Today you will not surprise anyone with a good harvest of tomatoes and cucumbers collected in your garden. Gardeners living in Siberia grow even melon crops on their summer cottages. Thanks to the breeders, new varieties of watermelons were bred that are suitable for growing not only in greenhouses, but also in open ground. But to get a good harvest, you should know all the nuances of planting and caring for a sweet, delicious berry.
To grow watermelons on the garden in Siberia, it is necessary to use special varieties. Experienced gardeners and gardeners in the open field choose the following varieties of berries:
- Ultra early - the hybrid grade intended for cultivation in cold conditions differs in unpretentiousness, resistance to an antraktoz and mealy dew, a long period of storage. Its fruits have a dark green color and thin strips. The flesh is sweet, with a raspberry flavor.
- Siberian giant - A plant for growing in northern latitudes. Fruits weighing up to seven kilograms possess elastic, sweet pulp. The variety is frost resistant and long stored.
- Siberian lights - A variety with dark-colored fruits weighing about four kilograms and red flesh, in which there are almost no seeds. The plant is resistant to drought, low light, low temperatures and fusarium. Fruits tolerate transportation.
- SRD-2 Sverkhranny Dyutina - The fruits of this variety reach a weight of five kilograms and ripen sixty days after sowing the seeds. On their peel are bright green and dark stripes, and the scarlet color of the pulp contains a large amount of sugar. The variety is resistant to anthracosis, apha and powdery mildew.
- Charleston Gray - variety with elongated light green fruits and excellent taste of the pulp. With good care berry can grow up to ten pounds.
- Photon - variety of medium early ripening. From sowing seeds to gathering fruit, it takes from eighty to one hundred days. The plant is resistant to many diseases and undemanding to the ground. Fruits weighing from three to six kilograms differ juicy and tender pulp with a small amount of seeds. On their peel there are light green and bright green stripes.
- Ultra early - early ripening variety with a growing season of about eighty days. In areas with a short and not very warm summer it is recommended to grow it in greenhouses. Dark green spherical fruits weighing from four to six kilograms possess scarlet tender, sugar pulp.
- Chill - A variety popular among Siberian gardeners that can withstand fairly low temperatures. The vegetation period of a plant is from eighty five to one hundred days. Round fruits weighing up to seven kilograms are distinguished by malachite strips on the peel and red juicy flesh.
- Eureka F 1 - the plant intended for a cold climate is resistant to fractures and fusarium. With proper cultivation and care by the end of the growing season, sweet fruits weighing up to fourteen kilograms mature on it.
In areas with a warm climate, seed sowing is carried out immediately in open ground. In Siberia, melons and gourds are grown in seedlings. Plants are planted in the open ground a month after planting the seeds, so they should be sown around late April - early May. Before planting, seeds are treated:
- A few days before sowing, planting material is placed in water with a temperature of +55 degrees and heated for thirty minutes.
- Heated seeds are placed in wet sand, the temperature of which should be +25 degrees.
- You must wait until the seeds sprout.
- When the seeds hatch, and small shoots appear on them, you can begin the sowing procedure.
Gentle roots of watermelon transplant poorly transferred, so the seedlings are grown in separate pots. Capacity should be a volume of at least 0.3 liters. The soil is prepared from equal parts of sand, turf and peat. Every five liters of the finished substrate is mixed with fertilizers:
- double superphosphate - 100 grams,
- dolomite flour - 50 grams,
- ammonium nitrate - 50 grams
- potassium sulphate - 50 grams.
In each container is placed on two or three seeds. From above they are sprinkled with sand, covered with polyethylene or cellophane and placed in a warm place with an air temperature of +30 degrees.
After germination, the shelter is removed and the seedlings are transferred to a room with a temperature ranging from +16 to +18 degrees. Plants need a good twelve-hour lighting, so if necessary, they provide additional light. Seedlings need to be watered regularly, but so that the soil is not wet all the time. Otherwise, seedlings can become ill with a “black leg” and die. When three true leaves appear on the seedlings, they are fed with liquid mullein or mineral fertilizers.
Seedlings need to be taught in advance to the open ground, for which ten or fifteen days before planting on the beds, they begin to carry it out to fresh air. On the first day, seedlings are placed on the site or open balcony for one hour. Every day the hardening time increases. Before planting, seedlings should be outdoors for a day.
Planting watermelons in the open ground
To grow watermelons in Siberia, seedlings are planted in open ground, after the soil warms up, frost will pass and warm weather will be established. For the cultivation of melon culture is selected well lit, heated and protected from the cold wind plot. It is best to make a bed for watermelons on the southeast or south side of the site.
You can plant sweet berry after legumes, onions, cabbage, winter wheat, perennial herbs. Only in a few years it will be possible to grow watermelons in the beds where pumpkin crops, peppers, eggplants, tomatoes and potatoes grew.
Gourds prefer sandy or sandy soils. A bed for their cultivation is prepared in the autumn. When digging for each square meter of the plot is recommended to make:
- rotted manure - 4 or 5 kg,
- ammonium sulfate - 30 grams,
- potassium salt - 20 grams
- superphosphate - 40 grams.
