Almost every garden grows pepper with other popular vegetables. Despite abundant fruiting, there is a risk of reduction or loss of the crop due to damage by harmful microorganisms or diseases. Prevent a problem by arming yourself with knowledge that will help you recognize the first signs of disease. In this article we will learn why the leaves may fall off the peppers, who is to blame for this and what can be done and how to deal with the scourge.
The main diseases of bell peppers and their treatment at home and in the greenhouse
When growing peppers, special attention is paid to preventive measures. Regular care and inspection of bushes is necessary for the timely detection of pests or diseases. Affected plants may die for 1-2 weeks, if the cause is not identified in time and the treatment is not done.. Abundant greens and a moist environment create favorable conditions for the development of various diseases or the invasion of insects.
The fungal disease develops predominantly at the stage of shoot growth, therefore it is dangerous for seedlings and adult plants grown in greenhouse conditions.
The cause is pathogens of various species that are stored in the seeds, soil and crop residue. Too thick planting of seedlings and poor-quality aeration can provoke the formation of black legs, which is more often observed in greenhouses.
Signs characterizing the fungal disease:
- change the color of the lower part of the stem to brown,
- decay on the darkened area,
- drying of the whole bush.
When detecting the first signs of a black leg, the following recommendations should be followed:
- at the very beginning of the development of the disease you need to water the beds with a weak solution of potassium permanganate,
- gush up the ground around the bushes,
- spud the root of the pepper,
- if the ground surface is too wet, you need to sprinkle the beds with river sand (ash, activated carbon),
- if the disease has hit the seedlings, you should ventilate the room, reduce the amount of watering.
The disease is caused by the development of the fungus Botrytis cinerea. A characteristic feature is the formation of wet brown spots in the lower part of the stem, in the zone of its contact with the ground. After a short period of time, a grayish taint appears on the affected area. The active phase of the development of fungal disease occurs in conditions of high humidity in combination with air temperatures above 20 ° C.
If during the inspection revealed the first signs of the disease, it is necessary to treat the beds with medical preparations:
The infected plants should be removed from the plantation or transplanted into a separate container.
The defeat of pepper gray mold
Lightning bacterial wilt
The pathogenic bacteria in lightning wilt penetrate into the vascular system of the stem, thereby blocking the flow of nutrients. In addition to hunger, the plant is poisoned by toxic substances secreted by bacteria, which leads to the rapid death of the culture. A distinctive feature of the disease are yellowing spots on the foliage, indicating the drying of the plant, as well as the white substance secreted by incision of the stem.
If there are signs of wilting, it is recommended to remove the affected plant from the garden bed. The rest of the bushes to handle special preparations containing copper.
Refers to fungal diseases (fungus Phytophthora infestans), capable of destroying the crop of pepper. At an early stage of development, there are signs similar to the black leg. After 2 weeks, brown spots spread throughout the plant, including fruit. In dry weather, the leaves quickly dry out, shrinking. The process of decay is accelerated at high humidity, so do not hesitate to process.
When identifying the first signs you need to immediately do the processing of the beds, using special preparations:
- Hamair (for irrigation - 1 tab. Per 5 l of water, for spraying - 2 tablets per 1 l of water),
- Alirin-B (for irrigation - 2 tab. On a bucket of water, for spraying - 2 tab. On 1 l of water),
- Ridomil Gold (for spraying 10 g. Funds for 2 liters of water),
- Fitosporin-M (for spraying 10 g. Of powder per 5 liters of water).
On large plantations it is more rational to use more powerful drugs: Bravo, Quadris.
The initial stage of late blight
The defeat of pepper with kladosporiozom: why it occurs and how to spray?
The disease is caused by the development of the fungus Fulvia fulva, often affects greenhouse plants grown in conditions of high humidity. Brown spot is tolerated by spores that fall on the soil, garden tools, clothing, and greenhouse surfaces.
Signs of cladosporiosis:
- brown spots appeared on the outside of the leaves,
- a gray scurf appears on the outside of the foliage with a velvety effect,
- rotting of the stem and fruits.
If you find the first signs should immediately begin treatment:
- reduce the intensity of watering the beds,
- ensure good ventilation of the greenhouse,
- treat affected plants with special preparations (Barrier, Barrier).
Fusarium and sclerocynia on the leaves of seedlings
The disease is caused by a fungus (Fusarium), which affects the stem vessels. As a result of the blockage of the ducts in the stem, the access of nutrients and moisture is blocked, the plant begins to die from toxin poisoning. An abundance of moisture (both in the air and in the soil) can provoke the development of a fungal disease.
- the leaves on the pepper begin to curl, wither,
- even with good care the greens turn yellow
- the stem at the radical part becomes brown,
- the development of rot on the roots, fruits.
Since fusarium is an incurable disease, prevention plays an important role in the agricultural practices of pepper.
Preventive measures at home from Fusarium
- before seeding the seed material, it is necessary to treat it with Fundazole (100 ml of product for 10 grams of seeds),
- periodically water the soil with a weak solution of potassium permanganate,
- after harvesting the beds, carefully select the crop residues.
