Some people believe that bonsai is a variety of dwarf tree plants that are grown in standard pots. Others believe that bonsai is a type of art or a trend in Eastern philosophy, which the tiny Japanese tree seems to complement. In fact, bonsai are really tiny trees, which are the most accurate replica of their tall relatives. They are received by grasping all the subtleties of a particular type of art, and they have been successfully kept in their home for years, only by understanding all the subtleties of Eastern philosophy based on contemplation, adoration and reflection. Previously, a unique Japanese tree in height with an ordinary indoor flower could only be seen at exhibitions. Now bonsai has become incredibly popular and spread throughout the world. Many Russians also began to master the technology of its cultivation. It is simple only at first glance, but it harbors many secrets and features.
Where to begin
If you firmly decided that you need a tiny tree in a pot, the question arises how to get it. To facilitate the task, you can buy ready-made bonsai in the store. Then the duration of his life in the apartment will depend on the knowledge and compliance with the rules of care. But many adherents of Eastern culture will certainly want to independently grow an exotic plant from scratch. There are different types of bonsai depending on the type of plant that will be turned into a dwarf. A candidate can be almost any tree from the garden or from the nearest forest belt. Bonsai art gained fame thanks to Japan, but was born in China during the Tang dynasty, when one of its rulers wanted to create a miniature copy of their empire. It was then that the clever ancient Chinese invented to make from ordinary trees exactly the same, only reduced tenfold. They called a new agricultural machinery "cultivated on a tray" or bonsai. Thus, observing certain methods, any plant can be turned into a dwarf. But in practice, success often comes with trees that can withstand extreme conditions of existence, namely, to develop in a miniature volume of soil, not to get sick from changes in the conditions of natural lighting, changing annual temperatures and watering. Therefore, whatever types of bonsai you choose, it is important to take into account the natural living conditions of your pets and strive to get as close as possible to them.
Where to get planting material
As mentioned above, different plants are suitable for bonsai, both coniferous and deciduous. Choosing, you need to pay attention to the size of their leaf blade. Since the potted plant will be miniature, it is desirable that its prototype leaf blades are not too large. Otherwise, a small trunk simply cannot hold them. The second condition is that the species of plants from which they create different types of bonsai has a genetic tendency to form a thick crown. Having decided on the candidate, it is necessary to take into account the soil in which your future bonsai grows in the open, with what kind of light, with what humidity. All this will need to be recreated exactly at home in a pot. In practice, success is achieved with fruit trees, with citrus, with myrtle, maple, rhododendron, rubber plant and many others.
There are not only different types of bonsai, but different technologies of its reproduction, or, more correctly, starting a growing operation. Yamadori is considered the simplest technology. It lies in the fact that in their natural habitat is looking at the desired young tree. It is digging in a circle, too powerful roots (if any), truncated and left alone for three months. Then it is removed with a lump of earth and placed in a selected flower pot (bonsai). For the quickest adaptation, the plant is shaded, sprayed, create a similar natural temperature regime.
This technology in Russian means trivial grafting. It is important to observe the terms of this process. For example, in Russia, deciduous species are desirable to be grafted at the end of spring, and conifers, on the contrary, at its beginning. The plants from which the cuttings are harvested should be between five and ten years old. If you strictly follow the rules for preparing planting material for your bonsai, caring for it in the future will not bring disappointment. Cuttings need to be cut only in cloudy weather, cutting off the still not stiff shoots. Their length may vary, depending on the number of internodes. They should not be less than three and it is not desirable that there be more than five. The upper edge of the cutting is done evenly, and the lower edge is beveled; it is placed in water, covered with a damp cloth. Another practicing method of tori is to gently remove a strip of bark no more than 2 cm wide on a vegted branch or an incision is made into which a pebble is inserted. This place is abundantly moistened with epin, wrapped with sphagnum, on top of polyethylene, fixed and wrapped on both sides to stop the flow of air. Moisture is regularly supplied to this compress with a syringe. The roots of the twig should start in about 60 days.
This method is ideal for beginners and means seed reproduction. Maples, oaks, myrtle, pomegranate, citrus fruits are suitable for this. You can collect ripe seeds from selected trees, the bonsai of which should be obtained without any problems. Only for this, the seeds must go through all phases of stratification. To facilitate the task, in the spring you can gently remove already sprouted seeds from the ground and place the ready-growing sprouts for the future bonsai in prepared bowls.
Classification according to size
There are not only different types, but also bonsai styles that differ in size. It is surprising that in the world of miniature plants there are their tiny giants and Lilliputians. In the international classification distinguish:
1. Mame. This group consists of trees up to 20 cm high. Among them are:
-Kesi-tsubu (Lilliputians in the country of Lilliputians, only up to 2.5 cm in height).
- Sieve (up to 7.5 cm, maximum 8 cm).
-Guff (up to 20 cm).
2. Soehin. This group consists of intermediate size seedlings between very small and just small. There are two subgroups here too:
-Komono (about 20 cm tall).
3. Kifu. The group is in the middle position. The seedlings entering it can grow up to 40 cm.
4. Bye. The plants in this group are almost giants and reach a meter height. Subgroups:
-Omono (up to 100 cm).
5. Bonju. In the world of the midget plants, these are already giants, capable of reaching up to 120 cm and higher.
Crown shape classification
It turns out that by the way the krone looks like, there are also different styles of bonsai. The traditional ones include:
-Tekkan (erect stem, thickening towards the base).
-Mohyi (the base and top of the stem are perpendicular to the ground, and the middle is curved).
-Sokan (a tree has two trunks, each with its own crown, forming something whole).
-Syakan (trunk without curvature, but growing to the ground under the slope).
-Kengai (trees resemble classic weeping, that is, they grow with trunks tilted below the pot, as if falling).
- Khan kengai (the stem of the tree is also falling, but the top is always in line with the ground of the soup bowl, and the outgoing branches resemble independent plant).
-Bungsing (tree grows with an erect stem, but with a minimum number of twigs).
- Sekzyyodzyu (in the pot on the ground there are stones, and the roots of the tree as if they are braided).
- Isitsuki (a composition of figured stones is created in the bowl, and the seedlings grow in their crevices).
-Hokidati (the stem of the plant is straight, and the twigs form a beautiful spherical crown).
-YSE ue (several trees grow in a pot, not a multiple of 4, different in height and age).
-Ikadabuki (imitation of a tree, as if collapsed on the ground, from the trunk of which separate branches grow up).
In addition to the classical, considered more simple, in the art of bonsai there are very complex, requiring high skill. It:
- Netsuranari (several trunks grow from a single root tree, which intricately intertwine).