If the land on the site is heavy, it is diluted with sand, which will need about two buckets per square meter. Watermelons do not feed with fresh manure.
Plants in the garden should be spacious, so the holes for them are made at a distance of one and a half meters from each other. Between the rows, the distance is maintained at two meters. To plant seedlings should be in a staggered manner.
Bushes are placed in the hole and bury up to the cotyledons. Soil tamped and sprinkled with sand. Saplings watered with warm water and pritenyuyut. As long as the plants do not take root in the open field, they should not be exposed to direct sunlight. To lash did not interfere with each other, they need to straighten and send in different directions.
In Siberia, watermelons are recommended to grow in warm beds. To do this, dig a trench, the bottom of which is covered with dry branches, shavings or sawdust. After that, the foliage, straw, compost or manure are poured into the trench. This layer should be forty centimeters thick. On top of it is poured a mixture of one bucket of sand, six buckets of humus and a small amount of ash. When organic matter starts to rot, it will release heat and heat the top layer of soil. Fallen leaves, straw or compost are recommended to be poured with EM preparations.
Nuances and features of growing watermelons in Siberia
Despite the very problematic weather conditions in Siberia, Siberians are still engaged in gardening and horticulture. They grow a lot of crops, because they always want to enjoy a fresh and natural product. The main focus of the inhabitants of Siberia is on the cultivation of cereal crops. This is due to the need for keeping livestock. Most often, residents of this region grow potatoes, less often flax and maize, and even less often watermelons.
The best varieties of watermelons for Siberia
Consider the most popular and responsive varieties of watermelons for planting and cultivation in the harsh Siberian soils:
- Ultra Early - grows about 2.5 months. Weight ranges from 4 to 6 kg. Sweet and juicy pulp. It has dark green stripes. To grow a melon crop is only in a protected ground.
- Chill is a popular medium early variety. From the appearance of the first shoots to ripe fruits, it takes about 3 months. It has long and strong rods, up to 5 m long. The chill is popular because of its good disease resistance and is suitable for planting both in open ground and in greenhouses. Fruits grow weighing 5-6 kg and have a slightly elongated, oval shape. The color of the pulp is red-pink, it is juicy and soft, granular in structure.
- Photon is a fairly early variety. Very tasty and resistant to anthracnose. Externally it has light green stripes. It grows from 2.5 to 3.5 months. The average fruit weight is 5 kg. Inside is bright red with black seeds.
- Kai F1 is a very popular variety among residents of cold regions of Russia. Fully matures in 70 days. The pulp is crimson, sweet and tender. Seeds inside a little thin crust.
- Sugar Baby - less popular, but a large variety. Fruits grow weighing up to 13 kg. Crust dark green color. With one square meter you can collect up to 5 kg of watermelon.
- Light - they are undemanding in care and have been popular for a long time. Watermelon fruits weigh only about 2 kg, but the variety gives a rich harvest. The light is one of the most famous watermelons in Siberia.
- Siberian lights - ripening period 70-85 days. These small plants have a thin crust and bright, juicy flesh. This variety can be grown in a seedless manner. It is also suitable for greenhouses and open beds.
- Eureka F1 is a very unpretentious plant, for the first time it was grown by breeders from the USA and Holland. The variety tolerates temperature fluctuations, but it is recommended to grow it in a greenhouse. Also appreciated due to disease resistance. Fruits grow large, about 12-15 kg. Full ripening time is about 2 months.
- Crimson Sweet - rides 2.5 months later. Fruits grow heavy, on 11-13 kg. It is grown in open ground, but with a temporary shelter. The pulp is crimson, the skin is thin.
Siberians love to grow watermelons seedling method. In this case, the period of fruit ripening is significantly reduced. Already at the end of June, watermelons are starting to fill up, and by August they can already be plucked. When grown in a greenhouse or on open land, plant seedlings preferably under a film cover in late May.
When to sow watermelon seedlings in Siberia
The most suitable age for planting seedlings is 30 days. The warm season in Siberia begins with the beginning of summer; seedlings can be planted in the greenhouse already in mid-May. On this date, it is desirable to focus when creating seedlings. To grow watermelon in the open field, it is necessary to do the sowing already at the end of April, for the greenhouse - after April 20. Before the term sow is not worth it.
When to plant watermelon seedlings in Siberia
Plant the plant in the ground preferably after frost, and better in warm weather, this is about mid-June. In insulators, it is desirable to make small cruciform holes and dig holes in the hills in order to fit the earth from the cup. When growing watermelon in Siberia, the ground should be well moistened and reach the seedlings very carefully, preserving the integrity of the soil.
First, the seeds should be calibrated, and then scarified, heated and disinfected. To enhance the seedlings and reduce the time, it is desirable to germinate the seeds. After disinfection, they are wrapped in moist gauze and placed on the windowsill on the sunny side or on the battery, where the temperature does not exceed 35 degrees. Be sure to make sure that the cloth is not dry, the seeds should always be moist.
Sowing on seedlings
Already processed watermelon seeds should be sown in a container with fertile soil: it can be humus, peat, or ordinary soil from a vegetable garden (2: 1: 1: 1). At 10 kg of land you need to add 0.5 liters of ash.