When detecting the first signs of Fusarium, it is recommended to treat the beds with Fundazole or Topsin-M (0.2%). Drugs are not able to overcome the disease, they only suspend the development process.
Fusarium and sclerocynia on pepper seedlings
Disease black bacterial spotting
From the moment of emergence of the seedlings above the ground, the plant can attack black bacterial spot. A characteristic sign of the disease are dark spots spreading along the stem and leaves. On the border with the green part you can see a yellow border.
Prevention is standard, including the correct choice of variety and the procedure for disinfecting soil and seed. It is hardly possible to save the affected plant, so it is important to immediately remove the diseased bushes in order to prevent the spread of the disease. Place the excavation to be sanitized.
Black bacterial pepper spot
Bacterial pepper cancer and methods of dealing with it
The disease belongs to the bacterial, development is promoted by increased humidity and warm weather, as well as thickening of the beds. A characteristic feature is considered to be dark spots (dots) spreading across the plant, which subsequently merge with each other, forming a large crust. WITHThe front spots have a lighter color, which helps to determine the diagnosis. Small holes may appear.
If signs are detected, the culture should be sprayed with copper sulphate or preparations containing copper. Affected bushes should be removed from the bed.
Bacterial Cancer Peppers
Fighting tobacco mosaic
Tobacco mosaic - a viral disease characterized by the penetration of the virus into cells and the destruction of chlorophyll. As a result of cell death, a marble pattern is formed on the surface of the sheet, with beige and emerald inclusions.
Disinfection of soil and seedlings before planting, as well as the right choice of variety, will help prevent the disease.
Pepper pests and how to deal with them
Destroy the crop can in addition to diseases and pests. One of the most dangerous is aphid. Feeding on the juice of pepper, it can destroy a bush in a few days, and leaves and flowers will begin to fall off. It spreads quickly on the beds, so it’s not worth delaying with insecticide treatment. In order to keep the working solution prepared from Karbofos or Keltan longer on green, it is necessary to supplement it with crushed soap.
Pepper bush affected by aphids
Greater hassle causes gardeners spider mite. Located on the lower part of the leaves, it sucks the juice from the pepper. Immediately after the discovery of the parasite, it is necessary to treat the beds with infusion prepared from a glass of chopped onion (garlic), dandelion leaves and 1 tbsp. l soap. All ingredients after adding a bucket of water insist for several hours.
Pepper, affected by aphids
Among other pests pepper slugs are naked. They damage greens and fruits, causing decay. You can get rid of them by spraying the plants with Strela (50 grams of powder for a bucket of water).
Identified holes in the leaves indicate the invasion of the Colorado potato beetle. The pest and its larvae are incredibly voracious, so it is important not to lose time and collect insects from the bushes. After harvesting, spray pepper with Commodore (1 ml per bucket of water).
The worst enemy of gardeners - the Colorado potato beetle
Enjoy the leaves loves and bear. Arranging traps and spraying the smell of kerosene in places of its accumulation helps in fighting it.
Pepper treatment for pests and diseases of folk remedies at home
To avoid problems when growing Bulgarian pepper, you can, if you follow the basic rules of prevention at home.
- When choosing a seed or seedling, preference should be given to disease resistant varieties.
- It is recommended to store seeds in a dry ventilated area.
- Before planting, the soil should be treated in order to destroy various pathogens and larvae.
- Before planting, the seeds are soaked in a solution of copper sulfate, a weak solution of potassium permanganate or special preparations.
- Every day you need to inspect the beds in order to early identify foci. If necessary, spray or treat plants selected folk methods.
- Seedlings should be planted with respect to distance in order to avoid thickening.
- When watering to monitor the level of soil moisture. Excessive moisture provokes the development of fungal diseases.
Armed with knowledge gardeners easier to protect the crop from pests and diseases. One has only to comply with the systematic care of the culture. And then healthy bushes will grow even on the windowsill in the apartment.
Diseases of pepper seedlings
Seedlings - like a child, which you need in every way to protect and prevent all possible problems. Therefore, it is important to know what you can encounter when growing pepper seedlings.
Characteristic diseases of seedlings of peppers:
- white, gray and top rot,
- late blight,
- fusarium and sclerocyny,
- powdery mildew,
- verticillary wilting pepper,
- black bacterial spot,
- lightning bacterial wilt,
- soft bacterial rot,
- bacterial cancer of pepper,
- tobacco mosaic,
Diseases in the seedlings of peppers are often caused by violation of the rules of cultivation and careless actions: a broken twig, damaged root during tillage or planting, lack or excess of trace elements in the soil, improper watering.
With mechanical damage, you can adjust the cultivation agrotechnology and everything will return to normal. In case of an infectious disease, much more measures should be taken, because they spread to other plants and, accumulating in the soil, can affect the crops planted in this place for several years.
A more detailed description of the photo for each disease of pepper (including seedlings) is given below in the article.
Conducting preventive measures will surely give positive results. It has long been known that avoiding a problem is the best solution. Peppers also have some recommendations for the prevention of disease.
