The strict outlines of conifers are always relevant in any landscape design. In the summer, they are perfectly combined with the lawn and other flowering crops, shading them favorably, and in the winter they save the plot of land with their bright branching from dullness and lifelessness. In addition, the air is infinitely endowed with clean, enriched with healing essential oils. The unjustified superstitions about banning the cultivation of such crops in private farms have sunk into oblivion. Modern gardeners no longer think their garden without evergreen decorations. And to choose the needle beauty is what. Look at which coniferous tree is right for you.
Tall slender conifers of fir trees in the garden very effective in single and composite plantings. Some craftsmen construct unique hedges from them. Today's spruce is no longer just a tall culture that is familiar to us from childhood, with a cone-shaped narrow crown and dry lower branches. Regularly the range of prickly beauties is renewed by decorative varieties. For landings in home plots the following are in demand:
- "Acrocona" (at a mature age it reaches a height of 3 m and a width of 4 m),
- "Inversa" (spruce trees of this variety up to 7 m high and up to 2 m wide),
- "Maxwellii" (is a compact tree with a height and width of up to 2 m.),
- "Nidiformis" (such a spruce not more than a meter high and about 1.5 m wide),
- "Ohlendorfii" (the trunk of an adult tree is drawn up to 6 m, crown with a diameter of up to 3 m),
- "Glauca" (spruce with blue needles, this beautiful garden decoration is often used in compositions with deciduous trees).
Fir is a magnificent tree from the Pine family (Pinaceae). Among other conifers, it is distinguished by growing up purple cones and flat needles. The needles are shiny and soft, they are dark green above and each one is marked with a white stripe below. Young saplings grow very long, and from the age of 10, development accelerates and lasts until the roots die off. Despite the prevalence of fir, many find it difficult to answer, it is a coniferous or deciduous tree. Among gardeners, varieties of decorative balsamic fir are in demand:
- "Columnaris" (columnar),
- "Prostrate" (branches grow horizontally, their length is up to 2.5 m),
- "Nana" (tree up to 50 cm high and 1 m wide, crown rounded flat)
- "Argenta" (silver needles, each needle has a white tip),
- "Glauca" (blue needles with a waxy coating),
- "Variegata" (different yellow spot on the needles).
In the list of conifers, juniper is in the lead by bactericidal properties. The plant appeared more than 50 million years ago. Today, scientists classify it to the Cypress family and distinguish about 70 species, of which only nine are cultivated in Ukraine.
Among the juniper variety there are 30-meter giants and 15-centimeter stanits. Each of them has its own characteristics, not only in the form of crowns and hairpins, but also in the requirements for conditions and care. In the garden, such a culture will look and rockeries, and in the rock garden, and as a fence. Most often in the gardens there are common juniper varieties:
- "Gold Cone" (height reaches 4 m, and the width is 1 m, the branches form a dense narrowly conical shape),
- "Hibernika" (trunk of a mature tree up to 3.5 m high, crown narrow, columnar, 1 m in diameter),
- "Green Carpet" (dwarf variety up to 50 cm tall and 1.5 m in volume, ground cover crown),
- "Suecica" (shrub pulled up to 4 m and expands in breadth to 1 m, kolonovidnaya crown).
Do you know what conifers are more often than others in the English aristocratic gardens? Of course, cedars. They peculiarly frame the entire landscape gardening landscape. Such trees have become an integral part of the decoration of the main entrance or the extensive lawn in front of the house. Cedars at the same time create an atmosphere of home comfort and solemnity. In addition, dwarf forms are widely used for bonsai.
In their natural form, these trees majestically rise in the mountains at an altitude of up to 3 thousand meters above sea level and seem to be real giants. Wild breeds grow to a height of 50 m. And although humanity has known about this plant for more than 250 years, scientists still cannot come to a single number of cedar species.
Some argue that all mature trees are identical and suggest the existence of only the Lebanese breed, others additionally distinguish the Himalayan, Atlas, and short-coniferous species. In the database of the international project "Catalog of Life", which is engaged in the inventory of all known species of flora and fauna on the planet, information is given on the above listed species, with the exception of the short conifer.
Taking into account the experience of experts - participants in the project, who managed to collect information about 85% of all life on earth, we will adhere to their classification of all coniferous trees.
Cedar has many decorative forms, differing in the length of needles, color of needles, sizes:
- "Glauca" (with blue needles),
- "Vreviramulosa" (with rare long skeletal branches),
- "Stricta" (columnar crown is formed by thick short branches, slightly raised up),
- "Pendula" (branches easily fall down),
- "Tortuosa" (different winding main branches),
- "Nana" (dwarf variety),
- "Nana Pyramidata" (undersized tree with branches aspiring upwards).
These evergreens from the Cypress genus in their native environment grow to a height of 70 meters and very much resemble cypress trees. Through the efforts of breeders, the culture of such conifers is actively replenished with the names of new varieties that will satisfy every taste.
In landscape design, low-growing varieties are often used to create a hedge, medium trees are planted alone or in compositions, dwarfs are planted in rock gardens and mixborders. The plant fits easily into all design ensembles garden design, differs fluffy and soft needles. Hitting the needles, you will feel a pleasant touch, not a bristly tingling.
