Bordeaux mixture - a drug that is used to protect plants from fungal infections. It has been used in gardening and agronomy for about 100 years. The name of the drug was due to the city in which it was created - Bordeaux. Proper use of this mixture will help to improve the ornamental properties and crop yields.
Composition and release form
This drug is an effective fungicide that can be used both for prevention and for the treatment of fungal diseases. Due to the composition Bordeaux mixture has a wide spectrum of action.
The main active component is poorly soluble copper compounds, which are formed as a result of the interaction of lime and copper sulfate. It is the active substance that provides protection from pests for a long period.
The Bordeaux mixture contains copper sulphate, lime mixture and water, which is added just before use.
The drug is available in powder form from two components. However, it is necessary to distinguish the Bordeaux mixture and mixture. Bags with a mixture available in several forms. It is necessary to pay attention to this, since as a result, 1% or 3% liquid can be obtained. For processing plants in early spring, it is best to use a 3% solution, and then it is recommended to replace it with 1%.
General description of the drug
You can buy such a tool in any store for gardeners. Its popularity is justified not only by availability, but also by a wide spectrum of action. Thus, the use of Bordeaux mixture is possible with:
- first signs of rye appearance,
- the development of coccomicosis,
- the formation of anthracnose on gooseberry,
- the formation of spot on the leaves of strawberry or raspberry.
The drug is suitable for the treatment of many cultures.. Most often it is used to combat:
- snow mold and rot on winter crops,
- late blight on potatoes and tomatoes,
- anthracnose on cucumbers, melons and watermelons,
- onion rot,
- fruit rot and spotting on an apple or pear tree,
- coccomycosis on cherry plum, cherry and plum,
- fungal lesions on shrubs and flowers,
- curly leaves in peaches.
Before using the tool, you should study the instructions in detail. The dosage and number of treatments depends on the particular culture and degree of infestation.
Features of the preparation of the mixture
Preparation of Bordeaux mixture should be carried out in accordance with the instructions that are attached to the preparation. The first thing you need to cook lime milk. To do this, 150 g of lime you need to take some water to get slaked lime. Add 5 liters of water to the resulting mass and mix everything thoroughly. Preparation of the mixture is best carried out in a vessel with a volume of about 10 liters. It should not be plastic. The last stage of the preparation of milk of lime is to filter the mixture from the lime pieces.
In a milk of lime you need to pour a bluestone into a thin stream. It should be noted that it should cool to room temperature. Mix well the liquids when mixing. A solution with a concentration of 1% will have a light blue color.
The result should be a weakly alkaline or neutral environment. You can check it with litmus paper or iron object. Wire or nail can be used as an iron object. If brown scurf appears on the metal, the solution should be slightly diluted with milk of lime.
The prepared composition is recommended to use immediately, since its shelf life should not exceed 10 hours. If the composition was stored longer than his time, then you need to add to the solution 15−20 grams of sugar.
To prepare a solution with a concentration of 3% can be the same method, only other proportions. At 400 grams of lime mass should be taken 300 grams of vitriol, and dissolve 5 liters of water. Water should not be added to the ready-made solution.
Compatibility with other means
The instructions for use Bordeaux mixture indicated that The product is incompatible with soap and chemicals.which have an insecticidal effect. An exception in this case is colloidal sulfur.
Experts do not recommend mixing the solution with carbon phosphorus and other organic compounds that contain phosphorus.
The liquid interacts well with fungicides of systemic exposure. In this case, their influence increases, therefore the destruction of the infection is possible even in the most neglected cases. Bordeaux mixture is most often used in combination with drugs such as Alet, Metalaxyl, Oxadixyl and Cymoxanil.
Safety at work
All gardeners know that the Bordeaux mixture is unsafe for human health. Therefore, when working with such a drug need to carefully follow all safety regulations.
To carry out the treatment of plants with such a tool is necessary only in protective clothing, which will help prevent the composition from reaching the skin, eyes and respiratory organs. To do this, use rubber gloves, a work suit, a respirator and a hat. Ingestion of even a small amount of the drug can lead to serious poisoning.
Metal poisoning in the mouth, vomiting and strong salivation speaks about poisoning. If such symptoms occur, first aid should be given. It consists in the following actions:
- The victim must have access to clean air.
- Mouth should be rinsed with water, and working clothes should be changed.
- Call a doctor immediately.
Adding an article to a new collection
Many summer residents on hearing the drug such as Bordeaux liquid. The use of fungicides in gardening began with it. We tell what Bordeaux liquid is, how to prepare and properly use it in the garden.
Bordeaux liquid, known to many summer residents, is the first fungicide in the world, still actively used to protect fruit and berry crops from fungal diseases. The mixture was invented in the 2nd half of the XIX century. French botanist P. Milhard, who lived in Bordeaux.
One of the first Bordeaux labels and a portrait of its inventor - Pierre Marie Millarde (1838-1902)
Nowadays, Bordeaux liquid is used to combat common plant diseases, such as:
- rust, scab, fruit rot, mealy dew (in fruit crops),
- macrosporosis, late blight (in tomatoes, potatoes),
- Septoria, peronosporosis, anthracnosis (in cucumbers),
- mildew (grapes),
- spotting (in raspberry, strawberry), etc.