- The first preventive measure is carried out in the autumn - the earth is dug up about 25 cm deep. This is a standard procedure that allows you to destroy most of the fungal diseases and pests. They just die in the cold.
- The second important approach when growing peppers is to follow the rules of crop rotation. They can not be planted two years in a row in one place. And they are not planted after other Solanaceae. Otherwise, the diseases accumulate and the risk of damage tends to be 100%.
- The third most important procedure is proper watering. The drip irrigation system would be ideal. Waterlogging leads to putrefactive phenomena on the plant, so you need to do it very carefully and if there is a lot of rain, it is best to stop watering.
Even following such simple rules can prevent up to 90% of all possible diseases. Now consider the main diseases and measures to combat them.
These are the most common diseases in peppers and other representatives of Solanaceae. Their share among common diseases reaches 80%. Due to the fact that the spores of fungi are easily transferred by various insects and wind. They are also stored in the soil for a very long time and, when creating favorable conditions, begin to develop, striking the plants.
It is more common in seedlings and large bushes when grown in a greenhouse. Caused by various pathogens that spread in the soil through the remnants of other plants. The occurrence of the disease can provoke with insufficient ventilation of the greenhouse and with a thick planting.
It is possible to determine this disease through a decaying and drying stem, first in the lower part. For its timely detection it is important to inspect the plants as often as possible.
Prevention is that before planting seedlings, seeds and soil are treated with manganese solution. It is impossible to prevent over-wetting in the bushes, and with a thick landing it is necessary to thin out.
It is more common when grown in a greenhouse. Distributed by spores that can get into the soil through garden tools, by wind, with plant debris or insects.
Manifested in the form of brown spots on the outer part of the leaves, and on the inside appears gray scurf. Leads to rotting of the stem and fruits.
As the first signs appear, you need to reduce the amount of watering, more often air the greenhouse and the bushes with antifungal preparations.
White rot (sclerocinia)
Called: Sclerotinia sclerotiorum
This fungal disease appears on the stem closer to the root in the form of a white bloom. Later on, black seals appear inside the stem, from which a fungus grows, which completely poisons the whole plant. The disease begins to develop in conditions of high humidity and low temperature.
Prevention and control:
- Watering should be done only with warm water.
- When the greenhouse method of cultivation is necessary to regularly ventilate the room.
- Already damaged plants are extremely difficult to save, so they are completely removed.
Called: Leveillula taurica.
The disease is more characteristic of the greenhouse growing method. Large spots of irregular shape are formed on the upper parts of the leaves and are covered with white bloom. With the development of the disease the leaves are covered with it completely, are deformed, dry and fall off. The plant can lose all foliage.
The disease is actively developing in dry weather at high temperatures and low air humidity.
- It is necessary to create the necessary growing conditions - regular watering and irrigation of plants.
- The diseased parts of the plant are removed, and the earth and the whole structure of the greenhouse is disinfected.
- After the discovery of the disease at the initial stage, they provide increased humidity and the bushes are treated with fungicides, contact and systemic.
Verticillary pepper wilting
Called: Verticillium dahliae, V. albo-atrum, Verticillium spp.
Often manifested before flowering. The leaves grow small, dark green, and on the bottom there are growing spots. They turn yellow, die and fall off. The disease develops from the bottom up and as a result only the upper leaves remain. But over time, the whole bush dies. On the incision of the stem can be seen vascular necrosis and darkening.
The disease develops at temperatures above + 25ºС and low soil moisture. With the onset of a cold snap, the plant may begin to recover. Often occurs because of planting pepper in the same place several times in a row or cultures close to it.
What measures need to be taken:
- After the growing season all the bushes and their remnants are removed.
- Compliance with the rules of crop rotation.
- Growing seedlings on decontaminated soil.
- During the growing season, the soil moisture must be maintained at 80%.
- It is possible for the prevention of making biofungicide trichodermin or water prestige.
Such diseases are quite insidious, as they are difficult to diagnose. Symptoms are often similar to other diseases. Lead to local or widespread lesions.
Их распространителями являются насекомые и проникают они в растение через микроотверстия. Lead to putrefactive phenomena, necrosis, tumors, burns.
Black bacterial spotting
Caused by: Xanthomonas euvesicatoria
Manifested in the form of dark growing spots. A strip of yellow color is visible along the edges of the spots and as a result the bush dies. It may even sprout.
What measures to take:
- Seeds are soaked for 10-12 minutes in a solution of potassium permanganate for disinfection, after which they can be planted.
- The soil for planting must be disinfected by any means.
- Periodically, seedlings are sprayed with Bord liquid.
- Already infected plants are disposed of.
Soft Bacterial Rot
Called: Pectobacterium carotovora, P. atrosepticum, Dickeya chrysanthemi.
Also affects the entire vessels and the bush. The power supply stops, the plant fades and dies.
Symptoms include hollow stem and leaf discoloration. The main reason is high humidity.
- Before planting, disinfect seeds and soil.
- Provide regular airing and do not allow water stagnation during watering.
