh Muskatny, Tamerlane, Zlatohor) gives the crop 130 days after the first flowers appear. The berries of this hybrid have the following characteristics:
- sizes - 30 * 35 millimeters,
- weight - 16 grams
- sugar level - 23%,
- acidity - 8 grams per liter.
This hybrid is self-pollinated. Brush plants are able to hang on the vine for several weeks without losing the original characteristics.
What are the advantages?
Grapes have many advantages, including the following:
- high yield,
- relatively low care requirements,
- regular appearance of fruits
- uniform ripening berries
- fast acclimatization to a new growing region,
- pleasant taste,
- good presentation
- long shelf life
- good immunity to fungi.
Among the disadvantages of the variety is the average resistance to diseases characteristic of most varieties of grapes. This hybrid does not tolerate frost badly, provided that the vine is left unclosed for the winter. In addition, due to the rapid growth of the plant must be timely cut. The remaining shoots and stepchildren for several months form the crown, which prevents fruit ripening.
Grapes withstand, on average, frosts down to -23 degrees. Therefore, the culture is planted in the middle lane of Russia, provided adequate shelter is provided. Berries are able to lie in the refrigerator for a long time, preserving the original properties.
Variety Kesha used for cultivation on an industrial scale. The popularity of grapes is due to the high transportability and good presentation of berries.
Plant cuttings root quickly. With proper care, the vine begins to yield 2 years after planting. Despite the fact that the grapes can withstand the effects of fungal microorganisms, the plant requires regular treatment with Brodsky liquid and fungicides, which will protect the culture from the harmful effects of bacteria and oidium.
Variety Kesha is among the perennial. Subject to the rules of cultivation, the vine gives a harvest of more than 10 years.
Terms of aging varieties
The Kesh grape variety yields a crop 125-135 days after the first flowers appear. Crop begin to collect in the middle or at the end of August. Clusters can hang on the vine until September without losing the presentation and taste.
Vine varieties Kesha recommend growing in black soil, as the plant has high requirements for the composition of the soil. The culture has a long root, which must be considered when choosing a place of cultivation. If the groundwater is close to the ground, it is recommended to dig a hole in another part of the site.
Planting grapes lead to the condition that the ambient temperature exceeds 15 degrees, soil - 10 degrees. For Central Russia, early spring is considered a suitable period for growing seedlings, spring and autumn for the south of the country.
The distance between plants should exceed 1.5 meters. This interval should be considered when determining the locations of growing grapes.
The plant is planted in the soil, mixed with phosphate-potassium fertilizers and humus. At the bottom of the pit, a drainage layer is necessarily formed, which will prevent the stagnation of fluid and the development of diseases of the root system.
After falling asleep with soil, the neck of the seedling should remain above the ground at 5 centimeters. Upon completion of planting, the above-ground part of the cutting is cut into 2 buds. At the same time, it is recommended to install a support that will ensure the formation of a bush of the correct shape. After completing all the manipulations, the seedling needs to be poured over with three buckets of water.
Near the grapes should form a drainage system that will drain the excess moisture.
Care and cultivation
In the first year after planting, the grapes require constant watering and 2-3-fold treatment of the vines with fungicides. Later, it is necessary, during the season, to remove excess shoots, thereby giving the bush the correct shape.
Twice a year, the vine requires abundant watering (13-14 liters of water): the first time - before the buds swell, the second time - after the grapes flowering. For normal growth of a crop, it is enough to apply phosphate-potassium fertilizers once.
During the season, it is necessary to regularly mulch the soil using manure. Dried stems and defective branches should be removed, otherwise the rate of plant development will decrease. Pruning is carried out in early spring or autumn.
All branches, including those that are fixed on the support, before the onset of frost, must be removed and laid to the ground. For reliable fixing it is recommended to use a wire. After that, the vine must be closed with foliage or dry branches, and on top lay plastic wrap.
To speed up the fruiting, a stiff stalk is used, which is aged for 30 seconds in a 1-3% solution of copper sulphate, and then grafted onto the plant.
About diseases and pests
The variety Kesha is exposed to the following pests:
- Mealy dew. This fungus infects the leaves. Mealy dew is characterized by rapid development and manifests itself as a yellowish bloom on greens. To combat this pest used fungicides and solution of ferrous sulfate.
- Gray rot. Infection occurs due to high humidity. Gray rot causes the formation of brown spots on the leaf surface. In case of infection, the affected parts are removed.
- Ticks. They provoke the appearance of brown, light or yellow spots on the surface of the leaves. Tick infection is dangerous for humans.