Dwarf varieties that do not exceed 360 cm in height enjoy great success with gardeners. Such popularity is due to the versatility and decorativeness of coniferous bushes. Today the most popular varieties are:
- "Ericoides" (brown cypress shaped up to 1.5 m high kvopodnoy form),
- "Nana Gracilis" (grows up to half a meter by the age of 10, crown is round or conical),
- "Ellwoodii" (a tree with a kolonovidnoy crown, transformed with age into a pyramid, by ten years grows to 1.5 m),
- "Minima Aurea" (the plant belongs to the dwarf, its crown resembles a rounded pyramid),
- "Compacta" (different dense branches, neat crown up to 1 m),
In their natural environment, these plants are evergreen trees or shrubs with a crown in the shape of a cone or a pyramid, a slender trunk, covered with thick bark, pressed against the branches of leaves and ripening cones in the second year. Scientists know about 25 species of cypress trees, about 10 of which are used in gardening. And each of them has its own requirements and whims for growing conditions and care. Common cypress varieties:
- "Benthamii" (graceful crown, blue-green needles)
- "Lindleyi" (distinguished by bright green needles and large cones),
- "Tristis" (crown colonic, branches grow down),
- "Aschersoniana" (short form),
- "Сompacta" (cypress develops in the form of a shrub, has a rounded crown and bluish needles)
- "Сonica" (skittle-shaped crown and blue needles with a smoky shade, does not tolerate frost),
- "Fastigiata" (chunky shape with smoky-blue needles),
- "Glauca" (crown more prone to kolonovidnoy, silver needles, not cold-resistant variety).
Focusing on the name, many do not consider this tree coniferous and deeply mistaken. In fact, larch belongs to the family of Sosnovykh and is the most common breed of coniferous crops. Outwardly, this tall slender tree looks like a Christmas tree, but every autumn it throws off pine needles.
The trunk of larch in favorable conditions washes to reach a diameter of 1 m and 50 m in height. The bark is thick, covered with deep furrows of brown color. The branches grow chaotically upward under the slope, forming an auric cone-shaped crown. Needles 4 cm long, soft, flattened, bright green. Botanists distinguish 14 species of larch. The following varieties are popular in gardening:
- "Viminalis" (weeping),
- "Corley" (cushion),
- "Repens" (with creeping branches),
- "Cervicornis" (twisted branches),
- "Kornik" (spherical, used as a graft on a stem),
- "Blue Dwarf" (characterized by short stature and bluish needles),
- "Diana" (slowly drawn up to 2 m, the crown resembles a ball, the branches are slightly spiral, the needles are smoky green),
- "Stiff Weeper" (distinguished by long shoots spreading on the soil, needles with a bluish tint, often grafted onto a stem),
- "Wolterdinger" (a dense crown-like dome develops slowly).
There are about 115 species of pine trees in the world (Pinus), but seventeen are common in Ukraine, and only eleven of them are cultivated. They differ from other coniferous pines with fragrant needles located on branches in bunches of 2 to 5 pieces each. Depending on their number, the pine species is determined.
For garden collections breeders have deduced a lot of miniature forms with slow growth. In large-scale forest-park zones, giant natural pine species are more common. In small adjoining areas and in the backyard, low-growing varieties of pine trees will look spectacular. Such evergreen bushes can be defined in a rock garden, on a lawn or in a mixborder. The popular varieties of mountain pine, which is found in the wild on the western European slopes and reaches a height of 1.5 to 12 m:
- "Gnom" (characterized by a height and a crown diameter of 2 m, needles up to 4 cm long),
- "Columnaris" (shrub up to 2.5 m tall and up to 3 m wide, the needles are long and dense)
- "Mops" (trunk height up to 1.5 m, branches form a spherical shape),
- "Mini Mops" (shrub reaches up to 60 cm, grows up to 1 m in diameter, cushion crown),
- "Globosa Viridis" (height and width of a pine bush about 1 m, ovoid shape, needles up to 10 cm long).
The ornamental ornamental cultivars are compact in virtually every botanical garden and park. RThe asthenia from the family of Cypress trees is cultivated in Ukraine exclusively as an evergreen decoration. Gardeners in a review note the resistance of the culture to rotting, severe frosts and drought.
Thuja has a powerful surface rhizome, branches growing upwards, forming the shape of a column or a pyramid, scaly dark leaves, small cones ripening in the first year. Also weeping, creeping and dwarf varieties. Of these, lead species of western thuja (occidentalis), which is characterized by a fast-growing, powerful trunk reaching a height of 7 m, and branching up to 2 m in diameter, lead. The needles of such a shrub are always green, regardless of the season. The 'Sloth of Gold' variety is distinguished by a rich orange shade of needles; in the winter, branches get a copper tide. Such specimens are best cultivated in shady areas with neutral soil.
The dense crown in the form of a narrow 7-meter column is created by the branches of the middle-grade variety 'Columna'. It can be seen from a distance on a dark green needles with a brilliant tint that does not change neither in winter nor in summer. This tree is frost resistant, not demanding to care. For smaller gardens, compact 'Holmstrup' varieties are suitable, which grow to a height of 3 meters and branch out to a volume of up to 1 m, forming a lush conical shape of a saturated green color.
The variety has high frost resistance, tolerates pruning, is used mainly to create hedges. Gardeners consider Smaragd to be one of the best varieties of cone crown. An adult tree reaches 4 m in height and 1.5 m in width. In young specimens, branches form a narrow cone, and as it grows old it expands. Needles juicy, green with a glossy sheen. In the care requires a moist soil.
It is a very decorative evergreen tree of kolonovidnogo shape, in adulthood, reaching 20 meters in height. Shoots grow intensively, annually adding up to 1 m. The branches are covered with scaly leaves, developing in one plane. The fruits are small. For many, such a marvelous name is a discovery; therefore, in Ukraine, it is possible to meet the cupress coparis except in the areas of advanced collectors and ardent landscapers. In native Britain, where the hybrid is cultivated, it is used to create a hedge, especially since the culture easily adapts after pruning. In Ukraine, the most common varieties kupressoparisa Leyland:
- "Castlewellan Gold". It is characterized by resistance to winds and frosts, not demanding to care. It has a bright golden crown. Young branches of purple shade.