- Remove all affected bushes.
The main distributors of viruses are insects - aphids, thrips, nematodes. Diseases of this nature are less common, but they carry a greater threat.
A distinctive feature of such diseases is the defeat of plant cells by the virus. As a result, it leads to pathologies in the development, growth and deformations of different parts of the bushes.
Such a name this disease has received because the virus destroys chlorophyll. As a result, spots appear, forming a marble pattern on the leaves. Plant cells gradually die off.
What to do to fight:
- Treat the seeds before planting.
- When picking and transplanting, avoid damage through which the virus can penetrate.
- Periodically it is necessary to process bushes from pests of carriers of this disease.
- In the greenhouses you can not leave the remains of plants and you need to regularly disinfect the room and soil.
One week before transplanting, seedlings of peppers are treated with boric acid. This procedure is repeated once a week after disembarkation.
The second name is phytoplasmosis. It appears from the top shoots of pepper, the edges of the leaves are curled up and dry. In the future, it is thrown over the entire bush of the plant, the fruits take on an irregular shape and turn red early.
The causative agents are insects, so the main struggle goes on with them. The affected plants must be removed and disposed of, and after harvesting, the land must be treated with special preparations.
Pests and methods of dealing with them
Let us consider the topic in more detail: the pests of sweet pepper seedlings and the fight against them, photos of damaged plants are attached.
Therefore, even before sowing peppers for seedlings, it is worth knowing as much as possible about prevention and the main pest control measures.
Aphid. Amazed plant covered with sweet dripsespecially noticeable on the stems and in the axils of the leaves. The larvae feed on juices of young shoots, peppers wither, stop flowering and the formation of fruits. Noticing the first signs of aphids, you need to start a fight with her.
The most effective way is insecticide spraying. Suitable karbofos aqueous solution or universal mixture, diluted according to the instructions on the package. From folk remedies, you can use an infusion of tobacco dust or ash, which is abundantly sprayed with stems and branches.
You can handle plants during flowering and growth, but after the formation of ovaries spraying must stop.
Spider mite. More often appears in hot windless weather. On the reverse side of the leaves and stems, sticky webs are noticeable, with a strong lesion the plant fades, slows growth and dies. As a prophylaxis can be carried out regular spraying with warm water, more often air the greenhouse and remove the film from the landings.
Affected plants wash with an aqueous solution of liquid soapmixed with fresh onion or garlic juice. Processing is possible at all stages of plant life.
Slugs. Garden slugs are especially not indifferent to juicy greens of sweet peppers. They eat the leaves, greatly weakening the plants and stimulating the rotting of the stems and fruits. They appear more often in warm and humid weather, almost disappear during arid heat. To fight slugs it is important to remove weeds from plantings, maximally clearing the soil.
Around the ridges with peppers dig up grooves, which are regularly sprinkled with ash. Next to the beds you can lay sheets of slate, roofing material or other material. Every evening, the sheets are lifted, the gathered pests are collected by hand and destroyed.
Colorado beetle. In greenhouses is rare, but can affect plants planted in the ground. Insects are harvested by hand.gently shaking the bushes. Helps and spraying infusion of celandine. For prevention next to the pepper you can plant bush beans.
You can learn about the main methods of dealing with it here.
Pepper diseases and treatment methods
Here we consider the diseases of sweet pepper seedlings and the fight against them, photos of the course of diseases are given for your convenience.
Blackleg. Very frequent ailment, affects plants at the seedling stage. The lower part of the stem darkens and thinner.In severe cases, the plant fades quickly and dies. The reason may be abundant watering, leading to acidification of the soil, lowering the temperature, heavy, infertile soil.
Watering is carried out not at the root, but next to the stem. It also helps to dry the soil with wood ash. Diseased plants are sprayed with aqueous solutions of antibacterial drugs (for example, "Barrier").
Late blight. A disease characteristic of tomatoes and peppers. The fruits suffer from it: dark spots appear on the peppers, gradually covering the entire fruit. Eating such vegetables is impossible. To minimize the risk of late blight, it is better to grow hybrids resistant to the disease. Affected plants It is recommended to spray regularly with special products. ("Barrier" or "Barrier").
Gray rot. It is more common in film greenhouses with high humidity and low temperatures. When lowering to 15 degrees, gray rot spreads first to the fruit, and then to the entire above-ground part of the plant. Characteristic signs: brown spots with moldy stains and the smell of mustiness.
Spores of the fungus quickly spread through the greenhouse, and are removed from it along with the remains of plants. Noticing the first signs of gray mold, need to remove the affected parts of the plants and immediately burn them. Landings are sprayed with a “Barrier” or other antifungal agent.
Vertex Rot. Often found in unheated greenhouses and when kept in the soil under the film. On the leaves and fruits appear dark shiny areas with a characteristic putrid odor. Usually affects the upper parts of the plant, the disease spreads rapidly. The main reason - oversupply of nitrogen and potash fertilizers.
Calcium nitrate can cure affected bushes. Fruits that have reached technical maturity and are not affected by decay should be immediately harvested; burned peppers should be burned.