Kesh grapes are rarely affected by these pests. When signs of infection appear, the plant must be treated immediately.
Talisman: variety description
The Talisman grape variety is a hybrid that is obtained by crossing Delight and Frumoos Albe varieties. This variety belongs to the table, has a great taste characteristics of the grown crop, good yield and resistance to various diseases.
Due to the resistance of this variety to adverse weather conditions, it is possible to grow Talisman grapes in cold climatic regions. This species is zoned for cultivation in the Moscow region, in the Leningrad region and in central Russia.
The clusters of ripe harvest are impressive in size and can reach a weight of 1.2 kilograms. They are of medium density, the shape of the brush is pronounced conical. The talisman is distinguished by large oval grapes weighing up to 16 grams. Grape skin is light and light green in color. The taste of ripe harvest harmonious with pronounced nutmeg notes. The level of sugar accumulation can reach 23%, so the ripened crop is extremely sweet.
Vine Talisman vigorous, having a large number of fruitful shoots. In an adult developed plant, the number of such fruit-bearing shoots can reach 90% of the total number of young growth. This variety is characterized by precociousness, which allows you to get a harvest in the second year after planting seedlings. The growing season in the middle lane does not exceed 135 days. This allows us to attribute the variety to early and mid-season varieties. Typically, the harvest of grapes of this variety begins in the month of September. At the same time, the harvest can be stretched for a month, and the ripened crop sags on a bush without losing its taste characteristics to the very frost.
Advantages and disadvantages of the Talisman variety
If we compare this variety with other popular grape varieties, we can note the following:
- resistance to low temperatures
- not damaged by gray mold, fungal diseases and other infections
- good transportability of the grown crop
- magnificent keeping quality
- excellent taste,
- large grape size and high yield.
Единственный недостаток этой разновидности — наличие на винограде исключительно женских цветков, поэтому необходимо будет позаботиться о полноценном опылении лозы насекомыми, для чего можно в непосредственной близости высадить различные пахучие травы.
Обеспечить перекрестное опыление винограда можно, высадив в непосредственной близости другие разновидности этой ягодной культуры, что и позволит обеспечить качественное опыление и великолепный урожай.
Высаживаем виноград на приусадебном участке
It is recommended to plant seedlings of Talisman grape varieties in well-lit areas. But the darkening of the plant endures with difficulty, it hurts a lot, grows poorly and bears little fruit. Also noticed that the vine does not like drafts and does not tolerate a strong wind. Accordingly, it is necessary to choose the site for planting seedlings at the site, which will be the key to obtaining an excellent harvest.
When choosing a place for planting seedlings, it is necessary to take into account the description of this berry crop and the location of groundwater on the site. The roots of grapes go deep into the ground, so it is necessary to plant this plant on high ground or in areas where it is at least 2.5 meters from the surface to the groundwater.
It is necessary to plant grapes in holes dug in advance with dimensions of 60x60 centimeters. The seedlings themselves should be placed at least 4 meters apart. But with a more dense planting, the grapes do not grow well in the future, there may also be problems with the nutrition of this berry crop, respectively fruiting is deteriorating.
Landing is best done in early spring or autumn. We can recommend that you use fertile soil for planting, which is prepared from:
- garden turf,
- sifted sand.
These components should be mixed in one part of each, and carefully pour the sapling. Consider the location of the root collar, which should be several centimeters above the soil level. After planting, the seedling should be watered abundantly, after which the soil is mulched, and if this work is done in the fall, the seedling is wrapped in roofing material or similar materials and covered with spruce fur trees from above.
Proper care of plantings
Proper care of planting is not difficult. The gardener will need to regularly water the grapes, apply fertilizer, prune the plants in spring, carry out preventive spraying, and in the fall, when preparing for winter, be sure to warm the vine and cover it with fir spruce.
Water the grapes Talisman It is best to twice a month, using warm distilled water. But when watering the plants with cold water from the well, they will be sick for a long time, until the complete destruction of the plantings.
We recommend you to mulch the tree trunk, which will protect the plants from the cold, and moisture will be better preserved in the ground, which improves the growth, fruiting and taste characteristics of the grown crop.
Feed the grape Talisman should be twice a season. In the autumn, it should be used to feed humus, and in the spring to make mineral fertilizers with potassium, phosphates and nitrogen. Proper fertilization makes it possible to guarantee excellent fruiting, while the plants themselves will actively grow and subsequently will easily endure the winter.
