By its biological species, almond is a shrub, but it is often formed as a tree. Depending on the type and with the correct shaping, it can reach 8 meters in height, which should be taken into account when planning a garden.
In the conditions of the Moscow region, it is necessary to choose frost-resistant varieties with bloom stretched in time:
Nikitsky is a large-fruited shrub variety reaching 5 m in height.
Primorsky - fruits of medium size, forms a rounded tree crown up to 3.5 m high.
Dessert - large-fruited variety, capable of forming both shrub and tree crown, depending on the molding.
All varieties are self-sterile, that is, at least two closely-spaced individuals of different varieties will be required for harvest.
Almonds are characterized by early flowering, depending on the weather and air temperature, flowers open in April - early May. Therefore, it is often used as a decorative culture with an early flowering period.
Choosing a place in the garden and planting material
Almond is a heat-loving culture that is quite demanding on the choice of location. Therefore, it is important to choose the right one:
Poor tolerates heavy soils, such as loamy and clay, preferring light sandy and even slate. However, the latter are found only in the Crimea, so it is necessary to confine itself to sandy sandflies. Low permeability of the soil adversely affects the condition of the plant, the roots begin to rot and die.
Almonds do not tolerate an acidic environment. If the land in the plot is acidic, then it will have to be fertilized every year to get a harvest.
Count on a rich harvest in the suburban dacha is not worth it, especially if the crop is grown alone in open ground. At best, you can get a few nuts.
Shaded places or northern slopes of hills are not suitable, in such cases the shrub grows slowly and does not bear fruit well. When choosing a place, preference is given to the southern slopes or well-lit areas.
For planting a new place, annual saplings are best suited. They have not yet begun to form a crown, and the size of the root system is small enough. Thanks to this, it is possible to form a crown into a bush or a low tree.
Almond is a pereopyeraemya bush, it requires several copies on the site. To get the crop you need at least two copies, preferably of different varieties. Only in this case will be what to collect.
Planting scheme depends on the method of crown formation in the future - if you plan to grow bushes, then the distance should be about 3 meters. When forming trees between them should be 5-7 meters, so that in the future they do not overlap each other.
When choosing planting material, it is important to pay attention to the stock. Unmade plants in the Moscow region develop poorly and practically do not bear fruit. Therefore, it is important to clarify with the seller what crop of almonds was planted on and examine the place of the stock.
Unlike most stone fruits, almonds are best planted in the fall, after the end of leaf fall. It will rather easily transfer the first wintering in a new place and will quickly start growing in spring. If the plants are planted in early spring, the increase will not be so abundant, they will long acclimatize and get used to the new place.
The landing process is as follows:
- A pit is dug 60–70 cm deep and 70–80 cm in diameter, according to the planting pattern.
- At the bottom of the drainage is laid layer of 8 - 10 cm. It can be a large gravel, broken brick or stone.
- A layer of sand 10 cm thick is piled on top. Together with the drainage layer, it will allow excess moisture to flow down below the level of the root system and protect it from rot.
- A complex fertilizer, a mixture of superphosphate and humus is introduced into the pit. The ratio should be 1 to 10 or so. If the soil is acidic, it must be alkalized.
- The roots of the seedling are straightened and buried so that the root neck is recessed 10-12 cm below ground level.
- Planted seedling carefully shed to the soil rested on the roots. It is necessary to proceed from the fact that one seedling will require 10-12 liters of water.
- After watering the land should be mulched. Almonds are demanding of moisture, and mulch prevents excessive evaporation.
- If the trunk has not yet been strengthened, you should install a support and carefully attach the sapling to it.
Almond is not a demanding plant, but some care is still needed:
- Regular watering. To get a decent harvest and good development, almonds should not have a lack of moisture. But at the same time it is impossible to flood the root system, otherwise it will begin to choke and wither. Most often, watering every one and a half to two weeks, depending on the weather. The indicator is the land in the near-barring circle - as soon as it dries, watering is required.
- Periodic loosening. Once a month the land must be loosened. This will improve air access to the roots and allow you to absorb fertilizer faster. If the soil on the site is heavy, loosening should be done more often.
- The use of fertilizers. At the end of the season, after leaf fall, superphosphates are added to the tree circle, and in the spring chicken droppings or humus.
Like most garden shrubs, almonds are subject to the following diseases:
Preparing for the winter
Since almonds are quite a heat-loving plant, it is important to properly prepare it for wintering. Conducting preparatory activities will allow him to better move the cold season.
For a more rapid stiffening of the young growth, the extreme buds are removed. This procedure is carried out at the end of August, after the harvest. Due to this, for the time remaining before the leaves fall, the plant will actively grow wood fibers and better tolerate wintering.
Stock of this year is required to additionally cover. The graft site does not always have time to close well, so often there are freezing and damage on it.
The rest of the culture tolerates the cold of the Moscow region's winter quite well and wakes up easily after hibernation.
Planting and caring for almonds (briefly)
- Landing: in early March or in the last days of September.
- Bloom: in March or April, before the leaves appear.
- Lighting: bright sunlight.
- The soil: drained and breathable chernozem, loam, sandy soils with a high content of lime and pH 7.7. Groundwater in the area should lie deep.
- Watering: regular: one bucket of water when the soil dries out in the near-stem circle to a depth of 1-1.5 cm. Saplings are watered more often than mature trees. In case of difficulties with the delivery of water in a season with the usual amount of precipitation, two abundant irrigations per season are enough: spring and autumn water recharge.
- Top dressing: At the end of April or at the beginning of May, a solution of 20 g of ammonium nitrate in 10 liters of water is introduced into the near-stem circle. In the autumn, 1 kg of manure and 20 g of double superphosphate and potassium sulphide are added to the near-barking circle during digging.
- Trimming: in the spring, before the start of sap flow, and in the fall, after leaf fall, sanitary pruning is carried out. Formative pruning done after flowering.
- Reproduction: budding, overgrowing, layering, sometimes - seeds (stones).
- Pests: spider mites, almond seed-eaters, plum moths, aphids, plum bark beetles, saplings and leafworms.