How to prevent diseases?
For the prevention of diseases of seedlings of Bulgarian pepper, it is important to comply some simple rules:
- In the greenhouse, the upper part of the soil changes annually. When grown in open ground every 2-3 years, the peppers are planted in a new place. You can not put them where last year grew eggplants, tomatoes and other nightshade.
- For growing it is better to choose hybridsresistant to fungal and viral diseases.
- Greenhouses and greenhouses must be completely disinfected after the end of the season. In year-round greenhouses, working without a break, sanitation is done twice a year.
- Seeds intended for growing seedlings should be disinfected with an aqueous solution of potassium permanganate or hydrogen peroxide. Read more about preparing seeds for planting.
- In the greenhouse or in the ground can not be planted weak, stunted or affected by pests seedlings. Purchased seedlings must be quarantined.
- Do not plant plants too closely and monitor the cleanliness of the rows.
- For the prevention of fungal landing diseases it is necessary to spray drugs containing copper.
Regular inspections of landings will help to detect diseases and pests. At least once a week, you should carefully study the fruits, stems and leaves, monitor growth and the formation of ovaries. Having found the first signs of indisposition, take immediate action. It is very difficult to treat a neglected disease, it is a severely affected plant and it will have to destroy the fruits.
Disease of Bulgarian pepper - a consequence of improper care
With black leg
In the summer you need a few more times.
- To avoid pollination. Otherwise, sweet peppers will taste bitter, and bitter ones will not make you poignant.
- Sweet Bulgarian pepper, like other nightshade, is subject to many viruses. Pathogenic bacteria that cause pepper diseases in the greenhouse are spread by pests, but many are caused by improper care. If you follow the recommendations of experienced gardeners: fertilize the soil before planting, process it from insects and observe the desired level of humidity in the greenhouse - the plant will not get sick.
- Diseases of the fungus are very easy to predict (wet summer, mushrooms grow in large quantities in forests) and avoid them in greenhouse conditions (regular airing, collecting condensate from the walls of the greenhouse and strict control over the minimum soil moisture). Consider the main ones.
- Yellowing and drying leaves, stunting and irregularly shaped fruit are the main signs of stolbur. It is spread by insects, so prevention consists in systematically loosening the beds and thoroughly weeding them, as well as processing them with chemical and folk remedies for pests.
- Calcium nitrate or lime milk.
- Bacterial spotting.
- Regularly loosen the soil and spud the plant,
- How to treat Bulgarian pepper disease?
- Bulgarian pepper or, as it is also called, sweet is a heat-loving plant. It comes from Africa and is accustomed to sunshine, a warm breeze and low humidity. Therefore, in our climatic conditions this or that disease of Bulgarian pepper or various pests can appear. Today we will talk about how this plant is affected, what insects can cause damage to the crop, how to prevent it.
- There is rot in the root part of the plant, which leads to its death. The affected peppers should be immediately removed, and the beds with the remaining 3% solution of copper sulphate should be poured and powdered with ashes.
Feed the plants
The land around the plants can be thrashed with straw or grass, so that the earth retains moisture longer and weeds less.
Leaves and a strong stem 3-4 mm thick at the roots.
Gray rot occurs due to high humidity
Consequences of Fusarium on Pepper Harvest
In addition to these diseases, Bulgarian pepper can also be affected by pests. This is:
Fern or leaf curl virus.
All these diseases occur due to high humidity or due to improper care. Treated by drying the soil, loosening and sprinkling with wood ash. Recommend to remove the affected bushes and burn them in order to prevent infection of other plants. If the disease has just begun to appear, then pepper is sprayed with fungicides or means "Fundazol".
Sweet Pepper Disease
- From the phytophthora helps spraying infusion of garlic.
- A mixture of mullein with superphosphate. At 1 plant to make 0.5 liters of the mixture. The following dressing must be done through
- After landing should
- In May, it’s time to cook the ground for peppers, if it has not been prepared since autumn. Best of all, peppers feel in the beds after cucumbers and cabbage. They do not tolerate fresh manure - it is better to take rotten compost and bring it into the ground - for 1m250-60 g of superphosphate, 20 g of potassium salt.
- Excess moisture and prolonged rains lead to the fact that at any stage of ripening vegetables can become covered with gray mold. Coping with the infected parts of the pepper and spraying with a Barrier or other fungicides will help to cope with this nuisance.
- Its characteristic feature is the rich yellow color of bushes and their fast wilting. In this disease of bell pepper, black vascular contours are observed at the base of the stem and stalks. Unfortunately, the treatment does not bring proper results, so the affected seedlings must be removed. After that you need to loosen the soil around the remaining plants and reduce watering to 1 time per week.
Diseases of sweet pepper and their treatment
Before sowing, it is recommended to disinfect seeds and soil.
