Winter garlic can be found in almost every garden. He does not need special care, likes to grow on fertile loamy or sandy, neutral soil. Winter garlic is cultivated in the open field everywhere, even in regions with a cold harsh climate. The article tells step by step the cultivation of winter garlic in the open field, as well as when to plant in the fall.
Types and features of winter garlic
Winter garlic, as a rule, produces a more abundant crop than spring. Begin to use it when it is not fully matured, at the beginning of summer. Later it is determined to be stored, but until the next ripening it is easier to store spring garlic. There are two types of winter garlic: arrowhead and non-needle garlic. The latter is better preserved if it is provided with the right care, it is removed on time, and it remains at a low positive temperature until spring.
However, infected with viral diseases, non-shooted winter garlic weakens, degenerates, and cannot be renewed. Therefore, it is less common. Arrowed winter garlic gives the richest harvests and is more commonly used in summer and in winter for food. On time, harvested, fully ripened garlic garlic is stored for a very long time. With the help of bulletholes it is constantly updated. He does not degenerate.
The teeth are growing in the soil, so they can become infected with viruses or fungi. A new plant that grows from an infected chive will be infected initially. After a couple of years, it will be impossible to get a good plant, as degeneration will occur. In addition, garlic shallows with time. Therefore, planting material must be updated every 2-3 years.
As such, the seeds of garlic are absent. Those who think that bulbs are just seeds are wrong, but this is wrong. Inside the seed there is an ovule, which begins to develop after fertilization, and a new plant grows from it. And the bulb is a special organs, used only during vegetative reproduction. Winter arrowhead garlic together with flowering forms aerial onions, which are called bulbous.
In order to get green feathers, they grow perennial garlic, which does not have bulbs, but there are seeds with which it multiplies. Ornamental garlic is also propagated through seeds, but it is not eaten at all, but is grown for its spectacular appearance and phytocides, with which this garlic disinfects the air around it. In winter garlic, which is grown for cloves, seeds are missing.
When winter garlic is planted in the fall
The main difficulty is that it is necessary to predict when the real frosts will come. However, it is approximately known when the winter will come - at this time, and it is necessary to focus, paying attention to the days recommended for landing in the lunar calendar.
Preparation of beds and planting material
For the improvement of the sowing material, in winter, single-teeth are planted, which have grown from brooches, of which not a full head is grown for the season, but only one large clove, which has all the advantages of its kind. And of these one-toothed, planted in the fall in the open ground, in the next year in the summer they will get wonderful heads, which consist of many teeth. Thus, the "seeds" will give a full harvest in just a couple of years.
Before landing, single teeth and teeth must be disinfected. To do this, for 25 minutes they are placed in a 1% solution of copper sulphate or for 2 hours in a solution of ash alkali: Pour 2 liters of wood ash with 2 liters of water and boil for half an hour. After harvesting pumpkins, cabbage, zucchini, cucumbers, squash beds are prepared for garlic. They need to dig, make potassium sulfate and superphosphate, compost or humus, pour and leave for a few weeks to rest.
The soil must lie down so that when the roots grow, there will be no ground movement. The roots are not very deep, but grow vertically downwards. If the soil moves, the roots will have to bend, rising up, and this will have a bad effect on the harvest, and this cannot be corrected by any care.
Tip # 1. It is advisable to raise the bed by 10 cm so that there is no stagnant melt water in the spring.
Planting winter garlic
In order for the garlic to winter well, they need to be buried by 10–12 cm. The distance between large cloves should be at least 10 cm, and between small ones - a little less, since their heads will not grow very large. Between the rows - 15 cm. While preparing the planting grooves, some gardeners fall asleep or sand to the bottom so that the teeth do not touch the ground.
It is believed that in this case it will be easier for them to take root. If, however, before the frost, they still sprouted, they must be covered with a non-woven cloth or they mulch with peat or sawdust mixed with earth. In the spring it is all clean. Garlic rarely freezes, but it cannot be soaked or soothed under the covering material when the soil begins to thaw.