Recommended fertilizers: potassium or ammonium nitrate (20 g per 10 kg of the mixture and 20 g of superphosphate).
Seeds need to be deepened by 3 cm by 2 for each container, then water and cover with a film before the formation of the first shoots. Also do not forget that the seedlings require heat. The place should be sunny with a temperature of 20 degrees.
Watermelon seeds can be grown in peat cups. Then they are planted in the ground along with seedlings. In this case, young and weak roots are very difficult to damage.
Preparing for planting in open ground
When growing seedlings in a spacious pot with soil rich in humus, you should not feed the plant. Bakhchu needs to be prepared in advance: fill it with fertilizers and loosen the structure. Before disembarking, it is advisable to mark the landing sites with wooden pegs. The day before the landing, it is desirable to water the seedlings well.
- young seedlings need about 15 hours of light per day, at nightfall, you can turn on artificial lighting,
- you need to constantly moisturize the ground, excess water must necessarily drain into the drainage,
- as soon as the first leaves appear on the seedlings, it is desirable to fertilize the soil with mineral additives,
- hardening seeds need for 2 weeks before planting, for this they should be carried out on the street every day for 2-3 hours.
How to plant watermelons in Siberia
The method of growing and planting in open ground is not much different from planting in the greenhouse. The only difference is the displacement of planting dates for a whole month; if a watermelon is planted in a greenhouse in April, watermelons are planted on open melons only in late May or even early June.
Recommendations for planting seedlings on garden bahche:
- Prepare a site for future melon desirable in the fall. To do this, you need to fertilize and dig the ground.
- In spring, the land will need to be dug again 2 weeks before planting. The soil for planting is desirable to choose a light, loose and sandy.
- The wells should be watered regularly. You can add a little bit of growth stimulant, so that the seedlings are more accustomed to new conditions.
- Carefully remove the seedlings from the previous container, after which they are placed in the ripening hole. Above the ground, it is recommended to mulch with peat or humus.
Siberian watermelons do not require too painful care for their cultivation in the ground, all the procedures are fairly standard: watering, feeding, removing weeds.
For this, arcs, film or pieces of slate will be useful: you can create insulation from anything. The main thing that it acted.
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It is necessary to water the crop 4-5 times per season, spending approximately 50 liters of water per 1 m 2 of land on it. Watering is very important for a good harvest, especially during the flowering and ripening of fruits. But with an excessive amount of moisture watermelon can get sick and even fade. After the process of watering the land must be mulched. Due to this, it will remain moist and friable for as long as possible.
To the fruits ripen faster and have a rich taste, you need to go nip. To do this, follow these rules:
- Pinch the top of the bush to a height of 5-6 leaves. Due to this, the growth of lateral shoots, on which watermelons ripen, is stimulated.
- Then pinch the growth points of the shoots, which already have fruit. Thus, on one bush 3 watermelons will be formed.
How to grow watermelons in Siberia in a greenhouse
To get a good harvest, you need to try to grow quality seedlings. In early June, seedlings are planted in a greenhouse without heating (film on the roof, walls of glass).
If before the watermelon on the plot grew cabbage - perfect. In the greenhouse should be ordinary soil from the garden. Under the digging need to make 1 bucket of humus and 0.5 liters of ash. For growing in a greenhouse watermelon in Siberia, it should be tied to the twine, already attached to the bars on the roof. To tie the net under the watermelon, every 50 cm you need to make loops on the string. As they grow, they begin to twist around the twine. The full period before maturation comes in about 45 days. Watermelons reach a mass of up to 7 kg, depending on the cultivated variety. From 1 square meter you can collect about 3 watermelons with a total weight of up to 20 kg.
Diseases and pests
The most dangerous pests for watermelons in Siberia are considered fungal and bacterial diseases. This powdery mildew, anthracnose, bacteriosis. They all develop in wet weather and in a humid environment.
The best method to prevent watermelons from being infected with diseases and pests is the timely use of systemic drugs such as Oxyf.
But warmth, sun and light soil are what watermelons really require. If good conditions are maintained, no disease will prevent them from ripening.
Harvesting is necessary after the final ripening of the fruit, because they do not ripen separately from the food source.
The main signs of ripeness of watermelon:
- dried fruit stem,
- ringing sound when tapping.
If you follow all the tips and rules of planting and caring for this crop, then ripe fruits will appear in mid-August.
The best varieties for growing watermelons in Siberia
Siberia is characterized by short and cold summer, the climatic conditions in these regions, for growing melon crops in the garden beds, are not suitable. Grow watermelons will only in greenhouse conditions. Также важно выбрать сорт, который подходит для возделывания в неблагоприятном климате.
Сорта для посадки в Сибири:
- Огонек – плоды этого сорта вырастают небольшими, до 2 килограмм. Сорт не требовательный в уходе и переносит холодное лето. The light is considered one of the most common varieties in Siberia.
- For landing in Siberia suitable variety Ultraranny. The growing season of this variety is 80 days. Watermelons have juicy and sugar flesh. Fruits do not grow large, there are few lateral lashes on the bush. Suitable for growing in glazed greenhouses.