The composition Bordeaux mixture
In essence, Bordeaux liquid is a solution of copper sulfate in lime milk (hydrated lime). Copper sulphate (copper sulphate) has a disinfecting effect, and in combination with calcium hydroxide (lime water) it forms copper sulphate compounds, which are able to effectively neutralize many harmful microorganisms.
How to cook Bordeaux mixture
Bordeaux liquid, the preparation of which is not particularly difficult, although less toxic than copper sulfate, still take care of your safety when starting to work with the mixture:
- all actions are carried out in protective clothing, as well as gloves, glasses, respirator,
- do not use the containers in which the solution was mixed, for later use,
- Dispose of the remaining solution, buried in the ground outside the territory of the garden.
Prepare the drug should be directly on the day of use. If work in the garden is transferred the next day, add 5–10 g of sugar to the fungicide to save it.
So, 1% Bordeaux mixture - step-by-step solution preparation:
Step 1 Prepare 2 non-metallic containers (suitable for glass, enamel or earthenware) with a volume of at least 10 liters.
Step 2 Dissolve 100 g of copper sulfate in 1-1.5 liters of hot water. Then gradually pour 4 liters of cold water.
Step 3 In the second tank extinguish 100-150 g of quicklime, pour 1-1.5 liters of hot water, and then gradually pour in 4 liters of cold water.
Step 4 Mix each solution thoroughly.
Step 5 Add a thin stream of copper sulfate solution into a container with a solution of lime (but not vice versa!) And mix gently.
You should have a bright blue liquid.
Check if there is too much vitriol in it. To do this, drop a stainless iron object (for example, a nail) there and take a close look: if copper has appeared on the metal, then you need to add a little more lime solution.
To prepare a 3% solution of Bordeaux liquid, use 300 g of copper sulphate and 450 g of lime.
Why we need Bordeaux mixture and how to dilute it, we figured out, now we will proceed to the question of how to properly apply this drug in your suburban area.
Bordeaux fluid: instructions for use
Bordeaux mixture is effective in spring for prophylactic ("blue") spraying: during the period of swelling or the beginning of bud break, plants are treated with a 3% solution of bordeaux liquid. During the period of active vegetation (when the plants already have leaves) a weaker, 1% solution of the fungicide is used.
Bordeaux liquid can not be mixed with other drugs, as well as used simultaneously with other fungicides.
In the fall Bordeaux mixture is used in a more concentrated form (3%) than with the early spring treatment, since the foliage of opal and burns can not be afraid. Autumn spraying will protect against fungal diseases of pome (pear, quince, apple) and stone fruit (cherry, apricot, plum) trees.
Bordeaux Cucumber Liquid
Just like tomatoes, cucumbers are sprayed with 1% Bordeaux liquid (1.5-2 liters per 10 square meters). The first prophylactic treatment is carried out at the stage of 2-3 true leaves, then repeated 2-3 times with an interval of 10-12 days.
The last spraying Bordeaux liquid should be carried out no later than 20-25 days before harvesting.
Bordeaux Grape Liquid
In the phase of the "green cone" (the kidney has not yet dismissed, the green tip is only visible), vines are sprayed with 3% Bordeaux liquid. During the growing season, use a weaker, 1% solution of the drug.
It is necessary to spray the leaves of plants from the outside and the inside.
Bordeaux Tomato / Tomato Liquid
If tomato seedlings show signs of disease (gray, brown or black spots on the leaves), treat the seedlings with 1% Bordeaux liquid with a spray bottle.
For the prevention of late blight and other diseases, spraying tomatoes with Bordeaux liquid is carried out from the end of June - beginning of July (or 2 weeks after planting) at the rate of 1.5-2 liters of solution per 10 square meters. Whole plants are sprayed 3-4 times with an interval of 10-14 days.
Bordeaux strawberry liquid
After snow melting, garden strawberries should be treated with a 3% Bordeaux mixture solution (0.5-1 l per 10 sq. M). Then, in the stage of growth of leaves, spraying is repeated, reducing the concentration to 1%. The following procedures are carried out at the beginning of the appearance of the buds and after harvesting (in these cases also use a 1% solution).
Bordeaux tree liquid
In the spring, before bud break, trees are sprayed with 3% Bordeaux liquid (10-15 liters per adult and 2-3 liters - on a young tree). Then, in the “green cone” phase, the treatment is repeated already with a 1% solution of the preparation, the next spraying is carried out after the trees bloom. Further processing done with an interval of 10-15 days, and their number should not exceed 6 sprayings per season.
As an alternative to Bordeaux mixture, it is possible to use preparations of similar action, which also include copper oxychloride (Polykh, Oksikh, etc.). Such tools can be treated "from the inside", penetrating deeply into the tissues of plants. In addition, they can be mixed with other substances.
General information: chemical composition
Dry Bordeaux mixture - copper sulfate mixed with lime. An aqueous solution of the mixture is called Bordeaux liquid. Available as a ready-to-prepare powder solution. The active substance is copper ions, lime acts as a neutralizer.
Copper ions destroy phytobacteria protein molecules, spores of fungi, embedded in the cell membrane of viruses. The mixture is used as a multi-purpose fungicide, pesticide, active against interstitial parasites, insects: it eliminates colonies of aphids and leaflets, reduces populations of herbivorous ticks, fruit flies.