- Diseases: chalcosporosis, rust, monilioz, gray rot (botrytis), scab, blusterosporiosis (perforated spotting).
Almond Tree Description
The almond tree is 4–6 m high, and the almond shrub is 2–3 m. The almond rhizome has no more than five skeletal roots that penetrate to a sufficient depth so that the plant does not suffer from drought. The shoots of this branched plant are of two types: shortened generative and elongated vegetative. The leaves of almond are lanceolate, with a pointed tip, petiolate.
How does the almond blossom? Light pink or white almond flowers up to 2.5 cm in diameter are composed of five petals. Almond blossoms begin in March or April - before its leaves bloom. The fruit of the almond is a dry, velvety to the touch oval drupe with a leathery green pericarp, which, after drying, is easily separated from the stone 2.5 to 3.5 cm long, having the same shape as the fruit, but often notched with grooves.
Almond begins to give fruit from four to five years, full fruiting begins in the tenth or twelfth year, and the tree bears fruit from 30 to 50 years. With good care, an almond tree can grow in your garden from 50 to 80, and some specimens can live up to 130 years.
Almond has two varieties - bitter almonds, growing in nature, and sweet almonds, grown in culture. Almond is a plant that requires cross-pollination, and in order for it to start producing, in its immediate vicinity at least three more almond pollinating varieties should grow, the period of flowering of which coincides. In addition to the remarkably tasty fruit, the value of almond is its decorative qualities. Almond is a wonderful melliferous plant that exudes a magical aroma during flowering. Since almonds are mainly pollinated by bees, it is best fruited if there are 3-4 beehives in the area or somewhere close to it.
Walnut almond is a relative of such fruit trees as apple, pear, plum, apricot, cherry plum, peach, chokeberry, rowan, briar, hawthorn, quince and other cultured representatives of the rose family. From our article, you will learn how almonds grow in the middle zone, how almonds are planted and cared for, what kinds of almonds exist, what kinds of almonds are more adapted to our climatic conditions, what are the benefits of almonds, and for whom and in what be harm to almonds.
When planting almonds.
Almonds can be grown from the stone, and we will tell you about this in the section on plant reproduction, but it is best to grow almonds from an annual sapling. Seedlings are planted in the soil in early spring - in early March - or in the autumn, in the last days of November. They choose a sunny lot for almond trees, although they grow well in partial shade, however, seedlings must be protected from drafts and strong winds.
The best almond soil - water and breathable chernozem, sandy or loamy soil with a high content of lime - the optimum pH of 7.7. Sour, chloride or saline soils for the cultivation of almonds are unsuitable, as well as areas with high standing of groundwater.
Planting almond in the fall.
Almond seedlings planted in the fall, take root much better than those planted in the spring. Two weeks before planting, pits with a diameter of 50–70 cm and a depth of 60 cm at a distance of 3-4 m from each other in a row and 5.5–6.5 m between the rows are dug out in the area allotted for almonds. A layer of crushed stone or broken bricks with sand is laid in each pit for bleeding and mixed with fertile soil consisting of sand, humus and leaf earth in a ratio of 1: 2: 3, 5-6 kg of decomposed manure and a pound of superphosphate. If the soil is acidic, it is necessary to add dolomite flour or lime in the amount of 200-300 g. In two weeks, when the soil settles in the pit, you can start planting almonds.
How to plant almonds? Planting an almond tree is not much different from planting a plum or apricot. Dig a support into the center of the pit - a pole of such a height that it would rise half a meter above the level of the site. Pour a hill out of the ground into the center of the pit. Dip the seedlings' roots in a clay mash with the density of sour cream and place the tree on a hill so that the root neck is just above the surface. Fill the pit with fertile soil, compact it and pour the tree 10-15 liters of water. When water is absorbed, tie the seedling to the support and grumble the tree trunk with a layer of peat or dry soil 3-5 cm thick so that the mulch does not come into contact with the root neck of the tree.
How to plant almonds in the spring.
If for any reason you had to move the planting of almonds in the spring, you still need to dig holes for it in the fall. Lay in them a drainage layer of sand and rubble, pour a layer of fertile soil mixed with fertilizer and leave the pits until spring. In early March, before the trees begin to ferment the sap, they plant almonds in the same manner as they are done in the fall.
Almond planting and care are carried out in accordance with the agrotechnical culture. You will have to perform procedures such as watering, loosening and weeding the tree circle, pruning and feeding the plant, as well as prevention against diseases and pests. And if you do everything right, then you have to collect a good harvest.
How to care for almonds? At the end of March, it is necessary to make the first loosening of the tree circle to a depth of 10-12 cm, and then, during the growing season, carry out another 3-4 loosening to a depth of 8-10 cm. Maintain the cleanliness of the tree circle, promptly remove weeds.
Almonds are harvested when its outer green shell turns dark and begins to easily separate from the core. Collected fruits are peeled and laid out in a single layer to dry, and then stored in fabric bags.
Despite the fact that almond culture is drought-resistant, it grows better and bears fruit under conditions of timely and sufficient irrigation. Almonds growing in sandy soil need more frequent and abundant watering than those grown in clay and loamy soils. When you find that the soil under the almonds has dried to a depth of 1-1.5 cm, pour a bucket of water into the tree trunk circle. Waterlogging can lead to rotting of the plant root.
Saplings need more frequent watering than mature trees: supporting irrigation should be done once every 10-14 days.
How to grow almonds in the absence of water? If you do not have the opportunity to irrigate almonds during the entire growing season, spend at least autumn and spring watering the plants.
Top dressing of almonds.
Almonds in the garden are in need of nitrogen, so in late April or early May, 20 grams of ammonium nitrate diluted in a bucket of water is added to the near-stem circle of each adult tree. Under the autumn digging of the site, 1 kg of manure and 20 g of potassium sulphide and double superphosphate are introduced into the tree trunk circle of each tree. In the row spacing of young plants, it is desirable to grow siderats for the first 5-7 years of life.
The cultivation of almonds requires preventive treatment of trees from pests and diseases. In order to destroy pathogens circulating in the soil and cracks of the tree bark of pathogens and harmful insects, in early spring, before budding begins, treat almond trees with a one-percent solution of Bordeaux liquid. And at the end of the growing season, after the end of leaf fall, spend an autumn spraying of almonds with Bordeaux liquid or its analogs in order to destroy the pests and pathogens arranged for wintering.