- Super Durni - variety with large watermelons, whose weight is from 4 to 6 kilograms. The plant belongs to the early, the growing season is only 60 days. The peel is thin, painted in green color, with light-green stripes. Shelf life after collection is not more than a month.
Before planting the seeds of the crop, carefully read the packaging. It should indicate that the culture is suitable for cultivation in adverse climatic zones.
How to grow watermelons in the greenhouse
The secrets of growing berries in a greenhouse in Siberia need to be known to every summer resident who wants to grow large and sweet fruits. It is preferable to build a greenhouse of polycarbonate.
It should be located in sunny areas, protected from strong winds. Berry does not tolerate strong wind.
You need to grow only those varieties that tolerate cooling. Ordinary varieties of watermelons will not be able to yield in such conditions. The optimal height of the greenhouse is 1.7 meters. Scourge of watermelons often hover on the trellis up.
It is necessary to plant watermelon seeds in open ground in the last days of May, when the ground has warmed up more than 14 degrees. Before planting the seeds of the soil abundantly watered.
Then in the soil you need to make holes 50 centimeters wide. The depth of the hole - 10 centimeters. The distance between the holes is about 1 meter. If watermelons are planted in peat cups, they are planted with them. The edges of the cups for 1-2 centimeters should look out of the ground. The first few weeks, seedlings do not touch. It is necessary to cover the bushes with polyethylene and leave. Just make sure that they do not start to fade.
Care and watering
Do watermelons necessarily form a bush. As the bush grows, the side lashes must be pinched. Do it often. You need to leave 3-4 strong and powerful whips, the rest are cut. The main thing - do not touch the central escape.
For plants you need to constantly care for. It is important to pay attention to watering.
During active growth bushes require a lot of fluid. In the greenhouse put automatic spray and every day include it for 3-4 hours.
Choosing a resistant fast-falling grade
First of all, preference should be given to the early ripening varieties of watermelon. Such a feature as early ripening will allow the crop to grow before the onset of cold weather.
The following varieties are suitable for cultivation in Siberia:
- Chill is a medium early berry variety that is suitable for cultivation in cold regions. The vegetation period is 80-100 days. Fruits reach a weight of up to 4 kilograms, the shape is slightly elongated, oval. Bushes are characterized by long lashes growing to 5 meters.
- Siberian fires are another mid-early variety, the fruits of which begin to ripen 80-100 days after planting seeds in open ground. Differs in immunity to fusarium wilt. Fruits are medium-sized, weight ranges from 1.5 to 2.5 kilograms. The peel is thin, dark green. The flesh is sweet and juicy.
- Planting in open ground can be a variety of Raspberry Sweet. Unpretentious variety that gives the crop when grown in adverse climates. Fruits are small, up to 1.5 kilograms. The flesh is sweet, sugary.
Despite the fact that the varieties are suitable for growing in the open field, it is preferable to plant watermelons in the greenhouse.
Planting seedlings in open ground
Planting material is planted in open ground in late May-early June. The main thing is that the soil warms to the mark of more than 15 degrees. If you plant seeds in a cold ground, they will not grow. Place for planting seedlings should be located on a sunny plot. Bushes need a lot of space, so you need to take on the beds areas of length and width of at least 3 meters.
Before planting, you need to dig the soil and make 4-5 kilograms of rotted manure. Fresh manure is not desirable. In addition, you should make a complex fertilizer, which consists of minerals. To plant watermelon seedlings in open ground should be exactly the same as in the greenhouse. There are no differences in the method of landing.
Watering and feeding
Particular attention is paid to the formation of a watermelon bush. To maximize yield, you need to regularly cut the side shoots. Leave only strong and powerful scourge. The main thing - do not touch the central lash.
In the period of growth of seedlings bushes require a lot of fluid. Watermelons prefer sprinkling. This irrigation is carried out using a hose with a nozzle.
Watering beds should be in the evening, after sunset. Water the beds every other day. When the inflorescences begin to bloom, watering stops. It is important to ensure that the soil is not over-humidified.
Top dressings are important for higher yields. Nitrogen is used as a mineral fertilizer. Such fertilizers are needed to boost growth. Urea is sometimes used instead of nitrogen. You also need to make in the soil phosphorus and potassium. Among organic supplements, manure, yeast-based infusions, wood ash and bird droppings are used.
Cultivation and care
When the plants take root and begin to grow, weak specimens are removed, and the rest pinch over the third - fifth sheet after the fruit. In this case, the whips will start to grow well. On each bush it is necessary to leave no more than five ovaries, otherwise the fruit will not have time to ripen.
Insects do not always cope with pollination, so sometimes you have to perform this procedure yourself. To do this, you need to pick a male flower and hold it over the petals of a female flower. You can find out a female flower by a small fruit ball located inside the bud. The pollination procedure should be carried out for several days in a row.
Watering watermelons should be regular and abundant. These plants require a lot of moisture. If there is no rain, then watering is done once a week. Under each bush pours three buckets of water. In the middle of summer, even in Siberia, there are usually hot days. At this time, it is necessary to water the plants twice a week. The soil should be wet throughout the garden, and not just near the bushes. After the appearance of the fruit, watering decreases, and two weeks before harvest, the plants stop watering completely.