Depending on the concentration of Bordeaux mixture (liquid), three processing methods are practiced:
- blue spraying (eradicating) - processing of fruit crops in the resting phase, before bud swelling or after leaf fall, in October-November,
- green cone - garden treatment with 3-4% solution in the phase of bud opening,
- spraying on the stage of the growing season of fruit and vegetable crops, berries 1% solution.
Connection 2 class of safety: in work with reagents means of protection are necessary. The waiting time is about 15 days.
Preparation of the working solution: how to dilute properly
The basic composition of Bordeaux liquid:
- water 10-10.2 l,
- quicklime 100-110 g,
- copper sulphate 100-110 g.
The optimal ratio of components is 1: 3.5.
Attention! You can not change the order of introduction of reagents, the concentration of components, the percentage, dilute the mixture with water.
The procedure is as follows:
- The powder of copper sulfate in the specified amount is dissolved in a small volume of warm water (t to 50 C).
- Bring the volume to a full 9 liters, cool.
- An excess solution of lime is obtained: calcium hydroxide is diluted in a small volume of cooled soft water.
- Cook so-called. milk of lime: the total volume of the creamy mass is brought to 1 liter, filtered.
- The copper solution is injected into the lime water (i.e. filtered lime of milk), mixed.
- Check the pH.
Properly prepared product - suspension of colloidal particles, absolutely stable, without sediment, light blue color. The pH reaction is neutral or slightly alkaline. The solution with an acidic reaction leads to burns, with a strongly alkaline solution, it almost does not linger on the leaves. To neutralize the mixture add lime water.
Bordeaux mixture diluted before use. The mixture is stable for about 6 hours, after which a precipitate forms.
Application rates and uses
The application rates and the percentage concentration depend on the type of crop, on the vegetation stage, on the state of the plants. In the orchard, on shrubs for blue spraying using a 3% solution. Consumption in the orchard - up to 20 liters per 100 m2.
The mixture is effective for the following cultures:
- on pear, quince, apple - against scab, moniliosis, etc.,
- on cherries and sweet cherries, plums and other stone fruit - against coccomycosis, moniliosis, curly, catastrophia,
- on berry bushes - against fungal blotch.
Attention! The treatments are not carried out with dew, in wet weather, at high temperatures. Spraying after a rain, in a heat, threatens with an extensive burn of leaves.
At the time of the growing season using a 1% solution. On apple, vine and pear, ornamental and flower crops spend up to 6 treatments. On sweet cherries and apricots, plums and cherries, potatoes, tomatoes, the maximum multiplicity - 4 treatments. Strawberries and raspberries, cucumbers and beets, onions, watermelons, flower crops are processed three times.
Application, consumption rate of 1% Bordeaux mixture, depending on the culture and the malicious object:
- in the vineyards: against mildew, black rot, rubella and anthracnose - up to 1.5 l / 10 m2,
- on fruit-bearing apple and pear trees: against leaf spots, moniliosis and scab, etc. - up to 9-10 liters per tree,
- on all the stone fruits: monocle disease, monlyosis, coccomycosis - up to 10 liters,
- currants, gooseberries: septoria, rust, anthracnose - up to 1.5 liters per bush,
- strawberry, raspberry: white, brown spot to 1.3-1.5 per 10 m2,
- potato: late blight, macrosporosis - 1 l / 10 m2,
- tomatoes: late blight and others - 2 l / 10 m2,
- cucumbers, melon, watermelon: anthracnose, olive spot - 1-1.5 l / 9-10 m2,
- beets (all kinds): peronospora, rust, chilled - 1 l / 8-10 m2,
- onions (not feather): recurrence, rot, rust - up to 1 l / 10 m2,
Features of use and disadvantages: what is important to know
- Bordeaux mixture is not compatible with any formulations of protection, except colloidal sulfur.
- Use soap as a "adhesive" is not worth it: an alkaline medium will shift the pH of the mixture.
- The use of copper-containing fungicides inhibits the growth of vine shoots, dries the bark of rootstocks.
- The mixture can cause burns, a grid on the fruit, yellowing of the leaves.
- Frequent treatment provokes phyllossticosis on the apple tree.
- Some grapes, berries, roses, apricots, cherries are prone to burns - they use copper-containing analogues HOM, KuproSat, etc.
- Frequent use leads to an excess of copper salts in the soil.
A shortcoming can be called a short-term effect: on an apple tree, the mixture from the same scab provides 6-8 days. The protection time of the eradicating spraying is up to a month, but it is worth considering possible burns.
Considering such negative reviews as oppression of growth of a vine, drying of bark, incompatibility with remedies, winegrowers more often choose fungicides that do not contain copper or are sparing copper-containing. And not every gardener today will go for a total irrigation of vitriol in the garden and potatoes in the garden. The remedy is remembered when it is necessary to eradicate spraying, in search of an extremely inexpensive drug. And, in general, effective - this is not to take away from the mixture of Bordeaux.
Приготовление бордоской смеси: видео
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- Description and application of fertilizer "Baikal EM-1"
- Potassium humate is an effective fertilizer with a wide range of applications.
Thank you for the detailed story and video on how to properly prepare Bordeaux liquid. For me, this is a very useful material now.
