My friend grows chrysanthemums separately from other flowers. She just got a nice bed! I became interested in how to propagate chrysanthemums. It turns out that you can use seeds, cuttings and queen cells.
Personally, I began to practice seed reproduction. pleased! Those who have not grown chrysanthemums, I will tell you how to do it. I would also like to discuss the nuances of caring for these luxurious flowers.
More on seed breeding
Seed material is determined in the wells when warm weather sets. I recommend to have pits at a distance of 25 cm. Before sowing the seeds, you need to make water. Place three seeds in one well, sprinkle them with fertile soil, put a film on top. Thanks to her, the soil will get longer moisture, and the seeds germinate faster.
As soon as you see the shoots, remove the film, loosen the soil and remove the weeds. After 11 - 12 days will need to feed the seedlings. I advise you to use the drug Rainbow. Sprouts of 8 cm are thinned, leaving the most mature. If you wish, seed off other sprouts.
We grow seedlings at home
Annual chrysanthemums bloom in late summer. To speed up flowering, you need to grow seedlings. Saplings grow well at room temperature. It should be grown in small boxes.
For the preparation of soil mixture, take the cleaned soil, humus and peat. The land purchased in the store is disinfected. If you are preparing a soil mix yourself, do not forget to pour it with boiling water.
Create a drainage layer. Thanks to him, seedlings will get more air. Spread the seeds on the soil mixture, without deepening, but slightly pressing.
Spray them out of the spray bottle, cover the boxes with plastic wrap. I recommend to contain shoots at a temperature of + 23 degrees.
To make them grow better, air the room, but do not allow drafts. Remember: the soil should not dry out.
Chrysanthemums will delight you with shoots in 10-15 days. After this time, determine the capacity in a bright place. Teach mini-seedlings to home conditions. If you have densely planted seeds, the seedlings will be located close to each other. In this case, I advise you to perform a pick.
Before thinning the seedlings, pour plenty of soil mixture. If you see elongated seedlings, put them aside. After performing the picking, sprinkle the canes with Epin's solution. Thanks to this tool, they better take root in the ground. In the future, keep the seedlings in a room where the air temperature does not exceed + 18 degrees.
Care for young and adult plants, landing in the ground
I recommend watering chrysanthemums as needed. To get gorgeous flowers, you need to feed seedlings using complex formulations. Fertilize 2 times a month. Sometimes you need to illuminate the seedlings with fluorescent lamps.
After 2 months they will reach a height of 20 cm.
Chrysanthemums are planted in the ground when the weather is warm. It is important to make sure that the frost does not return. I advise you to plant this flower in early June. If you wish, plant in the fall before the onset of cold weather.
When choosing a bed for chrysanthemums, keep in mind that flowers like heat. It is best to place them on a sunny slightly tilted area. Decorative culture does not tolerate drafts and stagnant water at the roots.
Plant chrysanthemum in neutral slightly acid soil. If the land in your area is sandy or loamy, apply an organic remedy. Chrysanthemum flowers do not respond well to fresh manure. For fertilization of the soil need to use rotted.
I advise you to plant a plant in the garden when the weather is cloudy. Seedlings should be located at a distance of 40 cm from each other. Pre-etch the wells with a root solution (1 g per 1100 ml of water). Thanks to this tool, decorative culture will quickly form roots.
After planting, I recommend removing the growth point. To seedlings adapted to the new conditions, cover them with a film. This material will contribute to rooting. Planting and care in the open field will not take much of your time and effort!
Application of cuttings
We considered the seed method of reproduction, there is still grafting. To multiply the chrysanthemum in this way, in the spring, take one strong plant and cut the stalk. The length of planting material should be 6 - 7 cm. Place the lower end in Kornevin.
Identify the cutting in a container filled with fertile soil. Next, powder the planting material with sand. Capacity is better to place on the windowsill. The shank feels good at an air temperature of + 16 degrees. When the planting material takes root, place it on the garden bed.
Pinching, watering, fertilizing
Finding the eighth leaflet, pinch the plant. Due to this, branching will increase. I recommend pinching the side shoots, so you can get a thick spherical bush.
If a large-flowered chrysanthemum is chosen for planting, this procedure is not necessary, but weakened shoots should be removed. Tall varieties should be planted at the support. As such, use wire or metal construction.
It is necessary to make water in time, otherwise the shoots will become lignified, and the flowers are not so attractive. I advise you to use cool distilled water.
Water the plant better at the root. If the water falls on the leaves in sunny weather, a burn occurs. To improve the photosynthesis of plants, it is necessary to loosen the soil. The procedure can be carried out less frequently if the chrysanthemum was mulched during planting.
The flower needs fertilizer. During the growing season, it requires 3 feeding. Alternate organic matter with minerals. Chrysanthemum responds well to ammonia nitrogen. If you use this fertilizer, the plant will form more green mass, the buds will grow larger.
In the period of budding, I advise you to make potash-phosphate compounds. Solutions must be prepared in accordance with the instructions, it is desirable to apply them after the rain.
Garden chrysanthemums positively perceive a rotted mullein. It is not recommended to apply a lot of fertilizer, otherwise the plant will die.
Remember: it is better not to feed the flower. If the decorative culture is grown on one site for more than three years, the flowers become small and begin to crumble. Adults need to replant chrysanthemums.
Dig up bushes, divide neatly, leaving high-grade roots on each part. Try not to damage them. In this way, you can propagate chrysanthemum. Planting delenok is not difficult, focus on the method of "cuttings".
The peculiarity of the plant is that it forms a large stem. The leaves of the tricolor chrysanthemum are green-gray. Flowers do not exceed 6 cm.
This type of compact grows to 35 cm. Its leaves are combined, the flowers resemble chamomile, their size does not exceed 5 cm.
The maximum height of the ornamental culture is 1 m. The leaves are “sharp”, the flowers are compact, green-yellow in color.
Now we know what a perennial chrysanthemum looks like and what is needed for its favorable growth. It is important to plant the flower correctly. I prefer a seedling method of growing.
Although the history of chrysanthemums dates back over one and a half thousand years, scientists still have not come to a common opinion where this beautiful autumn flower came from in modern gardens. Magical legends about the chrysanthemum and the special respect she enjoys in Japan incline researchers to believe that the autumn beauty is the birthplace of the autumn beauty.
Interesting! Until now, chrysanthemums in wild form have not been found in nature.
According to one of the legends, the chrysanthemum appeared on earth from parts of the sun, which was stolen by an evil dragon, which is confirmed by its very name - gold-colored, translated from Greek. In China, in the garden chrysanthemum was cultivated in the 5-6 century BC. e., in any case, the first written mention of it comes from Confucius. By the way, it is he who owns the wonderful words:
"If you want to be happy all your life - grow chrysanthemums"
But in Europe, she came only in the XVII century. The French and the British are still arguing over where it appeared earlier - in England or in France; the chrysanthemum came to the gardeners of Russia in the 19th century.
Types and varieties of perennial chrysanthemum photo
More than seven hundred varieties of chrysanthemum, which are now actively grown by growers of all countries, are usually classified by the type of inflorescences:
- pompon - a small rounded inflorescence,
- feathery, whose core is not visible behind the double-headed petals,
- bristly - terry inflorescences with thin, beautifully curved petals,
- simple, or semi-double, very similar to daisies,
- anemone-like, in which a flat inflorescence with a well-open core,
- fantasy, as a species of pinnate, with elegant long petals,
- spoon-shaped, in which the petals are thin at the core and expand to the ends,
- Korean - especially resistant to cold, with small buds,
- large-flowered, the diameter of the flower which sometimes exceeds 12 centimeters,
- multiflora, forming a bush-ball with numerous small flowers.
All of these species, as well as varieties and hybrids of chrysanthemums, are conventionally divided into two large groups - high and low. High chrysanthemums are planted in groups, even in arrays, and short-growing ones look great in borders, mixborders, as well as in stand-alone garden containers.