- Like all cultivated plants, diseases of the Bulgarian pepper (photo attached) are divided into viral, bacterial and fungal. Most often, this plant of the nightshade family can detect signs of the following diseases:
- To do this, in 10 liters of water, stir 100-150 g of crushed dried leaves or flakes of garlic heads, leave for a day and spray the plant with this solution. You can also apply 1% Bordeaux liquid. To prevent the occurrence of phytophthora, peppers should be planted away from tomatoes and potatoes.
- 2 weeks. On a bucket of water, take 2 tbsp. l Nitrofoski and this mixture to water the plants. The main thing is that the solution does not get on the leaves, for this it should be carefully poured at the root. Otherwise, burns will appear on the leaflets.
- Especially closely monitor the moisture of the earth. Peppers do not like dryness. It is necessary to water them often and regularly, but not too plentifully.
- Planting in the ground or in the greenhouse should begin when the air temperature reaches 15 °. Frost is detrimental to peppers, so planting should not be done before the end of May.
- Pepper diseases of the pepper and the fight against them photo
- Light yellow spots are a sign of kladosporioz
- Melon aphid,
- The most common causes of these diseases are too thick planting bushes, cold weather and excessive watering. That is why it is recommended to reduce the amount of water, thin out and break through the beds when the first symptoms appear. Strongly diseased plants should be destroyed, and the rest should be treated with chemical preparations. For each disease, it is recommended to use the most effective ones: with a black stem - “Barrier”, with late blight - “Barrier”, “Oxyhom”, 1% solution of Bordeaux fluid, with spotted wilting - “Fundazol”, with mildew - “Radomil Gold” .
And, of course, under favorable weather conditions, when it is not very hot and not cold, no disease of Bulgarian pepper will spoil your harvest.
Most often this plant is attacked by the following insects:
- With white rot, the upper part of the plant withers, and the bottom of the stem rots,In greenhouses, peppers are most often affected.
- If necessary, you can feed the plants a couple more times. All feeding is carried out at night, on wet ground.If you pour peppers, then they can hit the top rot. If the peppers dry up, especially during the setting of the peppers, then the fruit will have a bitter taste. It is best to water in the morning, pour water gently, under the root.
- Peppers love moistureThis mushroom is also called Vertex. It is characterized by dark spots that appear at the top of the fruit. Most often, this is due to insufficient soil moisture and an increased concentration of calcium and nitrogen in it. Diseased vegetables should be removed, and bushes treated with calcium nitrate (0.4%).
- Also called brown spot or leaf mold. Scapes and leaves of pepper become covered with light specks, on the place of which a dark patina is formed. The stem and fruit ovary cease development and fall off. To prevent the defeat of the bushes will help free landing of the material and its regular thinning. At the first signs of such a disease of peppers, spraying of copper sulfate (3%) or infusion of garlic is recommended.Slugs Diseases of the fruits of pepper
Bulgarian sweet pepper is quite popular among gardeners. He, like most vegetables, is subject to various diseases. In order not to miss the initial stage and have time to prevent the contamination of a large number of plants, you should know the main symptoms of diseases of sweet pepper and methods to combat them.
- Aphid, which appears on the leaves, and then spreads to the whole plant. This insect drinks all the juices, and as a result the pepper dies.
- Gray spots are characterized by spots on the fruits of light green color and brown dots on them,
- Gray rot
- When the flowers for the peppers need to watch especially carefully. If it gets too hot (more than 33-34 ° C), then the flowers can fall off and the peppers indented, so it is best to shade the strong heat of the plant.
- Water should be warm
Therefore, they need to be watered before transplanting.
Black bacterial spotting
This disease can occur when the first germination. And it is easy enough to recognize it: dark and quickly expanding spots appear on the seedlings. If you do not start the fight in time, the peppers will simply die.
You need to do the following:
- Старайтесь покупать сорта перцев, которые не восприимчивы к бактериям.
- Обязательно проводить обработку зерен перед посадкой. К примеру, их нужно замочить в растворе перманганата калия на 15 минут, затем промыть и сразу же высаживать. Seeds can also be treated with a drug like Fitolavin.
- Having noticed the affected seedlings, remove them immediately.
- Do not forget to prepare the ground before planting: be sure to disinfect using the method of calcination or freezing.
- And several times be sure to process the peppers Bordeaux liquid.
Ways to combat viral diseases
Such diseases are carried with insects. They are quite rare, but much more dangerous than bacterial diseases. Their main point is that the virus will not live without its host cell, therefore only when it falls into the cell, the virus begins to develop, causing changes in the plants. For example, seedlings begin to slow down in growth, the stem and leaves darken and die.
In our material we will examine in more detail the issue of growing peppers in the greenhouse.
Here we will tell about the basic rules of planting peppers in open ground.
Do you want to plant beets on the plot? Here we will tell about its cultivation from seed.
Classification of diseases and possible causes of their occurrence.
When growing seedlings of sweet peppers, vegetable growers, danger lurks in the form of diseases and pests, the timely treatment of which will help not only to preserve the plants, but also to get a good harvest of the beloved vegetable. The incidence of culture occurs, as a rule, due to improper care of her.
