Among the variety of indoor plants, there are such flowers that are often used as a gift. It is doubly pleasant to get a pot with a beautiful flowering bush of cyclamen, violet or anthurium: such flowers cannot be compared with a bouquet, because it will quickly wither, and the bush will be pleasing to the eye for a long time, besides it can even give “offspring”.
The pet cyclamen is a grassy perennial of the Mirsin family with very bright and abundant flowering. His original colorful inflorescences in the form of butterflies with raised wings proudly rise above the foliage on long legs and form a lush floral hat, which is simply impossible to pass. And the leaves themselves, with their rounded shapes and light patterns on a dark background, are also very decorative. Due to the spectacular appearance and long (more than 3 months) flowering, cyclamen has long won its place in the hearts of lovers of house plants.
Planting and caring for cyclamen only at first glance seem difficult, in fact, this flower feels quite comfortable on the window-sills and is able to decorate them with its flowering more than once. The main thing is to know some nuances of cultivation and create favorable conditions for it. How to do it right, and talk about it today.
Characteristics of planting cyclamen
The root system of the plant is significantly different from the roots of most of the representatives of indoor pets, which plays a major role not only during its planting, but also in the further care of the flower. Cyclamen is somewhat reminiscent of bulbous cultures: its root is a large, flattened corm bulb. Its diameter is on average about 15 cm, while the growth point is only one.
When planting an adult cyclamen tuber can not be buried in the ground completely: at least 1/3 of it must remain on the surface. An exception is the European species of plant, in which the roots grow not only in the lower part of the bulb, but also over its entire surface.
The soil for the flower must be chosen light and nutritious. The store sells ready-made substrates of the nominal for this plant. Also suitable for his soil mixture for Saintpaulia.
If desired, the soil suitable for cyclamen can be composed independently by mixing in equal parts:
There is one more nuance on which both the development and future flowering of the plant directly depends. Pot for cyclamen should choose a small volume (of course, given the size of the corm itself).
When choosing a flowerpot, it is necessary to focus on the fact that from the tuber to the walls of the planting tank should be no more than 3 cm. Only in such “close conditions” can the cyclamen bloom soon.
What does cyclamen love and what is it afraid of?
When planning to grow a plant, it is worth considering that it prefers:
- Fresh air,
- sufficiently high air humidity
- diffused lighting.
The most comfortable temperature for a flower is up to 20 degrees Celsius, but not lower than 10 degrees. In order for it to bloom in winter, even less is needed - up to 14 degrees Celsius. Frequent airing allows cyclamen to provide fresh air, especially during the heating season. It is possible to freshen a bush and with the help of regular spraying, in addition, they will raise the humidity and lower the temperature in the room.
During the ventilation of the room it is necessary to exclude the possibility of a draft - it is destructive for a flower.
Another important point in the care of cyclamen at home is irrigation. It is best of all to moisten the soil in the pot by the method of bottom irrigation, dropping the pot in a bowl of water. Keep it there until the substrate is completely saturated with moisture, and the top layer is not wet. Then remove the cyclamen and allow to drain excess water. The liquid from the pallet must be drained so that it does not stagnate.
Bottom watering of cyclamen will eliminate the possibility of moisture on the tops of the corm, as well as directly on the flowers and leaves. If you water the bush directly in the pot, there is a risk to fill in the growth point, and this usually ends with rotting of the tuber and, accordingly, the loss of the whole plant.
Cyclamen can still be watered directly into the pan, not forgetting then to drain the excess water from it.
Regarding fertilization, cyclamen is one of those indoor plants that are better underfed than overfed. The flower responds well to complex preparations for flowering plants, especially in liquid form, but the working solution should be prepared by strictly adhering to the recommendations for its use, sometimes even reducing its concentration.
For the next 2-3 months, the purchased plant does not need additional dressing: usually the store soil contains a large amount of nutrients that the plant is “refilled” with, so that it blooms profusely and has a beautiful “commodity” appearance.
How often to replant the plant?
Cyclamen does not grow very quickly, and the young corm can sit in a pot for about two years. During this time, it will increase the volume and it will be possible to transplant the cyclamen in a more spacious pot, at the same time and changing the substrate to fresh. It is better to transplant using the transshipment method, without clearing the completely old soil from the tuber in order not to damage it. The first feeding after such a procedure is done in a month.
The cyclamen should be overpowered at the end of the rest period, until it starts growing, and you should not take a very spacious container, otherwise you may not see the next flowering.
A flowering plant donated or purchased in a shop (even if it is clearly visible that the transporting pot is small for it) cannot be transplanted - one must wait until it fades and dies.
How does cyclamen rest?
When the bush finishes its flowering and the inflorescences wither, the leaves begin to turn yellow after them, and over time only one tuber remains in the pot. Many growers think that the plant disappears, and often even throw it away. However, it is completely in vain, because so cyclamen prepare for a period of rest.
Fading leaves can be carefully removed without waiting for them to completely dry. For this, the stalks are simply unscrewed clockwise without using scissors.
Care for cyclamen in the rest period is simple:
- with the beginning of the yellowing of the foliage begin to reduce the frequency of watering,
- the pot with the “naked” round tuber remaining in it is moved to a more darkened place, where it will get less light but will not be hot,
- hibernating cyclamen is watered occasionally to prevent complete drying of the soil and corm.
Most often, plants hibernate in winter, when the room is too warm and dry for them, because it is known that cyclamens bloom profusely only in cool and humid conditions, although the spring-summer break is also characteristic of them.
Resting flowers month three. This time is enough for them to recover and gain strength before the next abundant flowering. After the specified time, the pot with corms is returned to a bright place and watering is resumed. Soon the leaves will appear from the bulb, then the buds will be tied and everything will be repeated from the beginning.
Preferred breeding method
As already mentioned, cyclamen corm has only one growth point. True, sometimes there are instances in which there are several of them, but this happens very rarely. For this reason, it is practically impossible to obtain a new plant by dividing a tuber, especially since even if there is an opportunity to carry out such a procedure, the delenki take root extremely reluctantly and in most cases die.