- "Robinson’s Gold". Dense green branches form a pin-like wide crown of a bronze-yellow color.
- "Leithon Green". It is a tree with a yellowish-green openwork crown. The branches are located asymmetrically, the trunk is clearly visible.
- "Green Spire". Hybrid with bright yellowish leaves and slightly cocorate form.
- "Haggerston Gray". Differs in loose gray-green branches.
In Japan, this majestic coniferous giant is considered a national tree. It can be found not only in wild forests and on mountain slopes, but also in the design of park alleys. Evergreen cryptomeria grows by 150 years to a height of 60 m, in favorable conditions, its trunk does not hug - in the girth it can reach 2 m.
Branches with a light or dark shade of needles create a narrow dense crown. In some trees for the winter, the needles are poured in a reddish or yellowish tone. To the touch they are not prickly, in appearance - short, awl-shaped. Cones are round, small, brown, ripen throughout the year. Botanists classify cryptomeria to the Cypress family and single out into a single species. The Eastern origin of the culture explains its parallel names.
In the people, the tree is more often called the “Japanese cedar”, which causes resentment among scientists, since it has nothing in common with cryptomeria. The adverbs “Shan” (Chinese) and “Sugi” (Japanese) are also used. Contemplating a majestic tree in the wild, it is difficult to even imagine that it can be grown in a household farm or in an apartment. But breeders took care of this by creating a variety of decorative dwarf forms, reaching a height of no more than 2 m. The varieties of these conifers are represented by the varieties: 'Bandai-sugi', 'Elegans compacta', 'Araucarioides', 'Vilmoriniana', 'Dacrydioides' and globular 'Compress', 'Globosa'.
These are evergreen trees or shrubs belonging to the Tisov family, with a purple-smoky bark of smooth or lamellar structure and soft long needles. Scientists distinguish 8 species of the genus, which are common in Europe, North America, Africa and East Asia. In Ukraine, only berry yew (European) grows in its natural environment.
The species is a large tree up to 20 m tall with reddish brown bark, lanceolate leaves with a narrowed base on short legs. On top of the needle glossy dark green, and the bottom is light matte. In the care, these representatives of coniferous trees fill up the list of undemanding crops. Yew needles are dangerous for animals, can cause severe poisoning and even death. Garden varieties of yew amaze with a wide range. Due to the good adaptability of the plant to pruning it is used to create borders and various green shapes. Each type has its own characteristics. The most common varieties:
- "Aurea". Dwarfish yew up to 1 m, with dense small needles of yellow color.
- "Pyramidalis". The undersized pyramidal shape becomes loose with age. The needles are longer at the base of the branches and shorter at the top. Bush height 1 m, width 1.5 m.
- "Capitata". The crown in the form of a pin grows rapidly, has one or more trunks.
- "Columnaris". The crown is wide columnar. With age, the top becomes wider than the base.
- "Densa". Slowly growing, female plant, crown wide, flattened.
- "Expansa". Crown in the form of a vase, tubeless, with an open center.
- "Farmen". Short yew with a wide crown and dark needles.
When choosing evergreen scenery for your garden or house plot, you need to know not only what coniferous trees and bushes are, the names of their species and varieties, but it is also important to understand the growth features, final sizes, crown shape, development rates, and care. Otherwise, instead of a luxurious decoration in the garden, you can get a highly branched monster that will create a shadow for all living things around.
Spruce - the favorite forever
Ate from the Pine Family. They love a temperate climate, grow in height to 35 centimeters. Their leaves are sharp green needles, look like a spiral. Kept on the tree for many years.
There are cones on the tree that grow after ten years of spruce. They ate a lot of different species with different shapes, different heights, etc.
They are loved for their smell, decoration. Here are the types that most often grow in Russia:
Дерево крупного размера, значительной высотой. Нижние ветки висят вниз припущенно, а верхние ветви расположены вверх, как бы тянущиеся к солнцу. Шишечки фиолетового окраса. Loves wet soil.
- Canadian Spruce (white, gray)
Thick barrel, crowns in the shape of a cone. The needles are very long, the bumps are the size of an egg. It grows in the forests of America. Unpretentious spruce, even gets used to drought and grows quietly.
The color has a yellow-green, massive spruce, small cones, red. Fruits ripen late, by the end of spring. Often used as a decorative fir.
35 meters high. Thickness - meter, can be divided into several trunks. The bark is thick, young gray, older brown. The needles are sharp, needles, beautiful blue.
Common view. It is usually planted near the fence as sun protection in order to create a shade at the dacha for recreation or some plants. The needles are long, large, thick, shiny and have a dark green color. It grows to 500 years. It is known about her that at the beginning of ripening grows little by little, then very quickly.
Rare, growing in Serbia. Small, has a dwarf form. The needles are small, have a color from dark blue to light blue mixed with green. Favors any soil, climate and conditions.
- Siberian spruce
The spruce itself is large, its needles are small and very sharp, the bumps are also small. It mainly grows in Europe, Siberia. She loves wet soil, so it is less common than others ate.
Symbol of Alaska. Large massive spruce, mostly used as a decorative. Loves a humid cool climate.
Height up to seven meters, width up to two.
The small spruce is almost a meter tall, the breadth is one and a half meters.
It has blue needles, is used as a decorative in landscape design.
Pine family, powerful tree. Form in the form of a cone. In the form of an oval or cylinder - cones. In youth, the tree does not like sunlight. Dislikes dirty, dusty places.
The plant is considered powerful and powerful; its species was found in 1835 in Georgia. Otherwise called Nordman Fir, in honor of the man who found her look. 50 meters high. Crown in the shape of a pyramid.
There is an opinion that when the Trojan horse was built, the bark of this fir was used. Therefore, it has such a name. It is used for Christmas and decorated in Europe.