-Fukinagashi (a complex composition in which bonsai grows not just under a slope, but so that its twigs and leaves are arranged as if a tree tends to wind).
- Sakay (an imitation of a whole corner of nature - a forest or a mountain site is created in the ploshka, and bonsai plants make this imitation more natural).
It is not very difficult to maintain bonsai at home, care of which is based on strict adherence to the rules. Those who think that dwarf trees should grow only in the house as an element of decor are mistaken. Very often bonsai compositions are placed in the open air, and they are brought into the house only with the onset of cold weather. If the winters are not harsh, bonsai can be left on the street, but at the same time the bowls should be placed in a large container with a diameter, and the top should be covered with a dense layer of moss to the very branches of the tree.
It is very important that deciduous bonsai in the winter period, as well as in natural conditions, shed their leaves and stay in a state of rest for some time. To do this, they are taken into a cool room. The third condition for success is the exact observance of the norms of lighting and humidity. If the bonsai lacks natural light, the lamps are additionally turned on, but they also take into account the heat they emit. You can maintain optimum humidity with an electric humidifier. If it is not available, the plant bowl can be installed in a tray lined with stones and half filled with water. The simplest, but also the most inefficient way is spraying the crown of plants.
When planting material is prepared - cuttings or seeds - bonsai must be placed in his house. The Japanese and Chinese use for this bowls and low flower pots covered with glaze or frosted, but always with several drainage holes. So that the soil is not washed out, the holes are covered with a piece of tile. The shape of the pot can be any. Soil for indoor bonsai best to take the same as that of his street relative. Some masters prepare the soil separately. Everyone has their own recipes. Here are the most common:
- a mixture of equal parts of clay, fine gravel, humus, stone powder or sand,
- clay, humus and gravel in ratios (3: 5: 2),
- clay humus, gravel (1: 5: 3),
leafy land, coke, sand, bark, volcanic soil.
In any case, the ground should easily pass water to avoid its stagnation. In addition, experienced craftsmen advise to disinfect the pot and soil before planting. Stratified seeds are placed in the ground, covered with glass, the entire germination period is maintained at a warm temperature and moderate humidity. Hatching and reached the stage of 2-4 leaves of the plant dive. In order for the root system to develop, the pick operation must be carried out several more times. Cuttings and seedlings are planted in the same ground as the seeds. For better rooting, the cuttings are covered with a film.
Growing bonsai is unthinkable without a transplant, which must be done every two, maximum three years before sap flow begins. This operation is also carried out if the root system declines. Before transplanting the plant for a couple of days left without watering. From the pot is removed with a knife. From the roots gently clean the soil, all suspicious roots, as well as large roots are removed. The pot is disinfected, filled with a couple of centimeters of new soil, the roots left after pruning are straightened with a wooden stick, laid out on the ground, sprinkled with earth, compacted and watered. The plant can be fixed with wire inserted into the drain hole.
Bonsai (plant): how to care
Keeping small trees is not very difficult. They should be regularly watered with cold water, making sure that the soil in the pot does not remain dry or too wet. During the rest period, the plants are watered less frequently, during the growing season more often. It is necessary to feed the bonsai. Do this from the beginning of the growing season every week, adding sapropel or urea. You can also use mineral fertilizers in the form of granules or solutions. Fertilizers containing a lot of nitrogen are used after the end of the first wave of growth. With the onset of the rest period, feeding is stopped. Coniferous bonsai in the winter is also not fed. Fertilizing sick and recently transplanted plants can not.
Choosing a future bonsai
It can be a variety of various coniferous, deciduous, evergreen trees growing in our region and outside Russia. You can turn into bonsai and Ficus Benjamin, which can be found in many offices and apartments.
Most popular with gardeners:
- citrus fruits of different types
- and you,
The list can be very large, since it all depends on the preferences of the grower.
How to grow bonsai from seed
Seeds of plants intended for growing bonsai, most must undergo special training before sowing - stratification. Her task is to artificially create conditions for their hibernation.
In moistened sand or moss lay the seeds. Capacity with them put in the refrigerator for several months. For the prevention of diseases of future seedlings, seeds need to be etched before planting.
After the end of seed treatment, they are sown in a low capacity. It must have drainage holes. The bottom is covered with drainage and moistened soil. On its slightly compacted and leveled surface place the seeds. They do it in such a way that after sprouting each sprout has enough space and there is enough light. Sowing time should be such that the plants come up in spring or early summer. By the winter they need to grow and get stronger.
Alternatively, you can sow the seeds in open soil and grow seedlings on it. Crops sprinkle with substrate or slightly pressed into it. Moisturize the soil with a solution of potassium permanganate weak pink. The container is covered with glass or film and exposed to heat in a bright place, but without direct sun. Such a greenhouse should be regularly ventilated. Without this, and with the strong moistening of crops, a dangerous mold appears on the soil.
As the seedlings grow, their airing increases, and then the glass or film is removed completely. Sprouts with 3-4 leaves dive into a container with a distance of about 5 cm between them or into separate pots, cutting the roots. As the seedlings grow, the dive procedure must be repeated several times, this affects the development of the root system. One and a half months after diving, the plants are fed for the first time. Seeds of local trees can be germinated in autumn, as in natural conditions.
How to grow bonsai from a sapling
In places where favorites grows for a bonsai tree, dig a sapling about 15 centimeters high. Experts advise to take a little soil for planting from where the sapling grew. Cut off its roots with scissors so that no more than 7-10 cm is left.
After that, begin to cut the branches, leaving only those that are horizontal.
Soil for bonsai
Mix for bonsai contains sand, clay, humus. For different varieties of plants its substrate is recommended.
For deciduous it should contain 7 parts of turf soil and 3 sand parts.
For flowering and fruiting In the substrate, 6 parts of sod land, 3 - sand and 1 - leaf humus are recommended.
For coniferous plants, popular with the owners of mini-trees, make up the soil of 3 parts of sod land and 2 - sand, because they require a very loose soil.
Bonsai soil should allow the roots to be fixed in a relatively small pot. For this you need a special substrate.
All soils require sand, which makes them loose. Some of the sand can replace vermiculite.
This porous mineral in the soil absorbs water, and then slowly gives it away, feeding the roots evenly.
Planting bonsai cuttings
In a flower pot pour a thin layer of drainage. Then fill it with bonsai substrate. Cuttings are planted in small holes in the soil. Processing in addition to cutting sites with growth stimulants will help root formation. Well watering the plant, cover the vase with a glass jar or plastic bag. After that, put the container in a warm, well-lit place, but without direct sunlight.
The cuttings will start to grow after a few weeks. When new branches appear, lift the jar or make holes in the bag. A few weeks after the shoots appear, the trees are carefully fed. If they are located in a pot too tight, they should be seated, while pinching the longest roots.