The seed method is the most realistic and positive method for the reproduction of cyclamen.
You can sow seeds at any time of the year, but it is better to start work in early spring. Then the light day is long enough, which allows the seedlings to provide good lighting and avoid pulling them out.
Before sowing, seeds are better to be etched for disinfection purposes by soaking them in a solution of potassium permanganate. Instead, you can use any growth stimulant.
Fill the seedling container with a nutrient mixture, make shallow grooves in it and spray them well with a spray bottle. Put the prepared seeds, leaving a distance of at least 2 cm between the seeds. Lightly sprinkle the crops with earth and cover with a film or glass on top to create greenhouse conditions. In this form, they will be 12 months until they germinate. At this time, it is necessary to periodically air the greenhouse and spray the soil, and also not to allow too high temperature values, otherwise the seeds will “fall asleep” instead of germinating.
If at the expiration of the month the shoots have not yet hatching - no need to hurry to throw them away: the seeds of individual varieties of cyclamen can “sit” in the ground for more than 5 months.
When the seeds germinate, the film is removed and the seedlings are grown without it. After forming a pair of true leaves and their own small nodules in the rastishk, they dive into separate cups. It is noteworthy that it is possible to plant in pairs and even 3 things, since there will not be a lot of space for each young onion.
When picking up plants, young corms are completely covered with earth, unlike adult cyclamens.
In such small groups they will “sit” and grow for about half a year, after which the bushes are individually transplanted into pots of no more than 7 cm. The first flowering of young cyclamen can be seen no earlier than 18 months from the moment of sowing the seeds, but some copies prepare for this for three years. They can bloom in summer or even in winter, depending on planting time and growing conditions.
As you can see, cyclamen cannot be called a simple flower, but it is also impossible to say that it is very capricious. You just need to know exactly what the plant needs and respond to its requests in time. And then beautiful bright cyclamen butterflies will settle on your windowsill and attract attention to the envy of all neighbors. Grow it and multiply it to share your joy with loved ones. Good luck!
History of development and description
The history of a perennial plant with dark green heart-shaped leaves dates back to the 16th century. Then cyclamen (also “Alpine violet”, “dryakva”, “pork bread”) first appeared in Europe and was grown mainly in botanical gardens.
For several centuries, breeders have brought indoor flower species, as well as many hybrid varieties of different colors. Some types of cyclamen are distinguished by a corrugated form of petals.
On the basis of the Persian cyclamen, the Dutch brought out hybrid varieties characterized by a long flowering period.
Below you will see a photo of a flower:
Conditions of detention
Distinctive features of cyclamen are beautiful appearance and pleasant delicate aroma. While other cultures bloom in summer, and in the dormant period they dive in autumn and spring, Alpine violet in winter pleases its owner with lush bloom, and in the summer restores strength.
Growing a plant "in captivity", comply with certain conditions:
- Shine. Cyclamen tolerates diffuse daylight well. It is necessary to protect it from direct sunlight.
Humidity. Dryakva leaves are sprayed at the stage of their growth and development. The plant loves moisture, it is recommended to keep the pot away from the heating pipes, and in the winter to create an artificial fog, placing containers with water around the flower. In autumn and winter, the plant is watered more often than during the rest period. In order to avoid rotting of the root of cyclamen, water is poured into the pan for the pot.
The soil. It is important to give the plant roots the chance to breathe. The substrate for this purpose is made up of peat, sand, humus and earth. The larger the peat and humus fibers, the better.
The root part of dryakva in the summer "hibernates." At this time, the plant is not disturbed, leaving in a cool dry place. It is required to monitor the soil moisture, it should be moderate.
At the top of the tuber in cyclamen is located the point of growth, from which stems depart. It should not be flooded with water or overdried, you should monitor the appearance of characteristic dark spots of rot on it. The growth point is responsible for the development and growth of the flower as a whole and must be kept in appropriate conditions.
How to care for indoor flower in a pot?
How to care for him? Given the number of features of cyclamen, its specific growth and development cycle, then you need to know how to care for it, so caring for a home flower follows some very important rules:
- Watering. Alpine violet is poured regularly with a small amount of water, the temperature of which is room temperature, plus or minus a couple of degrees. After the plant has put flower stalks, watering is carried out directly in the pot tray. The excess is drained, ensuring that the soil is not saturated with moisture, but also does not dry out.
Fertilizer. During flowering (that is, in autumn and winter) cyclamen needs additional feeding. Once every few weeks, the plant is fertilized with means for flowering crops that contain useful mineral components, for example: Uniflor flower, Bona Forte and others. If you use the tools more often, then all their benefits will fall foliage, and flowering will come to naught.
Transfer. The older the plant, the less it needs to change the soil. Young plants are transplanted every year. Transplantation is performed after the end of flowering, before the spring and summer dormancy period.
The tuber, along with a lump of old land, is transferred to a new habitat with a loose substrate (peat, earth, turf, sand, it is advisable to lay pebbles or small pebbles on the bottom for better soil permeability), leaving about a third above the ground so that the growing point is well ventilated and not exposed to water. The pot take a larger diameter than the previous one. The recommended acidity of the soil is 5 pH.
Pruning plants during flowering do not produce. To prolong the process, wilted flowers are carefully removed by twisting them from the peduncles without the use of sharp objects.
You must be careful not to damage the growth point on the top of the tuber, otherwise the whole plant will die.
As such, pruning of leaves and rotting roots is done immediately before transplanting.
Diseases and pests
Proper care for a flower at home will protect it from possible diseases and pests. Despite this, some factors do not depend on the gardener.
- Insects. If the soil is constantly not sufficiently hydrated, a spider mite will settle on the plant. Also a flower may be interested in aphid. The characteristic signs of its appearance are damaged and deformed leaves.