The next day after watering or rain, the soil in the garden is free from weeds and loosened to a depth of no more than six centimeters. When the bushes grow and because of their leaves almost no soil can be seen, loosening and weeding can be avoided.
To grow a good harvest, watermelons during the season must be fed. The first time fertilizers are applied two weeks after planting on the beds. Each bush is watered with two liters of a solution consisting of a bucket of water and twenty grams of ammonium nitrate. The second dressing is carried out during budding. For each plant, you will need six grams of superphosphate and four grams of ammonium nitrate and calcium chloride. These fertilizers can simply be scattered around the bush and watering the soil.
Growing watermelon seedlings
In a short summer, planting grains immediately to the garden is useless: you will not wait for the harvest. It is necessary to grow strong seedlings and after spring frosts to plant it in open ground. If you do everything right, the bushes will quickly take root, and until the autumn cold will delight you with juicy sweet berries. You need to do the sowing at the end of April, then by the warm days the seedlings will have time to develop, but they will not outgrow.
The accustoming of plants to life in cold climates should be started with seeds. Hold them for half an hour in a weak solution of potassium permanganate, then process with growth stimulants. The fetus realized that it was time to wake up, now is the time to cultivate resistance in it. During the week, during the daytime, place the planting material on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator, and leave it in a warm room for the night. Then help the sprouts to break through to the light: split off a piece of strong peel. Plant the grain in cups, and after a few days you will see strong shoots.
Watermelons do not tolerate root damage. Grow seedlings in peat pots, rising-bottom glasses or disposable containers that can be cut and discarded.
Do not allow plants to stretch, a few days after the seedlings appear from the ground, place the containers in a well-lit, cool place with a temperature of about + 17⁰. It is desirable to keep the roots warm, for example, to put the pot on the windowsill, under which is a hot battery. In this mode, the underground part is well formed and will be able to give a lot of nutrients to the developing aboveground part. With the onset of warm days, the room temperature will rise, and the seedlings will grow rapidly.
With a strong soil moisture roots can rot. Make sure that the drain holes in the cups are well water missed. Water only moderately when the topsoil is dry. Feed the seedlings with complex fertilizer every 2 weeks. After feeding, be sure to water the seedlings.
Planting seedlings on the garden
The bed for watermelons is desirable to prepare in advance. Choose an elevated site so that the groundwater does not cause root rot. On risky areas, drainage is best. The best soil for melon crops - sandy loam, good predecessors - potatoes, onions and cabbage. Dig a 1.5m wide strip, add complex fertilizer and compost to the ground. Bushes in open ground should be spacious, plant them at a distance of 1.5 m from each other. Error inexperienced gardeners - planting seedlings in the hole. In rainy summer, the water in the grooves stagnates and the plants get sick. Make for each seedling a small mound on which it will be comfortable and dry.
Now you need to warm the ground that has cooled down over the winter. Cover the entire surface with black covering material and the soil warms up quickly. The edges should be securely fastened with boards or prikopte ground so that the wind does not tear the fabric. Material all summer will warm the root system of melon crops. The advantage of this method is that it replaces mulching and facilitates the care of plants:
- moisture evaporates less from the surface of the earth,
- weeds will not break through dense fabric
- there is no need to loosen the bed.
Planted plants in the ground can be when the threat of frost will pass, in Siberia, this time comes in mid-June. Cut through the cruciform holes in the insulant and dig holes in the hills to fit a clod of earth from the cup. Well moisten the ground in containers and remove the seedlings carefully, trying to preserve the integrity of the coma of the soil. Dig pits, pour and compact the ground, flatten and fix the cut pieces of covering material. Spread the whip so that they stretch in different directions and do not interfere with other bushes.
For cultivation of melon crops in open ground in Siberia, you can arrange warm beds. Dig a trench, put sawdust, shavings or dry branches in the bottom. Then put a layer of manure, compost, straw or fallen leaves with a thickness of 40 cm and pour EM on it. Top with a layer of a mixture of 6 buckets of humus, 1 bucket of sand and a small amount of ash. When organic matter decays, heat is released, and therefore the soil will be well heated.
If several copies of the frost remained completely green, do not worry, but pick and pickle them. Such preparations in the winter will be worthy of competition and sauerkraut, and pickled cucumbers.
Growing melons in the open field
Insects do not always do a good job of pollinating watermelons; you have to take this job for yourself. Look carefully at each flower. In female specimens, a small ball is visible at the base — the future fruit. Pluck the male flower and guide them through all the female pistils. From the first time pollination may not occur, repeat this work for several days. A month after the appearance of the ovaries, you will be able to taste the first ripe fruits.
In the northern climate in the open ground a lot of fruits to the bush can not grow. Leave no more than 5 developing ovaries on each plant, tear off the rest. Above the emerging fruit leave an escape with 6 leaves, pinch off the rest. Now all the energy of the bush will go to the development of the fruit, and ripening will accelerate.
Watermelon requires a lot of moisture, water as soon as the ground at a depth of 3 cm will be dry. If you have not covered the soil with warming material, loosen and weed the bed very carefully. Watermelon roots are located close to the surface of the earth, they are easy to damage. Mulching will help to relieve the gardener from tedious work.