According to the degree of resistance to adverse conditions of cultivation and cultivation of chrysanthemum can be divided into three groups:
- Korean varieties of chrysanthemums are considered the most enduring, or, as they are often called in Russia, oak trees, they can be grown in very cold regions.
- Susan’s Bonnet is also cold resistant, suitable for growing almost all over our country.
- Fantasy, a Japanese variety more familiar to the mild climate, grows well and blooms in the southern regions.
Choosing a place
Important! Chrysanthemums very poorly tolerate the shadow: the stems are drawn out, become thin, brittle, the flowers become very shallow, it is quite possible that they will not be there at all or they will bloom too late. Also categorically do not like these flowers are places where water stagnates, thawed, rain or after watering.
Therefore, when determining the place for planting chrysanthemums you need to stop your choice in open sunny places. In this case, preference is given to slightly elevated areas, since water does not stagnate on them. You also need to take into account that strong winds adversely affect the development of chrysanthemums, so the place for their landing should be protected from the wind.
Soil for chrysanthemums
Chrysanthemums are also demanding on the soil. They grow well in neutral or weakly acidic soils. At the same time, in addition to good moisture permeability, the soil requires its friability and saturation with organic nutrients. If a suitable area for illumination is characterized by dense or poorly fertile soil, it should be improved before planting flowers.
To improve drainage, usually river sand of a large fraction, previously well washed, is used. To increase fertility, either rotted manure, or compost or peat is added to the soil. It is enough to add one bucket of such organic matter per square meter of landings. You should not increase this amount, because on excessively fertilized soil chrysanthemums will be “fattened”: there will be a lot of greenery, leaves, but there will be very few buds, respectively.
If the soil is sandy, light, it is weighed down with humus or soddy earth. It is also recommended during planting to make and mineral fertilizer, do it directly at the place: fall asleep in the hole or trench.
The best dates for planting perennial chrysanthemums are spring months. In this case, they will take root well before autumn and will develop sufficiently enough to please flowers in the fall. Since planting material is usually purchased in the spring, as a rule, these are rooted cuttings or shrubs of bushes, they will need to be planted soon. For the Midland it is usually the end of May - the beginning of June.
Important! Planted cuttings and delenki, when finally passes the threat of recurrent frosts.
Chrysanthemums are usually planted in cloudy, even rainy weather. If the days are sunny, landing is done either in the morning or before sunset. I dug the holes under the chrysanthemums not very deep - so that the roots fit into them without digging. If you plant a tall variety, you need to immediately dig in support for the plants, so as not to injure the roots.
Chrysanthemums are planted at a distance of 25-50 centimeters from each other, in most cases a more accurate figure is determined by the varietal characteristics. It is not necessary to shake off the earth from the roots, so the cuttings and divisions will take root much faster. After planting, the soil around the cuttings (delenok) is desirable to be watered with a root formation stimulator, so a powerful root system will quickly form, and by the autumn the plant will fit strong and healthy. The first time the seedlings need to cover non-woven material. Shelter will protect them from the hot sun or from unexpected spring cold snaps.
Watering and loosening
The extremely drought-resistant chrysanthemum nevertheless simply loves moisture. Usually, before the flowering period, it needs abundant watering, without which its stems grow coarse, the leaves wither and fall, the flowers shrink and grow dull. The most important for chrysanthemum - the first months after planting, when it forms and grows the root system. At this time, she especially needs abundant watering and regular (at least 1 time per week) loosening the soil. After a month, loosening is stopped, since the growth of young shoots from the roots begins, and it is easy to damage them when loosening.
Chrysanthemum mulching loves no less than moisture. Pine needles or shredded bark, as well as oat straw, are best suited for this purpose. Mulch will protect the plant from pathogens of fungal diseases that can get on the stems and leaves during watering or rain with water drops.
Since chrysanthemums are fast growing, they need frequent fertilizing.
Important! Any fertilizer is applied in liquid form only at the root and only in moist soil.
In the first one and a half to two months, when the chrysanthemum is actively increasing its green mass, it needs fertilizers in the ratio N: P: K (nitrogen - phosphorus - potassium) = 2: 1: 1.
The nitrogen component has a positive effect on the height of flowers, the number of young shoots, the degree of color and the size of leaves and flowers. It should be borne in mind that the lack of nitrogen fertilizers leads to fading of the color of leaves and petals, the flowers are small, ugly.
The first feeding is carried out immediately after planting, when the seedlings begin to grow. A second dressing, preferably a mullein or a solution of bird droppings, is made two weeks after the first. When the first buds appear, chrysanthemum will need phosphorus-potassium fertilizer. Phosphorus increases the quantity and quality of flowers, increases the flowering time, and also has a positive effect on plant resistance to diseases. Phosphate fertilizers or bone meal is made at the rate of 50 grams per square meter.
Potassium also improves the immunity of chrysanthemums and improves the quality and appearance of inflorescences. Usually potassium sulfate is used as a fertilizer, it is considered the most suitable for chrysanthemums.
Beauty care and chrysanthemum garter
Since pests are often settled in old, wilted leaves, and they are also the most vulnerable from the point of view of diseases, they should be cut off in a timely manner throughout the growing season. To prevent the chrysanthemum stems from being hit by wind or heavy rain, as they grow, they are tied up to supports — stakes that they drop when they are planted.
Planting perennial chrysanthemums before winter
Although it is better to plant chrysanthemums in the spring, autumn planting is also possible. Moreover, in the fall they can be seen in all its glory and not to buy a cat in a bag, but what really fascinated.
Important! Autumn planting chrysanthemums need to be completed before the end of September.
For the southern regions, this period is extended by 2-3 weeks. The guideline should be the approximate time of full rooting - 5-6 weeks. When autumn planting is recommended to deepen the base of the bush by 2-3 centimeters.
Important! If the bush acquired in the fall is large, it cannot be divided so as not to prolong the stress of the plant dug out of the soil during the flowering period.
After planting, the flowers and all the buds must be removed: the flower must not expend forces on flowering, they must be sent to rooting and rooting. In this state, chrysanthemums are left to the first frost, and then cut the stems as close as possible to ground level. Then the bush is covered with dry leaves or peat. If these materials are not at hand, the bushes are spudding with dry earth.
If winter happens to be cold and snowless, the chrysanthemums planted in the fall will need extra cover. It is constructed using lapnik, dried plant debris, cardboard boxes or wooden (plywood) boxes. При этом возникает необходимость контроля температуры воздуха: при признаках устойчивого потепления укрытия нужно разобрать, чтобы корни и отпрыски хризантем не выпрели.
Reproduction of chrysanthemum perennial
Chrysanthemums reproduce in three main ways:
- through the seeds,
- division of the bush.
Most gardeners prefer grafting as the most effective way to get excellent planting material, which preserves all varietal characteristics and features.
The reproduction of perennial chrysanthemums with seeds is an ungrateful process: all species and varieties are complex hybrids, and even God does not know what to grow from seeds collected independently. However, fans of surprises often conduct experiments with seeds of finely flowering varieties. Chrysanthemum seeds are sown as seedlings, and directly into open ground. In the second half of February or early March, seeds for early flowering are sown in seedling boxes with wet soil.
Important! Seeds are not buried, as they need light for germination.
Chrysanthemum seeds germinate quite quickly - in a week. Grown up seedlings dive into separate pots, where they grow until the time when they can be planted in open ground - until about mid-May. At the end of June, it will be possible to admire the first flowers.
In open ground, seeds are sown in May, in the ground prepared for cuttings or saplings. Usually in each well put a few pieces of seeds. The wells are placed at a distance of 25-30 centimeters. Such chrysanthemums will bloom in the fall. It is good to know that there are cases when chrysanthemums grown from seeds begin to bloom only in the second year.