What is this drug used for?
It is a broad-spectrum fungicide, which fears fungal plant diseases and pests.
It is bought at the first sign:
- coccomycosis, clusterospirosis (these diseases are not eliminated by a single, but fourfold treatment),
- an anthracnose (from a gooseberry this bordoss "will erase" trouble after 3 sprays),
- spotting (to clear from her berry crops need 2 treatments).
For which crops is this substance suitable?
- For winter crops (saves them from rotting roots or snow mold).
- For many vegetables: beets, onions (they will rot less), tomatoes and potatoes (who fear phytophthora), cucumbers and melons (suffering from anthracnose).
- For garden bushes: currants and grapes (against black rot).
- For ornamental shrubs, flowers on a bed (kills various diseases of fungal origin).
- For fruit trees: peach (bordoss helps against leaf curl), cherries, plums, cherry plums (against cloversporia, coccomycosis, and not only), pears and apple trees (against rust, spots on the leaves, fruit rot).
Remember: some crops even weak (1%, prophylactic) solution can be harmful. In cherries or apricots, even the fruit can crack.
Also sensitive to Bordeaux mixture are roses, grapes (the most delicate varieties). It is more expedient to treat them with other, more benign substances - for example, Kuproksat or Blue-Bordeaux.
What's inside the package
As I said, two separately closed bags of white (lime) and blue (copper sulfate) powders. The main component is vitriol. But lime is important: it protects plants from aggressive long-term vitriol. If it is not enough, spraying can end up burning your green pets.
Important: you need to mix these substances immediately before processing the site!
After preparation of the liquid it will be useful to check it for an alkaline reaction. If the fluid is too vigorous, just add more lime.
This is a very important matter, so do not ignore the instructions on the packaging. If you lost it, here is a photo of the instructions from one of the manufacturers of the Bordeaux mixture:
Or I will sign in more detail, point by point. As an example, I will give a less saturated 1% solution.
- Container should be plastic, glass, but not metal.
- In a glass (jar - it does not matter) warm water dissolve 10 g of blue copper sulfate.
- Pour it into a large container with cold water. Together with your glass of water there should be exactly 5 liters.
- In the second tank, dial a liter of water. Add about 125 g of lime, leave it for about an hour to extinguish.
- Add water to lime to get 5 liters.
- Strain the lime mortar through gauze or sieve. You need to catch all the undissolved lumps so that they do not clog the spray and do not interfere with your work.
- Pour the copper sulphate into a container of lime (in no case the opposite)! You can mix it all with a wooden stick.
- Check the acidity of the resulting liquid. Find a long nail, dip it in a liquid. If it turns red, the solution needs to be quenched with a little more lime.
A 3% solution is prepared in the same way, but the proportions are different (see below).
Also in this case there are several strict "no". Namely:
- do not pour water with lime into the solution of vitriol - yes, it really spoils the resulting solution,
- when mixing, both solutions must have the same temperature,
- do not mix powders of different colors,
- do not throw vitriol into hydrated lime,
- Do not dilute the finished Bordeaux mixture with plain water.
Important: do not mix bordoss with organophosphate or karbofos! Mixing with other fungicides will only reduce the effect of Bordeaux mixture.
Do not add even a simple soap solution. Yes, it will increase the sticking of the active ingredients to the leaves - but the components themselves will lose half of their strength.
Dosage can be different
Never breed a Bordeaux mixture by the eye - this is not done even by the most experienced gardeners. In the preparation of therapeutic fluids, the correct dilution rate is very important, because even if you give more than half a percent more powder, it can seriously harm your garden or garden.
Dosage per 10 liters of water:
- 75 g of lime, 100 g of copper sulfate: we get a 0.5 or 0.7% solution of Bordeaux mixture.
- 150 g of lime, 100 g of vitriol: 1% solution.
- 450 g of lime, 300 g of vitriol: 3% solution.
Calculate the flow
The amount of liquid for spraying different bushes or trees will be different:
- Popular vegetables (cucumbers, tomatoes): 2 liters per 10 "squares" of the vegetable garden or field.
- Melons, as well as beets and onions: 1 liter per 10 "squares".
- Shrubs: 1.5 liters per bush (treatment). As for prevention, for the raspberry, grapes, as well as strawberries, the same one and a half liters can be stretched to 10 "squares" of planting.
- Young trees (up to six years): 2 liters per tree.
A more accurate dosage with the percentage of Bordeaux mixture is shown in this table:
Processing rules for different plants
- The procedure should be carried out in early spring, when flower buds have not yet opened (this is important).
- If you missed this time and the buds opened, spraying can be done, but with an extremely weak (1%) solution. Otherwise you hurt the leaves.
- So that the liquid does not burn the leaves, do not spray it in the heat, as well as at high humidity.
- Processing must be thorough, completely covering the plants from all sides.
After applying 3% liquid on the leaves (this percentage is not for prevention, but for treatment), the leaves may turn blue. This is normal, this color can hold up to a month.
Is such a liquid dangerous?
For us, yes! Therefore, one should not swallow liquid, powder or simply inhale vapors of substances. If you taste the substance or eat unwashed fruits after processing, you can get poisoned.
Salvation: gastric lavage, saline and protein solutions. The physician (and it is necessary to go to him) may also prescribe heart remedies.