Winter Garlic Care
Special care for growing winter garlic in the open field does not require. It should be watered, fed, if necessary, weed, loosen the soil. As soon as the snow melts, the beds are fed with a solution of mullein or chicken manure with the addition of superphosphate and potassium salt. If there is no rain, then planting should be watered every week. Top dressing can be combined with watering. When the soil is not very fertile on the phase of 4 leaves, urea should be added, and when forming the heads, feed with superphosphate.
20 days before harvesting, watering should stop - so the harvest will be better stored. When caring for rifle varieties of winter garlic, enable the shooters to grow up to 20 cm, then, if they are not grown bullets, they pinch. Often arrows are left at several plants in order to ripen air "seeds" in order to improve the harvest of the next year. To make the garlic heads ripen faster, they need to be cut off the soil and left one third open.
Harvesting Winter Garlic
From about mid-July, they begin to pick up garlic. A more accurate term depends on the cultivated variety, on the size of the head, on its care, on the climate. Crop should be removed when the leaves begin to turn yellow and lay down. Delay on the quality of the heads will not affect. However, if the ripe heads remain in the soil, the scales will dissolve, the teeth will be laid out and they will not be stored for a long time. All garlic cannot ripen at the same time, therefore cleaning is delayed for several days.
Dug heads, if the weather is dry, are left to dry directly on the garden bed. They can be transported under the roof, but they require fresh air with a breeze. A week later, the crop should be removed into the room and dried until it is possible to rub the root lobe with your fingers without effort.
Tip # 2. Garlic heads are stored at a temperature not higher than +3 degrees with an average humidity.
Selection of planting material
All types of garlic are divided into shooters and non-shooters.
Winter varieties shooters species multiply aerial bulbs (bulbs) and teeth. Unmanaged garlic is grown only vegetatively - from cloves.
In the first year, small or large single-teeth grow from the bulbhobes, intended for repeated sub-winter landing. And only for the next season or in a year you can get full garlic heads. Planted under the winter teeth, obtained by parsing the bulbs, next summer will give the crop multi-edible root crops.
The final result directly depends on the quality of the planted teeth.
Choose a variety of garlic, zoned in your county or grown in the surrounding area. Bulbs and bulbs brought from afar, no matter how beautiful they are, react poorly to changes in climate and growing conditions and, as a rule, do not give good yields.
Select only first-class material, avoiding the landing of teeth with signs of bacterial, fungal and viral infections.
Put aside small and crooked teeth - they most often die in the dormant period or form small bulbs.
Not suitable for planting and dried heads, as well as mechanically damaged.
Winter varieties of garlic sown in the fall. Depending on the climatic features of your region and the temperature conditions of the current fall, planting dates vary from mid-September to the end of October. In warm regions, garlic can be planted in November, whereas in areas with a harsh climate, it is better to plan the planting work for the very beginning of autumn.
Calculate the landing time so that until the onset of sustainable ground frost remained from 3 to 4 weeks. During this time, the teeth and bulbs have time to take root, but do not germinate, and in this form they hibernate in the soil, plunging into a period of rest.
Crop rotation rules
The best predecessors crops are siderats (alfalfa, clover, mustard, legumes, phacelia, oats, buckwheat), early cabbage, early potatoes, tomatoes, eggplants, carrots, beets, vegetables, and hot peppers.
Sustainable harvests of garlic are harvested in the beds where pumpkin vegetables (squash, squash, cucumber, pumpkin) grew in the previous season, as fresh manure is added to them, which has time to decompose and saturate the soil with biohumus and necessary minerals.
Do not plant garlic after onion plants (garlic, onion, bulbous flowers). At the place already used for these crops, garlic can be cultivated only after 3-4 years due to the danger of the accumulation of pathogens and pests in the soil.
Preparation of beds for garlic
Garlic beds are prepared 4-6 weeks before planting or in summer after harvesting early ripening crops.