Chrysanthemum cuttings are cut during the entire growing season, but preference should still be given cut off in spring or autumn. For cuttings are usually selected strong low shoots, which cut off the upper part with three or four leaflets. The bottom is removed, the top is better to leave, because they speed up the rooting process. Spring cuttings are planted immediately in the ground and take care of them, like a ready-made bush of chrysanthemums: regularly watered, loosened the ground and fed.
Cut cuttings in autumn are planted in pots with fertile, loose soil. Within a few weeks, usually 4-6, they are watered moderately, to preserve moisture, you can cover them with a transparent lid. Then the pots with cuttings transferred into a bright cool room with a temperature of 4-6 degrees. With moderate watering, they are kept in these conditions until the first number of February.
In early February, pots with cuttings should be placed in a bright warm room, the air temperature of 12-16 ° C, watered abundantly. A week after the move, the first feeding with nitrogen-containing fertilizer, for example, 20 grams of ammonium nitrate, diluted in 10 liters of water.
Interesting! Practice shows that for harvesting cuttings of chrysanthemum is not necessary to cut the stems. The cuttings that break off from the stalks are well established and rooted.
Autumn cuttings are applicable to those chrysanthemums that are sold in the cut, and it does not matter how long the flowers were cut. Before planting, the cuttings are first incubated for 6-8 hours in a solution of a stimulator of root formation. The further process of rooting goes the same way as freshly cut cuttings.
Divide chrysanthemum bushes at any warm season, including during flowering, if necessary. But at the beginning of summer, young shoots grow at a maximum speed, and the division of the bush during this period will be the most productive.
For division, they dig up a bush with a large number of young shoots, free the roots from the ground and cut them so that each detachable shoot has its own root. But if some of the shoots will be without roots, the trouble will not be special - they are easily rooted, like regular cuttings. Then delenki sit in the hole, dug in such a way that they fit the roots. Deepening the stems in this case is not required.
Important! During the entire period of rooting the soil under the bushes should be wet.
Planted delenki pinch each sprout above the 5th leaf, then pinch grown stepchildren, also above the 4th or 5th leaf. If they divide a large-flowered chrysanthemum shrub, pinching is done only once.
For better growth and full development of chrysanthemums, it is recommended to divide and seat them once every three years, but at least once every five years.
The relatively recent chrysanthemum multiflora has won the hearts of many gardeners. The main reasons are a spherical bush, which easily fits into any garden composition, abundant early flowering and a large selection of colors.
Multiflora - small-flowered chrysanthemum, which is usually grown in garden pots or containers. It feels great in the greenhouses, balconies, verandas, in the open field. Among multiflora there are varieties that begin to bloom in August.
H. Multiflora globose
H. Multiflora Branopal Pink
An interesting multiflora is that its spherical shape does not require maintenance efforts, it does not need to be pinched or put on the blade. Such is the genetics. One small stalk per season is formed into a fluffy ball strewn with small bright flowers. For this, it only needs one pinching at the stage of the second pair of true leaves.
Important! Although in appearance chrysanthemum multiflora is similar to indoor varieties, it is not suitable for indoor use.
Caring for multiflora is no different from caring for garden perennial chrysanthemums. The only difference is in the organization of wintering. At the end of flowering or when cold weather sets in, the aerial part of the multiflora is cut to give an additional stimulus to the spring formation of young strong shoots.
The multiflora growing in the open ground for the winter must be dug out and placed in a container. At the onset of cold weather, all containers are placed in a cool dark room, the temperature in which is within 3-5 C, not too wet. All care during the wintering period is to keep the soil moist. Open-air multiflora is able to endure the winter without digging only in the southern regions, but it is imperative to construct a light shelter, which is removed during the thaw, and with the onset of consistently warm weather.
In April, containers with multiflora are placed in a bright cool room. When the buds begin to grow, the uterine bush is divided and planted either in suitable containers or in open ground, adding complex mineral fertilizers and organic matter to the soil.
Multiflora does not tolerate shady places, winds and stagnant water. In hot weather, container bushes need more frequent and abundant watering, but overflowing is unacceptable. When planting multiflora in open ground, you need to maintain a distance between the bushes of at least 60 centimeters. Chrysanthemum multiflora is a rather expensive plant, since it is already sold in flowering form. Interestingly, multiflora sellers rarely admit to buyers that these flowers reproduce beautifully by cuttings or dividing a bush.
Planting chrysanthemums and caring for them in the Urals
The main problem faced by flower growers in the Ural region when growing perennial chrysanthemums is quite a short time. Flowers just do not have time to gain enough strength to fully bloom. There are also difficulties associated with frosty winters: freezing of bushes during wintering in open ground, the difficulty of storing large quantities of planting material. To minimize all risks of growing chrysanthemums in such harsh conditions, gardeners prefer local varieties, that is, try to buy seedlings in local nurseries or from their neighbors.
Important! When choosing a planting material for growing chrysanthemums in the Urals, it is imperative to choose early-flowering zoned frost-resistant varieties.
Chrysanthemum seedlings are best planted in open ground in late April, immediately covering them with film. Preference is given to strong, strong shoots. Weaker ones can be grown at home on a sunny windowsill. This way you can grow late-flowering varieties.
It is also possible to successfully grow chrysanthemums from seeds, since literally from the first day they will grow only in a local climate. At the same time, they develop more successfully than their relatives, grown from cuttings or delenok, and actively bloom from late summer. Sow seeds for seedlings in early April, and in late May, transplanted into open ground.
Important! Grown chrysanthemum seeds from the first winter should be spent in benign conditions - in rooms with low temperature.
Particular attention is paid to the shelter of chrysanthemums for the winter. Tall varieties pruned to 30 centimeters, remove all the leaves and damaged parts. Then the bushes carefully spud using peat or sawdust. Heaped bushes are covered with spruce branches, and on top - spunbond.
Small-flowered undersized chrysanthemums are cut at the root before hibernation, they also pile up and cover with spruce branches, breathing film material. Often, wooden shields are used as additional cover. Many Ural gardeners do not risk leaving chrysanthemum bushes for the winter in the open field. Before the onset of cold weather, they cut the bushes to the base, dig them up and, together with a clod of earth, put them in containers or other suitable containers.
Containers are stored in the basement or cellar, occasionally moistening the soil. In March, the plants are moved to well-lit places, divide them, reject too long substandard shoots. If there are many chrysanthemums, and this method of storage becomes problematic, you can do it differently. The roots of the dug-out bushes are freed from the ground and placed in fabric bags, sprinkling them with peat. Such bags are stored in the basement or cellar, it can be suspended. Periodically moisten the bags. For the rest, planting and caring for chrysanthemums does not differ from growing them in other regions.
Chrysanthemum pests and diseases
Aphids - the most important pest of chrysanthemums. Moreover, on one stalk it is quite often possible to notice colonies of different species of this sap-sucking insect. They are located most often on the stems near the buds, sepals and the lower sides of the leaves.
With a small number of insects they can be washed off with water. If they over-populated the plant, they have to use chemical insecticides, to which they add soap, or plant extracts of onions, garlic, tobacco or marigolds.
The chrysanthemum nematode is a stringy kind of mealy worm. The pest is almost invisible to the naked eye, but its presence is determined by the white spots darkening over time to brown. When the pest leaves this pest, it curls, dries and falls. If you do not take measures in time, underdeveloped ugly flowers will form.
Nematodes usually fall with sediment or dew, as well as from contaminated soil or from neighboring plants. Since the nematode winters in the stalks remaining above the ground, it is advisable to spray the plants with a solution of phosphamide in the spring and autumn.
Important! Infected plants are removed and burned, and the soil is treated with formalin.
The meadow bug is also a juice-sucking insect, the signs of which are the appearance of whitish spots on the leaves, the formation of ugly buds and flowers. It hibernates also in the remnants of the stems, therefore, as in the previous case, treatment with phosphamide is necessary (10 grams are dissolved in 10 liters of water). In the warm season, the plants are treated with the same means as in the fight against aphids.
Important! It is better to treat chrysanthemums against a meadow bug in the early morning hours or in cloudy weather, when insects are not mobile.