How to transplant seedlings
The best time to transplant bonsai is autumn. Then in winter the plant will have time to take root well, and in spring and summer its growth will go.
The tree is planted in a wide shallow vase with a substrate, which consists of three parts of garden soil, one part of peat and one of sand.
Bonsai should be brought to fresh air (balcony, terrace), without direct sunlight. At the bottom of the pot experienced flower growers are advised to put a plastic grid. Чтобы растение росло медленно, на стволе в разных местах делают аккуратные горизонтальные небольшие надрезы. Они замедлят движение соков в стволе.
Bonsai can be a variety of forms:
- with a straight trunk thickened at the bottom,
- with an inclined barrel,
- multi-stemmed: different trunks grow from the trunk lying on the ground,
- Cascade: the crown of the tree leans below the ground line.
Techniques of forming a mini-tree
To limit the plant in growth it is placed in a small shallow container. Its roots are regularly trimmed.
The main pot for bonsai should be special - massive, heavy, so that the tree that grows is stable with any shape of the trunk and growth.
At the bottom are required several drainage holes, which, in addition to the main function, are also used for plant fastening.
The shape of the barrel is created with the help of a special wire, with which the barrel is attached to the edge of the pot or to special pegs. Need a soft but strong wire to withstand the resistance of stems and branches. Most often used copper or aluminum of different diameters.
This method is suitable for changing the direction of growth of branches during the development of the tree, in order to fix the chosen style. For different bonsai, different wrap-up times are recommended for wire plants - from four months to a year.
But this action will have to be repeated for several years in order to achieve a final result.
There is a special tool - clamp - to create the necessary bend or to straighten complex branches. The design of the clamps allows you to gradually increase pressure until you get the desired result.
Branch trimming rules
There are requirements that must be followed when forming different bonsai:
- out of two opposite branches, one is pruned,
- remove branches that cross,
- weak branches growing from the trunk are removed.
This will allow you to form a bonsai with a clear, but natural arrangement of the branches.
Special tools are desirable for correct and accurate trimming of branches. Thin branches and young shoots are removed with narrow scissors. For cutting off branches of medium size it is better to use cutting pliers. Thick branches are removed folding file.
For the trunk there are special wire cutters, which remove irregularities from it that remain after cutting off thick branches.
How to grow a bonsai tree quickly
Accelerates the process of creating a mini-tree transferring a one-two-year-old sapling into a pot and forming a certain style from it.
He already has developed roots, with which you can work, and the crown allows you to change it in accordance with the plan grower.
Quick result gives and work with ivy. Several of his shoots are planted in the ground very close to each other.
With the growth of their tops cut off. Then all the juices begin to go on growth and thickening of the trunk. After a few months, the trunks will stiffen and create bonsai, intertwining with each other.
Depending on the type of plant, it should be replanted every 2-3 years or more. The main reason for this is the removal of excess roots. To save the tree from fungal infection of the root system, experts advise before planting plants at home. process pot hot solution of potassium permanganate or scald with boiling water.
The best time for a transplant is the end of February. The roots are cleaned from the soil and washed. The pot should be slightly larger than before, but the depth is the same. The roots are placed horizontally.
After transplanting the tree watered. After 3 weeks, he is fed. It is recommended to fertilize the soil for bonsai with special dressings that contain the minimum amount of substances useful for it. This is done every two to three weeks.
It is important for a florist to consider: the plant needs food, but it's important not to overfeed him.
An important task is to ensure the proper watering of the bonsai. This should be done taking into account the small volume of the substrate and shallow pot. To moisten the substrate is used irrigation or drip irrigation, which in the right amount and carefully gives moisture bonsai. You can immerse the pot with a plant in a container with water to moisten the soil from below.
Water the mini-tree according to the season. While growing season lasts, it is watered actively. Since autumn, watering is reduced. Soft or separated water is used for irrigation.
The best temperature is 18 degrees. During the warmer months, bonsai are carried out on a balcony or terrace.. At the beginning of autumn they transfer to the room, this plant does not like it when the temperature fluctuates sharply. In winter, it requires 10-15 ° C. At home, bonsai is arranged on a cool window sill, covered with a thick curtain, with the window opening constantly open. The trees also should keep away from drafts and keep away from radiators. The direct rays of the sun are harmful to them.
Growing bonsai is a long and difficult process. But creating a tree to your taste gives invaluable experience and gives a lot of joy to the grower.
Choosing a tree for bonsai
In order to grow a beautiful bonsai tree at home without too much trouble, it is best to choose one of the following plants for this, about which the feedback from gardeners is extremely positive. Photos will help to see how this green pet will look like.
- Indoor citrus fruits: orange, lemon, calamondin,
- Ficus benjamin,
- Ornamental apple varieties,
These are just some of the most popular options. Growing bonsai can be done from a variety of plants that are ubiquitous: in parks, forests, gardens. You can also buy seedlings in nurseries. The price will depend on the selected type of tree and its height.
Growing bonsai seed
There are two types of shrub seeds and trees suitable for exotic bonsai. One type of crop can be immediately used for germination, and the other part undergoes a hibernation period, during which the sprout must wait out the cold season. Stratification in the conditions of the house will serve as an imitation of winter.
- For a period of 3-5 months, the seeds of the bonsai tree are put into sphagnum moss or in wet sand, then the container is removed into the refrigerator. A positive temperature and a moist environment will help the seed to prepare for growth. When it is placed in a warm place, a quick awakening of the germ will occur,
- You can grow bonsai from seed from spring to the beginning of the autumn season. For seedlings grown at the end of summer, it is necessary to use a backlight, which is indispensable in the autumn-winter period,
- In order to successfully germinate seedlings and facilitate their first months of life, you need to take peat tablets, soaked and absorbed moisture, or sandy-peat light substrate. Until the sprouts appear, the container is kept under the film in the dark. The air temperature depends on the type of tree grown,
- Greenhouses must be ventilated to prevent rot and condensation. When the first shoots appear, the presence of fresh air in the room is necessary, then the seedlings are transferred to the light. If necessary, they are fertilized and watered using an integrated composition.
The bonsai plant is transplanted when it reaches 10-12 cm in height. When this occurs, the shortening of the main root by 1/3 occurs so that the green pet stops its vertical growth. Immediately form the future of the trunk using copper wire.
Growing bonsai from cuttings
You can grow your own bonsai from a cutting. This method allows you to accelerate the growth time compared to the previous version by almost a year. First you need to collect the appropriate cuttings. Do it better in the spring.
- Choose semi-woody or green shoots 5-10 cm long and about 5 mm in diameter,
- Plant cuttings should be in a sterile soil, additionally treated with hormonal powder (if possible).