She lives about 700 years old. She has a juicy green color and glitters.
Differs unusual and grace, grows mainly in North America. Branches and needles in the form of a skeleton, sharp, prickly. Easy carries the wind. Loves almost any soil, can transfer any conditions. It grows long to 350 years, unpretentious. Calmly going through a transplant.
- Subalpine fir
Slender fir, low, has the shape of a column. It has a silver blue tint. It has a strong powerful smell of cones. Does not like moisture, quietly grows mainly in the shadow areas. Loves rich soil, grows poorly in an urban environment.
Slender, low, pointed up fir. The color of the young bark is gray; the older, the darker. Does not like to grow in the city due to abundant air pollution, but it is cold-resistant.
The needles are unusual blue-gray, white tips. In the spring luminous shoots ripen. This unusual phenomenon occurs within a month, looks great in the garden.
These plants have stunning beautiful views. Widely used by the British in gardens and parks. At the same time they enrich and make the landscape so cozy and pleasant.
Bonsai are made from dwarf forms of this plant. These are all trees grown by humans.
These wild grow up to 3 thousand meters in height, above the clouds.
Those nuts that we buy in the store and eat (cedar) - in fact, they do not grow on cedar, this is the fruit of cedar pine. The real fruits of cedar can not be eaten.
Types of cedars:
- Nana (dwarf),
- Nana Pyramidata.
Cone or pyramidal evergreens. Foliage closely pressed to the bark.
Cones ripen on the 2nd year of plant growth. It is believed that there are about 25 species of cypress, but only species are used as decorative 10.
Here are the most frequent species that use everything in landscape design:
- Tristis with growing branches down,
- Compact. Circular shape, blue needles,
- Konica. The form in the form of pins, needles of ashen shade, not frost-resistant,
- Glauka. Crown in the form of a column
- Fastigiata. Mole hue is ashen blue.
It has a total of about 12 species, but only 11 are particularly common. The breed is distinguished by the number of needles on the branches. By the way, pines differ in the aromatic smell of needles.
It is undesirable to plant in the open field - dry up. Planting pines is best from July to September.
There are several types of pines, some are large, grow in parks, for example, by themselves and adorn their size and power, and specially grown dwarfs decorate homestead plots.
Mountain pine is especially widespread, it grows in western Europe up to 12 meters high:
- Dwarf. Height - 2 meters, needles - 4 meters,
- Kolumnaris - bush with dense needles,
- Pug - the spherical shape of the branches,
- Mini Pug,
- Globosa Viridis - ovoid shape, long needles.
Spruce: description with photo
Ate - tall slender conifers, which will look very effective both alone and in compositions. Professionals are able to build whole plants coniferous hedges. At present, spruce is for everyone not only a tall, large culture that has delighted us since childhood. In winter, the spruce planted in the yard you can dress up Christmas toys. Such a lively beauty will certainly please not only the child, but even any adult. Periodically, the assortment of these coniferous trees is renewed by new decorative species. Most often for planting at their summer cottage or backyard, the following varieties are used:
- Acrocone - the height of an adult tree can reach 3 meters, and width - 4 meters,
- Inverse - the height of this type reaches 7 meters, and width - 2 meters,
- Maxwell is such a compact tree in height and width reaches 2 meters,
- Nidiformis - this species of spruce reaches a height of not more than 1 meter, and the width of a tree can grow to 1.5 meters
- Olendorfi - the trunk of this type of spruce grows to 6 meters, and the diameter of the crown reaches 3 meters,
- Glauka - this species has spruce bluish needles, so it is often used to decorate the garden in compositions with other deciduous trees.
Fir: description with photo
Fir is a magnificent plant belonging to the pine family. In Latin, is called Pinaceae. If you compare fir with other conifers, it has some differences - purple cones growing up and flat needles. The needles of the plant are soft and shiny. On top of the needles are dark green in color, and below each needle is marked with a white stripe.
Immediately it should be noted that young seedlings grow for a very long time. Growth begins to accelerate only after 10 years and continues until the root system dies. Despite the fact that fir is a very common tree, many still cannot answer the question whether it is a coniferous or deciduous plant.
The names of the most popular species of fir among gardeners are:
- Columnaris - columnar view
- Prostrate - the branches of the tree grow horizontally, the length of which can reach 2.5 meters,
- Nana - conifer grows up to 50 meters in height and up to 1 meter in width. The crown of the tree has a rounded flat shape,
- Argenta - is a silver needle. The needles of the plant have white tips,
- Glauka - blue needles with a slight waxy coating,
- Varigata - the plant is characterized by the presence of yellow spot on the needles.
Cedar: description with photo
Cedar - a conifer, which can often be found in the aristocratic gardens of England. These conifers are able to decorate the landscape landscape in a peculiar way. Often cedar species are used to decorate the main entrances. Dwarf cedar species can be used for bonsai.
Pine nutsthat many love, have nothing to do with cones growing on cedar. The seeds of the cedar cones are not edible. Edible nuts can be found in pine cones, which grow in Siberian forests.
Main decorative breeds of cedar:
- Glauka - a tree with blue needles,
- Strict - the plant has a columnar crown with thick and short branches that are slightly raised upwards
- Pendula - cedar branches fall down,
- Nana - refers to the dwarf variety.
Cypress: description with photo
In their natural habitat, these evergreens are trees or shrubs that have a cone-shaped crown or pyramid-shaped crown. The entire trunk of the plant is slim and covered with thick bark. Foliage tightly pressed to the branches. For the second year on the cypress can be bumps. Every kind of cypress has their requirements for care and cultivation.