On the damp ground watermelon can rot. Place a piece of slate under each fruit so that it does not lie on the ground. If you want to grow melons vertically on the trellis, prepare special nets or bags. When the fetus is heavy enough, place it in a container and tie it to a strong support, then it will not come off the whip.
It is possible to grow watermelon in the open ground in the Urals, in Siberia and other frosty regions. You need to choose the right variety and take into account the peculiarities of the southern plant when growing. When planting seeds immediately in the ground, the fruits do not have time to develop and ripen to frost, plant only through seedlings. Perfectly insulate the roots of plants covering material or the creation of warm beds.
Diseases of watermelons mainly arise from dampness. Since it takes little time from landing in the ground to harvesting, the use of chemical therapeutic drugs is undesirable. The correct approach is to create conditions for plants in which neither fungi nor infections will exist. Plant bushes on a sunny ventilated place on the mounds or high beds. With heat and no stagnant moisture plants will be healthy and strong.
When cultivating melon crops in the north, do not expect huge harvests. The more ovaries on the bush, the slower the fruits develop. Leave no more than 5 pollinated feminine flowers, shorten the scourge so that they do not pull nutrients from the plant, and you will taste juicy watermelons. A cold climate should not be an obstacle to growing the rich gifts of the sunny south.
Features of growing melons
Summer in the Siberian region is short, and about 100 days of warm weather (up to 25-28 degrees of heat) are needed for ripening of melon crops. Varieties must be with early ripening, resist in cold nights and rainy days.
How to grow delicious watermelons in Siberia:
- choose the right time for landing. The temperature for seed germination should not be below 15 degrees. For flowering and ovaries - at least 18-22 heat, at night - up to 15 *. For the development of rhizomes, the ambient temperature should be 24-28 degrees,
- to ensure that the daylight hours are about 12-14 hours, it is important that there are enough sunny days.
To create such conditions in the Siberian areas, melons and watermelons need to be planted through seedlings.
Growing melons in Siberia
When to plant watermelons and melons in seedlings in Siberia? Seeds must be sown in mid-April. Usually after 15-20 numbers, until May 10-15.
Seed material for 20 minutes left in a weak manganese solution. Rinse, transfer to water with a growth stimulator for 2 days. Then hold hardening: put the seeds for a few hours in the fridge, repeat for 7-8 days.
How to plant watermelons for seedlings in Siberia
- Sow the treated seeds in a container with a fertile mixture: land from a vegetable garden, sand, humus and peat (2: 1: 1: 1). At 10 kg of earth mixture add 0.5 liters of ash can.
- Fertilize ammonium nitrate, potassium (all at 20 g per 10 kg of the mixture) and 20 g of superphosphate. Deepen the seed by 3 cm, 2 pieces in each container, pour and cover with foil until germs appear. Saplings need warmth (+ 17 ... 20 *) and a bright place, southern sill will do.
For the cultivation of melon seedlings using peat cups. They are planted in the ground with seedlings. In this case, the roots of young shoots are not damaged. Peat pots are suitable for planting all melon crops.
- she needs about 14 hours of daylight, if necessary, include additional lamps,
- moistening of the soil substrate, excess water should drain into the drainage holes,
- when leaves appear on the seedlings, add mineral additives to the soil,
- harden the seedlings 2 weeks before planting on the beds, take out for 3 hours a day outside.
How to grow watermelon Twinkle and other varieties in Siberia in the open field
When the temperature is set to 15 degrees Celsius, the seedlings can be planted in the garden. Favorable days for planting watermelons - at the end of May, the first days of June.
Preparing a place in the garden for planting seedlings:
- for melons suitable sandy soil with an alkaline or neutral environment. In autumn it is necessary to scatter up to 6 kg of humus per meter on the beds, dig up the ground. The soil should be loose, without stagnation of water, choose a sunny plot of the garden,
- before planting seedlings beds pour plenty of warm water
- in the heavy soil add sand, peat,
- make on 1 square. meter: 40 g of superphosphate, 20 g of potassium, 25 g of ammonium sulfate,
- strip on the bed to do a width of 3 meters,
- dig up only the central part of the vegetable garden up to 1.5 m wide
Окрепшие сеянцы с 5-6 листиками вместе с землей, в которой они росли, высажать в приготовленные ямки. Глубина высадки соответствует длине корней сеянцев, углубляют их до нижних листиков. Схема посадки 60 см на 80 см, между рядками 1 м расстояние. Землю уплотнить, полить, сверху присыпать песком.
Important! До укоренения саженцев в знойные дни их нужно накрыть газетами или поставить навес.
Овощеводы практикуют посев семян на грядки без пленочного покрытия. Do it in June, when the earth warms up. In one hole you need to sow at least 8-10 seeds, there is no guarantee that everyone will sprout, therefore they are insured. With a plentiful shoot of sprouts, the beds are thinned.
When to plant watermelons in the open ground with seeds according to the lunar calendar? In May, from 4 to 9 numbers, 17-23 numbers, as well as 27, 28. In June, 15-19 days of the month, and 23, 24. It is better not to plant seedlings on 7-8, 12-13, and 20-21 May. In June: 3-5, 8-9, 16-17, 30 numbers.