If you breathe this “joy,” everything can end with a 2-3-day fever, tachycardia, nosebleeds, and bloating. Do not try to rest in bed, call the “Ambulance” - doctors will tell you how to properly treat.
First of all, you need to protect yourself, and when preparing the solution, and when treating trees, wear gloves, a headdress, if there are - and glasses with a respirator, and of course, protective clothing.
- Take nothing with your hands that dealt with the Bordeaux (powders or liquid). And nothing that the gloves you have already taken off. Drink water, snack or smoke have time later, when you thoroughly wash your skin with soap.
- If the crop is almost ripe (you will collect it after 3 weeks, or even earlier), do not spray either these plants or those that grow nearby.
- Even if you have processed the trees or beds beforehand, you should still wash the fruits and vegetables thoroughly.
- Do not spray Bordeaux liquid during flowering, as well as in adverse weather (rain or just strong dew, wind).
What say about the Bordeaux mixture of gardeners and gardeners: reviews
Even trusting a chemist friend and his teachers, who recommended buying a bordoss, I still spent a couple of evenings on vacationers forums before buying. True, I was no longer interested in the composition of the substance, but in its effectiveness. And that's what they wrote there:
- Two treatments (high percentage in early spring, light percentage in summer) completely killed fungal diseases in the garden, as well as grapes.
- This is a contact drug, so the plants (and fruits) do not absorb it - but this is also its weakness, because if you spray a tree badly and do not cover all the leaves, as well as the trunk, the bordoss will not work.
- Some crops should be processed and at the end of the summer — in the autumn, because after harvest they will be exhausted, then ill fun. Strawberries and black currants can be sprayed in the last month of summer, grapes - in September, or even October (depending on the weather and the climate in general).
- Sometimes slices of trees are covered with liquid, especially if you had to cut a diseased branch, or “bleach” trees in spring (it turns out useful, also beautiful).
At the end we offer a video, which can also be called a review - but in fact it is much wider. The video was taken from the channel of an experienced gardener, a specialist in landscaping and caring for sites.
He will talk about the spring treatment of trees, Bordeaux mixture, and other preparations with the help of which you can effectively treat trees or do prevention of common diseases:
Scope of use and its composition
Bordeaux mixture consists of copper sulfate and hydrated lime. The drug is obtained by adding copper sulfate to a liquid solution of calcium hydroxide. When components interact with each other, copper sulfate is formed, which kills harmful microorganisms.
The tool is used to combat fungal infections and pests. Bordeaux horticultural liquid copes with many diseases affecting the leaves and bark of trees. After use, fruit and berry plants actively produce fruits, and coniferous trees grow much faster. The use of Bordeaux mixture in the fall is necessary in order to preserve the immunity of plants in the winter.
Widely used the drug in the fight against such diseases:
- Septoria, anthracnose and peronosporosis (cucumbers),
- mildew (grapes),
- scab, powdery mildew, rust, fruit rot (fruit crops),
- late blight and macrosporosis (potatoes and tomatoes),
- spotting (raspberry and strawberry).
Rules of preparation of the solution
On the shelves of garden stores, you can buy ready-made concentrated solution that needs to be diluted with water. It is packaged in bottles (0.5 l) and vials (100 ml). But it is better to make a tool yourself. Preparation of Bordeaux liquid does not take much time and does not require special skills. Do not neglect safety measures - you should wear a protective suit, gloves and a respirator. It is necessary to allocate separate tanks for the solution, which will not be subsequently used for other needs. Remains of the mixture must be disposed of.
It is necessary to prepare structure before use. If the work needs to be transferred the next day, add 20 g sugar to the mixture. So the solution will not lose its properties.
Often use 1 - or 3 percent solutions. To prepare a 1% mixture, you must:
- Take two containers of glass or clay (metal use is prohibited). Their volume must be at least 10 liters.
- In one liter of water, dilute 150 g of quicklime. Gradually add 4 liters of water.
- In another container, mix 100 g of copper sulphate and 2 liters of hot water. After cooling the mixture, add 3 liters of cold water.
- Both formulations mix well.
- Add a thin stream of lime to the bluestone (not vice versa). Stir the resulting Bordeaux mixture solution.
Preparation of a solution of 3% concentration is similar to the previous one. It is only necessary to increase the amount of dry ingredients and take 0.3 kg of copper sulphate and 0.45 kg of lime.
Instructions for use of the drug
The instructions for use Bordeaux mixture indicated that it can not be mixed with other means and used simultaneously with other fungicides.
Treating trees is carried out in the spring and autumn periods.
Spring spend preventive spraying. Apply a solution of 3% concentration is allowed when the kidneys are swollen or just started to dissolve. If the tree already has leaves, you should use a 1% solution.
In the autumn, treatment is carried out only with a 3% solution.. This is due to the fact that the foliage is already fallen and there is no risk of burns. The use of Bordeaux in gardening in the fall helps to protect fruit trees from fungi: pear, cherry, apple, plum, quince, apricot.
Bordeaux mixture is widely used for the following crops:
- Tomatoes. When signs of disease are detected in seedlings (black spots on foliage), it is necessary to spray it with a 1% solution using a spray bottle. Primary treatment is carried out two weeks after transplanting into open ground. This is necessary to prevent the occurrence of phytophthora. 10 square meters. m plot will require at least 2 liters of solution. The procedure is carried out three times a season, every 2 weeks.