Short workshop on planting cuttings:
- The bottom layer of a deep pot, 15 cm in diameter, is about a quarter filled with a mixture of acadams and small gravel in equal proportions,
- The remaining container space is filled with a soil mixture suitable for the selected plant,
- Remove all the branches at the bottom of the cutting, thick branches cut obliquely,
- Optionally, we process the cuttings with a special hormonal powder, which can be bought at plant stores,
- We put the seedlings in the soil, leaving a sufficient gap between them,
- Gently pour the soil,
- We remove the pot to a place inaccessible to direct sunlight so that young bonsai leaves do not get burned,
- Lightly moisten the soil, but do not pour,
- Before germination will take several weeks. It will be possible to plant shoots in a year, and in a couple of years it will be possible to start forming a bonsai crown.
How to choose a primer and a pot for wood bonsai
Home bonsai preferably planted in a shallow and small capacity, so that it does not grow huge sizes. At the same time, it is necessary to form and trim part of the roots.
The bonsai pot is selected very carefully. This takes into account that from year to year the plant will become heavier, may become unstable, especially if it has a cascade, oblique or irregular shape. Consequently, for a “green friend,” having a size from a few centimeters to a meter, they make ceramic bowls, containers or pots, usually massive, of different shapes and styles. Their bottom should have several drainage holes used to release excess moisture and to fix the future of the tree.
Scald with boiling water or a hot solution of potassium permanganate is very well suited for handling the pot. So you protect the Japanese bonsai from the fungus root system.
The soil helps the tree to retain moisture and gives nourishment, and also thanks to the soil the roots of the plant are fixed in a small pot. Therefore, in order to grow miniature copies of maples, oaks, lemons, limes, etc., resort to the help of a special substrate. This mixture, based on certain grades of clay, is called Acadam in Japan.
The granular substance is “flavored” with sand and fertile soil for good looseness and nutritional value:
- For the cultivation of flowering crops take three parts of sand, seven parts of the earth with turf and part of highly nourishing humus, which are mixed together
- Deciduous bonsai trees grow beautifully thanks to a three-part substrate washed with coarse sand and seven lobes of sod land,
- Conifers like friable soil consisting of two parts of washed sand and three parts of soil from sod.
Before planting a bonsai, the ground must be sorted out and removed all that is unnecessary, which can damage the root system. As well as the substrate is sterilized and sieved, drainage is made at the bottom of the tank.
Formation of the crown bonsai
To give a miniature tree a beautiful fancy shape, usually copper wire is used.
- First, from the plant remove all the twigs from the lower part of the trunk and the whole "dried". Next, choose on the crown three main branches that visually form a triangle with equal sides, and remove all remaining branches between them. You can also leave 2 or 4 sprigs, it all depends on your desire,
- To make the trunk bend, the upper soil layer is removed from the roots and the trunk is gently tilted to the required angle. One end of the soft wire is added dropwise and fixed in the ground at the stem base from the inside of the bend. The barrel should be tightly but neatly wound with wire to the base of the left branches, so as not to damage or tear the bark,
- It is also possible to create bends of bonsai branches using thin braided wire so as not to touch delicate plant tissue,
- It is necessary to remove the wire from the trunk of a formed tree in a couple of years, otherwise it may return to the initial state. Twigs can be released after six months,
- To preserve the aesthetic appearance of bonsai, do not forget to regularly cut long shoots that have come out beyond the perimeter of the crown and old foliage, to give the opportunity to grow with new young leaves.
How to care for a tree in the home
Your main goal is to successfully cope with the irrigation of a miniature culture. After all, a shallow pot filled with roots and a small amount of soil create certain difficulties. Best of all is drip irrigation or irrigation, which will allow dosed out, without blurring, moisturize the substrate under the plant.
Only irrigated, melted or soft water is suitable for irrigation. During the growing season, green pets need a lot of moisture, and in the fall, watering is reduced and becomes less frequent.
Miniature plants are excellent for mineral algae-based feedings, which are held every 2-3 weeks. It is necessary to care for trees carefully, not to leave them without “food”, but the most important thing is not to “overfeed”:
- In the spring season, with maximum growth, nitrogen should be applied to the fertilizer 2 times more than phosphorus and potassium,
- In summer they use the same proportions, but the concentration decreases by 1/2,
- At the end of August, especially in deciduous crops, the content of phosphorus and potassium is increased by 2 times, and nitrogen is reduced,
- Fruiting and flowering shrubs and trees require more potassium, which goes to the formation of ovaries and buds.
In winter, the tree requires such care:
- In mild climates, plants are kept outside or on unheated terraces,
- In a small pot in size, the roots may suffer in the first place, so they are well covered, and the substrate is dried a little,
- In spring, the bonsai flower awakens. Now it needs to be watered again, fed, formed crown and roots.
The video below will help you see the process of growing miniature plants more clearly. If you do not want to wait a long time, then you can buy an already formed tree. But its value will be calculated at several thousand rubles. If you do not have time and opportunity to carefully care for such a green pet, then make an artificial bonsai of beads, which according to its aesthetic data will be no worse than a living one.
What is bonsai style
The name literally translates as "grown in a tray." It is the art of growing an exact replica of a real tree in miniature, originated in China, improved in Japan. Growth is regulated by the development of a flat root system in a small amount of nutrient substrate.
The trunk of a Japanese bonsai tree is formed in accordance with the styles:
- formal straight
- informal straight,
- twin barrel,
- half cascade
- root on stone
Bonsai plants are selected from crops that can be crown and root. It is better to use those that grow slowly to facilitate further care. Depending on the style and idea, it turns out a tree with a height of 2.5-120 cm.
To create interior decoration in the style of bonsai, varieties that are not suitable for growing at home are taken. For this reason, the indoor flower must be provided with fresh air, create an appropriate microclimate.
Basic rules and features
To grow a bonsai tree should be subject to the basic agrotechnical recommendations, take into account the varietal characteristics, the needs of the plant. Watering and lighting requirements are different. Some crops should be placed on the illuminated window-sill, others should be placed inside the room to protect it from direct sunlight.
Bonsai is specially placed in a small container, because an increase in the fertile substrate leads to the growth of the root system, the formation of long shoots with large leaves. If the plant is not cut, the indoor flower will eventually lose its decorative appearance.
Bonsai will turn out to grow their own hands only with constant care. You need to observe the tree, in time to form the crown and shorten the roots. An unsuitable microclimate or non-compliance with natural vegetation cycles will destroy it. You can not disrupt the period of hibernation, if any, in the selected culture.