Growing in a greenhouse
In June, after the 10th day, seedlings can be planted in the greenhouse. The greenhouse can be made of film, it is transparent, well passes the sun's rays. Plants do not like the wind, greenhouse protects them.
Watermelon in the greenhouse
Important! It is necessary to air the greenhouse regularly.
To grow melons and watermelons suitable greenhouse for tomatoes, two crops can be planted nearby. On 1 square plant 4 plants. Leave a gap of 70 cm between the pits.
Scourge to tie up to the string, it is attached to the bars on the roof. With the growth of the stems twine twine. For pollination, you need to attract bees in a greenhouse or self pollinate with a brush. When the ovary becomes the size of an apple, it is placed in a net, and 2-3 watermelons are left on one whip. From the time of the formation of the fetus to its full maturation takes 40-45 days.
Care for melons in the conditions of the Siberian climate
In the last days of June, the plants begin to bloom. For the formation of the ovary is not always enough pollination by bees, it can be done independently. Male flower is plucked, touched female inflorescence. You need to repeat several times until the berry begins to grow.
Note! It is necessary to get rid of weak shoots, leave one large central stem.
Formed ovaries leave 5-6 pieces, the rest are removed. There are about 8 leaves on one bush. The first berries appear in 25-30 days after the formation of the ovary.
Important! In the Siberian region in August frosts are possible in order to preserve the harvest, the beds are covered with non-woven fabric.
Water the bushes plentifully. In the heat, watering is needed every three days. The rhizome grows heavily, should be watered the entire gourd area. During the formation of berries, watering is stopped. In the rainy season, fruits can rot, they need to cover the film. Two weeks before the ripening of the berries, watering stops.
Weeding must be done before the arbuzis are formed. Then weeds are not removed, the weed protects the berries from sunlight.
It is necessary to feed the bushes 15 days after planting chicken manure (25 g of manure per bucket of water). Calcium chloride - 20 g, 25 g of superphosphate is added there. Mineral fertilizers are needed during the formation of ovaries. One bush accounts for 5 g of ammonium nitrate, potassium chloride, and superphosphate. The whole mixture should be spread around the bushes, then pour the earth.
Interesting! Seeds of 3-5 years of age are dominated by female flowers, the harvest is guaranteed.
- In cold regions, the roots of the plant should be in warm ground, for this purpose it is better to cover the area with black film. At the site of the pits to make slits, plant seedlings in the holes. On sunny days, the material will heat up and give off heat to the plant and the roots.
- Stems, so as not to interfere with each other, you need to send in different directions.
- In the period of ripening berries to turn, they will ripen evenly.
- Under the berries should lay a board, hay, so that they do not rot in rainy weather.
- To make large watermelons, you need to leave one powerful stem with 2-3 ovaries. A larger number of ovaries will produce small fruits.
- At the root of the neck poured three handfuls of sand.
- Next to the melon crops should not be trees, they can shade the plants.
- In the northern areas, groundwater is located close to the surface. Long roots, going far into the depths, can rot. The task is to make the rhizome grow in breadth.
- The bushes are watered not under the root, but along the furrows that are made between the rows. Abundant watering is needed only in the heat.
- After sowing the seeds, cover the hole in the open soil with a cut-off liter plastic bottle. Pour sand around, watering through the bottleneck. Put on top of a 5 liter bottle with a cropped bottom. Remove the plastic to be June 15-20.
- For artificial "aging" of the seeds they are heated before sowing: pour hot water (50-60 degrees), drain after 30 minutes. This method softens the durable shell of the seeds.
Growing watermelons in Siberia is troublesome, but the result is worth it. If you do everything right, delicious berries can be regaled in late August. When the tails begin to dry, they collect ripe, tasty watermelons.
Varieties of watermelons for cultivation in Siberia
Choosing the right variety is the main component of success. Ripening of melon crops requires a lot of heat and light, therefore early ripening varieties are valued in the northern regions. In a short period of time, they are able not only to increase the green mass, but also to give a good harvest.
Among the gardeners, early-ripening varieties that are less demanding of growing conditions are popular:
• A wisp is a proven variety with small dark green fruits. The mass of watermelons does not exceed 2 kg, but the fruit has a rich, moderately sweet taste.
• Crimson Sweet - large-fruited variety, the mass of watermelons reaches 5 kg, the pulp is juicy and tasty. Subject to certain rules, watermelons are well kept for several months.
• Siberian - a hybrid bred specifically for growing in harsh climates, resistant to temperature extremes. Fruits are juicy, reach a weight of about 5 kg.
• Ultra Early - a medium-bush bush, fruits are small, sweet. The growing season is 80 days.
This is not all varieties that deserve attention. The main thing when choosing a variety is its growing season. Choose varieties with a short period, in which no more than 60-100 days pass from germination to harvesting. As a rule, these varieties are well-zoned, resistant to disease, temperature extremes and have a long shelf life.
How to grow watermelons in Siberia
In the conditions of a short summer, melon crops are planted only in seedlings. That is why they have time to give a good harvest.