Avoiding such a neighborhood will help the placement of adhesive tape traps for insects in the vicinity of the pot, as well as the treatment of planting with special means. If the plant is already damaged, you should carefully remove all insects from visible parts of the cyclamen, rinse the leaves in the shower and treat with insecticides.
Yellowing foliage. It appears when the temperature is not observed or in case of excessive or insufficient watering. In this case, it is necessary to adhere to the instructions on the optimal conditions of plant maintenance: move the pot to a damp and cool place or reduce / increase the frequency of spraying, etc.
As with all representatives of flora and fauna, proper care is important to cyclamen. Now you know how to care for a houseplant. In this case, it will grow, develop and delight with its beautiful, delicate flowers and their pleasant aroma for many years. The rules for maintaining a culture at home are rather specific, but if they are followed, the long life of the alpine violet is guaranteed.
How to grow?
For the successful growth and development of cyclamen, it is important to know the features of how to grow it. To do this, create the most comfortable conditions that are more close to the natural habitat of this plant. Necessary for successful flowering conditions are as follows:
- Cyclamen is a cold-loving plant. This flower does not tolerate heat, the optimal temperature is from +14 to +16 degrees. Long stay in the heat above +25 degrees can lead to the death of the plant,
- the flower needs diffused light, direct hot sunlight is dangerous for the leaves,
- premises with cyclamen should be regularly aired, while avoiding the appearance of drafts,
- during the heating season it is not recommended to place pots with a plant near the battery or heaters,
- Cyclamen watering should be timely, moisture should not accumulate in the soil,
- spraying cyclamen is not required,
- Excess minerals in the soil also harm the plant, so it is important to strictly observe the dosage of fertilizers.
How to breed?
Для размножения цикламена в домашних условиях используют несколько способов. Growing plants can be made from seeds, as well as with the help of daughter tubers, children or cyclamen rosettes.
Many florists are interested in the question of how to properly seed a flower? Therefore, this method should be considered in detail.
Most often, seeds are purchased in flower shops. Before buying, you must make sure that the expiration date has not expired.. Cyclamen seeds can be stored no more than 2 years from the date of production. Check the integrity of the packaging.
To obtain seeds at home, the mother plant requires artificial pollination. To do this, during the flowering of cyclamen, with a brush, the pollen from one flower is transferred to another. Pollination is recommended in sunny weather, before lunch. For best results, pollination is repeated 2-3 times. When flowering is completed, it will be possible to collect seeds.
Before you start sowing, the seeds must be prepared. To do this, they are soaked for 3 days in cold water or kept in a weak solution of manganese. Instead of potassium permanganate, you can use special drugs, for example, "Appin" or "Zircon".
The landing is made in plastic containers with drainage holes in the bottom. Inside the layer of drainage of small pebbles or expanded clay, the thickness of the drainage should not exceed 2 cm.
From above, the tank is filled with special soil prepared from a mixture of leafy soil and peat in equal proportions. The thickness of the soil is from 5 to 7 cm. After that, the soil is moistened and set in one of the following ways:
- grooves are made in the ground up to 1 cm deep, in which seeds are sown,
- the seeds are laid out on the surface of the soil in a container, then sprinkled with a layer of earth, the thickness of which is not more than 2 cm.
When planting the distance between the seeds should be at least 3-5 cm.
After sowing, containers are covered with foil and kept at a temperature of 20 degrees. After about a month, the seeds begin to germinate.
This method is used for plants that have bloomed and entered a period of rest. Usually use large tubers of adult flowers:
- The tuber is removed from the soil and thoroughly dried from residual moisture.
- With a sharp knife, the root is cut so that each part has a few roots and buds, and the cut surface is as small as possible. For one division it is allowed to cut the tuber in no more than two parts.
- After dividing, the cuts are treated with coal and left in a dark place for a day.
- At the end of the day, the tubers are planted into the soil from leaf and sod land, peat and sand in a ratio of 2: 2: 2: 1. After that, plants are grown with diffused color and a temperature of 13 to 16 degrees.
For this method, first of all, it is necessary to carefully separate the child tubers from the parent. Usually this process is quite simple.
After that, the baby is planted in a mixture of humus, leaf soil and peat. When planting, the tuber should only be submerged in the ground. The other half should remain on the surface.
After that it is necessary to observe moderate watering. About a week later, the tuber gives the first leaflets.
Rosettes are called shoots on cyclamen tubers. For planting choose the largest and strongest shoots. After the outlet is carefully separated from the plant, it is planted in a moist soft soil, similar to the mixture for seeds and placed under the film. The escaping receptacle is placed in a shade, in a temperature of no more than 18 degrees, and watered moderately. After 15-20 days, the rosette takes root, after which the shoot is looked after as an ordinary adult plant.
Removing all the shoots at once can lead to deterioration of the flower until death. Experts recommend separating only one escape at a time.
What is important to know before you buy
Cyclamen can be not only a wonderful interior decoration: you can give it to dear and beloved people, because its bright appearance will overshadow even the most expensive bouquets. And it will be a long time to decorate the look of your home interior with proper care. But it is important to pay attention to certain details before buying:
- the tuber must peek out of the soil,
- if the plant is healthy, then it has a dense bush,
- the pattern on the surface of the leaves is clear, they are bright in color and elastic.
If the bush leaves slack, then the purchase of such a plant is better to refuse. Neither should there be mucus, mold or bloom. Such plants are soonare likely to die. But beyond that, they can infect other indoor flowers with viral or fungal diseases.
Where to put the cyclamen in the house
After buying a flower you need to create comfortable conditions for it. From this depends on the intensity of flowering and health. After all, this is a perennial plant.
And the first thing you need to focus on is finding a suitable place in the house. Despite the fact that cyclamen is homemade - the plant is unpretentious, some conditions must be met. And the first is lighting. It should be good. Cyclamen will feel great in ambient light. But sun exposure to the plant is best avoided.