The necessary conditions
A bonsai-style houseplant should be grown in a ventilated room when weather conditions allow it to be brought out onto the street or open balcony. The humidity level of the air must meet the needs of the plant. Some cultures are able to grow equally well in the apartment and on the street. It is recommended to air the house every day, except for winter. The formation of a draft is unacceptable. Illumination requirements depend on the cultivated plant variety.
Selection of soil and pot
The soil can be inorganic, garden or fertilized with reagents. Techniques used, taking into account the preferences of the selected culture. Soil for bonsai requires light, permeable to air and water. For this, drainage should be added to the soil mixture - gravel, bark, coarse sand, ceramic shards, coke. Akadama is a special substrate containing certain types of clay intended for growing such plants. All components are required to prepare, disinfecting with a solution of potassium permanganate, boiling water or roasting in the oven.
At home, the composition of the soil mixture corresponds to the variety:
- sod, biohumus, sand in the ratio of 7: 1: 3 - flowering crops,
- soddy earth and sand 7: 3 - deciduous trees,
- sod, sand 3: 2 - conifers.
Capacity for bonsai should be small, shallow. Be sure to have drainage holes and a layer of expanded clay or pebbles at the bottom.
Не только структура почвы должна обеспечивать хорошую проходимость воздуха и влаги, но и сам контейнер содержать дренаж. Чем взрослее растение, тем важнее выбирать тяжелую емкость. Особенно при формировании неправильной, наклонной или каскадной формы. To protect against bacteria and fungi, the flower pot must be treated with a disinfectant solution before it is planted, rinsed with boiling water.
Tree forming rules
Bonsai for beginners may seem difficult, so it is recommended to purchase ready-made plants. If you want to start from the beginning, you should follow the rules of cultivation. The main ones are:
- You need to understand what the adult tree will look like.
- Achieve naturalness.
- Choose a facade point from which bonsai looks best.
- Cut unnecessary shoots and leaves.
- Distribute the branches evenly, with the exception of some styles.
- Leave a noticeable trunk.
- Do not plant in large containers.
- To form the desired crown with the help of a haircut and wires, constantly maintain.
- Ensure sufficient and uniform lighting on all sides.
How to grow bonsai at home: common ways
If the florist is just beginning to be interested in bonsai, the easiest way is to purchase a plant already formed, for example, from ficus or citrus. It will help to master all the techniques of avoiding regular irrigation before cutting and adjusting the shape of the trunk and branches. Accumulated experience will allow to move to more complex tasks.
You can grow bonsai at home in several ways:
- through the sowing of seeds of the crop of your choice and the subsequent “upbringing” of the seedling,
- using rooted cuttings
- the formation of a seedling from a nursery or wildlife,
- transfer to the pot and correction of an already grown cultural or wild specimen.
The fastest of these methods is the formation of the crown and root system of a one- or two-year-old sapling. Such a plant already has developed roots, while its ground part gives room for imagination and can be modified according to the plans of the grower.
Enthusiasts who are interested in how to grow bonsai from seed should be aware that this is the longest, but also grateful path. Here, a person has control over a plant literally from the moment the seed is pricked, and it is easier to change the shape of shoots and roots because of their flexibility.
It is not necessary to choose an exotic breed of tree or shrub. The main thing is that the plant has small leaves and a small annual growth, otherwise it will be much more difficult to “tame” the future bonsai tree.
Choosing the right bonsai tree
What types of plants are suitable for bonsai, a tree in the Japanese style? To quickly get an attractive tree, you can pay attention to:
- for indoor citrus varieties, such as calamondin or regular lemon,
- on a dwarf garnet,
- on the incredibly common and unpretentious ficus Benjamin,
- on ornamental varieties of apple trees,
- on the willow,
- on short pines,
- on the most different types of maple.
The selection of trees suitable for bonsai is incredibly large, and many of them are native inhabitants of Russia and are found in gardens, parks, city squares and forests. Magnificent compositions are obtained from barberry and shadberry, hawthorn, acacia and birch, elder and linden, euonymus and oak.
Before you grow a bonsai, based on the type of plant, determine its future height and style.
Choosing a pot and soil for bonsai
Bonsai tree is not for nothing called grown on a tray. To limit the pet's height, it is planted in a deliberately small and shallow capacity, simultaneously forming and cutting off part of the root system.
When choosing a pot for bonsai, you need to take into account that over the years the tree becomes heavy and, especially with an irregular, oblique or cascade form, can lose stability. Therefore, for bonsai, ranging in size from a few centimeters to 9 meters, traditionally they make massive, often ceramic pots, bowls or containers of various shapes and styles.
At the bottom of the tank should be a drain hole and not one. They are used not only to drain the water, but also for attaching the plant.
Treating the bonsai pot with a hot solution of potassium permanganate or scalding with boiling water will help protect the plant and protect it from fungal damage to the root system.
The soil for bonsai is not only designed to provide the plant with nutrition and retain moisture, it should help the roots to gain a foothold in a relatively small volume of the pot. Therefore, for miniature copies of real oaks, lindens, lemons, maples and other trees use a special substrate.
In Japan for many centuries, such a mixture based on certain grades of clay is called Acadam. For greater nutritional value and looseness, fertile soil and sand are added to the granular substance:
- For deciduous bonsai trees, a substrate is recommended that includes 7 shares of sod land and 3 parts of large, washed sand.
- Flowering crops are grown on a mixture of 7 parts of sod land, three parts of sand and 1 part of highly nourishing humus.
- Conifers, the most popular among bonsai lovers, need particularly loose soil, for which they take 3 parts of soddy soil and 2 parts of washed sand.
Before filling the pot, the soil for bonsai is sifted, removing extraneous inclusions that can damage the roots, sift and sterilize. At the bottom of the tank arrange a drainage layer for the outflow of excess moisture.
Bonsai tree care at home
It is not enough to purchase a miniature tree, get a young seedling or root a cutting of the breed you like. It is important to know how to care for a bonsai tree.
Constantly limiting growth, forming a crown and growing bonsai in a small pot, a person completely changes the life of a tree or shrub. Therefore, care for such a culture is very different from caring for other indoor plants.
The main task of the grower is to organize the watering of bonsai, which is not easy to cope with when there is a small volume of soil and a shallow pot filled with roots.
Previously, flower gardeners had only a special form of a watering can or the opportunity to immerse a bonsai pot in a bowl with water to wet the soil from below. Today, irrigation of plants or drip irrigation is being actively used, which allows to moisten the soil under bonsai without any risk of blurring.
For watering take only soft, thawed or defended water. During the growing season, plants need more moisture, with the onset of autumn and the approaching rest period, watering is reduced and carried out less frequently, focusing on the state of the substrate.