The names of the most common types of cypress:
- Bentami - a tree with an elegant crown and gray-green needles,
- Lindley - the main difference is in the presence of bright green needles and large cones,
- Tristis - a type of cypress with a kolonovidnoy crown. Tree branches grow down
- Compact - the plant grows in the form of a shrub and has a round crown and coarse needles,
- Konika - this type is characterized by a pin-like crown and blue needles with a smoky hue. It is worth considering that this species does not tolerate frost,
- Glauka - the shape of the crown is more inclined towards the columnar. Needles silver color. This variety is able to safely tolerate frost.
Thuja: description with photo
These columnar evergreen shrubs can now be found practically in all botanical gardens. Thuja belongs to the cypress family. Shrubs very resistant to decay, severe frosts and drought.
U tui powerful surface root systemgrowing up branches that form the shape of a column or pyramid. Also on the shrub there are small bumps that mature in the first year of life.
All the most popular types of thuja shrubs:
- Clos of Gold - different needles rich orange hue. In winter, the branches get a copper tide,
- Columna is a shrub with dark green needles, there is a brilliant ebb, which does not disappear neither in winter nor in summer,
- Holmstrap - this type is suitable for a small garden, as the height of the plant does not exceed 3 meters. The crown of the shrub has a conical shape of a bright green color.
In conclusion, it is worth noting that when choosing an evergreen tree or shrub for your summer cottage, you need to know not only popular species and varieties, but also to understand all the features of growth, development rates, as well as to know the rules of care and maintenance of conifers.
Basic requirements for unpretentious conifers
- They must spend the winter without shelter,
- They should not freeze in winter,
- They should not burn in the spring sun,
- They should not get wet,
- They should not dry out
- They should grow well on all soils (the exception is marshy).
One of the most unpretentious conifers - juniper
The greatest number of non-capricious forms, tested by time and not by one summer resident, is among junipers. Junipers grow well on fairly loose, moisture-absorbing, but not heavy soils, both in the sun and in partial shade, some tolerate strong shading. With an excess of moisture in the first place suffer low creeping forms, so they are better planted in rockeries and on the slopes.
Junipers in the rock garden
Particularly spectacular compositions on the site are obtained in combination with ferns.
Junipers and ferns
They are harmonious in high flower beds as ampelous plants.
Junipers in a high flower garden
Pines are light-requiring, grow well in open solar masses, put up with penumbra, are drought-resistant, develop well on poor soils, sands, but do not tolerate stagnant overwetting.
Unpretentious Pine Beauties
In herbal compositions, pine trees are harmonious with many ground-cover plants that love the sun: stone-cutters, obrietami, borage plants, with red-leaved barberries produce spectacular contrasting compositions.
Unpretentious in the first place the shape of mountain pine (Pinus mugo). We already spoke about two of them (‘Gnom’ and ‘Mops’) in the article about dwarf conifers, and here are two other non-capricious beauties.
8. Mountain pine (Pinus mugo) ‘Winter Gold’
Pinus mugo Winter Gold. Photo from forumogrodniczeoaza.pl
This golden pine with a hemispherical, squat, unevenly developed crown shape on the sides is very much in line with its name - “winter gold”. Its needles are light green in summer, golden yellow in winter. After 10 years, reaches a height of about 0.5 m, in diameter - up to 1 m.
9. Mountain pine (Pinus mugo) ‘Ophir’
Pinus mugo Ophir. Photos from www.iris.md
This is another winter golden beauty (summer green needles) from mountain pines. The surprisingly correct, round shape of the crown becomes somewhat sprawling and unequal with age. At the age of 10 years reaches a height of 0.5 m and a diameter of 1 m.
Pine saplings from various online stores are also presented in our catalog.
10. Common Spruce (Picea abies) ‘Barryi’
Picea abies Barryi. Photo from forumogrodnicze.info
Strong, slowly growing dwarf form. At the age of 10 years reaches a height of 2 m. Young plants have a rounded crown, which is lost with age. The needles are shiny, dark green, the young shoots are orange-brown.
11. Common Spruce (Picea abies) ‘Inversa’
Picea abies Inversa
Inverted weeping form with a very narrow uneven crown due to the shoots falling almost vertically downwards. The lower branches lie beautifully on the ground. The height of an adult plant is 6-8 m, width is about 2-2.5 m. The needles are thick, dark green, shiny. It is appreciated by lovers of coniferous plants due to the pronounced individuality.
12. Common Spruce (Picea abies) ‘Nidiformis’
Picea abies Nidiformis
A unique nesting dwarf form with a dense cushion crown. Since the main trunk is absent, the shoots from the center diverge "fan". It grows slowly: at the age of 10 years, reaches a height of 0.4-0.5 m, width - 1 m. The needles are short. Very effective in small groups, rockeries.
13. Spruce Prickly (Picea pungens) ‘Glauca Globosa’
Picea pungens Glauca Globosa. Photo site pmsad-ekb.ru
Slow-growing semi-dwarf. At the age of 30 years reaches a height of 3 m. Crohn is round, dense only to old age. The needles are silver-blue, dense, prickly, short shoots. Resistant to smoke and soot.
Choose spruce seedlings in our catalog, compiled from the proposals of various online stores.
Types of conifers
Evergreen monoecious and wind-pollinated plant. His Latin name (lat. Pícea) Spruce owes a large resin content in the wood. Widespread use in industry due to the softness of the wood and the absence of the core.
Spruce - perhaps the most beloved and widespread coniferous tree on the territory of our country. These beautiful slender trees with a pyramidal crown occupy one of the first places in the coniferous kingdom and comprise almost 50 species of plants in their genus.
The largest number of spruce species grows in western and central China and in the northern hemisphere. 8 species of spruce are well known in Russia.
Spruce is considered quite shade-tolerant plant, however, still prefers good lighting. Its root system is superficial, i.e. close to the ground. Therefore, the ground at the roots do not dig. Spruce is demanding on soil fertility, loves light loamy and sandy loamy soils.