When pruning, it is recommended to remove 5-7 eyes, and for old plants it is possible to carry out rejuvenating pruning, then only young growth is left, which soon gains strength and subsequently bears fruit very well. This pruning of grapes is carried out in early spring, immediately after the snow melts or in autumn after harvest and foliage fall.
Grape Talisman relates to heat-loving crops, so the vine suffers a significant cooling from the vine, and in the winter cold, without a proper warming, the bush can quickly die. It is necessary to cover the vine with spruce spruce branches and wrap insulation.
It will also be useful to carry out the corresponding annual spraying of plantings, which will allow to improve the rates of fruiting, and the plants will be protected from insect pests and various diseases. Just remember that such spraying is carried out with purchased insecticides and performed before the start of flowering of the bush.
This variety is resistant to various diseases and insect pests. Problems can only be brought by wasps who love to feast on sweet berries and often enough place their nests in the thickets of grapes. To combat the wasps, it is recommended to regularly inspect the vine for nests, and in the immediate vicinity of the vineyard you can place traps into which sweet water and a toxic substance are poured. This will allow you to solve the problem of insect pests, which, without due attention from the gardener, can seriously damage the crop.
Table Talisman grapes, the description of which is proposed in this article, refers to the middle and early ripening. It is undemanding in the care culture, which will allow even novice gardeners to get a great harvest. Grape care is not difficult, you only need to choose the right place for planting seedlings, and later carry out timely watering, fertilize and trim the shrub. We can also note the magnificent decorativeness of this variety of grapes, which allows it to be used to decorate the backyard territory.
Little about culture
It is quite difficult to say in which country the first vine of the grapes was planted. This happened about 9 thousand years ago in Syria, from where he came to the territory of Egypt and to Asia Minor. In the Crimea, viticulture began to develop about 2 thousand years ago. Peter I played a significant role in the distribution of grapes in Russia.
Interesting! Russian breeders bred more than 1,200 varieties of culture adapted for cultivation in almost all regions of the country.
Grape juice contains sugar, presented in the form of glucose, which is extremely simple and easily absorbed by the body. Grapes are indicated for the treatment of the first stage of tuberculosis, hypotension, anemia and disorders of the human nervous system.
The grapes can be consumed fresh, as well as used for making jams, juice and wine.
Description and characteristics of the grape variety Talisman
The talisman (sometimes called Amulet grapes) refers to table varieties with an average ripening of berries. The ripening period ranges from 125 to 140 days. The fruits are ready to eat at the beginning of autumn. Shrubs begin to bear fruit 2 years after planting.
On the vine flowers are formed only female type. This means that for their pollination it is necessary to have a grape variety in the vineyard where flowers are only of a male type. The Talisman variety is often used to develop new varieties of culture.
Due to the ability to perfectly adapt to new breeding conditions, it is extremely popular in regions with cold climatic conditions.
This variety is popular among winegrowers due to the fact that it is able to tolerate low temperatures and long rains well. This in no way affects the yield. Grape Talisman is quite prolific - up to 2 clusters can form on 1 hrone, and in some case 3.
Important! If the formation of more clusters is observed, they should be removed. Otherwise, the vine will not have enough strength to ensure the full ripening of the berries.
The weight of one brush reaches 1.0 - 1.2 kg. The berries are located on the Hrone with an average density. They have an oblong shape and a light green tint. Fully ripe berries have a nutmeg flavor. They do not crumble from the grona and are stored for a long time.
Despite the fact that the varietal Amulet grapes can withstand temperatures up to 24 degrees, for the winter it should be covered.
Among the main advantages of the variety are the following:
- high yield,
- excellent taste of berries
- early and harmonious harvest,
- good transportability,
- resistance to infection with fungal and viral diseases,
- frost resistance.
If we talk about the shortcomings of the variety, you can call these:
- development on the bushes of flowers of only female type,
- the need for removal of excess inflorescences.
A small list of drawbacks does not affect the popularity of Talisman grapes among growers.
You can propagate grapes Talisman cuttings, branches or seedlings. If seedlings are used for reproduction, the probability of living increases several times compared to other methods.
Planting of this variety of grapes can be performed both in spring and autumn. If the planting is carried out in the spring, then the soil for this must be prepared in the fall. The soil must be carefully dig, remove weeds and plant waste. Not superfluous will be top dressing. For this you can use humus and organic fertilizers.
The place for the vineyard is better to choose the sun, where there are no drafts.
Important! Grapevine will grow poorly and bear fruit on saline or marshy ground.