Almonds in Siberia.
Despite the fact that the almond without shelter does not hibernate in the middle zone, there are frost-resistant species and plant varieties that are successfully cultivated not only in Vologda and St. Petersburg, but also in the forest-steppe and steppe parts of Siberia. The frost-resistant species include steppe almonds, or low, or Russian, or bogovnik, or almond. It is a shrub up to 1.5 m in height with brown or reddish-gray bark, lanceolate, leathery, shiny, serrate on the edges of dark green leaves up to 8 in length and 3 cm wide. Almond steppe is unpretentious, gas-smoke and drought-resistant, completely undemanding to the composition of the soil and easily propagated.
There are two garden forms of steppe almonds: belotsvetkovaya and Gessler - with flowers of bright pink hue. In spring, flowering branches of almond steppe are striking in their beauty. On the basis of bobovnik breeders bred such highly decorative varieties as Annie, Pink Flamingo, Dream, White Sail, Pink Mist.
Almond kernels of the steppe are edible and tasty. Another advantage of this species is that it is quickly restored, even in cases when it freezes into the harsh, snowless winter.
Almonds in Moscow and Moscow region.
In the conditions of Moscow and the Moscow region, besides bovovnik, a three-blade almond grows well, which normally hibernates without shelter and quickly recovers in case of slight frosting. The most stable in the conditions of the Moscow winters were the forms of the plant grafted on the turn root. Nevertheless, it is desirable to protect even trees of cold-resistant varieties from frost - to cover their shafts with lutrasil. And in order to prevent freezing of the shoots, it is necessary to remove the apical buds at the end of July or the beginning of August - this procedure stimulates the rapid lignification of the shoots, after which the frost will not be terrible for the almonds.
How to prune almonds.
Form the crown of almond-type plum, apricot, peach or nectarine - deduce three tiers of skeletal branches. Immediately after planting, the seedling is cut at a height of 120 cm, while the stem at the tree is 50-70 cm high.
When pruning pruning fruit trees remove thickening crown and improperly growing branches. When flower buds freeze, annual shoots are shortened.
Обрезка миндаля весной.
After winter, even before the buds begin to bloom, frozen algae growths are shortened in the almonds, cutting them to healthy tissue, removing broken, diseased or deformed branches and shoots. After flowering, proceed to formative pruning of the tree. On a sapling planted in autumn or spring, usually there are usually at least three branches located at a distance of 15-20 cm from each other - they are shortened to 15-20 cm, and the next 2-3 years lay down new tiers of skeletal branches on the central conductor, which should be one from another at a distance of 20–30 cm. Shoots that are unnecessary for crown formation are pinched several times over the summer, and those that are needed are shortened no later than July, as soon as they reach 50–60 cm in length. In the second and third year of almond growth, unnecessary shoots are cut, the rest are shortened. Upon completion of the crown formation, the center conductor is cut so that the last skeleton branch of almond is 55–60 cm below the conductor.
The trees with formed crown that have entered fruiting almost do not need pruning, you only need to cut fat shoots into the ring and shorten the broken shoots to 3-4 holes. Annual shoots that do not interfere with the correct development of branches, do not need to be cut.
Pruning almond in autumn.
In the autumn, after the fall of the leaves, they carry out sanitary pruning of trees and shrubs: they cut off dry, broken, diseased and thickening crown shoots and branches. If you have to cut or file a thick branch, do not forget to process the cut with garden pitch, and if for some reason you did not have time to cut the almonds before the beginning of winter, transfer the sanitary pruning to spring.
How to propagate almonds.
Under natural conditions, almonds reproduce by seed, but in culture they prefer reproduction by budding, since it takes too much time to grow a tree from a seed. Nevertheless, you should know how you can grow almonds from a stone, if only because that way you can grow stock for varietal cuttings. You will need bitter almond seeds to grow rootstocks, but if you can't get them, you can use sweet almond seeds. In addition to these two methods, if you have almonds do not grow a tree, but a bush, they resort to plant reproduction by shoots and layering.
Growing almond seed.
Sow the seeds in spring or winter. If you decide to sow the almonds in the spring, it is necessary to stratify the seed material - for 3-4 months to put them in the vegetable box of the refrigerator. Almond seeds are sown in grooves 8-10 cm deep at a distance of 10 cm from each other, keeping a distance of 45-60 cm between the furrows. The seeds will germinate the following year, in April, and you will need to water them, weed and loosen the area. In July, when the seedlings reach a height of 50-60 cm, the side branches on the trunks below 10-12 cm from the surface level should be cut with a sheath on the ring. During these periods, the thickness of the seedling stem in the area of the root collar approaches 1 cm, which means that the tree can already be used as a stock, but first it needs to be transplanted to a permanent place and allowed to take root.
Reproduction of almonds is also a method of budding. As a stock, not only almond seedlings are used, but also plums, cherry plums and thorns. It is better to perform the procedure at the height of the juice movement - in the middle of April or at the end of August, in the cool time of the day - at 4 pm or early in the morning. Two days before the procedure, the stock is watered abundantly so that during the budding the bark is well separated from the wood. For the scion choose developed direct shoots with formed vegetative buds. So that the graft does not lose moisture, all the leaves are removed from it, leaving only petioles no longer than 1 cm long.
The boom at the vaccination site is wiped from dust, then around the root collar a T-shaped incision is made with a sharp knife and the bark is gently bent at the point of convergence of perpendicular lines. With a graft, a flap with a kidney is cut so long that it fits into an incision on the stock. When you cut the shield, grab a thin layer of wood except for the bark, and, trying not to touch it with your hands, insert the shield into the T-shaped notch on the stock, firmly press the bark to it and fix the vaccination site, wrapping it with adhesive tape or tape. but so as not to close the kidney itself.