All diseases can be divided into:
Non-infectious causes improper farming practices of seedlings, that is, untimely watering or vice versa, oversaturation of soil with moisture, temperature drops, poor soil or illiterate fertilizing of plants. Such diseases are easily eliminated by the resumption of proper care: watering, feeding, maintaining optimum air temperature, sufficient lighting and humidity.
Bacterial diseases appear as a result of infection by bacteria that can penetrate seedlings through the soil or poor quality seed, and violation of the rules of care and cultivation will only aggravate the disease, giving it fertile ground for further development.
Viral diseases cause certain groups of viruses, which can also be present in the soil, seeds or transmitted by insects. Rain and wind also contribute to the infection of plants with viruses.
Fungal diseases - the most common among all diseases of seedlings of sweet pepper, occur when the fungi of various nature that are widespread in the environment hit the plants.
Mycoplasmal diseases appear from the effects on plants of certain microorganisms that are carried by insects or can be found in the soil. Only the plants themselves and their fruits suffer from such diseases, but these diseases do not affect the quality of the seeds.
To diagnose a disease and begin adequate treatment of plants, it is necessary to have an idea about each illness, otherwise, you can lose the entire harvest.
Such problems, most often, occur due to improper nutrition of seedlings. The lack of certain trace elements can freely lead to the inhibition of plants, which can be observed by their appearance.
These diseases include:
- Lack of nitrogen, which is manifested by slower growth, a decrease in ovaries and fruits, and a change in the color of the leaves, which become pale and dry. Eliminating the cause of the disease is very simple, it is only necessary to feed the seedlings with nitrogen-containing fertilizer (a tablespoon of urea or ammonium nitrate is used for 10 liters of water), but not to overdo it. The excess of nitrogen is also harmful, as well as its shortage.
- Potassium deficiency. The trace element is necessary for plants to set and grow fruit. Symptoms - yellowing of the lower leaves of plants, which, subsequently fade and fall. Properly feeding the seedlings with potash fertilizer, you can quickly get rid of this scourge. To do this, you can prepare a solution of potassium monophosphate (2 g per liter of water).
- If the seedlings do not have enough boron, then the growth of leaves stops, and those that are there, wither and fall. To eliminate the problem, fertilizer with boron content (2 g of boric acid per 10 liters of water) must be applied to the soil.
- Phosphorus starvation manifests itself by changing the color of the leaves from green to purple. If you do not feed plants with phosphorus-containing substances (2 tablespoons of superphosphate per 10 liters of water), then the stems of the seedlings will gradually become depleted, and the plants will die.
- Calcium deficiency causes underdevelopment of the root system, the upper parts of the leaves begin to turn yellow, and the lower ones remain green. With a prolonged lack of calcium, the leaves are covered with yellow-gray speckles, and the growing point dies. To prevent this, at the first signs of symptoms, it is necessary to apply calcium-based fertilizers (2 g of calcium nitrate is dissolved in 1 liter of water).
- Magnesium deficiency is noticeable on the old leaves of the plants, which turn completely yellow, starting from the edges, becoming covered with brown spots, and then fall. Also, damage affects flowers and fruits. The problem is easily solved by fertilizing with magnesium (15 g of magnesium sulphate per 10 liters of water).
It affects the vascular system of plants. Such bacteria block access to all nutrients, with the result that the seedlings begin to fade.
Detect the problem can be, if notch the stem of the plant. From there a white liquid will flow out, which is the product of the vital activity of this type of bacteria. In order to prevent the occurrence of the disease, seeds are planted before planting in the following solution - 2 garlic cloves are crushed and mixed with a small amount of water. The duration of etching is 30-40 minutes.
The soil for growing seedlings in pots and in the greenhouse is disinfected with a strong solution of potassium permanganate. Sick plants are removed, and healthy ones are treated with copper-containing preparations (with a solution of 20 g of copper sulphate and 10 liters of water).
Cucumber Mosaic or Curly
Despite its name, the disease can deprive the gardeners not only of the crop of cucumbers, but also of peppers.
The disease is divided into several forms:
- Transient, in which the seedlings lose their Tugor (internal pressure), as a result of which the lightning dries out, remaining green.
- Brown that occurs when budding seedlings. Its symptoms are wilting of the shoots and leaves, their drying and the acquisition of brown color. The disease spreads through the plant from the bottom up.
- Yellow, which is characterized by yellowing as shoots and stems, with their subsequent deformation. As a result, the plants stop growing, and the fruits are not tied.
- Dwarf, in which plants are stunted, forming small, gnarled leaves on short shoots. The ovaries are formed little, and the fruits grow crooked and ugly.
To avoid the disease, it is necessary to carefully prepare the soil for planting, treating it with a strong solution of manganese. Also, it is necessary to remove weeds in time, and to fight insect vectors. Sick plants are subject to destruction, and healthy ones are treated with insecticides Aktara, Aktelik, Akarin, Fitoverm, etc., strictly following the instructions for use.
Manifested in the upper part of the plant in the form of reddish strokes or stripes. The leaves are deformed and become fragile and brittle. Damaged plants must be removed, and the soil at the place of their growth is treated with a dark pink solution of potassium permanganate. Healthy seedlings of sweet pepper are recommended to be sprayed with a 15% trisodium phosphate solution (100 g of the drug per liter of water).