Types of spruce trees successfully used in landscaping the site:
Serbian spruce. Sometimes it reaches 40 meters. Fast growing tree. Due to the special color of the needles - the top - a brilliant dark green, and the bottom - with noticeable white stripes - it seems that the tree is bluish-green. Brown-purple cones give the plant a special charm and elegance.
Serbian spruce looks great, both in single and group planting. A great example is the magnificent alleys in the parks.
There are dwarf varieties with a height of not more than 2 meters.
Siberian spruce (Picea obovata). On the territory of our country grows in Western and Eastern Siberia, the Far East and the Urals.
Coniferous tree up to 30 m. Crohn is a wide, wide-conical, with a pointed apex. The bark is fissured, gray. Cones ovate-cylindrical, brown. It has several subtypes, differing in color of needles - from pure green to silver and even golden.
European spruce, or ordinary (Picea abies). The maximum height of a coniferous tree is 50 m. It can live up to 300 years. This is a slender tree with a thick pyramidal crown. Norway spruce is considered the most common tree in Europe. The width of the trunk of an old tree can reach 1 m. Mature cones of the common spruce - oblong-cylindrical shape. They ripen in autumn in October, and their seeds begin to fall from January to April. European spruce is considered the fastest growing. So, for the year it can grow by 50 cm.
Thanks to the selection work today, several very decorative varieties of this species have been bred. Among them are ate weeping, compact, pin-shaped. All of them are very popular in landscape gardening and are widely used in park compositions and as a hedge.
Spruce, like any other coniferous plant, becomes especially beautiful with the arrival of winter. Any shade of needles effectively emphasizes the snow cover, and the garden looks elegant and noble.
In addition to the above species, spruce trees are popular with gardeners; spruce is prickly, oriental, black, Canadian, and Ayan.
The genus of pine consists of more than 100 items. These conifers are distributed throughout almost the entire northern hemisphere. Также, сосна прекрасно растет в составе лесных массивов в Азии и Северной Америке. Искусственно насаженные плантации сосен хорошо себя чувствуют в Южном полушарии нашей планеты.It is much more difficult this conifer tree to take root in the conditions of the city.
Pine tolerates frost and drought. But the lack of light pine is not very much. This conifer plant gives a good annual growth. Thick pine crown is very decorative, and therefore pine is successfully used in gardening parks and gardens in a single planting, and in the group. This conifer prefers sandy, calcareous and stony soils. Although there are several types of pine that prefer fertile soil - it is a Weymouth pine, Wallich, cedar and resinous.
Some properties of pine are simply amazing. For example, the peculiarity of its bark delights when the crust at the bottom is much thicker than that at the top. It makes you think about the wisdom of nature. After all, this property protects the tree from summer overheating and possible bottom fire.
Another feature is how the tree prepares for the winter period in advance. After all, the evaporation of moisture in frost can destroy the plant. Therefore, as soon as the cold approaches, the pine needles are covered with a thin layer of wax, and the stomata close. Those. pine stops breathing!
Pine ordinary. It is considered to be a symbol of the Russian forest. The tree reaches a height of 35-40 meters, and therefore is deservedly called the tree of the first magnitude. The trunk circumference sometimes reaches 1 meter. Pine needles - dense, gray-green. The shape is different - sticking, curved, and even collected in bunches of 2 needles.
Life expectancy of needles - 3 years. With the onset of autumn, the needles turn yellow and fall.
Cones at a pine, as a rule, are located on 1-3 pieces on legs. Matured buds are brown or brown in color and reach a length of 6 cm.
Under adverse conditions, pine scum may stop growing and remain a “dwarf”. Surprisingly, different instances may have different root systems. For example, on dry soils, pine may develop taproot, which extracts water deep underground. And in conditions of high groundwater occur lateral roots.
The life span of Scots pine can reach 200 years. Stories are known when the pine lived 400 years.
Pine is considered fast growing. For a year, its growth can reach 50-70 cm. This coniferous tree begins to bear fruit from the age of 15. In conditions of forest and dense planting - only after 40 years.
Mountain pine. The Latin name is Pinus mugo. This is a multi-stem conifer, reaching a height of 10-20 meters. Dwarf varieties - 40-50 cm. Trunks - half-lying and ascending. In adulthood it can reach 3 m in diameter. It is a very decorative coniferous plant.
The needles are dark, long, often curved. Bark brownish gray, scaly. Cones ripen in the 3rd year.
To date, more than 100 varieties of mountain pine have been registered. And every year this number increases. In landscape gardening, especially dwarf varieties are used, which form beautiful compositions along the banks of ponds and in rocky gardens.
Pine yellow. Magnificent view with a narrow pyramidal crown. Homeland - North America. In our country it grows well in the southern and middle lane. It grows up to 10 meters. Very bad tolerates urban conditions. Especially at a young age often freezes. Prefers places protected from the winds. Therefore, it is better to plant yellow pine in groups.
The needles are dark and long. The bark is thick, reddish-brown, cracks on large plates. Cones ovate, almost sessile. In total, there are about 10 varieties of yellow pine.
Pine Weymouth. Very spectacular species of pine. Homeland - North America. The needles have a blue-green shade. Cones - large and somewhat curved. An adult tree can reach a height of more than 30 meters. It is considered long-lived, as it can live to 400 years. As it grows, it changes its crown from narrow-pyramidal to wide-pyramidal. It got its name from the English Lord Weymouth, who brought her home from North America in the 18th century.
Poor tolerates saline soils and fungal disease - rust. It is relatively resistant to frost, but does not like winds. For the Weymouth pine is characterized by reddish pubescence on young shoots.