If after 2-3 weeks the rest of the petiole falls off, and the eye is green, then the budding is successful and the plaster can be loosened. If you carried out budding at the end of summer, then the fixing bandage should not be removed until the next spring, and the root neck with the graft is better to spud earth. In the spring, when you make sure that the bud has taken root, release the root collar from the ground, and place the patch from adhesive tape or tape, then cut the stock just above the inoculation, and if it is windy in spring, the cut should be made 10-12 cm higher than the graft kidneys. When shoots from dormant buds begin to appear below the budding site, they should be immediately removed, not allowing them to woody.
Propagation of almonds by shoots and layering.
Almond growing after scrapping, as a rule, forms shoots. In the second year, when the roots of the seedlings become strong, the offsprings are dug up and transplanted to a permanent place.
If you decide to try reproduction by layering, choose flexible shoots for this, lay them on the ground, fix in several places with wire pins and cover them with a layer of earth about 20 cm thick. The roots of the layers are formed for a long time, and all this time you have to water the layers, loosen around soil it and remove weeds. After about a year or a bit more, when a strong root system forms in the branch, it is separated from the mother plant, excavated and deposited.
Diseases of the almond attack the plant in cases where the crop's agricultural technology is disturbed or weakened by improper or delayed care. Most often, almonds suffer from scab, chill, rust, moniliosis, gray rot and nodule.
Cercosporosis - this fungal disease most often affects almond leaves, but if the disease progresses, the stalks and plant shoots may also suffer. The first signs of the disease can be found in June - rounded red-brown spots with a diameter of 2 to 4 mm appear on the leaves, and in conditions of high humidity a grayish bloom forms on them. Over time, in the center of the spots, the leaf tissue dries out and falls out, the plant has to grow new leaves, which consumes a lot of energy, and this has a negative effect on the development of fruits. As a struggle with the disease, as soon as its first symptoms show up, they treat the almond with fungicides.
Scab - This disease affects not only the leaves, but also the flowers and almond shoots. Cultivation of disease-resistant varieties of plants, digging the area after leaf fall, preventive spring and autumn almond treatment with Bordeaux liquid, timely pruning and burning of diseased shoots and branches can be considered as preventive measures against scab. Do well with scab, as with other fungal diseases, drugs from the category of fungicides.
Rust - this disease is manifested by small red spots on the upper side of the leaf plate, and brownish pads are formed on the lower side of the leaves. Spots grow, merge, from which the leaves dry and fall prematurely. As a rust control, almond treatment with an aqueous colloidal sulfur suspension is used. As a preventive measure, it is necessary to remove plant residues from the site in the fall and dig up the soil.
Monilioz - The causative agent of this disease penetrates the pistil of a flower and infects young shoots, leaves and almond blossoms. You can get rid of moniliosis by timely processing almonds with fungicides - for example, Horus.
Klesterosporiosis or perforated spotting affects all bone culture. Almond is no exception. Contributes to the emergence and rapid development of the disease warm rainy weather. The disease affects the leaves, flowers, shoots and fruits, but the typical signs of nodules appear primarily on the leaves of the almond - small spots of red-brown, crimson or red-violet hue. They gradually increase in size, merge, and the fabric in their center dies, brightens and falls. A distinctive feature of the disease is a pronounced dark border around the spots, which allows not to confuse kleasterospiosis with other diseases. With a strong defeat from the bark of damaged shoots begins to flow gum. To combat the disease, use almond treatment Chorus, Kuproksat, Skor, Topaz or Vectra, spraying the plant for the first time at the beginning of flowering, the second time after flowering, then two weeks after the second treatment.
Gray rot or botrytis it is manifested by the formation of brown, rapidly increasing spots in size on the leaves and shoots. In conditions of high humidity, the plant covers a gray fluffy plaque consisting of fungal spores. This plaque is spread by wind, and neighboring plants are infected with gray mold. To combat this fungal disease, fungicides such as Topaz, Champion, Kuproksat, Oxy are used. To avoid contamination with gray mold, try not to create too dense plantings and avoid contact with fertilizer with high nitrogen concentration on the leaves. When symptoms of the disease appear, it is necessary to cut the affected areas, and then treat the almonds with one of the indicated preparations. You can use plastering of the affected areas by spreading 30-40 g of the Rovral fungicide and 300-400 g of CMC glue in a bucket of water.
Of the pest insects, almonds are the most affected by spider mites, almond seed-eater, aphids and leafworms.
Almond Seed Eater spends the winter in the damaged almond fruit, so it is important to remove plant residues from the tree and from the trunk circle in the fall. Preventive maintenance (spring and autumn spraying of trees with one percent bordeaux mixture) can also reduce the risk of almond nuts being infested with seed-eating. For the guaranteed protection of the plant, spend another processing of almonds immediately after flowering.
Sheetworm, rather, its caterpillar feeds on leaves, while turning them. As a preventive measure, it is necessary to cut and destroy the clutches of butterfly moths and crawler-rolled leaves, and in early spring, when the temperature in the garden rises above 4 ºC, treat the trees with Bordeaux liquid or Prophylactin, dissolving half a liter of the drug in 10 liters of water. If the caterpillars bred, you will have to resort to treating the almond with such insecticides as Actellic, Calypso, Fufanon, Ditox, Tagore, Zolon and other similar preparations.
Aphid - the ubiquitous and very dangerous pest that feeds on the cell sap of leaves and young almond shoots and carries incurable viral diseases. The fight against it must be merciless, especially since in one season it can give nine generations. As a preventive measure in the vicinity of almonds, you can plant umbrella plants - dill, fennel - which will attract hoa eaters to your garden. It is better to destroy aphids with folk remedies - an infusion of wormwood, tansy, tobacco dust, bitter pepper, garlic, onions, dandelions, tomato tops and potatoes. To defeat the pest will require 3-4 treatments. From insecticides do well with aphids Biotlin and Antitlin.
Spider mite settles on almonds during the drought. It multiplies rapidly, its population lives in the thinnest web woven by ticks. This pest, like aphid, feeds on the cell sap of leaves and young shoots. As a result of the life activity of spider mites, the plant weakens, and it can be affected by any disease, including those whose carriers are spider mites. It is useless to use insecticides against ticks, since they are arachnids, so the fight should be waged with acaricides (Apollo, Omayt, Flumate) or insectoacaricides (Agravertine, Akarin, Kleschevit, Fitoverm).