It affects plants in the fall. Symptoms are the appearance of black or brown spots on the leaves, which affects the productivity of seedlings, sometimes the fruits are damaged. Damaged plants are treated with Cumulus, Tiovit, Jet, following the instructions for use. Spraying is not recommended for more than two times per season.
Fusarium pepper wilting
Called by a fungus that develops inside the plant stalks, forming red-brown stripes, causing the seedlings to die. Manifested by fading of the lower leaves, which first lose their color. To avoid disease, seeds should be disinfected with Fundazole (0.1 g of the drug is used per 10 g of seeds). Sick plants are dug and burned.
Such diseases include stolbur (phytoplasmosis). It is transmitted with the help of tsikadok. Manifested in plants growing in greenhouses.
- changing the color of the leaves to yellow or yellow-green,
- dwarfism of plants,
- changing the shape (twisting) of leaves,
- plant bushiness
- small fruits and seeds prone to internal germination.
The disease is not treatable. To avoid its occurrence, you should use seeds that are resistant to mycoplasmal infections, timely remove weeds and remains of diseased plants, spray plants with fungicides against pests: Fufanon (10 ml of the drug per 10 liters of water) or Karbofos (60 g per 10 liters of water).
The rich harvest of peppers depends on what kind of seedlings will be used for planting. Healthy and strong seedlings have excellent immunity from a variety of diseases. Is it not better to take proper care of the plants, in time bringing in moisture or top dressing, as well as take immediate measures when the first signs of morbidity appear, than to cry over the failed crop?
Diseases of pepper seedlings are divided into:
- Gray Rot (Sclerotinia)
- Late Blight (Phytophthora)
- Fusarium wilt (Fusarium)
- Black bacterial spotting
- Fast bacterial wilt
- Soft Bacterial Rot
- Tobacco mosaic
- Cucumber Mosaic
- Stolbur (phytoplasmosis)
- Bacterial Pepper Cancer
Fungal diseases of sweet pepper caused by phytopathogenic fungi that enter the plants through water pores, various mechanical damage (cracks, sunburn, holes made by pests), stomata and pores. Under their influence, irreversible structural changes begin, such as: wilting, ulcers, fungal patches, various types of spotting. Let's take a closer look at these diseases.
Bacterial Diseases of Sweet Peppers
As the name implies, bacterial diseases of pepper seedlings are caused by active bacteria. Infection, as a rule, occurs through the penetration of bacteria, through damage in the cover of leaves or holes in the stems. Damage can be both acquired and natural.
Bacteria carriers are animals and pests. If there are favorable conditions for reproduction, for example, rotting plants, the bacteria can be under the cover of soil for a long time.
Fast bacterial wilt
This disease affects the vascular system. Plants stop getting the micronutrients they need. Also, the bacteria in the process of their reproduction produce toxins as a result the plant fades. If you cut the stem, you can see the liquid is dull-white.
Ways of struggle:
- Cure the plant will not succeed, so you need to get rid of infected seedlings
- Before planting need to process the seeds in a solution of potassium permanganate
- If possible, prevent severe temperature drops.
- Do not allow moisture stagnation, it also badly affects seedlings
- Fertilize the soil with proven products.
- Process seedlings with copper-containing solutions.
Bacterial Pepper Cancer
The spread of bacterial cancer contributes to high humidity and temperature, especially this disease is widespread in film greenhouses and compacted plantings. The main symptoms are brown spots on the leaves, which, if not noticed in time, can hit the fruit. Gardeners nicknamed this disease leafy, as when shaking, leaves fall off the plant.
- The infected plant should be destroyed.
- Treat healthy bushes with preparations containing copper (blue vitriol).
- It is also recommended to treat the seedlings after planting "Fitolavin 300"
Viral diseases are very dangerous that can be transferred from plant to plant, both with the help of friction (the patient is healthy) and with the help of insects with piercing-sucking mouth apparatus. Infected saplings can disrupt metabolism, water and carbohydrate metabolism, and so on. Because of this, the growth of the plant itself or its parts slows down. Leaves and shoots may also begin to deform. Consider with you some types of viral diseases.
This disease causes the appearance of rot on the roots. Because of this, seedlings begin to lose in growth, which leads to dwarfism. Leaves shrink, dry and curl. Also, the plant may turn yellow. Infected fruits grow tasteless, inconspicuous and thin-walled. Sick sprouts quickly wither and dry. Carriers of the disease are cicadas, they usually appear in late May.
Methods of struggle:
- During the dangerous period, it is necessary 2-3 times to spray the beds with pepper insecticides, with an interval of treatment 1 time in 3 weeks.
As you can see, sweet pepper seedlings have many possible diseases, but do not be intimidated. If you follow our instructions and follow the rules of caring for seedlings, then you will definitely succeed. Treat your seedlings with love and warmth, and you can certainly enjoy the abundance of fruits of sweet pepper.