The room where cyclamen grows must be ventilated. This is an important condition. But the most important requirement of the plant - this is the air temperature. In summer, its index should be in the range between 18 and 25 degrees of heat. In winter, for him the most optimal air temperature is +10 degrees. If you do not comply with the temperature regime, the plant may stop blooming or even die.
Top dressing and watering
The key to success in the cultivation of indoor plants is the correct watering. And cyclamen is no exception. But worse for him is not a lack of moisture, but its excess.
In winter, it is necessary to minimize watering and spraying. When the air temperature is below +12, the plant enters a state of rest.
In summer, the plant must be sprayed. But this should be done carefully so that the drops do not fall on the leaves, flowers and protruding tubers from the ground. To do this, it is necessary to spray not the plant itself, but the air around it.
You can use another way: to moisten crushed stone or expanded clay well and put a pot on them.
A stream of water during irrigation should be directed to the walls of the pot around the perimeter. Water ingress to the roots can cause them to rot. Water the flower should be defended at least 12 hours with water.
Feeding can be carried out exclusively in the period of activity. It is better to take liquid complex fertilizers, but use them in a weak concentration: take them two times less than what is written in the instructions.
With an excess of fertilizer plant will actively grow, but it will not cause flowering. Make them necessary during the growing season.
When to replant a flower
Replacing cyclamen using a new substrate is recommended once every two years. The optimal time for a transplant is the end of the rest period. But it is worth remembering that the cyclamen does not need a spacious pot. He actively blooms in close pot. Between the walls and the bulb should be a distance of no more than 3 centimeters.
For example, a 8-cm-diameter pot will suffice for a one-year-old bulb. 15 cm is enough for a three-year-old plant.
How to transplant cyclamen
After the purchase, cyclamen must be transplanted if it was sold in a peat substrate. To do this, wash the roots of the plant well with warm water, then treat the tubers with Kornevin and plant in a new substrate.
Upon further transplantation, if necessary, you should follow certain rules:
- the best time for transplanting is a warm period when the plant is preparing to leave the state of rest,
- a signal for this will serve the young leaves on the tubers,
- during flowering cyclamen can not be transplanted,
- It is necessary to transplant a plant by the method of transshipment, that is, with an old clod of earth.
It is necessary to take into account the species characteristics of cyclamens. For example, in Persian cyclamen, it is necessary to leave part of the tuber above the soil level. But the European species roots completely placed in the ground.
Features of care in the winter
Cyclamen active bloom in the winter. During this period, the plant requires special care:
- in the room where the plant is located, the air temperature should not exceed +20 degrees. Otherwise, the plant will start dropping the leaves, and it will start a dormant period ahead of time,
- water temperature for irrigation should be slightly below room temperature,
- fertilizer should be applied for the first time when the peduncle reaches a height of 10 centimeters. Repeated feeding is carried out in a week. Gibberellin solution sprayed with 0.01 percent leaves.
In most varieties, the state of rest lasts in the summer period. At this time, their leaves begin to turn yellow and fall off, the tuber becomes bare. The pot with the plant must be removed in a dark and cool place. The ideal room is a basement. Watering these days must be reduced, but the ground in a pot should not dry out much.
The dormant period of cyclamen lasts about two to three months. After this time, the flower pot must be returned to its original place. As new young leaves appear, increase a little watering.
If you follow all the subtleties of care, the cyclamen will delight you with flowering and bright colors throughout the winter. But it is worth being careful with the Persian cyclamen. Its tubers contain toxic substances. When ingested they cause cramps, diarrhea and vomiting. If there are small children or animals in the house, then it is better to locate the plant in a place inaccessible to them.
The species is most popular in indoor floriculture because of the high degree of decorativeness, which falls not only during the flowering period. Beautiful leafy plates of green color have large sizes. With the onset of the flowering phase, which lasts from late autumn to early spring, pink, purple, purple flowers bloom with other tones sills. Among the varieties are popular miniature representatives of the species: "Pink", "Victoria", "Spring moth", "Striat".
View from the tuberous root system, preferring coolness while in the apartment. It blooms pink, white and carmine flowers from May to October. Among the varieties that can be purchased in stores, common: Purpurascens, Lake garda, Album.
To grow cyclamen brought only pleasure, you must consider a number of features of this flower.
- The rules of storage of planting material. The storage of tubers of faded cyclamen should not be carried out in the refrigerating chamber, otherwise the awakening of the bulb may not occur.
- Intolerance to the flower of heat and sultry atmosphere in the premises of the content.
- The appearance of burns on the leaves as a result of exposure to direct sunlight, which leads to a loss of decoration.
- Agrotechnika landing. When growing, the cyclamen bulb should protrude ⅓ above the ground level.
- Intolerance of a plant to an excess of mineral salts.
- Selection of the pot. Cultivation tank should not be too large diameter.
Lighting and location
Cyclamen flower must be kept on window sills with diffused light, where there is no access to direct rays. In the summer, it is recommended to take the pot to fresh air. If this is not possible, then it is necessary to organize regular ventilation without drafts.
The optimum temperature, which is noted for lush and prolonged flowering, varies from 6 to 15 ° C.
Therefore, the most decorative representatives of the genus are the species and varieties whose flowering occurs in the winter period.
Soil and pot requirements
The flower prefers a loose, light substrate, which can be purchased at a flower shop or prepared on its own from a substrate for cacti, leafy soil and peat in equal parts. The capacity for planting should not be too spacious: it is enough to take a pot where, when planting a bulb, 2-3 cm are left between its edge and the wall of the dish.
Cyclamen watering and humidity
With the onset of intensive growth, the flower needs regular watering, in which the ground must have time to dry. For representatives of this kind, it is recommended to apply bottom-irrigation technology, in which the pot is placed in a pan with water, where it is saturated with moisture until the top layer of soil gets wet. The use of this method will allow to avoid the ingress of water to the point of growth, and accordingly to minimize the threat of the onset of the development of rot.