When buying grapes, it is necessary to pay attention to its root system. It should be green, with no visible external damage. A healthy root is about 10-15 cm long and about 3 mm thick.
Before planting, the seedling needs to disinfect its root. To do this, it is placed for 10 - 15 minutes in a solution prepared from water, clay and hexachlorane. After this time, the roots are well dried and soaked in clean water. Soaking term varies from 2 to 3 days.
To plant a seedling, you need to make a hole, the depth and width of which is 1.0 m. A layer of rubble, 9-14 cm thick, is poured at its bottom. It needs to be tamped well. From the side of the pit, a small diameter plastic pipe is stuck into its bottom. This will ensure good drainage during irrigation. A layer of chernozem is piled onto the rubble layer, the thickness of which ranges from 9 to 14 cm. A ball of rotted manure is laid on top of it, onto which fertilizers such as superphosphate, wood ash or potassium can be sprinkled. And on top of them laid the ball of black soil. After that, lay all the layers again in the same order.
Upon completion of this procedure, all layers must be well tamped. This is necessary in order to further avoid soil subsidence, which can injure the root system.
After that, you can start planting a seedling in a prepared pit. When the seedling is planted, it should be watered well using 2 to 3 buckets of settled warm water.
Caring for an annual sapling consists in timely watering and loosening the land near the bush.
With the onset of spring at an air temperature of 5 degrees Celsius, the winter shelter from the bush can be removed.
Important! In order to avoid the defeat of the vine by spring frosts, it is recommended to water it with the drug Epin dissolved in water. The term of protection lasts no more than 10 days.
With the onset of summer, it is necessary to tie up the vine. If the bush is still young, it is better to use a cloth or a rope for the garter. This will protect the young shoots from possible damage.
Grapevine Garter has such meaning:
- Provides protection against the development of fungal diseases of grapes.
- Improves airing of clusters.
- Positive effect on the quality of the berries.
The second time the vine tied up after it reaches a height of 2.0 - 2.5 m. In this case, you can use the wire.
No less important for obtaining a high yield is the process of forming a bush through pruning. For this, a secateur is used. Trimming is carried out in compliance with such recommendations:
- The cut should be smooth. It runs at an angle of 90 degrees. This will speed up the healing process of the cut.
- The first step is to remove the damaged and diseased shoots and branches.
- The length of the branch to be left must be at least 6 - 11 buds.
- Shoots that have already otplodonosili, you need to remove with great care, without damaging the bark of the branches located near them. Such branches are cut in such a way that a stump of 0.5 - 1.0 cm in length remains.
- Young shoots should be left on the bush, the diameter of which varies from 5 to 10 mm.
In order to minimize the possibility of contracting diseases, a preventive spraying of the vine should be carried out every spring. To do this, you can use drugs such as Ridomil, copper sulfate, Tsineb or Fitosporin.
Secondary spraying is performed no later than 2 - 2.5 weeks before the harvest will be harvested.
For uniform ripening of fruits, you need to ensure the correct mode of watering the bushes. The first watering is carried out immediately after planting the sapling. Water is brought not under the root, but into the watering groove, located at a distance of 30-45 cm from the main stem. Upon completion of the procedure, the groove must be mulched. To do this, you can use sawdust, straw or moss.
In mid-July, watering can be minimized or stopped altogether. Failure to follow this rule can cause the grapes to crack.
Throughout the growing season, the bushes need feeding with the use of preparations containing potassium and phosphorus. Annual seedlings are recommended to be fertilized twice per season: in spring and summer. To do this, you can use nitrophoska or potassium sulfate.
If the vine is already fruiting, it must be fed 3 times:
- in the middle of spring (with ammonium nitrate solution or organic fertilizer),
- during the formation of the ovary of grapes (nitrogen, potassium or phosphorus),
- in the middle of summer (potassium sulphate, superphosphate).
Each bush at the time of winter to cover. Before this, the vine must be removed from the garter, and the shoots should be laid in a trench and covered with earth. Thick stalks are wrapped for the winter. It is recommended to follow this instruction:
- Wrap the stem with a soft cloth.
- Wrap a layer of polyethylene over the fabric in which to make holes. Through them will be the process of ventilation. This will avoid the possibility of rotting of the upper layer of the bark.
- After that, once again wind the layer of fabric.
Important! In order to protect the vine in winter from freezing, you can use the procedure of smoking through the use of sawdust, wood shavings, dry leaves.
Grape varieties Talisman has a high immunity to infection by diseases such as mildew, iodium and gray rot. But despite this, it is necessary to carry out preventive spraying using fungicides in a timely manner.