To start growing seedlings in mid-April. First prepare the seeds, for this they are soaked in a solution of potassium permanganate for 20-30 minutes, after which the water is changed. Subsequent soaking is carried out with the addition of a growth stimulator and fertilizers. So leave the seeds for 1 day in a warm room, and then proceed to the hardening stage. For 7 days, planting material is kept in the cold, the lower shelf of the refrigerator, basement, unheated veranda will do.
Pre-planting allows you to get a friendly shoots, stimulates the growth of sprouts, improves plant immunity. It is noticed that in the future they give a high yield in comparison with other bushes.
The technology of growing watermelons in harsh regions is simple, not much different from ordinary crops, but has its own secrets. So gardeners prefer to grow watermelons in the open field and greenhouses. What way to choose, solve only to the gardener, each of them has its own characteristics.
Planting and cultivation of watermelons in open ground in Siberia
Ready seedlings transferred to a permanent place in the first half of June, when the threat of night frost passed. Before that, it must be hardened to prepare for further cultivation.
For planting choose the warmest place. High beds are prepared in advance to prevent water stagnation at the roots, otherwise problems cannot be avoided. You can cover the bed with black covering material so that it warms up faster, then the seedlings will quickly adapt to a new place.
Seedlings are planted by the method of transshipment, in order to preserve as much as possible an earthy ball, the sticks are straightened in different directions or sent to supports. Flowering begins 2 weeks after planting. Poll melon in the northern region will have on their own. With the growth of the ovaries, the harvest is rationed, from 2 to 5 fruits are left on one plant. The first watermelons ripen in a month, after the appearance of the ovaries.
Tip! To get a good harvest, the watermelons stepchild, remove strongly overgrown leaves.
Gourd culture does not require special care, but at the time of ovary pouring it is very demanding for irrigation, it should be regular. But during the period of fruit ripening, on the contrary, the irrigation regime is reduced. A ripeness of watermelon can be judged by its tip, it must be dry.
How to grow watermelons in Siberia: planting in the greenhouse
If you expect a cold summer, it is better to insure and plant watermelons in the greenhouse. This method is more reliable, albeit costly.
For the formation of ovaries and their growth it is necessary to maintain the temperature at 20-24 during the day and 18 at night. It is important in the period of ripening fruits to provide them enough sunlight. The greenhouse should be made of modern materials, transmit ultraviolet rays.
Grow watermelons flooring or on supports. Bushes are planted at a distance of 70-100 cm from each other. At first pritenyut paper or covering material. Seedlings are planted in late May, when the earth is warm enough. In modern greenhouses with the use of special equipment, the timing may vary.
Caring for watermelons as well as in the open field. Fruits are harvested after 35-45 days from the moment of their formation.
Problems in growing watermelons in Siberia
The real problem when growing watermelons in a harsh climate are fungal and bacterial diseases. They develop in wet and cold weather.
Such diseases can reduce the yield:
To avoid trouble, plants should be regularly sprayed with chemicals for prevention. The most popular among gardeners is “Oxy”, it has shown good results in harsh conditions. If a lesion does occur, it is necessary to remove all the diseased parts of the plant and immediately treat them with copper.
Watch the irrigation regime, do not pereuvlazhnyat soil, so as not to provoke root rot. The root neck when planting should remain on the soil surface. Periodically disinfect the soil with a solution of potassium permanganate and sprinkle with ashes. The disease subsides as soon as warm weather sets in, there will not be sharp fluctuations between day and night temperatures.
In addition to diseases, watermelons suffer from gourd aphids. The pest infects the lower side of the leaves, while they curl, the yield drops, the plant growth stops, and it soon dies. Aphids reproduce in wet weather.
To avoid damage, remove the weeds from the beds in time, observe the agrotechnology of cultivation, dust the bushes with ashes, tobacco dust or spray with garlic infusion. If these methods did not help, then the use of chemicals can not be avoided. Of these, the most popular is Inta-Vir. Spraying is repeated after 10-14 days.
Harvesting berries begins when they reach biological maturity. According to the rules of agricultural engineering, ripe watermelons should have a thick peel and a dried fruit stem. To keep the harvest longer, it must be kept in a dark cool room. But more than a month watermelons are not stored even under all conditions. Especially early ripe varieties. On the floor you need to lay a thin layer of straw, and then put the watermelons. Cracked fruits should be eaten immediately. For a long time they will not be stored.
Some summer residents store watermelons in trenches, but this method is suitable for those who live in the southern regions. In Siberia, night frosts come early, and can spoil the harvest.
What difficulties can you encounter
Since Siberia is considered an unfavorable region for the cultivation of melons, summer residents, who decided to plant watermelons, face a number of difficulties. Some of them are impossible to solve.
First of all, it is important to understand that there is a short summer in Siberia. And hot sunny days are always not enough for the successful cultivation of melons. In such conditions, only early varieties are grown, which are not very sweet. Watermelon sizes will be small. Large fruits in this climate will not work in any case. Late varieties that are considered the sweetest, it is also impossible to cultivate in Siberia.
Successfully cultivate berries only in greenhouse conditions. In open ground it is likely that the plants will be weak. And the ovaries will form a little. Growing watermelons in Siberia, although real, is problematic.