Garlic prefers light, well-structured, domesticated and fertile soils. The best harvests are collected by landowners with loamy or sandy type of soil.
Heavy clay lands required to loosen by depositing river sand, sputum and compost. Ultralight sandstones, on the contrary, make heavier by importation of clayey earth and adding high doses of organic fertilizer (compost, humus).
Garlic reacts negatively on the increased acidity of the soil. If it is such a land on your plot, then in the previous season, before planting a crop, alkalization should be carried out by adding lime powder, dolomite or bone meal, high doses of plant ash.
Under the garlic categorically contraindicated to make fresh organics rich in ammonia. High doses of nitrogen stimulate the growth of the aerial parts of plants, and it is contraindicated for garlic planted before winter, as the culture is prepared for a dormant period.
Best used peat compost, rotted mullein or mature garden compost. The application rate of the listed fertilizers is from 1 to 4 buckets per each running meter when digging the ground to the depth of a spade bayonet.
From mineral fertilizers under winter garlic make superphosphate and potassium salt. The seeding rate varies from the soil fertility in your area and averages 30–40 g of superphosphate and 10–25 g of potassium salt per square meter of beds.
Vegetable growers often use as phosphate-potash fertilizer ash or soot, rich not only with the named chemical compounds, but also with the whole complex of microelements. The application rate is 0.5 - 1 liter of ash per meter of bed.
Preparation of planting material
Before sowing, the bulbs are not treated, since infectious agents and pest larvae do not accumulate in them.
Teeth should be disinfected by soaking potassium permanganate (medium pink) or copper sulfate (1%) in a solution to kill pathogens and fungal infections. The time of immersion in an antiseptic solution is 15 minutes.
The land on the prepared beds is loosened with a rake and the grooves are cut at a distance of 20-25 cm from each other with a depth of 6 to 8 cm.
Teeth in each row is placed at a distance of 6-8 cm, laying them bottom up or down. Planting aerial bulbs more dense. The grooves are cut at a distance of 15 cm, the seeding step of the bulbhobes in a row is 2-3 cm, and the embedment depth is 3-5 cm.
After planting, the garden bed is recommended to be watered and mulched with an organic layer of 3-4 cm. Compost, rotting straw, riding or lowland peat, humus or tyrsa will provide additional warming of the plantings for the cold period, and as they decompose they will saturate the soil with humus and mineral salts.
If you live in an area where the winter temperature drops below -25 ° C, then it is recommended to make an extra layer of large mulch, covering the beds with coniferous branches or branches. Such a shelter will ensure the accumulation of a large layer of snow wrapping the ground like a duvet.
Care for planting garlic in the summer
In June, when the process of formation of bulbs, is carried out third root dressing phosphorus and potassium, using ash infusion (1 cup of ash in a bucket of water, insist for three days) or a solution of potassium monophosphate (20 g / bucket of water). Mono preparations - superphosphate (25 g / bucket of water), potassium nitrate (15 g / bucket of water) are suitable as fertilizers.
Watered plantation with the same frequency as in spring, completely stopping watering 3 weeks before the intended harvesting period. Loosening is desirable to perform after each planned watering.
After the appearance of the arrows (in the arrowed varieties) spend breakout procedure. The arrows are removed when their height reaches 15 cm. This is necessary for the outflow of nutrients from the peduncle and their direction to the bulbs maturing in the ground.
Overexposed, even for several days in the ground, garlic loses its commodity qualities — the outer covering scales begin to crack, and the teeth break up into separate fractions.
To avoid this, carefully observe the plantation. The bulbs are dug up when occurs. yellowing of the lower leaves plants and mass lodging tops.
To determine the ripening of arrowed varieties of culture in the garden leave 2-3 garlic arrows. The bulbs are ready for digging when the shell of spherical inflorescences begins crack.