Growing an unpretentious grape care Talisman is a great opportunity to provide your family with tasty and healthy berries.
Characteristic varieties red Talisman
The Kesh variety served as the basis for the breeding of a new species - red Talisman or Kesha-1. The new hybrid occupies one of the leading places in taste characteristics and yield. Talisman Red has the following features:
- The term of ripening berries varies from 125 to 135 days.
- Bush massive, strong, self-pollinated.
- The density of the clusters is small, the structure is loose, the shape is oval-conical.
- Grapes weight varies from 1.2 to 1.8 kg. With proper care, clusters can be about 2 kg in weight.
- Large berries have a light red tint. They are large. Each berry can weigh from 12 to 17 g. The flesh is dense with a hint of apples.
- High yield shoots.
- It is well transported, keeps a trade dress and fine taste for a long time.
- Berries can remain on the vine for a long time without falling off.
- The red talisman is not susceptible to pests and fungal diseases.
- The variety is frost resistant.
Planting and cultivation of grapes Kesha
Both Kesha and the Red Talisman require that certain planting conditions be followed, which must be followed in order to achieve a full-fledged, healthy fruiting bush.
Land for planting seedlings should be as fertile as possible. It is desirable that it was black soil. It is important to observe the degree of moistening of the substrate. When the soil is too wet, the root system, especially in young plants, will quickly rot. Both varieties are planted on the southern side of the plot so that the vine receives as much sunlight and heat as possible.
The varieties Kesha and Talisman red are perfectly acclimatized both in autumn and in spring planting. The seedling can be purchased, and you can get a grade by stock, which is planted on the shtamb old bush. When spring planting, the threat of frost should be avoided, and the air should warm up to the level of 10 to 15 degrees.
Pits for planting should be at a distance of 1.5 m from each other. The root system of a young plant is too fragile, so when planting grapes, you must be extremely careful. The neck of the root of the plant, as well as the graft should be above ground level and not be filled. The upper bulk layer of the substrate must be mixed with fertilizers. The first time after planting a young plant needs abundant watering. So the rate of water consumption per sapling is from 20 to 25 liters. It is desirable to fix the seedlings immediately after planting on a reliable support.
Vaccination Keshi on old shtamb
In order to get on your site a new grape variety Kesha does not need to remove old plants. To do this, it will be enough to cut Keshi, which were covered with a stiff layer, to instill in the vine an old bush. Escape before vaccination should be cut diagonally, soak in a solution of humate.
On an old plant, the graft site must be thoroughly cleaned. Only after cleaning shtamb split with an ax or knife. On one shtamb several new cuttings can be grafted at once. Escape should be inserted into the split place and close with a cloth.
Care for grapes Kesha
Качество урожая, а также его количество напрямую зависят от регулярности и обильности полива. Весной растение пробуждается от зимы, в нем начинают активно запускаться вегетативные процессы, поэтому, начиная с весенних месяцев, виноград предъявляет повышенную потребность в поливе. It persists throughout the period when the bush has completely bloomed. This rule of care applies to all types of grapes. It is important to place drainage systems near the vineyard, which will ensure the outflow of excess moisture, which is detrimental to the root system.
The soil under the grapes must be regularly mulched. This procedure will protect it from freezing and help maintain the required level of moisture. Rotted manure is suitable for mulching. It will be enough to three-centimeter mulch layer.
It is important to provide the plant with a strong, reliable support, since as the growth grows, the green mass and clusters that appear will make it quite heavy.
Grapes Kesha needs regular fertilizing. Throughout the season, it is fertilized with organic and phosphorus-potassium substances.
How to cut grapes Kesha?
Pruning grapes helps to properly distribute the load of clusters on the bush, and also forms a beautiful crown of the plant. If dried stalks, damaged branches were found on the bush, then you need to get rid of them as soon as possible so that they do not interfere with the normal development of healthy parts. Pruned grapes in autumn, when all the vegetative processes in it are completed and he is preparing for the winter dormancy period. Spring is also suitable for pruning, but only in the early months, when the buds on the plant had not yet begun their awakening. Compliance with the principles of pruning will ensure a bountiful harvest and plant health in general. It will be right to leave on one branch for one vine. This is especially relevant during the arid hot summer.
In late autumn, young plants shelter from the approaching frosts. Straw, hay, which is attached to the branches with a heavy load, will be suitable as a covering material.
The above basic principles of care for the grape variety Kesh will help to achieve a rich harvest every year, to keep the plant strong and healthy.