Feeding is carried out with a frequency of 2-3 weeks, using their mixtures for different cultures and seasons. For Japanese bonsai trees, there are algae-based mineral supplements.
You can not leave plants without food, but it is equally important not to overfeed bonsai. Therefore, when caring for bonsai trees at home, fertilizing is done very carefully:
- in the spring, at the maximum growth rate, the fertilizer contains twice as much nitrogen as potassium and phosphorus,
- summer proportions remain the same, but the concentration is reduced by half,
- closer to autumn, especially for deciduous crops, the content of potassium and phosphorus is doubled, and nitrogen, on the contrary, is reduced.
- flowering and fruiting trees and shrubs need more potassium, going to the formation of buds and ovaries.
With the arrival of winter for exotic evergreens, nothing changes, but conifers and deciduous trees must prepare for wintering. How to care for a bonsai tree in winter? If the climate allows, they are left on the street or brought to the unheated terraces. The root system in a small bonsai pot may suffer first, so it is additionally covered, and the soil is slightly dried. With the onset of spring, the plant awakens and again needs watering, fertilizing and the formation of the crown and roots, which is mandatory for bonsai.
Bonsai Tree Formation
To grow the right bonsai, you need to acquire the necessary skills, skills and knowledge. This is a very complex art, but, nevertheless, in its own way fascinating and mysterious in an oriental way. For planting can be used seeds, cuttings and layering. Including for their cultivation take wild trees of small size, growing in the strict conditions of the wild environment. Severe frosts, strong winds and long droughts stop or slow down the growth of the tree. Approximately the same tactic of effects is applied in the art of bonsai.
The roots and branches of dwarf trees are cut by a special system, and the branches are also twisted and tied with copper wire. Unnecessary buds, shoots and leaves are removed, and the trunks of trees can be delayed or bent, so that they have the shape chosen by the owners. Bonsai growth is slowed by the following effects:
With an excess of light and an insufficient amount of nitrogenous substances in plants in the wild, chlorophyll grains stick together and die. Plants living in wetland conditions, where high humidity, are protected from excess sun - they have leathery leaves of small size and a rather thick cuticle.
In addition to growth restrictions, bonsai also has other rules that relate to the shape chosen for the tree. Naturalness and the appropriate form of the rules - these are two components of the appearance of the tree-dwarf. There are many generally accepted types of bonsai, differing from each other in shape and sometimes in size. And although according to the general law, the height of a tree should not exceed thirty centimeters, now experts in this area have begun to grow trees and larger.
The tree species used also affects the overall appearance of the resulting bonsai tree. For example, conifers will be pleasing to the eye all year round, since they do not have leaves that could fall off. Bonsai, characterized by beautiful fruits or flowers, will show itself in all its glory at a certain time of the year. There are even species that have the brightest color of leaves in autumn.
Types of bonsai for growing at home
As mentioned above, the types of bonsai trees differ from each other in shape as well as in pot placement. There are a lot of them, and here are the most common ones:
1. "Symmetric" (tekkan) - a tree that grows straight and has strong roots. It differs in that it also has a wide trunk. Breeds for it are used very different, it is possible to meet both birch, and pine, and elm.
2. "Rock" (Sekizhezhu) - imitation of a rocky landscape. Very often it is grown for cherry or oak.
3. “Inclined” (sykan) - unlike the direct “tekkan”, the tree-dwarf of this type is slightly inclined away from the vertical line.
4. "Inclined by the wind" (kengai) - such a bonsai is similar to "syakan", but it is inclined even more, as if a strong wind was blowing on it for many years. Sometimes such a tree can fall even below its pot. The branches of this type also correspond to the effect of strong and long wind - they have the same direction. At the same time, it is important that the pot for kengai is stable, because it is not surprising that in this case it is important to maintain balance in the composition.
5. "Dead tree" (sharimiki) - a tree that has no bark. At the same time it really seems that it is dying or already inanimate.
6. “Two trunks” (kabudati) is a forked trunk and a common crown. There are also two trees in the same pot, but they grow, as a rule, all the same from one point.
7. “Hieroglyphs” (buns) - such a tree has a crown of leaves only at the top of the branches, which the trunk is almost devoid of. It is believed that conifers in this case will look particularly interesting.
8. “Multi-barreled” (ese-ue) - as well as “Kabudati”, it is not a single tree, but several bonsai trees combined in one pot. In this case, an imitation of a miniature little forest occurs.
9. "Semi-cascade" (han-kangap) - the base of this type of bonsai tree grows straight up, but then the trunk begins to lean down. In this case, the stability of the container in which the bonsai grows is also important.
In addition to the tree itself, there may be tiny houses and figurines in the pot, and the ground is often covered with small stone or green moss. You can create a whole composition imitating a natural landscape from a bonsai tree.
Also read: how to make bonsai from beads
Japanese bonsai tree: description
A plant grown in a flower pot using a special technology is called bonsai. Its size can be from two dozen centimeters to 2 meters.
This is, most often, a tree (maybe grass), which has a thick trunk, a special slope of the branches, aerial roots. Each composition is made in a particular style.
Features of growing bonsai
To create bonsai suitable several hundred species of plants. There are various directions in this art. Sometimes, for example, not one tree is grown in a flower pot, but a small natural corner with a miniature pond and mountains is created.
- Coniferous bonsai trees are especially appreciated, they are hardy to cold, and the compositions created with their use look extraordinary.
- Blooming miniature trees are beautiful - Jacaranda, Acacia, Myrtle, Magnolia.
- You can grow a small fruitful plant in the style of bonsai - peach, pomegranate, orange, lemon, plum. The choice depends on the growing conditions.
- Conifers in winter need lower air temperature, and in a hot room it is better to grow dracaena, hibiscus, ficus.
Common ways to grow bonsai at home
You can grow a bonsai tree from a sapling bought at a flower shop, or you can purchase a ready-made composition. It is possible to start the independent formation of a plant in the chosen style from 2 years of age.
- To create a miniature composition will not fit plants with large leaves, flowers or fruits. From the representatives of one plant family choose small-leaved varieties.
- The diary helps to grow a miniature tree, in which all pruning and care procedures are planned in advance.
- Selected plants are hardy to the local climate or evergreen, adapted to a warm room all year round.
- How to grow bonsai from seeds will help to understand the experiments with the usual stone fruit or seed crops of temperate latitudes.
In addition to pruning, a thick copper wire is used to give the tree the desired shape.
. Barrel wrapped with wire to create a tilt or bend, left fixed in the desired position for 2 years. The side branches are held in the grip of the wire for at least 8 months, so that they take the right direction.
- ceramic with pallets
- ceramic without pallets.