At the same time the plant needs a high level of humidity, which is provided by spraying. In the summer months, the regularity of the procedure allows you to lower the temperature by a few degrees.
Attention! When growing a flower, it is worth avoiding both waterlogging and strong drying of the earthy coma.
During the active growing season, cyclamen is provided with additional nutrition in the form of complex liquid fertilizers for flowering plants. The procedure is carried out twice a month.
Caution! Due to the intolerance of the flower to a high concentration of mineral salts when feeding cyclamen, the rule applies: “it is better to underfeed than to overfeed”.
Leaving after flowering
After completion of flowering, a yellowing of the leaf plates is noted in the culture, which should be removed. Removal is carried out by twisting until the sheets are separated from the bulb. The pot is moved to a shaded room, where it remains until awakening. Watering for the rest period is reduced to a minimum.
The procedure is as follows:
- a drainage layer in the form of expanded clay is placed at the bottom of the selected pot,
- The bulb is transshipped with an old earthen clod in a tank,
- the pot is filled with a new substrate in such a way that ⅓ of the bulb remains on the surface,
- at the end, the soil is compacted and slightly moistened.
The appearance on the flower of harmful organisms is noted in violation of the agrotechnology of cultivation.
- The development of fungal diseases, expressed as bulb rot, occurs during systematic over-wetting of the substrate.
- In case of a lack of moisture, the flower is colonized by a spider mite.
- Also, if you violate the requirements for care, cyclamen is affected by aphid, which in turn is a carrier of soot.
As protective measures, when signs of pests and diseases appear, they are treated with insecticidal and fungicidal preparations.
Important! Cyclamen mite is considered the most dangerous pest of the plant. When it appears, it is necessary to immediately treat it twice with insecticide every 10 days. Missed time can lead to the death of cyclamen.
With this method of reproduction, the following manipulations are carried out:
- the seed is soaked in a pink solution of potassium permanganate for 10-12 hours,
- in the substrate for cyclamen grooves are made with a depth of 1 cm, where the seeds are placed with a distance of 2-3 cm,
- the seed is sprinkled with soil,
- the container is covered with glass and placed in a bright room with a temperature of 18–20 ° C,
- after 1-6 months, depending on the variety, sprouts appear,
- after emergence of shoots glass is removed,
- when one pair of true leaves forms on the seedlings, the seedlings swoop,
- after six months, the seedlings are seated in separate pots.
Vegetative reception of reproduction is used only in cases where the tuber has more than one growth point:
- young tuber is separated from the parent,
- neatly separated part is planted in a separate container.
Attention! Due to poor rooting, the vegetative propagation method often fails.
Yellowing sheet plates can be caused by the following reasons:
- Violation of the rules of irrigation. In order to avoid problems, lower watering is organized when the earthen clod dries.
- The stuffy and hot atmosphere in the maintenance room. To eliminate the negative factor, it is necessary to provide regular airing and spraying of the pot culture.
- Preparation for the rest period. The natural process that comes after flowering.
The main reasons for which there may be a lack of flowers in the culture are:
- lack of soil and air moisture,
- high temperature in the room where cyclamen is grown.
So, with the observance of simple rules for care, the florist will please himself and his household with a long flowering of a spectacular plant, which will give a lot of positive emotions, especially necessary in winter.
Cyclamens: types and features
The genus of cyclamen includes about 50 species, 20 of them are grown at home. A plant tuber is a round, flattened bulb with a growth point. Depending on the type, it grows up to 10-15 cm in diameter. Radical leaves with long petioles. Their distinctive feature is a gray or silver pattern on the outside of the sheet plate. The flowers have elongated sturdy flower stalks. Petals 2-3 cm long slightly bent back. The color scale is various, it includes all shades of pink, red, lilac, white. The number of buds on one adult plant reaches 60 pieces.
Information. Cyclamen root juice is used to treat sinusitis.
There are two main types of cyclamen used to grow a house.
Родина персидского вида малая Азия, север Африки и Средиземноморье. Многолетник отличается крупным диаметром цветов и высокими цветоносами. Листья сердцевинной формы могут достигать 14 см. Они темно-зеленого цвета, покрыты мраморным серебристым узором. Breeders have created many varieties of Persian cyclamen. He gained such popularity due to the long flowering and magnificent decorative appearance.
The flowering period lasts from autumn to early spring. The height of peduncles is 30 cm; flowers with a diameter of 5 cm are formed on them. The tips of the petals are pointed or fringed, bent backwards. Then the plant needs rest and rest. In May-June, it drops the leaves and freezes for several months. At this time, watering is reduced to a minimum. Faded peduncles and leaves are removed. In August, the plant is transplanted into a new pot and begin to be watered regularly. Tuber grows up to 15 cm, its root system is located at the bottom. When transplanting the tuber is not completely buried, 1/3 should be above the soil surface. Propagated only by seeds.
Alpine Violet or European Cyclamen
The European species of cyclamen for its delicate scent and small bright flowers are called alpine violet. Under natural conditions, they are found in the center of Europe, the Crimea, and Italy. An adult perennial tuber has a diameter of 10 cm. The roots germinate from its entire surface, therefore, unlike the Persian species, the tuber is buried completely in the ground. Radical leathery leaves outside along the edge are covered with a silver pattern. Their reverse side and petioles have a purple hue.
Thin strong peduncles grow up to 15 cm, diameter of flowers is 2-3 cm. Flowering time is in the warm season - from spring to autumn. The range of colors from pink to purple. After flowering, the fruit is a box with seeds. The plant is not demanding to the conditions of detention. It does not shed its leaves for the winter, it does not have a clear rest period. Reproduction of European cyclamen is possible by dividing the tuber and seeds.
Plant Care Rules
To make the plant happy with a hat of bright colors, it is necessary to provide him with comfortable conditions. How to care for cyclamen at home? Beginners in the content of this plant should pay attention to several main points:
- indoor temperature
- top dressing.