After digging up the plants they are left for several days right in the garden for drying under the sun's rays (along with the stems). If weather conditions do not allow, then garlic is transferred under a shed and kept in this form for about 5 days in the air.
Next stems cut off, leaving hemp from 4 to 7 cm, and continue to dry the head under a canopy or in a well-ventilated dry place, for example, on the veranda, in the hallway, under the roof of the attic or in the shed.
If you plan to save the bulbs in the braids, then the stems are not cut off. If you prefer to save the crop in bunches, the length of dried stems is made about 20 cm.
Good yields of vegetable, berry and fruit crops every summer season!
If you want to store garlic in braids, and the climate in your region is wet and rainy, such as in the Leningrad region, and the weather does not allow to dry the crops well on the garden bed, the stems rot by the time of harvest, you can use the following method.
The rotted parts of the stem are cut, and through the remaining parts of the head they are “stitched” with the help of garden twine or another suitable dense rope and a thick needle with a wide eyelet. Heads of garlic are arranged in such a way that knit-like spits are formed from them.
This should be done until the stems are dry, otherwise they will crack when the needle pricks. You also do not need to make knots heavier than 2-3 kg, the string must withstand them.
Finished "braids" are hung to dry in a dry place.
When forming a loop for hanging, a needle with a cord can be passed through a piece of cocktail tube, move this piece to the upper part of the loop, to the place where it touches the nail. This will serve as protection against chafing.
This way of storing garlic was shared on its page by the gardener Mama-chaus.
Site preparation for planting
Ideal landing area is a sunny piece of landon which before it grew legumes, cabbage, cucumbers or tomatoes. It is not forbidden to plant on a plot where potatoes or onions were previously grown, but due to their similar diseases, the likelihood of plant disease will increase significantly. By the way, re-planting in the same area can be done after 3-4 years, as the soil is very depleted.
In the break between growing garlic, you can use the area for growing peppers or eggplants, which have a greater need for nitrogen. For the same reason, why garlic is not planted in the territory where onions or potatoes grew - it is impossible to plant these crops on a plot of land where garlic has grown, that is, there is a reverse mutual exclusion.
About 10 days before landing begin to prepare the selected area. It is necessary to remove old planting plants, collect weeds and plow through the soil with a pitchfork, or dig a spade into the depth of a bayonet. To improve the quality and quantity of the crop, of course, you can not do without fertilizers, and you need to start fertilizing before planting. The beginning of the cultivation of winter crops in this case is fertilizer soil.
В почву вносится специальная смесь: одно ведро перегноя, 60 грамм суперфосфата и 40 грамм калийной соли. Такое удобрение вносится из расчёта одно ведро на два квадратных метра. Если почва слишком пересушенная, то сейчас самое время хорошо полить её. За несколько дней до посадки каждый метр почвы удобряют 15 граммами аммиачной селитры.
Выбор времени посева
Planting of winter garlic is necessary to make 30–50 days before the first frostThe estimated time is from the end of September to the end of October. Experienced gardeners claim that the deadline for planting winter garlic is October 15. You can use a special calendar gardener, which on the principle of the lunar calendar indicates the time of planting of a particular culture. A sign that shows the landing time, also serves as the air temperature, which for several days does not rise above + 10 degrees.
Features of the landing process
An approximate scheme of planting winter garlic is as follows:
- The formation of grooves up to 5 cm in depth with a distance of about 25 cm between rows.
- The layout of the seed by the grooves: large teeth - up to 12 cm, small - 8 cm, bulbs - up to 4 cm. In no case are the teeth pressed, they are simply laid out at the specified distance.
- Backfilling of the grooves with a layer of earth of 4 cm.
- Shelter grooves with a layer of sawdust from 5 to 7 cm.
After sowing winter garlic it is impossible to water the beds, watering should be done a few days before planting.
Spring and Summer Care
On time planted garlic tolerates deep frosts. and begins to grow and develop with the first heat, when the temperature rises to + 3 degrees. Full development will begin at a temperature of + 18 degrees.