Thrips are sap sucking insects. The leaves during thrips attacks are covered with whitish or yellowish spots, are deformed. Inflorescences also lose their decorativeness. Actellic and B-3 preparations, as well as onion and garlic infusions, have proven themselves in the fight against thrips.
The larvae of the May beetle eat the roots of chrysanthemums, causing the death of the bush. To combat it, the drug Basudin is used or weekly chrysanthemums are watered with a 5-day infusion of onion peel (up to a third of the volume of the bucket is densely filled with the husk and filled with water).
Drooling pennitsa - usually affects greenhouse chrysanthemums. Insecticides such as Fitoferma or infusions of onion or garlic are used against it.
Important! Proper care of chrysanthemums and timely watering and dressing increase the resistance of chrysanthemums to pest attacks.
Mealy dew, as a rule, infects plants in hot weather, accompanied by abundant dew. The lack of calcium and nitrogen reduces the resistance of chrysanthemums to the disease. In some cases, low resistance to fungal diseases in chrysanthemums is associated with the characteristics of the variety.
To prevent disease, the distance between plantings should be carefully observed so that they are well ventilated. Also, as a precautionary measure, spraying with copper-containing preparations with the addition of detergents. Affected plant parts are removed and burned.
Gray rot is also a fungal disease, manifested by gray-brown spots appearing on the aerial parts of flowers. The main causes of gray rot are excess moisture, poor ventilation, excess nitrogen, and increased acidity of the soil.
As a preventive measure, the plants are sprayed once every two weeks with solutions of copper-containing preparations. When a disease is detected, all affected parts, and in advanced cases, whole plants are destroyed.
Important! Often, diseases are transmitted through contaminated gardening supplies.
Root cancer is manifested by growths in the lower part of the stems and on the root collar. Usually spreads through the soil. Sick plants are removed from the flower bed and destroyed. To fight the root cancer is useless, because at the moment there are no countermeasures. The soil where the diseased plants grew is treated with formalin.
Leaf rust appears as yellowish-green spots on the upper side of the leaves. At the bottom of them with bulging pustules. In general, the picture of the disease resembles a burn. The leaves around the spots gradually turn yellow, curl, die off. As with most fungal diseases, high humidity and heat are favorable conditions for the development of rust. For treatment, plants are treated with copper-containing preparations.
Septoria (leaf spot) appears brown-black spots, small at the beginning, then merging into one, almost completely covering the leaf. The disease spreads from the lower leaves to the upper ones. Sick leaves turn yellow at first, then they dry out and fall off.
Important! The pathogen retains its viability on the fallen or cut off parts.
When treating chrysanthemums for septoria, all damaged and fallen leaves are removed and burned. During dressings increase the amount of potassium and phosphorus. Plants are completely sprayed with copper-containing preparations with soap added.
Where to buy planting material
It is best to buy cuttings, delenki or seedlings of chrysanthemums in specialized local nurseries. These will be healthy plants that are intended for cultivation in this particular area.
A great option is to buy planting material from neighbors in the dacha. In this case, it is not the cat in the bag that is bought, and the growing conditions are almost the same. Buying chrysanthemums for growing in flower shops is not the best option. If the store has a very large assortment of goods, it is highly likely that the plants do not have proper care. You can also get a variety that can not spend the winter.
The same risks will be when buying seedlings or cuttings in the markets, from unfamiliar sellers. It’s not a fact that the acquired planting material will correspond to the name given by the seller. It is also quite possible to buy a sapling infected with diseases or pests. When ordering planting material through online stores you need to choose only those varieties of chrysanthemums that will be adapted to the cultivation and full bloom in the region.
Depending on the type of chrysanthemum may vary significantly. The stems of some plants are covered with down, and some are bare. The leaves have a different shape, but almost all are mostly alternate and simple, green in color.
In gardening, in most cases, the Chinese chrysanthemum is used, which is often modified by hybridization to develop new varieties.
There is no established classification of chrysanthemums, but they can be divided by a large number of characteristics: flower size, inflorescence shape, flowering time and longevity, cultivation in the garden or in indoor conditions.
Chrysanthemum varieties with photos and titles
Large-flowered chrysanthemum flowers of these plants are very large, flower stalks are more than a meter high. The most common varieties: Anastasia Green, Zembla Lilak and Tom pier.
Usually this species can not be left for the winter in the garden, but recently brought varieties that are no longer afraid of our cold.
Chrysanthemum flower flowers a little smaller than the previous species, and the bushes below. Can be grown as a pot plant to decorate terraces or balconies.
Usually we meet varieties: Splashes of champagne, Золотое руно, Розовая ромашка.
Хризантема мелкоцветковая or korean этот вид является многолетником, выдерживающим зимние холода. Цветы соответственно не крупные в сравнении с двумя вышеупомянутыми видами, но кусты довольно высокие.
Листва по форме напоминает дубовую. Цветение припадает на осень и продолжается до холодов. Popular varieties: Etna, Slavyanochka, Multiflora.
For the type of inflorescence emit non-curved, terry and anemone varieties. Terry in turn have a separate classification for the shape of the flower.
Over the time of flowering varieties are divided into early flowering, medium flowering and late.
Annual varieties are chrysanthemumkeeled, field or sowing, and coronary.
Almost all other varieties are perennials that grow in a grassy or bush form.
Chrysanthemum perennial planting and care
Planting and caring for chrysanthemums is quite simple and comes down to a few rules. Young plants that produce leaves, you need to pinch, when they appear on eight leaves - it will help the branches better branches.
Also need pinching need lateral stems. But if you grow a large-flowered chrysanthemum, then the side shoots need to be completely cut off, retaining only a couple of the strongest. Cut stems can be easily rooted. If you have a high grade, then take care of support for the escape.
Chrysanthemums require strong watering. When there is a shortage of liquid, their shoots harden, and the flowers do not look so beautiful. Water carefully to prevent water from dripping onto the foliage.
When watering, it is necessary to loosen the soil and pick up weeds, but these procedures can be avoided by covering the area with mulch after planting.
Fertilizers for chrysanthemums
Fertilizer is another important item for chrysanthemum care. During the period of active growth, at least three fertilizers should be made, alternating between mineral and organic fertilizers.
Among the minerals it is worth noting the nitrogen, which helps to better grow the leaves, and phosphorus-potassium, which will enhance the formation of buds. You need to use liquid dressings that are poured at the root a day after watering.
Among organics, we single out the mullein and bird droppings, but do not overdo it, using them so as not to destroy the plants.
Transplanting chrysanthemums and dividing the bush
When growing chrysanthemums in one place for more than 3 years, it begins to suffer and this is reflected in the flowering process and the health of the plant.
All three-year plants need a transplant, with which they carry out the division of the bush. The flower must be carefully dug, cleaned from the soil and cut the plants into several parts, so that each had part of the rhizome. Further, these delenki just landed on a lighted place.
With the arrival of autumn, you need to perform the last fertilizer of chrysanthemums with potash-phosphoric top dressing - this will help them better endure the cold.
How to keep chrysanthemums in winter
With the arrival of frosts, it is necessary to cut off the top of the bushes, leaving about 10 cm above the ground. Next, the bushes need to pile up and zamulchirovat entire area with a thick layer of dry foliage.
Sheltered should be warm, but breathable, because otherwise the flowers may sweat under the mulch. In the winter you can not leave in the garden high varieties with large flowers, because they can not stand our cold.
To preserve them until spring, uterine bushes can be removed from the soil and, together with the ground on the roots, placed in a lighted and cool place with a temperature of about 5ºC and high humidity. Sometimes you need to moisten the soil on the roots, so that it can be slightly damp.
Also, these bushes can be left for the winter right in the cellar, the main thing so that the temperature does not fall below zero.
Chrysanthemum room care at home
If you want to grow chrysanthemum in room conditions, then you will not have to strain yourself.