One of the first questions when buying plants - how to water cyclamen. Improper farming practices are a common cause of plant death. Cyclamen is recommended to be watered through the pan. This method allows you to avoid moisture on the tuber and the growth point. But it is necessary to consider the hardness of water. A large amount of salt negatively affects the root system. Hard water must be defended for several days or filtered. When watering through the pan water is left to be absorbed into the ground for an hour. Then the remaining liquid is drained. The procedure is best done in the morning, the day the soil dries out slightly.
Watering from the pan
Council A solution of succinic acid (1 tablet per 1 liter of water) helps to dissolve and wash excess salts from the soil. Use 1 time per month. Instead of succinic acid, you can take aspirin.
Watering plants on top is permissible, moisture gently pours on the edge of the pot. Cyclamen loves coolness, so some gardeners replace watering with ice cubes or snow. This procedure is desirable in the summer heat. The recommended water temperature for irrigation is 2-3 ° lower than the temperature in the room.
Selection of pot and soil
Substrate for planting plants can be bought in the store. Suitable universal soil for flowers, soil for violets or geraniums. Adding sand and perlite will help make it more loose and moisture-consuming. Cyclamen soil should be slightly acidic or neutral. You can cook it yourself. Would need:
- leaf earth - 3 parts,
- humus - 1 part,
- peat - 1 part,
- sand - 1 part.
The earth taken for the mixture on the street must be disinfected - calcined in a microwave or shed with a solution of potassium permanganate. At the bottom of the pot must be drainage. As the material taken claydite, small pebbles, gravel. And the foam balls, which are recommended for other indoor plants, in this case are not suitable.
For cyclamen use plastic and ceramic pots with drainage holes. It is better to choose a structure designed for lower watering. You should not look for a large size container, for adult plants the optimum diameter is 14-15 cm, and for young plants it should be smaller. To choose a pot for cyclamen should be the size of his tuber. From the edge of the bulb to the edge of the pot should be 2-3 cm. In this case, the indoor flower develops correctly and flowers in time. Large capacity provokes increased humidity and root rot. Pots for bottom irrigation
The cyclamen tuber is dried before dividing. When cutting into pieces, they make sure that everywhere there is a root and a bud with leaves. Doing a lot of parts is not worth it. Sections are treated with green paint or activated carbon, then give time to dry (2-3 days). Parts planted in wet soil. For germination pot put in a bright place and provide regular watering. The survival rate is not 100%, some may rot.
Growing from seed
Before planting seeds, I soak the seeds for a day in a solution of water and “Zircon” (4 drops per 0.5 l of water). For cultivation of saplings the easy friable soil consisting in equal parts from peat, sheet ground, vermiculite and sand is taken. Under the ground is taken a container with holes at the bottom. A layer of expanded clay 2-3 cm high is poured into it. Cooked soil is poured on top (6-7 cm). The soil is generously moistened. Seeds laid out on the surface of two cm from each other, powdered with a small layer of earth. The container is covered with polyethylene to create a constant temperature and humidity.
Cyclamen seedlings with leaves
The container is placed in a dark cool place. Waiting for seedlings is delayed for 1-3 months. During this period, the soil must be watered and ventilated. The first to appear on the surface is a pinkish-purple nodule. When two leaves grow, saplings dive and settle into separate pots. After 1-2 weeks they are fed complex fertilizer (reducing the concentration by 2 times). Flowering cyclamen have to wait more than a year. But plants grown at home will be stronger and healthier than purchased ones.
Pitfalls of purchased cyclamen
The purchased cyclamen is handled with care. The plant has experienced several stresses before entering the house due to transplantation and a change in the familiar climate. The conditions of his detention in the greenhouse are different from home. The flower needs help to get used to the new life. Cyclamen transplant after purchase is recommended after 1-2 months. Vigorous peduncles and leaves after a day stay in the apartment can wilt. Do not rush to water or feed them.
The plant adapts to the new temperature and humidity. Choose a cool but bright place for it. Determine the degree of moistening of the earth coma with a dry stick. If necessary, pour through the pan. Fertilizers do not need a few months. The fact is that store copies overfeed for abundant flowering. Spraying water with "Zircon" will help the leaves to recover. It is a universal growth regulator that increases disease resistance and root formation.
When is a transplant necessary?
Often, indoor flowers are sold in transport soil, not intended for long use. It is poor in nutrients, but saturated with plenty of fertilizer. This maintains the plant for a certain time, and then it begins to turn yellow and wither. From such a ground transplant is desirable until the end of the adaptation period. It is necessary to change the soil in the following situations:
- noticed pests in the ground
- low quality of the substrate
- root decay of the plant.
Planned transplantation of cyclamen at home occurs every 2-3 years. Time depends on the type of plant - European transplanted in the spring, and Persian in the fall. This is the period before the start of the active growing season. The procedure is performed by the method of transshipment. The plant is placed in a new pot with a lump of earth covered with roots. In a more spacious container only fill the required amount of soil. Do not forget about the layer of drainage.
Transshipment with a lump of land
When transplanting purchased flowers it is recommended to thoroughly clean the roots of the old soil. In the new pot poured earthy mixture for bulbous plants ("Tulip", "Florin"). The soil should be slightly acidic. A young cyclamen needs a pot with a diameter of 7-8 cm, a more mature one (3-5 years old) - 14-15 cm.
Purification of roots from soil
When planting, the European cyclamen tuber is completely covered with soil, and Persian only by 2/3. In a quality substrate fertilizing will not take 1-2 months.
Persian cyclamen tuber is not buried by 1/3
The main problem that florists care about is why cyclamen does not flower at home. There can be several reasons:
- high temperature in the room, at 25-28 ° the plant does not lay buds,
- lack of mineral fertilizers or excess nitrogen in the soil,
- waterlogging or dry ground,
- a pot of too large a diameter
- lack of lighting
- plant diseases (rot, cyclamen mite).