The first thing to ensure for proper care is careful watering. About 25–30 liters of water should be sown per square meter of sowing, while 2-3 days before harvesting, watering is completely stopped.
Fertilizers need to be at least three times during the growing season.. After complete melting of snow, it is very good for top-dressing of a cowstage infusion at the rate of 1 liter per ten-liter bucket of water. Korovnyak is sold in large bottles - it is convenient to use packaging in 5 liters, since this fertilizer will come in handy more than once per season. Thus, the second application of feeding is carried out after about 10-14 days again, using a cowshed solution with the addition of nitrophosphate - 10 liters of water: 1 tbsp. l Nitrofoski: 1 liter cowshed. The third dressing is carried out after cleaning the peduncles and looks like ordinary watering with the addition of ash, about 200 grams per ten-liter bucket of water.
When the flowering arrows reach a height of 10 cm, they can be removed, throwing them away is not necessary, they have a wonderful spicy taste with garlic aroma. Several peduncles can be left for the formation of full-fledged brooches if reproduction and planting of garlic are planned by this method.
During the growing season, garlic is loosened and the soil is cleaned from weeds.
Proper care allows you to form a large and juicy heads of garlic.
Major pests and control
Pest control - This is a mandatory part of caring for plants. The most common diseases and insects affecting the plant:
- onion fly.
Fusarium or Donets rot - this is a disease in which the base of the clove is covered with white fungus, becomes soft and gradually rots. Fusarium develops both with the presence of pests and with the defeat of the head when the soil is loosened with a metal tool. Especially often and actively the disease develops in hot weather. To combat the disease, diseased plants are weeded and removed, and the soil is disinfected, as is the place of storage.
If the dents appear dented brown spotsthen this indicates the development of helminthosporia. Such spots begin to turn black with time, and the head rots. Infection usually occurs through the soil that has been infected for a long time, and its disinfection has not been done. As with fusarium, the affected plants are removed, and the territory is treated with fungicides.
One of the famous insects that harms garlic most often is this is a stem nematode. These insects are so viable that after harvest, they leave for the soil and can continue to live on the same territory without food for up to 5 years. When the disease leaves the plants turn yellow and curl, and the heads begin to rot. There are no ways for treatment, all that needs to be done is to remove diseased plants, calcined garlic harvest at temperatures up to +50 degrees for 10 hours, and in the territory where nematodes appeared no longer plant garlic, having sustained a period of at least 5 years.
Besides nematodes, known pests of garlic - onion flies, which suck the sap of plants and its leaves begin to turn yellow and die off. The larvae of this fly can be found on the stems near the rhizome of the plant. An ordinary salt solution is suitable for fighting: approximately 200 grams of salt per ten-liter bucket of water.
Adding an article to a new collection
If you plan to grow garlic in your plot, it is best to worry about it in the fall. Planting this bulbous plant in winter will provide excellent quality and large size of heads and cloves of garlic.
It is no secret that the main conditions for obtaining a rich harvest of winter garlic are in correctly determining the place for planting and observing the technology of preparing the beds. We tell how to plant garlic in the fall.
How to distinguish winter garlic from spring
Naturally, the main difference is that winter garlic put under the winter, and spring - in the spring.
In addition, they can be distinguished by external signs.
- The head consists of 4-12 large teeth covered with a pinkish-purple shell. They are arranged in a row around a solid rod.
- Burning taste.
- Eaten in summer and autumn, suitable for harvesting and as a seed. Not stored in winter.
- Head without rod. Consists of 25 small teeth, arranged in several rows.
- The taste is softer.
- Well kept all winter until spring.
Then you can plant garlic before winter
Better if before the garlic in the garden grew tomatoes, cucumbers, legumes. Also good forerunners of garlic can be early cabbage, zucchini, pumpkin. In this case, the soil for garlic will be maximally saturated with organic fertilizers.