The main thing is to place it in a place with a strong diffused light, to water a lot and from time to time to spray a flower to increase humidity. Repot every year, but do not rush to replace a flower after purchase - it needs time to acclimatize to a new place.
Fertilizers need to be applied the same as for garden chrysanthemums - during the period of green mass growth, nitrogenous, and during budding - potash-phosphorus.
Chrysanthemum seed planting and care
The easiest ways to reproduce chrysanthemums are cutting and dividing the bush, but it is also possible to grow flowers from seeds.
To multiply the chrysanthemum with seeds, you need in May, when it becomes quite warm, dig holes at a distance of about 20 cm one from one. They are well moisturized and placed in each of a pair of seeds. Next, the seeds fall asleep and cover the area with oilcloth.
With the emergence of seedlings, the oilcloth is removed, and the soil is slightly loosened and the weeds that have appeared are removed. After 10 days, young plants are fertilized with the fertilizer “Ideal” or “Rainbow” of very weak concentration. When reaching 10 cm in height, sprouts can be thinned out, leaving the strongest. Other seedlings can be planted.
To grow chrysanthemum seedlings, you need to prepare a substrate of greenhouse earth, humus and peat in the same ratio. You can buy such a soil, but you can make it yourself, but in this case it will need to be disinfected and heated to a high temperature.
In the container for planting, place the drainage of broken brick, pour the soil and spread the seeds on top. If you have annual varieties, then their seeds are covered with a thin layer of soil, not more than half a centimeter, and if they are perennial, they are simply pressed into the soil a little.
Chrysanthemum pot care at home
Next, the material is sprayed with water and covered with glass. Contained pots of seeds at a temperature of at least 24ºC, from time to time the seeds need to be moistened and aired.
With the emergence of shoots, a container with plants is placed in the most bright place of the house and the glass is cleaned for a short time every day, increasing the hardening time daily. With the formation of a pair of these sheets, shoots dive into separate containers with the same substrate as before.
Too weak individuals pull out. After diving, the plants are treated with a solution of epine, which will help to get used to a new pot more likely.
Dive chrysanthemums are kept at about 17ºC. They are watered when there is a need for it, and once in 15 days they are fertilized with a complex top dressing. If the daylight is too short, then it is necessary to extend it with the help of fitolamps. Do not be alarmed if the seedlings grow slowly - this is normal.
Planted seedlings should be when the threat of frost has completely passed, that is, at the end of spring. You can also land in the fall, but do not tighten up so that at least 15 days remain before the onset of frost.
The landing site should be very well lit and not blown by the wind, so that the chrysanthemum does not suffer from drafts. It is also impossible that the site was located in the valley, as the rhizome in this case can easily rot.
Chrysantemums need weakly acidic soil or neutral acidity. If your land is too sandy or clayey, then you need to feed it with organic matter. In this case, remember that chrysanthemums are better to humus than to manure.
For planting chrysanthemums need to wait gloomy day. Seedlings are planted in a trench, about 40 cm apart. Planted plants should be watered with diluted root (1g / 1l).
After these procedures, chrysanthemum need to pinch the growth point. Then the plants cover with something of the type of lutrasil, as long as they are accepted.
Reproduction of chrysanthemum cuttings
Also for propagation can be used cuttings. With the temperature at around 22ºC, cuttings should be cut (only those shoots that come from the rhizome can be used, the flower cannot propagate laterally) just above the bud.
The cuttings should not be large - approximately 7 cm. The cutting is treated with a means to stimulate root growth and is placed at a 45-degree angle in the soil covered with a couple of centimeters of sand.
Rooting should take place in a well-lit place, the soil should be moistened, and the temperature should be kept around 17ºC and in 15-20 days the plants will take root. Wait a little more and you can plant the plants on the garden plot.
Diseases and pests
Chrysanthemums do not get sick so often, but with the emergence of large weeds and violation of the rules of care, various diseases can appear.
Fungal diseases are:
- Vertical wilt - the fungus affects the rhizome of the plant, because of what the leaves begin to turn yellow and the shoot withers and dies.
- Mealy dew - forms a white bloom on the foliage and flowers of chrysanthemums.
- Rust - covers all plants with brown spots, foliage as a result of the lesion turns yellow, and the shoot becomes thinner.
- Gray rot - forms spots on the leaves, which eventually cover down and spread to the whole plant.
There are also cases of viral diseases.
- Mosaic - specks on foliage.
- Aspermia - speckles on leaves are also formed, and in addition to this, the shape of flowers is distorted.
- Dwarfism - growth slows down, and flowering comes before time.
- Among the pests, dangerous parasites are nematodesthat affect the leaves and cause them to darken. Sick plants need to burn.
- Also a dangerous insect is aphidwhich eats juices and as a result, the chrysanthemum grows slower and blooms later.
- Meadow bug sucks the flower juice. As a result, flowering may not occur, and the leaves of the plant die.
- Slugs and snails feed on top of chrysanthemum.
This charming plant deserves the attention of flower growers due to its beauty and decoration. They are called by the people still soil or Korean chrysanthemums, as well as "oak trees" because of the shape of petals, similar to oak leaves.
The height of an already formed plant reads from 30 centimeters and can exceed 1 meter. The root of the flower grows to a depth of 25 centimeters. The plant has a lot of species., which differ in the form of buds and rosettes, colors, flowering time.
Inflorescence looks like a basket with many small leaves. Their diameter is from 5 to 10 centimeters, and one bush can have up to 100 units. The peculiarity of these plants is surprisingly long endurance.
This factor attracts the attention of not only beginning flower growers, but also experienced florists to compose bouquet arrangements.
Benefits of perennial chrysanthemum:
- it easily tolerates low air temperature and freezing,
- the flowering period is quite long,
- the flower has an aesthetic appearance
- time of preservation of an attractive look after cutting to 30 days that allows to use them for drawing up bouquet compositions.
In addition, the flowers have many other advantages that attract many flower growers.
Even an inexperienced florist can cope with planting chrysanthemums in his garden and garden. But you need to understand that success, in the first place, depends on the correct variety of plants.
Varieties that have large inflorescences are more demanding, and they are grown in warm regions of the country or greenhouses.
For regions with severe frosts, plants with small baskets are ideal.
They are not afraid of sudden changes in temperature.
Also an important point before planting such flowers is the choice of the correct location. They love and need sunlight and without it they simply cannot survive.
The area should be illuminated by direct sunlight at least 6 hours a day. If it is not enough, the flowering time may be significantly reduced.
In addition to the need for sufficient illumination, the flowers do not like too moist soil.
The roots must always have good ventilation, and after a lot of moisture they can not survive the winter and freeze.
Garden chrysanthemum care is a simple process, but for planting it is necessary to use loose and breathable soil.
You can plant chrysanthemums in spring and autumn, but it is recommended in spring. This will allow the plant to take root and gain a good foothold in the ground.
Basically choose to plantthe end of May or the beginning of June. Planting and caring for the garden perennial chrysanthemum in the fall is best done in September, in order to give her time to get comfortable in a new place.
If the terrain does not have a soil rich in organic matter and consists of clay or sand, then it is better to prepare it in advance by fertilizing it with compost and manure. But here the main thing is not to overdo it, since the excess fertilizer will affect the growth of shoots, and the baskets will be small.
These are chrysanthemum flowers undersized bush. The view is placed on an alpine hill, since the height of the plant does not exceed 14 cm. The leaves of it are pinnacled gray-green, the flowers have the appearance of single baskets with a diameter of 3 to 5 cm. Flowering is in the middle of summer. Winters without shelter.
Interesting varieties included in the State Register of breeding achievements:
- Altyn Ay Shrub not higher than 60 cm. Bears on strong peduncles yellow double flowers up to 8 cm in diameter. Begins to bloom in mid-August. Blooms profusely and continuously for more than 2 months.
- Dina. A bush about 45 cm high. Flowering begins after August 10. Flowers are white, with a diameter of 8 cm. Flowering is very long - up to 70 days.