Sweet almond varieties are divided into hard-shell, from which the shell is removed with forceps, and soft-shell, the skin from which is removed by hand. We offer you several well-established varieties, among which you can choose almonds and for your garden:
- – Anniversary - late-flowering drought-resistant variety with a shell of medium thickness and a dense, sweet, dry kernel,
- – Ayudagsky - late ripening fruitful variety, which starts fruiting in the third or fourth year after planting. The variety is soft-rolled, flat-oval core, dense and sweet, light brown in color,
- – Sevastopol - heat-resistant and drought-resistant late-ripening variety of very high productivity with soft shells and dense, sweet white kernels,
- – Mangup - drought-resistant late-ripening variety, rarely damaged by pests and diseases, with a soft shell and hard, dense, sweet, oily kernels,
- – Fragrant - late flowering variety with hard shell and fragrant, dense and oily kernels of excellent taste,
- – Dessert - self-infertile variety resistant to frostbite of flower buds, with a rough soft shell and oval sweet kernels with an oily taste. As pollinators suitable varieties Primorsky and Spicy,
- – Seaside - fruitful samobesplodny grade with a fan-shaped form of the crown, having a stable period of rest, with elongated oily fruits. As pollinators are suitable varieties Dessert and Alenik.
In addition to those described, the varieties in demand are the Yalta, Nikitsky 62, Paper-shell, Rims, Nikita late-flowering varieties, Nessebar, Dabkov, as well as Californian Nonparel, Nek plus ultra, Carmel, Padre, Mishn, Monterey and Sonora.
Useful properties of almond.
What is useful almonds? Almond kernels contain up to 67% fatty oil. Almonds are one of the world's best vegetable sources of protein: it contains as much protein as lean meat - up to 30%, and this is high-quality, almost completely absorbed protein. In addition, almonds contain calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and manganese, sugars, enzymes, a powerful antioxidant vitamin E and B vitamins.
Almond has an effect on blood lipids, cleanses internal organs of toxins and toxins, stimulates mental activity, improves eyesight, increases sperm production in men. It is recommended for patients with asthma and pleurisy, it is indicated for ulcers and abrasions in the intestine and bladder. Italian scientists have experimentally proved that regular consumption of almonds increases the body's resistance to viral infections.
The peel of almond kernels contains antioxidants ten times more than the kernels themselves. And, by the way, it is used for tinting wine and brandy production.
In folk medicine, almonds with sugar are used to treat anemia, anemia, insomnia and cough. Almond kernels have analgesic, anticonvulsant, enveloping and softening effects.
Despite its caloric content, almonds, when used correctly, promotes weight loss, since some of the fatty acids that are contained in it are removed from the body, not having time to digest. If you eat no more than 30 grams of raw (not fried and not salted) nuts per day, this will help you reduce the amount of lipids, normalize cholesterol levels and lose weight.
Almond oil - the most valuable product. It is used for inflammation of the lungs, asthma, otitis, stomatitis, heart and kidney disease. It has a beneficial effect on the skin, eliminating irritation, moisturizing it and giving it elasticity. Almond oil - one of the best means to strengthen the hair, stimulate their growth and give them shine and elasticity. It is quickly absorbed and activates the process of regeneration of body cells, so it is used as the basis for various ointments and creams.
Almond is a plant subgenus belonging to the genus Plum of the Rosaceae family. Despite the fact that many are accustomed to the idea that it bears nuts, in fact it is a stone fruit with an edible core. Therefore, it is not surprising that among the relatives of this tree, which are included in the same genus of plants, there are many other species with similar drupes:
The most common tree is almonds in warm countries, but it can also be found on the territory of the CIS - mainly in the south: in Crimea, Transcaucasia, Central Asia, on the bank of the Danube. However, there are also varieties specially bred for cultivation in areas with a more severe climate.
In the subgenus Almond includes about forty species of plants, and the most popular of them - Almond ordinary. It is most often grown in gardens. It has two main varieties:
- Almond bitter (wild) - as the name implies, its bones cannot be eaten in their raw form, as poisonous hydrocyanic acid gives bitterness to them. But you can get rid of it by heat treatment, and then the fruit can be used in cooking. In addition, it produces almond oil.
- Almond sweet - so familiar to all almonds, having a pleasant taste. Cultivated much more often. Это окультуренная разновидность дикого растения, плоды которого можно употреблять в пищу без дополнительной обработки.
История этого дерева насчитывает множество веков: его первое появление связывают с территориями Средиземноморья и Средней Азии, а употреблять его в пищу начали ещё задолго до нашей эры. Упоминания о нём можно найти в Библии. Now it is grown in many countries: in the United States, Mediterranean countries, Afghanistan, Iran, Australia. And in Tajikistan there is even a whole city dedicated to almonds.
Almonds can be both a tree and a shrub. In the first case, it can reach six meters, in the second it is able to grow to three. It has a powerful root system that allows it to survive in rapidly drying areas: its roots can sink five meters to the ground.
This plant is highly branched, and it has two types of shoots - longer vegetative and shorter generative.
Almond flowers can be seen much earlier than the leaves: it blooms in March-April, when the foliage has not yet appeared. Its flowers have five white or pinkish petals, the flower has a diameter of two and a half centimeters.
For the first time, the tree begins to bear fruit in the fourth or fifth year of life, at first - not in full force, you can get a full harvest only ten - twelve years after planting. After that, you can get the fruits for thirty and sometimes fifty years.
The unripe almond fruit is somewhat reminiscent of green peaches both in appearance and form. They are likewise covered with fine villi. As it ripens, the pulp cracks, freeing hard bone.
The almond shell can be of varying strength, and the thicker it is, the smaller the core. In fruits with the largest kernel, the shell is thin, it is easy to destroy, by pressing it with your fingers. Externally, the fruits resemble apricot seeds, but much larger than them.
This tree is not always grown for the purpose of obtaining fruits, sometimes it is planted for decorative purposes. Its flowers adorn the garden in early spring, when other plants have not yet bloomed, and exude a pleasant aroma.