The advantage of plastic plosek - their cheapness. They are almost always sold with pallets. However, if in the summer to take the plants outside, the plastic, especially the dark one, will become very hot, and the root system will suffer from overheating. Plastic containers will not work for plants made in an oblique style - deviating from the central axis, they create an unstable composition. For this reason, the capacity for disembarking them is heavy and wide.
Bowls deep and not very wide are used for miniature trees with aerial roots. High capacities are suitable for growing cascade styles when trees are formed with a hanging crown.
At the bottom of the pot for bonsai has holes for draining the water, which at planting should be closed with a net. If there are no holes, they are made independently - in a ceramic container with a drill, in a plastic one - with a hot screwdriver. Before planting, the tank is washed and doused with boiling water.
Soil requirements are special. Traditional Japanese bonsai are planted in Akadam - these are clay granules of various fractions.
Such soil in nature is found in the Japanese province of Kanto. In a pure Akadam, plants are rarely planted.
There are special soil mixtures on sale that are suitable for growing miniature trees, with a neutral reaction of the environment and without peat.
Important pruning guidelines
The formed copy of the bonsai should look as natural as possible. Therefore, the finished form that the tree will take must be represented from the very beginning of pruning.
Perform this procedure usually annually at the end of winter. If the plant blooms, pruning is done after flowering. All sections are treated with a special paste (for example, “Rannet”), it can be bought in flower shops.
Trim the ends of the shoots, giving the crown the desired shape during the growing season. This stimulates the branching of new shoots.
Pinching is done either in early spring or several times per season.
In bonsai, roots are also pruned during transplantation. It is advisable to do this when the root system expands, completely filling the space of the bowl. Also, all diseased and damaged roots are cut, if any.
Problems, diseases and pests
Problems with growing associated with violation of the rules of care - late watering, improper feeding, insufficient or excessive lighting, etc.
Pests on bonsai settle the same as on other indoor flowers - scale insects, thrips, aphids, spider mites.
If the plant is in the garden in summer, it can be overcome by caterpillars and ants. For the fight using insecticides - "Fitoverm", "Aktar", "Confidor", etc.
Болезни бонсай, связанные с грибковыми инфекциями, – серую гниль, мучнистую росу, ржавчину, корневую гниль – лечат фунгицидами, обрабатывая больное растение несколько раз с интервалом в 7 дней.
Описание некоторых стилей и символов:
- хокидати – это символ спокойствия и стабильности, ветки дерева равномерно направлены в стороны, напоминая метлу,
- fukinagasi - resistance to all elements, a tree growing on the coast, its branches and roots are directed towards the inclined trunk,
- hankengai - a symbol of plasticity on the edge of the abyss, the tree is tilted down, forms a semi-cascade of short thickened branches,
- Neagari - strong bond with the ground, the tree rises on the roots, as on stilts,
- isitsuki - indestructibility and omnipotence of life, a tree growing on a rock,
- sokan - the connection of generations and traditions, two trees of different sizes, growing from the same root, etc.
So, we can safely say that bonsai is an attempt to express the inner philosophy through contemplation of the surrounding world.
How to make an ordinary tree out of the ordinary is perhaps the main question. Technologies here are different. In our conditions, it is not bad even for beginners bonsai maple. Having chosen the desired variety, according to the general rules, seeds or cuttings are planted; for the first year, the plant is allowed to get stronger. In the future, change the appearance of the trunk, gently wrapping it with soft (copper or aluminum) wire. But with the maples it does not always bring results. Most often they are formed by trimming. To stop the growth of the top, on it regularly remove new shoots. Maple has a rather large leaf blade. To reduce it, around mid-summer, the grown leaves are removed, leaving the stem. The tree for this period is moved to the shading place. To bonsai maple grow fluffy, when pruning, you can cut off the trunk that is too long (wound up with antiseptic), remove skeletal branches, pinch young shoots. To give the trunk tilt or bends, to it during the period of active growth, you can tie a weight or gently bend in the right direction and secure with copper wire, placing a cloth under it. To achieve the desired thickness of the barrel, you can use several methods. Some plants spliced young trunks, planting them next to each other and fastening together. For maple, this method is not very good. The thickness of the trunk in this case is achieved by its truncation.
How to grow bonsai at home
First you need to choose the culture and type of planting material. The tree can be obtained from seeds, cuttings or ready seedlings. All of these methods have advantages and disadvantages. Be sure to step through the steps, do not skip or delay with the required procedures.
Growing bonsai at home may seem difficult, since crown formation must take place in a timely manner. Large plants that grew in the forest will not do. The smaller the seedling, the easier it is to give the desired shape. For this reason, growing a bonsai tree from seeds is ideal; you can control the process from the beginning. The key to success is choosing the right culture and not deviating from style.
The method reduces the time of growing bonsai compared to sowing seeds for 1 year. Another advantage is that the characteristics of the plant obtained are known in advance and will correspond to the parent tree. Start with the selection of cuttings. In the spring, cut off the shoot with a thickness of 0.2-0.5 cm, a length of 5-10 cm. Lignified twigs can be planted at the end of summer.
In order to obtain a bonsai tree at home by cutting, the cut shoots should be rooted correctly. Wash and disinfect tank. Pour drainage layer at the bottom, top with nutrient mixture. Cut the bottom of the cuttings at a 45 ° angle. The top of the pinch, so that the plant has directed forces on the formation of roots, and not on the power of green mass.
Shoot deep into 2 cm, plenty of water. For crops growing under conditions of high humidity, it is required to create greenhouse conditions using a bag or glass jar.
The substrate must be kept wet, the greenhouse is periodically aired. Shelter to remove after the appearance of a young leaf, indicating rooting. Formation is recommended to start in a few years.
Having chosen a culture, it is required to purchase seed material - collect it yourself, buy it in a specialized shop or order it from China. In any case, preliminary preparation is necessary, depending on the type of plant. At home, it is difficult to grow bonsai from seeds due to the fact that some breeds require stratification or scarification that violate the integrity of the shell or awaken the embryo to grow. To do this, put them in a container with wet sand, put in a refrigerator for several months. Some cultures require complete imitation of natural conditions, consisting in periodic thaws.
Before germinating the seeds, it is necessary to disinfect them with a solution of potassium permanganate, stand a day in the water or a growth stimulator. The prepared seed can be planted in spring, late summer or autumn. Capacity and soil to cook, as for other methods of cultivation. Fill with the substrate not to the brim, leave 3-4 cm. After distributing the seed material on the substrate surface, fill it with sand for 1 cm. Moisten with a spray bottle, cover with a packet. When sprouts appear, pierce polyethylene in several places. Shelter removed after the formation of the first true leaves.