- Zemfira. Blooms in late July. It blooms for almost 3 months in medium-sized and non-double flowers of light pink color.
- Autumn dreams. It blooms for almost 3 months with yellow semi-double flowers with a diameter of 7.5 cm.
There are varieties that have not been tested, but no less interesting:
- Bacon Bright red flowers on a bush up to 85 cm in height bloom in September. They are terry, have a diameter of 5 cm.
- Evening lights. The inflorescences are simple red with a yellow ring.
- Orange sunset Flowers terry, large (up to 11 cm), orange. Bush about 80 cm high.
- Malchish-Kibalchish. Low-growing plant, not higher than 35 cm. It blooms with simple pink flowers at the end of summer.
- Umka Tall, up to 110 cm, the bush is decorated with large pompon flowers with a diameter of up to 8 cm of white or slightly pinkish color.
- Stranger. Winter-hardy variety, blooming from the end of July. White at the beginning, large flowers gradually painted on the tips in a lilac color.
- Inspiration. Flowers with a diameter of 10 cm, terry, have a scent. Bloom in September. Differ winter hardiness.
A special place is occupied by curb garden chrysanthemums. Their bushes do not grow above 30 cm and, without any forming, take a spherical shape.
Perennial chrysanthemums: growing nuances
Chrysanthemum is southern and few species have been able to adapt to our climate. Beautiful large-flowered varieties can be grown only in the south. Even more frost-resistant Korean chrysanthemums can freeze in snowless winters. The peculiarity of plants - they do not like wet wintering, therefore drainage is obligatory for them. Another nuance - chrysanthemum bush is short-lived and requires updating every 3 years.
Soil and site preparation
The place for chrysanthemums is chosen sunny, fully lit throughout the day. Even a slight shading will inevitably affect flowering, and the plant stems will stretch. It is necessary to provide protection from the wind. The site should not be dry, but this flower also does not tolerate stagnant water.
How and when to plant?
Typically, chrysanthemums are on sale in the fall, it is at this time that their flowering and compliance with varietal characteristics can be seen. They are supplied in pots, so they need to be transplanted. But in the fall it is better not to disturb the flowers, otherwise the attacks in the winter are inevitable. The plant gives all the power to bloom, and rooting them just will not. The best time to plant chrysanthemums is spring. In the southern regions, it is carried out at the end of April or in May, while in the northern regions it is necessary to wait until the return spring frosts are over.
- Plants are planted in the wells at a depth of 40 cm, at the bottom of which you need to put drainage.
- A handful of humus is added to each well and the soil is shed well. Chrysanthemums are not buried during planting.
- The distance between the plants is about 40 cm, between the rows - 50 cm.
- It is necessary to provide support for the bushes in the form of durable pegs, to which the plants are tied up.
For the plants to be healthy and well bloomed, they need to be properly looked after. The first thing they do after rooting the cuttings is to pinch the tip for better tillering. After 3 weeks, the pinching is repeated, forming a spherical shape of the bush. If cuttings are received late, this operation is not necessary; such chrysanthemums are grown in a single-stem culture. During the growing season will require regular weeding, loosening the soil, watering and feeding.
Chrysanthemums are sensitive to lack of moisture, from this the stems become woody, and full-bloom does not get. Excess water is also harmful - it contributes to the decay of the roots. Therefore, you need to achieve a golden mean and focus on weather conditions. Especially need watering in dry weather and during flowering. Watered with settled water and only under the root.
Top dressing and fertilizer
Fertilizing chrysanthemums requires both mineral and organic.
- Every 2-3 weeks, feed up with a solution of mineral fertilizers. In the first half of the growing season with a predominance of nitrogen, in the second - phosphorus and potassium at the rate of 40 g per ten-liter bucket (this amount is enough for 2 square meters of landings).
- 3 times per season, fertilize the infusion of mullein in a ratio of 1:10. Each plant will need a liter of solution.
All dressings are combined with irrigation with clean water. The next day you need to loosen the soil.
Leaving after flowering and preparation for winter
This is the time of preparation for the winter. To wintering was successful, you need to hold a series of activities.
- Plants are fed phosphate and potash fertilizers.
- They are pruning the bushes, leaving about 15 cm of the stem.
- Spud earth brought from another part of the site, so as not to bare the roots.
- Fall asleep with a layer of dry leaves up to 40 cm thick.
- Cover the top of the material holding the snow - bonsai or dry branches.
Chrysanthemums are short-lived. In the third year, the middle of the bush falls out, and the flowers become smaller.
To update the bushes and give them a new life, chrysanthemum is divided and planted in a new place.
The transplant time is spring. Bush need to carefully dig, a little shaking off the ground. Divide the plants with a sharp knife. Each delenka should have buds and roots. Further actions are the same as when planting cuttings.
Perennial chrysanthemum reproduction
Perennial garden chrysanthemums are propagated by dividing the bush, cutting and sowing seeds. The latter plants will be best adapted to the climate at the place of cultivation.
- Seeds for seedlings are sown at the beginning of March in a purchased in a store or self-prepared mixture of the following composition: garden soil, peat and humus in equal quantities.
- At the bottom of the tank for seeding lay drainage.
- Seeds of perennial chrysanthemum sown superficially, slightly pressing them to the ground.
- Capacity covered with a plastic bag and put in a bright place with a temperature of 25 degrees.
Immediately after germination, the package is not removed, but done gradually, accustoming the plants to fresh air. When the shoots will acquire two real leaves, they dive into separate cups.
- temperature 18 degrees
- a lot of light, if needed - lighting up,
- top dressing every 14 days with a solution of complete mineral fertilizer.
Planted seedlings in the ground after frost, trying to keep the roots as much as possible.
With seed reproduction, parental traits are not preserved.
For spring grafting, you need to dig up the plant in the fall, plant it in a pot and take care of it in the winter like a room flower. Cuttings harvested from young shoots 5 cm long, removing the lower leaves. Put in a container with sand under a glass jar. After rooting, the cuttings are grown and planted in the ground.
- mosaic (speckled specks on leaves),
- aspermia (deformed flowers and speckled leaves),
- dwarfism (small growth, not appropriate to the variety, premature flowering).
There is no cure, diseased plants are destroyed.
The main pests of chrysanthemum: nematodes, meadow bugs, aphid. In the first case, the fight against the pest is impossible. The plant is destroyed. As a preventive measure, they shed the earth with a solution of phosphamide. From bedbugs and aphids, you can try processing infusions of onion peel or hot pepper. If this does not help, treat the plants with insecticides.
Groups of chrysanthemums in shape and height of the bush
Garden chrysanthemums differ in height, which varies from 10 to 120 cm. There are three types of plant according to this criterion.
Undersized. The size of undersized chrysanthemums does not exceed 30 cm, but they are considered the most beautiful garden flowers. Small chrysanthemums form a spherical bush, consisting of small flowers. Among the famous varieties should be noted:
- «Mascot» - differs in bright beet and crimson color.
- «Varvara» - Flowers have a delicate lilac-purple shade.
- «Snow White"- white terry flowers.
- «Evening lights» - this name is directly related to the scarlet flowers, like a holiday salute.
Medium tall. Attractive bushes, reaching 40−50 cm in height, adorn not only flower beds, but also the area next to the walkways, gazebos, fences. The best varieties of this type:
- «Dawn"- the yellow-brown shade of flowers sets the autumn mood.
- «Dune"- a feature of this species is that it tends to change the color of its flowers. Blooming yellow-brown flowers for a few days turn into yellow-gold.
- «Princess Diana"- lilac flowers with a form of chamomile have a yellow middle.
- «Lily"- dark crimson inflorescences will dilute the flower beds with its rich shade.
Tall. This type of chrysanthemum reaches a height more 1 meter. So that the stems, when developing, do not break, they make supports: they can be wooden pegs, metal nets and skeletons. They are installed immediately with planting. Popular varieties of tall chrysanthemum:
- «Umka"- white flowers, resemble the shape of a pom-pom.