There are several varieties of sweet almond, among which you can choose the most suitable. So, for growing in cold conditions, one of the frost-resistant varieties is best suited:
- Nikitinsky - shrub up to five meters in height, able to survive in any region, tolerates cold. Abundantly fruiting and in need of a long period of rest. Flowering begins in mid-April. The tree is fruitless, so for pollination you need to plant next to any other variety of almond trees that bloom at the same time.
- Dessert - Another self-sterile shrub, which is not afraid of frost and frostbite of the kidneys. His crown, as a rule, is rounded, the plant reaches a height of four to five meters. Usually blooms in April, if the air warms up to the desired temperature. Annually brings a bountiful harvest. For his pollination, almonds of the “Primorsky” or “Spicy” varieties are planted nearby.
- Seaside - tree up to three and a half meters fan-shaped. Blossoms in April, the fruits ripen by the end of November. It is possible to pollinate it with the help of “Dessert” or “Alenik” varieties.
- Pedunculate - miniature shrub up to two and a half meters. Late blooms and brings many small fruits.
There are other varieties that are more suitable for warm regions. Here are some of them:
- Sevastopol - feels great in hot and dry conditions, brings a lot of harvest. His shell is soft, and the kernels are white and sweet.
- Ayudagsky - begins to bear fruit in the third year of life. Fruits ripen quite late. They have a soft shell and an oval light brown core.
- Jubilee - blooms late and tolerates drought well. Fruits with a peel of medium thickness, under which lies a dense, dry and sweet core.
- Mangul is a late-ripening variety and feels great during droughts. It has increased immunity and is well resistant to most pests and diseases. Its fruit has a soft shell and dense, oily nuclei.
Almond grows well in sunny areas or in partial shade, but it should be protected from drafts. It is best to grow it from annual seedlings that can be planted in open ground in the spring, in March, and in the fall, in November. However, it is considered that planting almonds in the fall leads to more positive results, since the trees planted at this time take root better.
When planting a few trees, you need to remember that they need a lot of free space. Between the individual saplings in a row it is necessary to observe a distance of three to four meters, between two rows of five to six meters.
About two weeks before planting, you need to dig holes and a depth of up to seventy centimeters. They need to be well drained - lay gravel or crushed stone on the bottom. It can be laid nutrient soil, consisting of three parts of leafy soil, two parts of humus, one part of sand, there you can add a few kilograms of manure and a pound of superphosphate. If the soil is acidic, add three hundred grams of lime. The resulting mixture should be brewed in the pit for two weeks.
After this, it is important to plant the almond tree correctly. To do this, they drive in a pit about a meter and a half in length and sprinkle it with a hill of earth. A seedling must be dug in so that its root neck is a few centimeters above ground level. Then you can fill the pit with fertile soil, tamp carefully and pour well. Once the water is absorbed, you can bind the tree to a support and cover the ground with a layer of dry leaves or peat.
When planting in spring, the same actions are performed, only in March, and not in November.
Caring for an almond tree, like planting it, differs little from the necessary procedures when growing other fruit crops.
Almond to bring a bountiful harvest, it must be regularly watered. This should not be done very often: young trees need watering every two weeks, adults - and even less often, once every twenty or even twenty-five days.
A great role in the cultivation of almond trees play top dressing. You can start them in the second year of the plant and produce twice a year. In the spring, in April-May, twenty grams of urea or ammonium nitrate diluted in water is placed in the near-stem circle. In the autumn, the plant is fertilized in the same way with the following mixture: a kilogram of manure, forty grams of superphosphate, twenty grams of potassium sulphide.
Loosening also has a good effect on tree growth. This allows the plant to more easily access water, oxygen and beneficial substances. You can start the procedure at the end of March and loosen to a depth of twelve centimeters. During the growth period, this procedure can be carried out several more times, but already to half the depth. In addition, you need to get rid of weeds.
Even before the first buds bloom, at the very beginning of spring, you need to prune the tree, removing all the diseased, deformed, frozen branches.
You can form a crown after flowering. This procedure is no different from that of other fruit trees - for example, peach or plum. If the seedling was planted last spring or autumn, it usually has at least three branches, the distance between which is fifteen to twenty centimeters. They need to be cut to a length of twenty centimeters.
In subsequent years, you need to continue to engage in the formation of the crown, leaving the skeletal branches at a distance of about thirty centimeters from each other. Unnecessary shoots can be pinned several times over the summer, the necessary trim, but not earlier than July.
In the third year of the tree’s life, the crown formation is completed, and then the center conductor must be cut so that the last skeletal branch is sixty centimeters below it.
The trees that started to bear fruit no longer need pruning - you can only prune broken branches.
In addition, a thinning pruning may be carried out, in which the incorrectly growing branches and the crown of the branch are cut off.
Cutting off thick branches, be sure to treat the place cut garden pitch.
There are several basic ways in which you can get new almond plants. In the wild, it multiplies seeds, but this method is not always preferable for growing in the garden, as it takes much more time than other options. However, the seed can grow a stock for varietal trees.
Seeds are usually sown in spring or late autumn. When sowing in spring, stratification is necessary: the seeds are previously placed in a refrigerator for three to four months. They are planted immediately into the ground to a depth of ten centimeters, keeping a distance of ten centimeters between the individual plants in a row and fifty centimeters between the rows. Germination should be expected next year, in April. A plant that reaches sixty centimeters in height usually has a stem thickness of one centimeter, which means that it is already suitable for use as a stock.
The most common form of reproduction is grafting. It can be carried out on seedlings of both almond and plum, turn and cherry plum. It is best to produce it in mid-April or at the end of August, in the cool time of the day. For two days it is necessary to water the plant abundantly so that it is easy to separate its bark. With a graft you need to remove all the leaves.
At the site of inoculation, it is necessary to wipe the plant well from dust and make an incision in the shape of the letter T in the area of the root cervix. The vaccination site must be tightly wrapped with tape or plaster.
Another possible breeding option - overgrowth. As a rule, after pruning, near the main tree, shoots are formed, which can be separated in the second year of life and planted separately.