In places that have been occupied by potatoes or onions, planting garlic is not recommended. This is due to the fact that between these cultures there is a high risk of “exchange” of diseases (nematode, fusarium, etc.).
You should also not plant winter garlic in areas where this year manure was applied: garlic will give abundant tops, loose heads and will be less resistant to fungal diseases.
1. Preparing the soil for garlic
AT late August - early September it is necessary to fertilize the soil: 10 kg of humus, 1 cup of chalk and 2 cups of ash are added to each square meter, add 2 tbsp. potassium sulfate and 1 tbsp superphosphate. Evenly distributing on the soil all the components, it must be dig. The depth of digging should be at least 20 cm.
3. Give time for soil shrinkage
Next, the bed is left alone, until the soil has settled after digging. If there is not much rain in September, then for better shrinkage you can water the prepared bed several times.
Some gardeners in a hurry and planted garlic immediately after digging. This affects the growth and development of the plant: when the soil subsides, the garlic cloves are deep in the ground, and in spring the germination time of the shoots increases and crop yield decreases.
4. We work the soil
In order to prevent diseases of garlic, treat the ground with a 1% solution copper sulphate (1 tbsp. Substances diluted in 10 liters of water). The resulting solution using a watering can spill the entire area of the beds. Then cover it with film.
On average, 2 square meters will require 1 bucket of such a solution.
On the eve of the landing of garlic scatter on the surface of the beds urea at the rate of 10-20 g per square meter and pour water over the soil.
1. Making holes
On the bed prepared in advance, we plan the place for planting winter garlic. To do this, we make a stick in the ground with a hole in the distance. 10 cm from each other. Well depth - from 3 to 15 cm depending on the method and time of landing. We already discussed this at the beginning of the article.
Row spacing - 20-25 cm.
5. Plant winter garlic
In early October, when the pea and oat sprouts reach 20 cm or more, it is time to plant garlic between their green rows.
This method of podzimney garlic planting is quite effective. Greens will hold the snow in the beds, so that in winter garlic will be covered with a snowy “fur coat”, and in the spring it will receive sufficient moisture.
Whatever technology of planting and cultivation of winter garlic you choose, we hope that next summer you will be able to get a good harvest. To do this, adopt our list of the best varieties of winter garlic.
Winter garlic - growing and care, cleaning
Therefore, removing the autumn harvest from the beds, gardeners do not lose time and begin to prepare the ground for planting the crop before winter.
And then many beginning vegetable growers have a reasonable question:
"After which you can plant garlic before winter?"
Knowing the rules of crop rotation, you can save energy on tillage and fertilizing, as well as reduce the likelihood of pests and diseases.
The best precursors for garlic will be plants that have long roots, they penetrate deep into the soil and improve the quality of the soil.
These are representatives of the family:
- cabbage and green crops,
- as well as cereals, with the exception of barley and millet,
- and strawberries.
Then why should not plant garlic before winter?
Definitely after related crops, such as onions. This is a completely inappropriate predecessor. They suffer from the same diseases, and they take the same mineral substances from the soil.
Experienced gardeners do not recommend planting it after carrots. The orange root crop, like a vacuum cleaner, sucks all the nutrients from the earth into itself and exhausts it greatly, even feeding is not helpful.
And after the beets and potatoes. The harvest of these plants is harvested late and there is simply not enough time to prepare the beds.
For garlic, fertile loamy soil with a neutral environment is removed. It is advisable to place it on a site that is protected from the wind, and where there is no stagnation of water in the spring after the snow has melted. Garlic loves sunny and dry places.
For 2 weeks we are preparing a bed for garlic, in order to carry out planting before winter. Weeds and tops of previous crops are removed from the beds. Light soils are loosened with pitchforks, heavy or dense soil is dug up with a bayonet. Be sure to make fertilizer depending on the composition of the earth:
- humus, compost, 1 tablespoon of potassium sulfate and superphosphate, a glass of chalk and dolomite flour are added to loamy soils,
- clay soil is fed with the same components as loam, and peat and coarse sand are sprinkled,
- on the peat plots make loam and sand,
- clay soil and peat should be added to sandy soils, as well as what was proposed for loamy soils.