White Pine. A relatively low coniferous plant - up to 20 m. It is a slow-growing tree. The bark is light gray, lamellar. The needles are bright green, tough, curved. Cones are yellowish, shiny, long. The diameter of the crown can reach 5-6 meters.
Some experts consider it Geldreich's pine. Indeed, the similarity is great. However, since there are varieties under that and a different name, we will nevertheless dwell on the pine of beloka. To date, there are about 10 varieties of this species. About the same as in Geldreich's pine. Often varieties can be mixed.
This type of pine in the conditions of our country best takes root in the southern regions, as it does not tolerate frosts. White pine is light-requiring, the soil nutrient composition is undemanding, but it grows better on moderately moist, drained and moderately alkaline soils.
Looks good in the Japanese, rocky and heather garden. Perfect for solitary landing, and for a mixed group.
High (up to 60 m) coniferous tree with a conical crown. A bit like a spruce. The diameter can reach 2 meters. This is a true long-lived plant. Some specimens live 400-700 years. The trunk of the fir straight, kolonovidny. Crohn thick. At a young age, the crown of fir has a conical or pyramidal shape. As it grows, the shape of the crown becomes cylindrical.
The needles, depending on the variety, have different lengths and live for 8-10 years. Fir begins to bear fruit from about 30 years old. Cones erect and long (up to 25 cm).
This conifer plant does not tolerate frosts, drought, and great heat. The advantages include the fact that it is the most shade-tolerant tree. Sometimes shoots can appear under the mother tree in full shading. With good lighting, fir naturally grows better.
This coniferous plant is a real find in landscape gardening. Fir is used in a single planting, and to decorate the alleys. Dwarf forms look great in a rocky garden and on an alpine hill.
Balsam fir. Botanical name of Abies balsamea "Nana". This coniferous plant is a dwarf pillow tree. In vivo grows in North America.
In the care of unpretentious. He likes good lighting, but the shadow carries too well. For balsam fir, not so much frost is terrible as strong gusting winds that can simply damage a small tree. Prefers light, moist, fertile, slightly acidic soil. It reaches a height of 1 m, which makes it a favorite decorating object in landscape gardening. It is equally good for decorating gardens, landscaping terraces, slopes and roofs.
Propagated by seeds and annual cuttings with apical bud.
The needles are dark green with a special sheen. Exudes a characteristic resinous aroma. Cones are red-brown, elongated, reach a length of 5-10 cm.
This is a very slowly growing coniferous plant. For 10 years, it grows no more than 30 cm. Lives up to 300 years.
Nordman Fir (or Caucasian). Evergreen coniferous tree, which came to us from the mountains of the Caucasus and Asia Minor. Sometimes it grows to 60-80 meters in height. The shape of the crown is neat conical. It is for this neat appearance that gardeners of Nordman fir love the gardeners.
It is her dress up instead of a tree for the New Year holidays in many European countries. This is largely due to the structure of the branches - the branches are often located and raised upwards. This is a distinctive feature of Nordman fir.
The needles are dark green with some shine. Young shoots have a light green, even yellowish tint. Needles - from 15 to 40 mm, look very fluffy. If the needles are slightly rubbed between the fingers, you can feel the specific citrus scent.
The trunk of an adult plant can reach two meters in diameter. At a young age, the Caucasian fir bark is grayish-brown, smooth. As it gets older, it cracks into segments and becomes dull.
Nordman fir is growing quite rapidly. Under favorable conditions, this conifer can live to 600-700 years. Moreover, the increase in height and width continues until the very last day of life!
Depending on the type of soil, the root system can be either surface or recessed with a central core. Cones at this fir large, up to 20 cm, are located on a short leg vertically.
Nordman fir It has a unique property - the needles on the branches remain even after their drying, up to mechanical damage.
Coniferous plants with needles falling on the winter. This is partly due to its name. These are large, light-loving and winter-hardy plants that grow quickly, have low soil requirements and tolerate air pollution.
Larch trees are especially beautiful in early spring and late autumn. In the spring, the needles of larch acquire a pale green hue, and in the fall - bright yellow. Since the needles are growing every year, her needles are very soft.
Larch fruits from 15 years. Cones have an ovoid-conical shape, something remotely resembling a rose flower. Reach a length of 6 cm. Young cones have a purple color. As they mature, they acquire a brown hue.
Larch - long-lived tree. Some of them live up to 800 years. The plant develops most intensively in the first 100 years. These are tall and slender trees, reaching 25-80 meters in height, depending on the type and conditions.
In addition, larch is a very useful tree. It has very hard and durable wood. In industry, its red core is in the greatest demand. Also, larch is valued in folk medicine. Folk healers harvested its young shoots, buds and larch gum, from which they obtain "Venetian" turpentine (turpentine), used in many diseases. The bark is harvested throughout the summer and used as a vitamin remedy.
Characteristics of conifers
The multiple characteristic of the most common coniferous crops:
- Spruce - the most common type of conifers. In addition to the usual spruce most valued blue, prickly, Canadian. The culture is unpretentious in leaving, perfectly maintains frosts, it is capable to survive in the conditions of a city gas concentration. It prefers sunny places, but can grow in shaded areas. Because of the ability to cut very valued in landscape design, used as hedges and soliternyh plants.
- Cedar is a large species of coniferous trees, which, due to its high decorative properties, is widely used in landscape design in walkways and group plantings. The most popular are Himalayan, Atlas and Lebanese varieties. Culture is famous for its delicious, healthy and nutritious nuts.
- Cypress - evergreen, exclusively decorative type of coniferous cultures. Due to its unusual pyramidal form, the tree looks very impressive and is widely used in parkland, both for creating alleys, and in single and group plantings.