In addition, reproduction by layering is possible. For it, you need to choose flexible shoots, pin them to the ground and cover them with a layer of soil. It is necessary to water them well, loosen and get rid of weeds. Wait rooting will have a long time. It is possible to plant a plant in a year, when the root system develops enough to maintain the viability of the almond.
A little about the culture ...
Almond is a small tree or shrub belonging to the genus of plum trees. In total, there are more than 40 varieties of culture. However, most often almonds are grown on household plots. Many consider almonds a nut. But actually it is not. It is a stone fruit. The plant comes from Central Asia and the Mediterranean. In these regions, it appeared long before our era. Currently, almonds are also found in the Caucasus, Crimea, California, Western Tien Shan, China, in the vineyards of Slovakia, in South Moravia and the Czech Republic.
In the wild, almonds prefer stony and rubble slopes with calcium-rich soil. Trees grow in small groups, consisting of 3-4 bushes, located 5-7 meters from each other.
The almond tree grows to a height of 4-6 meters, and the shrub to just 2-3 meters. The roots of the plant penetrate deep into the soil, which gives him the opportunity not to suffer from drought. It is difficult to describe how almond blossoms. The tree in this period looks amazingly beautiful. Flowers are painted white or light pink. They reach a diameter of 2.5 centimeters. Flowering culture occurs in March or April, even before the first leaves appear. The fruit of the tree represents the dried drupes. Culture begins to bear fruit from 5-6 years, and the peak process reaches 10-12 years. The culture can make nuts for 50-80 years. And some specimens live to 130 years. Almond ordinary - a plant that needs cross-pollination. In order for fruiting to begin, several more pollinating plants should be planted near the tree, and their flowering periods should certainly coincide.
In addition to the culture that produces beautiful and tasty fruits, the decorative almond pleases with its stunningly beautiful flowering. The plant is a honey plant. During the flowering period, it exudes a magical scent. Basically, the plant is pollinated by bees, so it is best to put the hives on the site.
Before planting almonds in the garden, you need to consider options for pollination: either you will grow a variety that requires cross-pollination, or a species that needs insects.
Speaking about how to grow almonds, you need to know that modern breeders brought out a variety of his varieties. If earlier it was possible to plant a culture only in the southern regions, now it is possible to pick up varieties that under the shelter tolerate the winter well.
The most popular are the following varieties of almond:
- Anniversary. Plants bloom late, tolerate drought perfectly, have a sweet core.
- Ayudagsky - late ripening variety. The first fruiting comes in the third year of life.
- Sevastopol variety is resistant to heat and drought, it is distinguished by its yield.
- Mangul is a late-ripening, drought-resistant species. The variety is very resistant to pests and diseases.
- Dessert is good for growing in central Russia, because it is not afraid of frost. For pollination of plants use Spicy and Seaside almonds.
If you have ever seen how almond blossoms, you will certainly want to have such a tree on your site. And it's not even in the cores, but in the beauty of the plant. In addition, during the flowering period almonds fill the air with a stunning aroma.
After the trees are formed fruits ripening in June and July, depending on the variety. Harvest after cracking the outer shell. Next, the nuts are separated from the outer shell and dried for several days.
Planting an almond tree and caring for it is not difficult. Trees need regular watering. Young plants are watered every two weeks, and adults - once every 20-25 days. Loosening soil contributes to the growth of seedlings. The first work on the ground, you can begin to carry out in late March. Further, during the growing season, it is necessary to spend another three or four loosening. In addition, it is necessary to remove weeds as they occur.
Knowing how to grow almonds, you can achieve good yields, if you are interested. The plant is very responsive to making supplements. From the second year of life, in April or May, 20 grams of urea or ammonium nitrate diluted in water can be added to the tree circle. In the fall, make a mixture consisting of manure (1 kg), superphosphate (40 g) and potassium sulphide (20 g).
Almond spends a lot of effort on laying the fruit, so for good flowering and harvest, gardeners recommend fertilizing and feeding each year.
Trees of all almond varieties tolerate pruning, including young flowering pagons in the spring. After winter, dry shoots will certainly cut off. Also remove diseased and deformed branches. Immediately after flowering, it is necessary to carry out formative pruning, during which three tiers of branches are derived. Almonds are growing rapidly, so very often it becomes overgrown. In order to keep the crown in a normal state, pruning of annual shoots is performed.
In cold winters, flower buds and even the tips of the shoots may freeze around the trees. You can protect the branches from freezing by pinching their tips. The procedure is carried out from July to August. After such a manipulation, the branches quickly woody, and they are not afraid of frost. At first glance it seems that the method is incomprehensible and ineffective. In fact, it gives the best results for protection from the cold.
Standard almond varieties are most sensitive to frost. Experienced gardeners recommend covering them with agrofibre or other materials for the winter to protect the site of vaccination.
In the fall, it is also possible to produce rejuvenating and sanitary pruning. After the leaves fall, all dry, deformed, diseased and abnormally growing shoots are removed.
Diseases and pests
Unfortunately, almonds are subject to certain diseases. In order to know how to spray a tree from aphids or other parasites, you must be able to identify the problem.
Culture most often suffers from:
- Cercospora Foliage is initially covered with brown spots of 2-4 millimeters in size, on which a gray patina can be seen. Subsequently, the center of the leaves dries out and they fall off.
- Scab Fungal disease affects the shoots, flowers and foliage of the plant.
- Rust. Brown pads appear on the top of the foliage.
- Holey spotting. The disease affects all parts of the plant. The easiest disease can be found on the foliage, because it appears reddish spots with dark edges.
- Gray rot. On the shoots you can see fluffy bloom and brown spots.
At the first signs of disease, all damaged leaves, buds and shoots must be removed and burned. And then spraying fungicides. The most effective are the drugs: "Topaz", "Horus", "Oxyhom", "Champion".
Pests such as aphids, seedlings, spider mites and leafworms often appear on the almond. At the first sign of their appearance, it is necessary to process the tree. How to spray on aphids and other pests of almonds, you decide. Experienced gardeners recommend to opt for proven drugs: "Fufanon", "Aktellik", "Tagore". Well destroys spider mites "Apollo", "Fitoverm" and "Agravertin". In the fight against aphids, the preparations Antitlin and Boitlin are indispensable.