Planting and caring for cyclamen (in brief)
- Bloom: in early spring, in autumn, sometimes all year round.
- Lighting: bright diffused light, light partial shade.
- Temperature: 6-12 ˚C.
- Watering: during the period of active growth regular, moderate, by the method of lower watering.
- Air humidity: above normal.
- Top dressing: once every two weeks with a solution of complex mineral fertilizer for flowering houseplants in a low concentration.
- Rest period: within 2-2.5 months after flowering.
- Transfer: once every two years at the end of a rest period.
- Breeding: by seed and by dividing a tuber if it has more than one growth point.
- Pests: spider mites, aphid, thrips, cyclamen mites.
- Diseases: gray rot, rhizoctoniosis, late blight, fusarium wilt.
Home Cyclamen - Cultivation Features
Cyclamen root is a flattened round corm up to 15 cm in diameter with a single growth point. Damage it - destroy the onion. Cyclamen leaves are basal, leathery, heart-shaped, growing on petioles up to 30 cm long, dark green with a grayish-silver pattern. The original shape of the flowers look like outlandish butterflies - the petals are bent and pointed, sometimes have a fringed shape, and the color palette is incredibly wide - white and pink, all shades of red, burgundy and purple. Cyclamen blooms longer than three months.
Argued that the cyclamen room - capricious plant. Do not believe! Cyclamen is unpretentious, just in its agricultural technology, as in the agricultural technology of any other plant, there are certain requirements, the mandatory implementation of which will allow you to easily cope with its cultivation. So:
- - in any case, do not store the tubers of faded cyclamen in the refrigerator - after such storage the bulb does not wake up,
- - cyclamen flower does not tolerate heat and stuffiness, but it lives beautifully in a cool room at a temperature uncomfortable for humans - only 6-12 ºC,
- - direct sunlight can cause burns on the beautiful leaves of cyclamen,
- - do not bury the cyclamen tuber in the ground: at least one third of the bulb should remain on the surface,
- - cyclamen does not tolerate an excess of mineral salts in the soil, so be careful with fertilizers,
- - a pot for cyclamen is needed small, so that from the bulb to the wall of the pot there is a layer of soil not thicker than 2-3 cm
How to grow cyclamen.
A species like Cyclamen Persian, propagated by seeds. Cyclamen seeds are sown in February or March, although cyclamen growing at home can be propagated at any time of the year. On the eve of planting, soak the seeds for 12 hours in a pale pink solution of potassium permanganate or in Epin or Zircon preparations prepared in accordance with the instructions. After that, sow the seeds in a cyclamen earth mixture consisting of two parts of pre-steamed earth, one part of a tulip or terra vita type soil mixture, and part of river sand to loosen the soil. It will be better if you make a groove in the ground 1 cm deep, spill it well with water and spread the seeds into it after 2-3 cm from each other. Top sprinkle the seeds with a layer of soil and cover the container with glass or film. At a temperature of 18-20 ºC, the seeds germinate in 30-60 days, although there are torsional varieties germinating in five months or more!
When the sprouts appeared, remove the shelter and move the container with them to a more lighted place, but away from direct sunlight! When two true leaves appear, shoots swoop down 2-3 seedlings in one pot, completely covering the nodules with soil. The soil should be loose, such as a mixture of "tulip" or the same mixture in which you sowed the seeds. After 6-7 months, you can transplant grown-up cyclomenchics into pots with a diameter of 6-7 cm with the same soil mixture. Planting cyclamen in this case requires the corms to be deeper no more than two-thirds of its size, so that the growth point rises above the ground surface. If home care for cyclamen is right, you can see its flowering a year and a half after sowing seeds.
How to care for cyclamen at home.
Cyclamen is a flower that requires bright diffused light and a cool (6-12 ºC) temperature. In addition, it is often necessary to ventilate the room, but in no case do not create drafts in it - this is unacceptable for cyclamen. Frequent spraying will make the air humidity in the room higher, which is very popular with cyclamen, in addition, it can reduce the temperature in the summer heat by a couple of degrees. The plant needs fertilizing with complex fertilizer for flowering plants, but be careful with the consistency - it is better to underfeed this plant than to overfeed.
How to water cyclamen.
In the period of active growth, cyclamen requires regular watering, but try to avoid fanaticism in this matter: watering should be sufficient, but not excessive. To be sure that the plant has enough moisture, use the bottom irrigation method - put the pot with cyclamen in a container with water and keep it until it gets wet top layer of soil, then remove the pot from the water and allow it to drain to excess . This method, by the way, will not allow moisture to get to the top of the tuber, where the growth point is located, thus the risk of plant rotting will be minimized.
Cyclamens reproduce in the seed way, which we described in detail in the previous section, and vegetative - by dividing the tuber. But you can only divide those tubers, which have more than one growth point, and this happens very rarely. In addition, the process of dividing and rooting part of the tuber for amateur is often unsuccessful, so we can assume that the seed method of reproduction of cyclamen is the only possible one.
Cyclamen after purchase.
How to care for cyclamen immediately after purchase? Sometimes the next day after you brought home a bought cyclamen, he drops flowers and even leaves. Do not panic - for cyclamen, this is a completely natural behavior. He needs to get used to your environment, and you try to create the conditions in which he will be comfortable. Cyclamen flower should occupy the lightest and coolest place at home. Check the substrate, and if it is dry, give the plant to drink, using the bottom watering or watering in the pan - in these cases, the plant will receive only as much moisture as it needs. Be sure to spray the plant. Do not feed cyclamen for two or three months after purchase - the plants that go on sale are well and permanently filled with fertilizers.
Cyclamen blooms either in summer or in winter, and the time, that is, the duration of the flowering of the plant, directly depends on how you observe the rules for the care of cyclamen. Recall that the optimal conditions under which cyclamen will bloom long and abundantly are as follows: plenty of light, but without direct sunlight, the optimum temperature for flowering is not lower than 10 ºC and not higher than 20 ºC. Watering either the bottom or in the pan so that the moisture does not fall on either the growth point or the leaves with flowers. Trim wilted flowers.