- Cucumbers. The processing is the same as for tomatoes (a solution of 1% concentration, consumption - 2 liters per 10 sq. M). The first spraying is carried out when the third leaf appears. Subsequent treatments should be carried out every 15 days, three times a season. The last treatment is carried out no later than 3 weeks before the first harvest.
- Berry bushes. Currants are sprayed to prevent the occurrence of spotting. Primary treatment is carried out in early spring, with a 3% solution of Bordeaux mixture. Then process 3 more times per season, but already 1% of the composition. Similarly sprayed raspberries, gooseberries and grapes.
- Roses are treated to combat black spot. A characteristic feature of the disease is the appearance of many dark spots on the leaves. They quickly grow, causing the fall. Spores of pathogenic microorganisms can spread to healthy bushes. Pathogens are resistant to low temperatures. If the rose was infected by an infection last season, the disease does not disappear after wintering. If the spots appeared in the summer, it is necessary to process the bushes with a 3% solution every 10 days. Repeat the procedure 4-5 times. Then in the fall, the roses should be reprocessed to prevent a second wave of infection. It is necessary to spray plenty of bushes and soil around them. A similar treatment to hold in the spring.
- Strawberry. Initially, the treatment is carried out after the snow has melted. It is necessary to prepare a 3% solution. 10 square meters. m will be enough one liter. During the period of leaf growth, the procedure is repeated, but a less concentrated composition is used. In the flowering phase and immediately after fruiting, spraying is carried out with a 1% mixture.
The main factor in the preparation of the solution is strict adherence to the dosages of the components. At their low concentration, the spraying procedure will not give effect and will not relieve the disease. By adding more substance, you can burn the roots or even the death of the plant.
Reviews on the use of funds confirm that by observing the dosages of the drug, you can effectively deal with various fungal infections.
I process the peaches in early spring, then several more times during the season. The result is very pleased.
The drug helps very well in combating diseases and pests on my summer cottage. It is very important to dilute the drug, following the instructions.
Bordeaux mixture - a very effective drug. The advantage for fruit trees is that the product is not washed off by rains, clinging to the bark.
Cooking Bordeaux mixture is a very important process, to which you need to approach very carefully. In this case, it is important to respect the dosage means. Otherwise, the wrong dose of the drug can lead to the death of all plants.
So, for 10 liters of fluid, the following dosages should be observed:
- 0.5-0.75% solution: 100 grams of copper sulfate, 75 grams of lime.
- 1% solution: 100 grams of copper sulfate and 150 grams of lime.
- 3% solution: 300 grams of copper sulfate and 450 grams of lime.
The constituent components of the Bordeaux mixture
Bordeaux mixture is prepared from copper sulfate powder (copper sulfate), lime mixture (calcium hydroxide) and pure water.
Powder that is diluted with water forms a weak copper compound solution and is an active substance that protects plants from diseases caused by various malware, mold, fungi. The lime mixture neutralizes the negative effects of copper on plants, making it safe and acceptable.
Bordeaux mixture solution according to the instructions prepared immediately before use, mixing sachets of lime and vitriol in the required proportions to avoid disrupting the chemical composition.
The concentration of the solution is determined by the content of copper sulfate in the finished water mixture. Its excess in Bordeaux mixture and insufficient amount of hydrated lime. may cause burns roots and foliage of plants.
Bordeaux mixture - instructions for use
The Bordeaux mixture or Bordeaux mixture is most commonly used for spraying and treating trees, shrubs and other plants affected by fungal or other parasitic diseases.
- Signs of scab that is accompanied by the formation of velvety light green spots on the fruits and leaves of apples and pears.
- Coccomycosis, in which on the leaves of cherries, plums, cherries and apricots, merged red spots are formed and they are covered with a pink bloom from the inside.
- Manifestations of flatulence or perforated spot on the leaves of plants, fruit and ornamental shrubs.
- Появление антракноза на крыжовнике, смородине в виде чёрных комочков на листьях.
- Образование разнообразных и множественных сухих пятнистостей на листьях, стеблях и плодах малины, клубники и земляники.
- Rust at which leaves of plants and fruit bushes, become covered by a small scattering of spots from orange to brown color.
- Gray rot, fruit rot (moniliosis), stem rot (cytosporosis).
- Mealy dew, which affects the stem part of the plant and the leaves, covering with white cotton wool. It applies to almost all garden shrubs, melons and fruit trees.
Preparation of Bordeaux mixture according to the instructions
It is necessary to strictly observe the sequence of actions as to prepare the Bordeaux mixture
- Prepare the milk of lime, 150 g of lime mixture is stirred in a small amount of water, it turns out slaked lime. Dilute the mixture with 5 liters of cold clean water and mix. It is better to do this in a bulk container of 10 liters, but not in plastic. Then it is recommended to filter the mixture in order to remove the undissolved pieces of lime.
- Copper sulfate powder 100 g pour 5 liters of hot water to quickly and completely dissolve it and mix thoroughly. To do this, use glass or plastic dishes. In the metal dish occurs the reaction of the replacement of copper with iron and copper sulfate loses its properties.