Садоводы отмечают, что намного проще предотвратить появление недугов, нежели потом бороться с ними. В качестве профилактической меры следует:
- Обрабатывать ранней весной почву около растения 1% раствором бордоской жидкости.
- После опадения листвы вновь повторить процедуру.
- Follow the rules of agrotechnology: proper watering, weed removal and sanitary pruning.
Almond is an ornamental plant that landscape designers readily use in their work. Trees and shrubs look equally good in group and single plantings. 3-5 plants on a background of coniferous landings or on a lawn look very good. Almond on rocky hills looks equally impressive. Often use plants on the shtambe. Trees are good for composing any compositions, they will decorate any area with them.
Earlier flowering culture and stunning aroma add charm to the plant. If earlier almonds could be found only in the south, then modern varieties make it possible to grow it in our area. With proper care, trees tolerate winter well.
Almond - contraindications.
For some people, almonds can be a strong allergen. Obese patients should limit their use of almonds due to its high calorie content.
Immature nuclei can be dangerous, since the cyanide they contain causes poisoning. Be wary of damaged or expired kernels - they can be poisonous. Do not give almonds to young children, because the nut kernel can get into their respiratory tract.
Type ordinary - is the most common plant, which is used everywhere in fruit growing. It is the taste of sweet almond that we know well from childhood and are widely distributed in the food industry. Other species of this family are conditionally edible, and some can even cause food poisoning.
Almond steppe, or wild (bogovnik)
Low shrub up to two meters. Crohn thick, spherical. Blooms bright pink or white flowers. Flowers bloom a little earlier or almost simultaneously with the leaves. Flowering lasts two weeks. It grows on steppe and stony soils. The distribution area is very large. It grows both in Central Asia and in Russia. It may even be introduced into the northern regions of the Russian Federation.
Representatives of the subspecies Bobovnik divided into two large groups:
- Gessler (hot pink flowers),
- Belotsvetkovy (white flowers).
The steppe type is very decorative and is widely used in ornamental gardening. Many gardeners in the northern regions grow this wonderful shrub in their backyards. The fruits of bobovnika are considered conditionally edible. But mostly this subspecies of almond is grown for decorative purposes.
Decorative varieties of bobster:
- White sail,
- Pink flamingo,
- Pink mist
A distinctive feature of this species is a very limited growing area.
It grows only in the Caucasus. Grows in the form of a bush with numerous root processes. It looks like a steppe almond. The height of the bush reaches 1 meter. Blooms bright pink flowers.
Homeland of this plant - foothills of Altai. It has the shape of a shrub. Reaches in height from one to two meters. The diameter of the crown to one meter. The leaves are quite large, dark green color. Blooms with pink flowers up to four centimeters in diameter. Fruiting reaches the age of 11 years. It blooms early, flowering time 2-3 weeks.
A small shrub, about a meter high. It grows mainly in the territory of Central Asia in the mountains of the Western Tien Shan. Blooms quite early in about three years of age. Almond flowers Petunnikova pink, flowering begins in May and lasts two weeks. Fruiting occurs at about the age of five years. The fruits are small.
Ornamental small tree or shrub. This plant is also called Luiseania. This type of almond can reach a height of two to five meters.
His homeland is North China. It blooms in early May, blooms for a long time, about two weeks.
This is one of the most highly decorative types of almond. During flowering, Luiseania is unrivaled in its phenotype. Due to its unusually beautiful flowering, this species is considered to be the most decorative. Flowers in their form can be simple and terry. The color range of the three-bladed almond flowers is also rich; it varies from light pink to crimson with a violet hue. Fruits are inedible. Like all types of almond is very unpretentious to the conditions of growth.
This species has a lot of highly decorative varieties. The most popular varieties common in the middle lane - Captivity and Kiev.
Luiseaniya Plen - sprawling bush with pink, double flowers with a diameter of more than four centimeters, the flower consists of forty petals.
Louise Kiev - a bush over three meters high. Flowers can be both pink and dark pink, the diameter of the flower is about three and a half centimeters with twelve petals.
Features of landing in the suburbs
In Moscow and the Moscow Region, only two species are suitable for cultivation in the open field. it steppe almonds, or bobovnik, and three-lobed almonds. It must be remembered that in this region of Russia only ornamental forms of this plant can be grown. Almond ordinary, the fruits of which are eaten, is not grown in this climatic zone.
But the bobovnik is widely represented in this region, thanks to its resistance to adverse conditions. It hibernates well and tolerates quite severe frosts. To increase the frost resistance of the plant in the Moscow region, it is grafted on the turn root. Although this increases the resistance to cold of the plant, it is desirable to cover the stumps for the winter.
The planting of these ornamental shrubs is best done by annual saplings, in late March or early November. In the soil it is necessary to add humus, sand and lime. As well as planting can be done with seeds, root layers and grafts.
Almond tree care
To protect shoots from freezing in cold Moscow winters, need early August remove apical buds from shoots. This stimulates the rapid lignification of the branches, which significantly increases the frost resistance of the plant. Taking care of almonds in this region consists in loosening the soil during the growing season, applying mineral fertilizers with potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen in the second half of November. As well as the introduction of organic fertilizer, which can be used as manure. In the spring, you can use nitrogen fertilizers.
In the period of flowering plants require abundant watering. Even in the conditions of the Moscow region, you can get a small harvest of the fruits of bobovnika, which are most often used to produce almond oil or as a savory spice to many dishes.
Luiseania is very beautiful and blooms magnificently, therefore, in its decorative qualities it significantly surpasses bauber. By right, it can be considered the most flowering plant in Moscow and the Moscow region. With proper care in the suburbs, Luiseania reaches a height of two meters. Gardeners prefer to grow forms with double flowers. Flowering begins in the first half of May. At this time, the flowering shrub is very similar to the flowering of sakura.
About how the almond tree blooms, many pictures and poems have been written.
Undoubtedly, almond is a plant that deserves much more attention from landscapers in the Moscow region, since this plant is extremely decorative. And who saw how wonderful almond blossoms, he will definitely plant this culture at home.