How to transplant cyclamen.
Cyclamen is transplanted into a new substrate about once every two years, if the pot has become too small. This should be done at the end of the rest period before the start of the active growing season. But remember that cyclamen does not need a spacious pot, it blooms well only in close, when from the bulb to the wall of the pot a layer of earth is not thicker than 2-3 cm. For example, for a bulb of 1-1.5 years old, a pot with a diameter of 7-8 cm will do. , and for a two-three-year-old onion - with a diameter of 14-15 cm. Put a clay paste, a layer of fresh substrate for drainage, then a bulb with earthy clod and roots and add the substrate so that the tuber is dipped into it by two thirds. Well tamp the ground. The transplanted cyclamen fertilizers will be needed not earlier than in a month.
Cyclamen transplant after purchase.
Cyclamen transplant after purchase is made only if it is in a period of rest, which in itself is strange - well, who buys the onion buried in the soil? Если вы купили цветущий цикламен, дождитесь, когда он отцветет и отдохнет, а затем, в самом начале вегетации, если луковице будет тесно или вы захотите сменить технический пластиковый горшок на красивый, пересадите цикламен описанным способом.Or, if the plant feels good in an old pot, it is better to put an ugly pot with a cyclamen in a beautiful pot.
Enemies of cyclamen.
If you follow the rules of cyclamen care, neither insects, nor viral or bacterial diseases threaten your flower, but improper care of cyclamen at home can lead to rotting of the bulb during chronic overmoistening of the soil or to the appearance of spider mites with insufficient watering. Correct your mistakes as quickly as possible and do not allow them again, and then neither cyclamen nor you will have problems with it.
Cyclamen turns yellow.
If you follow the rules of watering the plant, and the cyclamen flower still turns yellow, it means it can be just hot. Spray it as often as possible and, if possible, find a cooler place for it, otherwise the cyclamen from the heat may begin to dry and the flowers. If the leaves began to turn yellow after the cyclamen has faded, it means that it is simply preparing for a period of rest, and your anxiety is in vain.
Cyclamen does not bloom.
If cyclamen gets a little moisture when watering or if you do not care about the required level of humidity in the room, you are unlikely to see the flowering of cyclamen. Cyclamen does not bloom in a too warm room, especially if it is not used to such a temperature. Sometimes, over time, the plant becomes accustomed to the heat in the dwelling and, if all other conditions are met by you, the cyclamen eventually begins to bloom.
Cyclamen after flowering
When flowering is completed, the leaves of cyclamen gradually turn yellow, which indicates that it is preparing for a dormant period. Yellow leaves are best removed, but not pruned, and unscrew until they are separated from the bulb. Watering is gradually reduced and the tuber resting in the ground is watered only occasionally, moving the plant to a shaded place until the cyclamen again shows signs of life.
Diseases, pests and problems
Due to abnormal conditions or lack of care when growing cyclamen, it can trigger various diseases or pests. Excessive watering and excessive fertilizer are especially harmful to this plant.
The main problems with the maintenance of indoor cyclamen are the following:
- Yellowing leaves. Most often this problem occurs when there is an excess of moisture in the soil. It is recommended to reduce watering. Another reason could be the wrong temperature. If the flower is near the heaters, move it to a cooler place. If the leaves begin to turn yellow after the flowering of cyclamen, it means that the flower goes into a state of rest.
- Lack of flowering. This is usually due to a lack of moisture or a too high temperature indicator in the room. When restoring the necessary conditions, flowering, as a rule, resumes.
- Root rot. One of the most common problems of indoor cyclamen with non-compliance with the rules of watering. When the roots rot, the flower is removed from the pot and the affected part of the tuber is cut. After that, the tubers are washed in a weak solution of manganese and planted in a new soil.
- Deformation of leaves, peduncles and flowers, weak flowering. All these are signs of lesions with a cyclamen mite. It is necessary to take measures immediately after the first signs are detected, since this insect spreads very fast. First of all, it is necessary to immediately remove all affected parts of the flower, and then thoroughly treat with Phyto ferm or Agravertin. The treatment is repeated 2-3 times with an interval of a week.
- Drying of leaves at the edges and the appearance of white dots on the leaves. This indicates the appearance of such a pest as thrips. The affected plant should be isolated from other flowers, in order to avoid the spread of the pest, after which they are treated with insecticide (Decis, Inta-vir), following the recommendations on the packaging of the preparation.
- Gray scurf on leaves. This is a symptom of gray mold. It can be caused by an excess of moisture in the soil or too frequent top dressing (about how and when to feed the cyclamen, read here). In order to preserve the flower, it is necessary to transplant into fresh soil and be treated with a fungicide — Fundanazole, Rovral (you can learn about how to properly transplant cyclamen here).
How to care?
Cyclamen is considered quite a capricious plant - for a successful growth it requires a number of conditions that must be observed.
For an adult plant, light soil is needed, which will allow the roots to get enough oxygen and not retain excess water. Cyclamen soil can be prepared by yourself or purchased at the store. At home, the substrate is made of leaf earth, sand, humus and peat in a ratio of 3: 1: 1: 1.
Watering and humidity
Experienced growers recommend watering cyclamen through a pan or along the edge of a pot. Do not allow moisture on the flowers or leaves of the plant. Water for irrigation should be at room temperature. It is possible to use cooled boiled water. If an hour later in the pan water remained, it must be drained. If the air in the room is too dry, in no case should the flower be sprayed. To increase the humidity, pallets with moss or wet pebbles are placed near the cyclamen pot.
Care at rest
After flowering, cyclamen sheds leaves and exposes the tuber. At this time, the pot with the tuber is placed with a cool dark place, watering is reduced, keeping the soil moist. This period lasts about three months, after which the stage of active growth begins.
Details on how to care for cyclamen during the rest period, read our material.