- «Rosetta's Daughter"- flat inflorescences have a white or pink shade.
- «Tamara"- flowers in the shape of a ball delight the eye with a pleasant purple hue.
- «Amber Lady"- differs in a golden shade of flowers.
Size of inflorescence
This criterion divides garden chrysanthemums into the following subgroups:
- Small flowers. Simple and terry plants form bushes with inflorescences, the diameter of which flowers vary from 2 to 10 cm. The stems have a height of 20 cm to 1 meter. The shape of the leaves resembles oak. Such plants have high frost resistance and are easy to care for. They begin to bloom in September and continue until frost, and yes even winter in open ground.
- Mid-flowered. This ornamental variety is grown not only for the garden, but also for cutting the cuttings, which are transferred to domestic conditions. Flowers are grown on windowsills, balconies, terraces, where the sun shines well. The diameters of the flowers vary from 10 to 20 cm, and the height of the stem varies between 30–70 cm.
- Large-flowered. Large flowers with a diameter of 15−25 cm allow you to create a tall lush shrub with a maximum height of 120 cm. Large-flowered chrysanthemum is not resistant to frost, only some of its varieties are left for wintering in the garden. Usually it is grown for bouquets.
Chrysanthemum flower shapes
- Pompon. Petals in the form of reeds form balls resembling pompons.
- Terry. Different forms and types of petals form flat, bent and hemispherical flowers.
- Semi-double. Flat inflorescences with a raised center consist of several rows of petals.
- Non-shag. They look like daisies with wide and slightly curved towards the end petals located around the middle.
- Anemic. Large petals are collected in 1−3 rows that surround a raised lush middle.
- Spider-like. Beautiful flowers are distinguished by long and thin petals twisted to the ends. Spider form is formed due to their different location.
More chrysanthemums are divided by the timing of flowering on: early (start blooming in September) medium (bloom in October) and late (bloom in November).
Chrysanthemums. Planting and maintenance in the open field
Planting seedlings in open ground carry out usually in late spring or early summer. The landing may be at the end of August, the main thing is to have time before the first frosts of autumn, before which they will take root and grow stronger.
Chrysanthemum perennial - thermophilic plant because it needs a lot of sunshine. Plot for her choose elevated and reliably protected from the winds. The soil should be selected neutral and slightly acidic. The clay or sand layer must be saturated with organic matter. But do not overdo it with complex fertilizers, because of which the flowers may not grow large. Only in the optimal amount they will have a beneficial effect on the further cultivation of the plant.
Planting chrysanthemum garden:
- Holes for planting tall species should be made at a distance of half a meter from each other, for small varieties - a quarter of a meter.
- For better drainage of the soil with future irrigation, drainage is added to the depressions, because these plants cannot develop in highly moist soil.
- Seedlings are planted in open ground, but not deep.
- If it is tall plants, then you need to build support structures.
- To stimulate growth, seedlings are sprayed with “root”. Some use Epin.
Chrysanthemums needed during water under the root. Over-dried soil will not give development to the root system, therefore it is necessary to produce regular watering of the soil.
Each type of plant requires certain amounts of water supply. Shrubs from hard leaves are rarely watered, and the green mass with large soft leaves due to high evaporation needs frequent watering.
Nitrogen and fertilizer from mineral fertilizers with potassium and magnesium contribute to the better development of chrysanthemums. We must not forget to remove excess grass and weeds near the flowers.
To form a bush, you need to carry out topping and cutting off shoots. The top of the central stem is cut when it reaches 10 cm. The same is done with the rest of the shoots that later reach this height. During flowering, you need to monitor the health of flowers and remove those that fade and wither.
As you can see, the cultivation of chrysanthemums in the open field is not difficult, if all the necessary conditions are created for them and regular care is made.
Breeding features of chrysanthemum perennial
Since garden chrysanthemums are perennial, you do not need to buy new seeds every year. In addition, for the expansion of flower beds contribute to several types of plant breeding.
With seed reproduction planting chrysanthemums do in late spring. A few seeds are buried in the small depressions. The pits are separated by a distance of a quarter of a meter. Flowering occurs in August.
Bushes division possible to hold in any spring month, but always in warm time. They are carefully dug and divided into small bushes, while cutting the root system. Bushes are planted in the ground and watered.
Breeding grafting is the easiest way to easily take root chrysanthemums. Cut cuttings 7−9 cm long with several leaves. Pots or boxes filled with soil drainage, which planted cuttings. The ground is sprayed and the containers are covered to the state of a mini-greenhouse. For growing the cuttings, you need a room with a temperature of 10−16 degrees. With the advent of the roots, each cutting is transplanted into a separate pot, and into open soil only after winter.
How to protect chrysanthemums from diseases and pests
Garden chrysanthemums are not very susceptible to disease or the establishment of harmful insects. But they need frequent inspection to identify problems.
Among the fungal and viral diseases are found:
- Gray decay (the stems and leaves are covered with brown spots with a gun that causes decay, can be treated with copper chloroxide or Bordeaux liquor).
- Mealy dew (white scurf spreads throughout the plant, can also be treated with Bordeaux liquid).
- Verticillary disease (yellowing and death of leaves from the stems occurs due to the fungus that has penetrated through the roots, if the disease is detected at the initial stage, the plant is sprayed with biological preparations).
- Mosaic (mosaic pattern on the sheets).
- Aspermia (except for the appearance of speckled spots, inflorescences are deformed).
- Dwarfism (due to stunted growth or premature flowering).
Many of these diseases cannot be cured, so chrysanthemums should be carefully examined to during identify possible lesions.
Of insects that harm chrysanthemums in the garden, it is necessary to distinguish leaf nematode, spider mites and aphids. Leaf nematode deforms the leaves, which affects their darkening. The damaged parts are pruned and the plants change the soil. Aphids and spider mites suck juices from plants, which is why development of chrysanthemums is slowed down. Shrubs are treated with special chemicals.
Wintering chrysanthemums in the open field
In order for the plant to endure winter well and next year to enjoy beautiful and lush inflorescences, it is necessary to create the right conditions for wintering in the open field.
In late autumn, when the bush ceases to bloom, it is pruned to 10 cm from the soil surface. When all the stems are trimmed, mineral fertilizers are added to the plants again, spud and cover the fallen leaves with a carpet. The layer should not be very dense, otherwise the plants will catch and fall ill.
Large-flowered species are less resistant to winter temperatures. In the fall, the bushes are dug up with a piece of soil and transplanted into suitable containers. For the winter, cold rooms with temperatures of around 0–6 degrees are set aside for them, and winter irrigation is rare, but regular.
Correct landing and the care of chrysanthemums contributes to the flower beds rich in bright and healthy flowers and the formation of lush bushes in the garden. Before you buy plant seeds, you need to think about the design of the site in different colors. Due to the wide choice of colors and shapes of inflorescences, you can create unique flowery carpets that will delight land owners.
Garden chrysanthemum description
The garden chrysanthemum is a perennial plant belonging to the Astrov family, or the Compositae. Plant culture is represented by many species and varieties, the height and flowers of which can vary greatly.
Garden chrysanthemum flowers were obtained by crossing the Japanese chrysanthemum small-flowered and large-flowered Chinese during intentional or accidental selection.
The plant has a thickened slightly branched rhizomedeveloping horizontally. The height of the stem varies between 15-130 cm. Some species have slightly branched shoots with thin branches that are covered with petiolian green leaves.
Upper plates of small size and usually solid form, lower leaves, dissected and larger. In some varieties, the lower part of the leaf plates is slightly pubescent. Basket-shaped inflorescences consist of a large number tubular or reed flowerswhich can be terry and non-terry.
The colors and sizes of flowers of each species and variety differ markedly from each other. Fruits are represented by achenes. Despite the differences in appearance, all garden species have the following advantages:
- high frost resistance
- long flowering
- high decorative qualities
- the possibility of making bouquets and flower arrangements of cut flowers, which retain their freshness for about a month.