- In a container with lime milk, slowly and in a thin stream pour the copper sulphate cooled to room temperature, while continuously stirring. It turns out a 1 percent solution of Bordeaux liquid light blue color.
- The solution should have a weakly alkaline or neutral environment. Check it with a litmus test, which is dipped into the solution and it turns blue. At home it can be checked with an iron object (nail, wire). When a brown copper deposit appears on it, some milk of lime should be added to the solution and neutralized.
- It is advisable to use the prepared solution immediately. Its shelf life does not exceed 10 hours. If you save longer than the specified time, add 15–20 grams of sugar to the solution for further use and mix well.
- Preparation of a 3% solution is carried out using the same technology, but using 400 grams of lime mixture and 300 g of vitriol, dissolving them in water of 5 liters, each package separately, and then mixing.
- It is forbidden to add additional water to the already prepared mixture.
Recommendations for spraying a solution of Bordeaux mixture
It is better to carry out treatment in the early morning or evening in sunny and dry, but not hot weather. At high humidity, spraying is not carried out. Before starting the spraying process, you should make sure that there are no animals or people around. Primary treatment of plants with a solution with 3% Bordeaux mixture (300 grams) held in early springwhen there are no buds or before flowering. In exceptional cases, spraying Bordeaux liquid can be carried out immediately after the opening of the kidneys and the first leaflets.
Spend spraying neatly and strictly wind. Contact solution on the ground and clothing is not safe. In the spring, during the growing season and before the appearance of the ovaries, the Bordeaux liquid is re-sprayed with a 1% solution (100 grams of the mixture) with an interval of 10–15 days.
Summer, do not spray plants, trees, garden crops in the next 2-3 weeks before harvest. Fruits of trees, shrubs, berries with plants treated with liquid should be very thoroughly washed.
Bordeaux liquid according to the instructions can be used for treatment and treatment indoor plants in winter gardens and greenhouses. For spraying use in this case spray.
In the autumn, after the end of the leaf fall, it is good to treat and spray the plants with a 3% solution for prophylactic purposes.
Seasonal processing and spraying garden crops Bordeaux liquid
Bordeaux liquid instructions for processing green spaces recommends that when spraying you need to completely cover the tree or plant solution. The treatment is carried out with a 1% percentage solution of 100 grams of Bordeaux mixture.
- Mature cherry trees, cherries, plums, apricots - 10 liters per tree 4 times, seedlings of 2 liters.
- Pear, apple, quince - 10 liters for each adult tree, seedlings 2 liters, no more than 6 treatments.
- Gooseberry and currant bushes - 1.5 liters per bush, 3 times.
- Planting strawberries and raspberries - 1.5 liters for every 10 square meters. meters, no more than 2 times after picking berries.
- Tomatoes in greenhouses and in the open field - 2 liters for every 10 squares of planting and not more than 4 times.
- Greenhouse and soil cucumbers - 1.5 liters. Melon melons and watermelons - 1 liter per 10 square meters. landings, no more than 3 times.
- Potatoes can be sprayed quite often, up to 14 times, at 0.75-1 liters per square weave.
- Root crops of beets and carrots - 1 liter per 10 square meters. meters, 3 times.
The protective mechanism of the solution Bordeaux mixture running for a long timeabout one month. It is well kept on the surfaces and leaves of plants, even in rainy weather. Its repellent properties affect insect pests.
- Bordeaux mixture for humans is toxic due to the content of copper in it. Care should be taken in its manufacture, in the process of spraying and processing plants and trees.
- Spraying should be carried out in tightly closed clothes, in rubber gloves, high boots or boots, in a headdress that closes the hair well.
- The spraying process is carried out with a special sprayer.
- On the face should be a respirator, so as not to poison the vapors of the mixture and protective glasses.
- During the process can not eat, drink, smoke. If the liquid gets onto the open area of the skin or eyes, rinse immediately.
- In more serious cases: poisoning, exposure to the respiratory tract and the gastrointestinal tract should consult a doctor to provide qualified assistance.
In specialized stores you can buy branded bordeaux kit according to the instructions (100 grams and 300 grams) or purchase all the components separately. This is an effective and cheap tool that has a wide spectrum of action.
Use of finished Bordeaux bottled liquid
Recently, the production of concentrated Bordeaux liquid, which is poured into plastic bottles with a capacity from 100 ml to liter, has been adjusted.
Use of finished Bordeaux bottled liquid More comfortable for preparation and use. The right amount of liquid from the bottle is diluted with water, mixed and the solution for spraying is ready.
The instructions indicate that in order to obtain a 3 percent solution of the mixture, use and 10 liters of water dilute 250 ml of concentrate. To obtain a 1% solution of the Bordeaux mixture, 100 ml of the concentrate must be diluted in the same volume of water.
2. Calculation of consumption
It is desirable during the processing of various plants and trees to comply with the amount of solution.
For each plant it is different:
- For young trees whose age is not more than 6 years old - it will take 2 liters per tree.
- When processing fruit-bearing plants will need 10 liters.
- For shrub plants - 1.5 liters per shrub.
- With preventive measures in grapes, raspberries and strawberries - one and a half liters of solution is enough for 10 square meters.
- For processing tomatoes and cucumbers - 10 liters of solution will require 2 liters.