If the soil after the precursors has an acidic environment, then to neutralize it, use 300 g of fluff lime. Be sure to give some time to the earth to rest.
Remember - fresh organic matter on the beds of garlic can not be made.
And now it's time to choose
Winter garlic is propagated by bulbs, the diameter of which is not less than 25 cm, single-tooth sevka - 10 mm and bulbs - not less than 4 mm. All are suitable for planting in the fall.
For reproduction, exceptionally healthy seed is selected, germinated bulbs, diseased, spoiled or dried ones are rejected.
It is equally important to know which garlic to plant before winter - large or small.
Many mistresses large heads leave for storage, followed by their use in food, and smaller ones are left for seeding purposes. But next year they will face a big disappointment. The harvest is less, and the heads are inferior in size to their predecessors. Therefore, it is recommended to use large teeth or single-teeth for planting.
If you notice that garlic began to shrink from year to year, then it needs to be rejuvenated. For these purposes, use the bulb - bulbous onions. They help to preserve all varietal qualities of the plant. Experts recommend planting garlic and bulbs annually, which should be 1/3 sowing, and cloves.
Terms of planting culture depend on the climate of your region and the weather. Therefore, it is rather difficult to accurately name the landing time.
The main thing is to land it 45 days before the onset of cold weather, when the temperature of the earth drops to +10 ° C. During this period, the plant should be fixed in the ground and form a good root system, but should not have time to release green shoots.
How to plant cloves
The fertilized bed is leveled with a rake and grooves are 5–8 cm deep. Approximately 20 cm is left between the rows.
Cloves of arrowed varieties are planted 6–10 cm apart, non-arrowed garlic - 10–15 cm.
Seed material is laid out in the grooves, without pressing, and sprinkled with loose soil 4 cm thick. Then the planting should be covered with mulch - peat, sawdust, straw. Layer thickness must be at least 5 cm.
In regions with severe frosts, beds are covered with straw dung. But in the spring after the snow melts, it should be removed immediately, and the upper layer of soil should be burst by 2 cm. Landings planted in the fall do not water.
Growing garlic bulbs takes a longer time. To make a full-fledged head grow from an air bulb, it will take at least two years. They are sown either in early spring or autumn.
The first option is preferable, because a large amount of planting material dies due to cold weather or pushing them onto the soil surface. In addition, when planting in the autumn, arrows are thrown out; in spring sowing, this is not observed.
When to plant garlic bulbs in the winter? At the same time as cloves. 1–1.5 months before the onset of cold weather.
How to plant garlic bulbs before winter
Larger bulbs are chosen for planting. In this case, in the first year, a tree is formed - roundish single-toothed bulbs.
The day before sowing, the brooches are soaked in a weak solution of potassium permanganate. On the one hand, so we disinfect them, on the other - we reject bad seeds. All surfaced garlic liquids can be ruthlessly thrown out, they are not suitable for planting.
On the beds they make grooves 4 cm deep, between the seeds they leave a distance of 10–15 cm, and between rows 20 cm. The garlic leaves are laid out in the grooves, covered with earth and covered with mulch.
On time, planted garlic, well-covered, can survive without any particular consequences if the temperature drops to -45 ° C, and at +3 ° C in spring, it begins to grow. Therefore, in the spring, it is necessary to remove the covering material from the garden bed in a timely manner, otherwise the plants may bloom.
The main growth of the culture occurs at a temperature of + 18 ... + 23 ° C. At this time, do not forget to care for grown plants.
The main events are:
First, the seedlings that have appeared after snow melt are fed — they are poured over with a solution of urea and a mullein (1 tablespoon of urea and 1 cup of mullein are used for 10 liters of water) or diluted with water (1:10). After 14 days, fed with nitrophoska, 2 tbsp. spoons are diluted in 10 liters of water.