Types and varieties of garden chrysanthemums
Perennial chrysanthemums grown in the garden, combined into several groups according to different criteria. According to the structure of the flower, the following groups are distinguished:
- Anemone like. Inflorescences resemble the shape of the flower anemone.
- Curly. Long petals in a dense and chaotic arrangement are bent upwards.
- Radiation. Petals look thin and long tongues.
- Terry. Lush flowers are made up of many reeds.
- Non-curved. The flowers are like large daisies.
- Flat. Inflorescences are in the form of daisies or daisies.
- Semi-double. Flat tongues are arranged in several rows around the raised middle of the flower.
- Hemispheric. Bent or curved petals in large quantities form a multi-row terry inflorescence.
- Pompon. Small petals are collected in round and dense flowers.
- Spherical. The tongues curled upwards tightly cover the middle of the flower, making it look like a ball.
According to another classification, garden chrysanthemums are divided into small-flowered, medium-flowered and large-flowered.
Small-flowered chrysanthemums (or Korean chrysanthemums) are distinguished by abundant flowering of simple and terry forms. The diameter of the flowers of different colors is 2–9 cm. The height of the bushes varies between 20–110 cm. The leaf plates resemble the shape of oak leaves.
Plants are characterized high degree of frost resistance, simple care and undemanding to the composition of the earth. Flowering of these species begins in September and lasts until the cold. Among the famous varieties are the following:
- Multiflora is a relatively recently bred variety that quickly gained high popularity in gardening. Bushes of spherical shape can have inflorescences of white color or a shade of yellow or red scale.
- Slavyanochka - bushes 0.4–0.6 m high bloom in late September with pink flowers with a rich middle.
- Snowball - white chrysanthemums, the tips of the petals of which have a pale pink shade. The bush grows to 0.6 m.
- Etna - bushes growing to 0.8 m. Needle flowers of a lilac shade reach 6–7 cm in diameter.
Mid-flowered plants are decorative types. The average diameter of flowers is 10–17 cm. The height of bushes reaches 0.3–0.8 m. Often plants are used for cutting and assembling bouquets. The best varieties are the following:
- Champagne splashes - spray chrysanthemums grow on average to 0.7–0.8 m. Light pink needle inflorescences have a yellowish spraying in the center. The diameter of the flowers ranges from 7–10 cm. The variety tolerates wintering in the open field.
- The Golden Fleece - yellow-orange chrysanthemums with a height of 0.4–0.6 m bloom from September.
- Pink daisy - the diameter of dark pink flowers is 6–7 cm. Bushes 0.6–0.9 m in height bloom until the first frost.
Large-flowered chrysanthemums grow to 0.8–1.2 cm. Spectacular plants with large flowers with a diameter of 15–25 cm are usually grown for cutting. Inflorescences can have various forms. Most large-flowered species cannot be left in the open ground for the winter, but in recent years breeders have bred several varieties that tolerate frost well:
- Anastasia Green - a needle-shaped flower of green color, reaches a height of 0.8–1 m. It blooms in October, tolerates wintering with shelter.
- Zembla Lilak - pink inflorescences of large size and terry forms have wide petals. The height of the bushes is 0.8–0.9 m.
- Tom Pierce - spherical chrysanthemums 21–23 cm in diameter, the petals of which are painted red on the top and orange on the bottom. Flowering bushes height of 1.5 m begins in September.
Chrysanthemums are also divide by flowering time early (bloom in September), mid-flowering (in October) and late (in November) species.
Хризантемы многолетние: посадка и уход
The period from late May to mid-June will be the best time for planting seedlings of garden chrysanthemums. Planting and care in the open field will not cause many problems if you follow all the rules.
For the plant pick up the site, well lit by the sunsince the flower will need a lot of light. In the shade of flowering in chrysanthemum is not observed. For the cultivation of plants suitable terrain that will prevent the stretching of the shoots.
Chrysanthemum feels good in fertile, loose and moisture-permeable soil. If the earth is dense and there are few nutrients, then in it make peat, compost and manure. But too many organics can not be added, otherwise the entire energy of the plant will go not to bloom, but to grow lush foliage.
Winter rest period
To achieve a beautiful and abundant flowering of perennial chrysanthemum next year, it must be properly prepared for the winter.
Despite the high degree of cold resistance, the flower can not survive the cold without the necessary shelter. At the end of flowering shoots of bushes are cut to the level of the soil surface. Chrysanthemum spud and cover with fallen leaves.
Worst of all frost tolerate large-flowered species. Therefore, in winter they should stored indoors. Shrubs are dug out with an earthy lump on the roots and planted in suitable-sized containers. The containers are located in a room with a temperature of + 1-3 degrees, where the plants overwinter until the next spring. Care is a rare substrate moistening.
Every 3 years chrysanthemum needs to change the site. The procedure is necessary due to the fact that the plants begin to shrink flowers and diseases appear. Typically, when transplanting chrysanthemum multiply by dividing the bush.
Plant carefully dig out, shake off the ground and gently divide the root system with shears. As a result, several new bushes are formed. Planting is done in the same way as when planting new seedlings.
Diseases and pests
If you do not follow the rules for growing chrysanthemum, the plant may be subject to the following fungal diseases:
- Verticillary wilting, or wilt. The fungus penetrates through the root system and leads to yellowing of the foliage and the death of the shoots. In the fight with the wilt apply fungicides.
- Rust. The disease manifests itself in chloritic specks appearing on all aboveground organs of the plant. Later, the spotting becomes brownish, the leaves begin to turn yellow, and the stems become thin. To get rid of rust, you can use copper oxychloride, copper-soap emulsion or colloidal sulfur.
- Mealy dew. The entire above-ground part of the flower is covered with white bloom, which deforms the stems, leaves, buds and flowers. You can cure the plant with Bordeaux liquid.
- Gray rot. The disease begins with the appearance of blurry brown spots, which later become covered with a fluffy bloom and cause plant rot. In this case, apply the same tool as in powdery mildew.
When the first signs of fungal diseases are found, chrysanthemum should immediately treat with necessary preparations, in time to save the plant. Sometimes flowers infect viruses:
- aspermia - expressed in the mottled foliage and deformation of flowers,
- dwarfism - characterized by growth retardation and premature flowering,
- mosaic - expressed in speckled mosaic on sheet plates.
Flowers infected with viruses cannot be cured. In this case their dig and destroy. To chrysanthemum was not affected by a viral disease, when working with it, you should use only sterile tools, and you should also get rid of parasites insects that carry viruses.
Among the common pests of chrysanthemum are the following:
- Nematodes. These insects carry mosaic viruses, due to which the plants become sick and die. Fighting them no longer makes sense, so the flowers are dug out and destroyed. As a preventive measure, when transplanting or planting, the bushes can be sprayed with phosphamide, and the soil treated with formalin.
- Aphid. Parasites appear on the bottom of leaf sheets or buds. Aphids feed on chrysanthemum juices, because of which its growth and flowering slows down. When a small number of insects should simply remove the leaves with them. If the pests have occupied the entire flower, then the plant should be sprayed with Aktar or Aktellik.
- Meadow bug. Like aphids, bugs feed on chrysanthemum sap. Spots appear on the leaves, then a brown shade, and then the plant dies. The affected bush should be sprayed with a solution of baby shampoo. For prophylactic purposes, chrysanthemums are treated with phosphamide.
- Snails and slugs. Parasites eat all aboveground parts of the flower. Since these insects are part of the ecosystem of the garden, they should be fought with an organic method. When building a flower bed, it is necessary to properly distribute the crops and monitor the number of pests. To snails and slugs could not get to the chrysanthemums, should be poured around the bushes chiseled egg shells or dig in plastic rims.
As can be seen, garden chrysanthemum requires increased attention, but this does not mean that care for her will be difficult. Flower cultivation is a great pleasure for many gardeners, because as a result they get lush bushes with bright flowers that thin the pleasant smell all over the garden.