- When processing melons, watermelons, onions, beets - 1 liter of solution is required for 10 square meters.
The composition of the Bordeaux mixture
Bordeaux mixture consists of a lime mixture and copper sulfate powder. The main active ingredient of this product is copper compounds slightly soluble in liquids, which provide long-lasting protection.
Also, do not forget that, depending on the concentration of copper and vitriol, the chemical composition of the solution itself changes. If there is a lack of lime, it can lead to plant burns.
That is why, after the alkaline reaction test has been carried out, it should be additionally added.
Preparation of Bordeaux mixture
It should be borne in mind that the preparation of the Bordeaux mixture is quite complicated, so everything must be done correctly.
Otherwise, the solution may turn out to be too concentrated, and when spraying delicate plants it will harm them. Or vice versa of weak concentration, then it will not bring the expected effect.
So, consider the step by step preparation of a 1% solution per 10 liters:
- For dilution of the solution you need to use any non-metallic containers.
- In warm water, dilute 10 grams of copper sulfate. Everything is thoroughly mixed.
- Further in this mixture it is necessary to add cold water so that the total volume was 5 liters.
- In a separate container, 120-130 grams of hydrated lime should be diluted in 1 liter of water. Everything is thoroughly stirred as a result should be a mixture of consistency, reminiscent of sour cream.
- Then it is necessary to add water to the lime mass to make the volume 5. It mixes well.
- Strain the lime mortar through gauze material. This is to ensure that the sprayer does not clog with particles of lime.
- Do not confuse what and where to pour! While stirring with a wooden stick or spatula, gently pour the bluestone into the lime mixture.
- Everything is well mixed. It is advisable to simultaneously stir the lime and pour the bluestone.
Also after preparation, it is necessary to check the acid reaction of the solution. To do this, it should lower any metal wire or nail. If after lowering the metal becomes red, then a little more lime should be added to the solution.
Also remember that you can not do:
- Do not pour lime mixture into the solution of copper sulfate. This will greatly reduce the quality of the solution.
- No need to mix warm and cold ingredients.
- Combine dry ingredients.
- Pour into a ready solution of water.
- Add dry bluestone in dilute lime.
Sergey, 45 years old Yekaterinburg
“I have had my dacha plot for 15 years already. Every year I plant plants - tomatoes, potatoes, beets, carrots, onions. In addition, on my site grows a lot of fruit trees. Yes, and grapes are also available.
Of course, it’s wonderful when you have your own vegetables, fruits and berries, but in the first year I was faced with an unpleasant problem - fungal plant damage. I struggled with them for a long time. He did the processing, sprayed the whole area, but for some reason they did not bring the proper result. As a result, the harvest decreased significantly.
Once on the Internet, I read about such an effective tool as the Bordeaux mixture and decided to try it next year. As soon as the early spring came, right before flowering, I completely processed all my trees.
I also did the treatment with a weak solution in the summer. As a result, my plants do not get sick, and I get good yields. I constantly use this tool and advise everyone! ”
Irina, 48 years old, Krasnodar
“My husband and I have a private house, and a garden in the courtyard. We have been planting vegetable crops for almost 20 years, and we also have a lot of fruit and berry plantations and flowers. Every year we are faced with problems such as fungal infections of plants, which cause a lot of trouble.
At first, we could not completely exterminate them and as a result they reduced the harvest, and some plants simply died. For a long time we could not find an effective remedy against these lesions. But somehow friends advised to try the Bordeaux mixture. Right with the onset of spring, we treated all our trees with a 3% solution.
We also sprayed 1% solution of the plant throughout the summer. As a result, our plants stopped hurting, and the harvest became very good! ”
Oleg, 54 years old, Kirov
“I have been growing fruit and berry trees for a long time. Also on my site is growing a large amount of strawberries and raspberries. At first, I could not eradicate various plant diseases for a long time, which greatly harmed and reduced yield.
What I just did not try, various mixtures, preparations, powders. But they, for some reason, badly helped. Here relatives gave try Bordeaux mixture. After the first spraying, I began to notice that the disease began to pass.
After 3 sprays, the plants became completely healthy. As a result, the harvest was good. Now every year I process my plot with this preparation. He is the best!"
Svetlana 34 years old, Samara
“I have been growing vegetables, strawberries, fruit and berry plantations for 5 years already. I always dreamed of having all my own and natural. Here I bought a cottage and decided to grow vegetables and fruits. However, in the very first year I was faced with such an unpleasant problem as fungal lesions. They were especially pronounced on raspberries, strawberries, grapes and tomatoes.
My husband and I fought with them for a long time, but for some reason modern drugs did not help. We sprayed and sprinkled with powder mixtures, but in the end the disease did not recede. Once I found a Bordeaux mixture in one specialty store and immediately decided to try it.
After 3 spraying our plants became as new. As a result, our harvest has increased. Now every year we use this tool for processing our site. I advise everyone to have a great mix! ”
Bordeaux mixture - an indispensable tool for combating various fungal diseases of plants in the summer cottage or garden. It is able to completely eliminate them and increase the harvest.
But everything during its application is to follow the recommendations of its use, and do not forget about the concentration of the solution. Do not forget that an excess of copper sulfate can harm plants.