Seeds for a bonsai tree can germinate for several days or months. It depends on the breed, time of landing and preliminary preparation. After stratification, a warm and humid environment will provoke growth. Emerging shoots need adequate lighting. From seeds, bonsai grows for a long time, up to 5-6 years.
Growing from seedlings
Planting material must be purchased in the nursery or dig in the forest belt. The seedling should be healthy, about 15 cm tall. It is important to preserve part of the soil in which it grew, especially for conifers. Cut the roots, leaving 7-10 cm. Shorten the vertical shoots, side remove. Plant in a nutrient substrate, monitor the seedling condition before rooting, water it in a timely manner, loosen the soil.
Correction and formation of an adult plant
Dwarf forms can be used to obtain bonsai already in adulthood. The advantage of this method is to reduce the time, and the disadvantage is that the decorative effect is inferior to the previous methods. Lignified stem and skeletal branches are difficult to change, difficult to go in the right direction.
The excavated tree must be examined for signs of infection by infections or pests. For the cultivation of bonsai fit only a healthy specimen.
Clean the roots from the soil, cut to 7-10 cm. Plant in a prepared container, pinch the main shoot. A year later, with a formative pruning, shorten the root system and skeletal knots, remove unnecessary branches. The procedure is repeated several times. Young branches are easily bent, they need to immediately give the desired shape with a thin wire.
How to care for bonsai
When growing in a pot tree, you must create the required conditions. Humidity of air and soil, lighting, temperature conditions depend on the culture. It is necessary to air daily, protecting the planted plant from the draft. Permanent growth restriction, pruning, a small volume of the container reduce the immunity of indoor trees, so they need to be carefully monitored, not to rely on the inherent resistance to adverse factors.
Care for bonsai includes:
- creating an optimal microclimate,
- crown formation
- protection from diseases and pests.
How often to water bonsai
For the plant requires constant care. To carry out watering as necessary, to prevent the soil from drying out. The main mistake of beginners is the opinion that small leaves evaporate a small amount of moisture, therefore they do not require regular watering. Often this leads to the fact that the aboveground part remains green and the roots die.
It is necessary to use rain, thawed water or room water at a temperature of 2 days. Water gently, trying not to blur the soil. The best methods are irrigation and drip method. In the autumn, reduce the amount of moisture by preparing bonsai for a period of rest.
A small amount of soil can not provide the plant with all the necessary nutrients for a long time, so every 2-3 weeks during the period of active growth is required to feed. It is advisable to purchase special blends. Algae-based supplement has proven itself well.
The ratio of major minerals - nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium - varies with the seasons, depends on the culture. In the spring more nitrogenous is needed, closer to winter - phosphorus-potassium mixtures. In the summer, the amount of feeding should be reduced by 2 times, in the fall and winter - not to carry out. Flowering and fruiting plants need an increased amount of potassium.
Fertilizer for the bonsai tree is required to be applied in a liquid form when watering. Avoid contact with the root system of concentrated solutions. Do not mix organic and mineral supplements. Exceeding the recommended dosages can lead to the death of the plant.
The procedure is carried out in order to update the soil and is somewhat different from other indoor plants. Carefully replant the bonsai, save part of the substrate and mix with the new soil mixture. If the root system cannot be removed from the roots, it is necessary to remove a layer of about 1-1.5 cm over the entire diameter of the pot and replace it with nutrient soil. Increasing the size of the tank is permissible only at the beginning of the cultivation of bonsai and when changing the design when free space is required for the decorative elements.
2 days before the procedure, the plant must be watered abundantly. Prepare the tank and soil. It is recommended to replant quickly, because the roots are sensitive to light and air. Remove the tree with a lump of earth, clean the old soil on ⅓ from all sides. Remove diseased and dried roots, healthy shortened. Set in a new pot, straighten the root system, fill the substrate. Water, transfer the container to a warm ventilated place without drafts and direct sunlight.
Features of some types of agricultural technology
To obtain miniature trees from ordinary plants, it is necessary to correctly form the crown and root system from the moment of planting. Depending on the type of culture and the design style of agricultural technology may vary slightly.
All plants for bonsai can be divided into groups:
- tropical - ficus, acacia, boxwood, wisteria,
- conifers - spruce, cedar, fir, pine, cypress,
- deciduous - birch, maple, elm, beech.
Caring for a tree with wide leaves and needles is different. Additionally, intragroup differences may be present. It is important to take into account the time of flowering and fruiting, dormant period, foliage dumping. For bonsai, they often use European olive, carmon, willow, Chinese elm. There is a mix of plants of different species.
For light-loving crops need additional lighting in cloudy weather. Subtropical trees (pomegranate, olive, myrtle) should be outside in the summer, kept in winter at + 5-15 ° C. For tropical plants it is better to be in the room, the thermometer should not fall below + 18-25 ° C.
Flowering and fruiting
Agrotechnology is the same as for other species, but good lighting is necessary for the formation of buds and ovaries. Flowers will not be able to grow due to dry soil and an excess of nitrogenous fertilizers. Ornamental varieties of apple, cherry, pomegranate with proper care are able to bear fruit. It is necessary to ensure adequate watering, but avoid overwetting. The scorching sun will cause the leaf to wilt, and failure to comply with the temperature will cause the ovaries to fall.
Flowering bonsai should be heavily pruned after flowering. Wire formation is carried out in spring or summer. The bark of deciduous trees is delicate, it must be protected from damage. After trimming, the cut must be covered with special means. It is not recommended to use garden bar, because it leaves greasy traces, it is poorly removed. Dried flowers need to be removed immediately, otherwise the next year they will not. Unnecessary inflorescences and fruits are cut off, otherwise the tree will not be able to provide them with nutrients, it will weaken.
It is important not to overdo it with watering. The lower soil layers should dry out. To winter the plant should be outside, the maximum possible temperature during this period is +10 ° C. To grow a beautiful coniferous bonsai work out, if you provide uniform coverage. Periodically, the container should be rotated 90 ° in one direction. Breed well perceives scattered light.
Bonsai can be made from pine, fir, thuja. It is recommended to form a culture during wintering - from December to March. Get bent trunk will wire bent in the right directions. It should not be allowed to grow into wood, therefore it is important to periodically weaken it. Replacement takes place every season. For successful cultivation of the necessary branches it takes 2 years. If you remove the mount earlier, the shoots will align.
The art of bonsai is a fascinating, beautiful occupation. To create compositions using ordinary trees and shrubs. The crown is formed, the root is necessarily trimmed. You can grow from a seed, cutting, seedling or adult dwarf plants. Flowering, fruiting and coniferous crops have slight differences in care. Maintain the proper form of bonsai required throughout life.