- Larch - refers to deciduous coniferous crops, in our climate only this conifer tree throws off its needles for the winter period. Because of this particular feature, larch is used differently in landscape design, often landing in alleys and mixed compositions. Also known for the strength and durability of these trees. These conifers have long been used not only for construction, but also for the manufacture of ships. Due to its strength and high resin content, larch products are capable of maintaining their original properties for centuries even under the influence of moisture. So, St. Petersburg still stands on stilts of larch, hammered into the river bottom under Peter the First, and the use of this wood in the construction of Venice, where the material also showed itself from the best side, has been proven. And in Moscow, this breed made a durable and high-quality coating cycle track.
- Microbiota - in this genus there is only one species, which naturally grows in the Far East of Russia, but thanks to its beauty it is widely used in gardening throughout the middle belt. Low-growing shrub has soft drooping shoots and looks similar to juniper. Due to its shape, it is used as a ground cover culture and looks very impressive in a rock garden, fences, along lawns and on steep slopes. Winter culture is stable, unpretentious in care and not of interest to pests.
- Juniper is a very popular coniferous shrub, which is not only perfect for creating scenic groups and border plantings, but also has high pharmacological properties. Resins and volatile substances excreted by the culture perfectly purify the surrounding air from pathogenic bacteria and kill the entire infection. Long since juniper groves used to treat pulmonary patients. For this, people with bronchitis, pneumonia and even tuberculosis were evicted to the landing territory and regularly brought food to them, not allowing them to go out until they were completely cured. Surprisingly, only the air filled with juniper aroma healed even the most hopeless patients, without the use of antibiotics and other drugs. Therefore, planting a juniper on your plot, you can not only decorate green areas with an unusual ground cover bush, but also improve your health. The shrub, depending on the variety, can have different forms, from a gentle hillock to a candle-shaped bush. Juniper is unpretentious in care, resistant to external influences and decorative. Often used as a single landing and mixed groups.
- Fir is a beautiful and majestic tree that requires special care and suitable conditions. Due to the large size, species are grown only in parks and gardens of large areas, but now it is possible to use small cultivars, ideal for group plantings. The most decorative varieties of blue and undersized fir, characterized by large and abundant cones.
- Pine is a familiar coniferous tree, ubiquitous in our latitudes. The most common pine is pine, which covers the mountains and endless forests. Often it is used to create garden plantations, but more often they choose more compact and decorative varieties - mountain, Crimean, cedar, veymouth.
- Yew - this genus includes many evergreen shrubs and trees. Most often in gardening is applied berry yew, which has a dense fluffy crown. Species have the form of a spreading shrub, and bred can be in the form of a candle, a sphere, a cone, or a ground cover bush. Culture tolerates a haircut, so it is used as a hedge and creating green compositions. But we must remember that most yew varieties are very poisonous, especially berry, its bright red fruits look attractive and can cause poisoning of children and animals.
- The hemlock is an evergreen species common in North America and the Asian part of the continent. Especially valued in gardening for weeping flexible branches that form a dense canopy. Due to the slow growth, the hemlock is suitable for small gardens, besides its unpretentiousness and resistance to frost, shade and disease are pleasing.
- Pseudo-hemlock is a breed of evergreen tree brought from the north of the Americas. A plant similar from afar is similar to a blue spruce, but on closer examination it is distinguished by unusual cones. There are varieties with flexible weeping branches and miniature types of pseudosugs, which are widely used for rock garden design and single landings.
- Thuja - has a strong aroma and a characteristic form of needles. Of all the varieties for our climate is suitable only thuja western, characterized by high frost resistance and unpretentiousness. Breeders deduced a lot of ornamental species that differ in the shape of the tree, the height and even the color of the foliage - most often there are thujas with juicy-green needles, but there are also varieties with bright solar needles.
GOST of coniferous wood
As in every production, there are certain standards for wood-processing and woodworking enterprises so that the resulting boards and boards meet state and international requirements. For this purpose, special GOSTs have been developed that consider the various characteristics of wood.
For coniferous trees, GOST 8486-86 and GOST 24454-80 are used, according to which all sawn wood is divided according to the technical requirements for grades - 5 for boards and beams (selected, 1, 2, 3 and 4 grades) and 4 for bars (1 2,3,4 varieties).
Note that GOST 8486-86 is used to evaluate wood, which is subsequently intended for use in our country and for export, but more stringent GOSTs are used for aviation wooden building materials.
Весь пиломатериал можно разделить на бруски, брусья, обрезные и не обрезные доски, эти определения и особенности типов регламентируются по ГОСТу 18288.
ГОСТ хвойной древесины
Согласно же ГОСТ 8486-86 четко прописываются показатели:
- — сорта древесины (согласно ГОСТу на изготовление пиломатериалов используют сосну, ель, пихту, лиственницу и кедр)
- — длины и допустимые отклонения от них, в зависимости от дальнейшего назначения (на тару, брусья, внутреннего рынка, экспорта),
- - humidity - depending on customer requirements, they produce dry (humidity up to 20%), raw (22% and higher) and impregnated with antiseptics (antiseptic is performed according to GOST 10950),
- - widths and tolerances,
- - the number and type of knots,
- - the presence and type of cracks,
- - the presence and size of the core,
- - the presence and size of fungal lesions, mold, rot, wormholes, etc.
Thus, GOST ensures that sawn timber meets all well-thought-out norms and requirements, which ensures a long service of products from coniferous trees. In addition, verification of product compliance with the prescribed standards saves the buyer from purchasing low-quality wood at inflated prices.
Coniferous bushes and not only have long been very valued and widely used as a green space, and for construction, furniture manufacturing, musical instruments, and even treatment. Different varieties of rocks become chic decorations of garden plots, while others become indispensable elements in any construction, which is why coniferous trees are so popular and common.