Garlic is watered plentifully and regularly. 2-3 weeks before harvesting, watering is completely stopped.
3. Delete the arrows.
In sprouting varieties of garlic, if seeds are not needed, they break off flowering arrows, since they “pull off” some of the nutrients. Green juicy arrows can be eaten by adding them to salads or other dishes.
4. Loosening and hilling.
In order for the bulbs not to overheat in the sun, sprouts spud up to a height of 3-5 cm, but shortly before harvesting, the upper part of the head is freed from the soil, this contributes to a more rapid mass gain.
Winter garlic is harvested in July, when the extreme leaves turn yellow and the inflorescences open.
Depending on the type of garlic, choose a planting time. Spring garlic is planted in the open ground in spring, in the first half of April. It is better plant out planting material as soon as possible. If you plant this type of garlic in the fall, it will take root poorly, and crops with bad roots die during the winter frosts. For autumn planting is to use winter garlic.
Successful cultivation is possible only with the provision of the right conditions.
- the right place to grow
- fertilizer beds before planting,
- proper planting of seed;
- care in the process of growth.
As a material for planting it is necessary to use only the healthiest seeds. Before planting, seed is sorted, removing dried, damaged or rotted seeds.
For disinfection is necessary soak the seeds in a solution of copper sulfate. Soaking is carried out for 10-15 minutes.
If the gardener is completely confident in the seed, then disinfection is not necessary. In this case, the teeth are soaked in a weak solution of potassium permanganate. This procedure helps to improve the immunity of teeth, so that they will be better able to resist diseases. After 12-24 hours, seeds can be planted in open ground.
Spring garlic planting in spring
Spring garlic should be planted in the spring. Moreover, it is necessary to land until the earth is dry, and the air temperature has not increased. To begin germination, the plant in open ground should be planted at a temperature of + 4-10 degrees. Такая температура воздуха более всего подходит для образования крепкой корневой системы. А вот если высаживать растение при более высокой температуре, то корни нарастают довольно медленно.A plant with weak roots is not able to form a large and healthy head of garlic.
Garlic Planting Rules:
- the bed is prepared and fertilized in advance,
- you can now dig up the soil to distribute fertilizer and make the soil easier,
- heads of garlic are taken apart into individual cloves. They need to be dried within 1-2 days,
- the soil is leveled using a rake,
- using a stick or metal rod on the surface of the plot cause furrows. Furrows do at a distance of 2-3 decimeters from each other. Such a distance is necessary for comfortable growth of plants to the optimum size, and also will make it easier to take care of plants,
- cloves are planted in the distance 6-8 centimeters from each other. The distance should be selected depending on the size of the seed. Large onions require a distance of at least 8 centimeters. But for small lukovichek enough 6 centimeters. It is better to carry out planting after sorting seeds by size. On the garden they first plant small onions, and then begin to plant large seeds,
- the size of the teeth also affects the depth of the landing. Large teeth can be planted to a depth of 5-7 centimeters. A small seed is planted at about a depth of 4-5 centimeters,
- the cloves planted are covered with a thin layer of earth and watered,
- The soil surface can be mulched: for this, 3-5 centimeters of mulching materials are laid out on the surface of the earth. As mulch used straw, dry leaves, pine needles, shredded bark and so on. This mulch prevents the top layer of the earth from drying out quickly and helps in weed control.
Planting winter garlic in the open ground
Winter garlic must be planted so that it is well rooted in the soil, but does not begin to grow. If the teeth start growing, the winter frost will ruin the entire crop. But it is not recommended to plant plants late, as the teeth will not be able to root well, which will also lead to loss of the crop.
The optimal time for planting is considered a period of 2-3 weeks before the onset of sustained frost.
If it is planned to plant aerial bulbs, then planting can be done in autumn or early spring. The disadvantages of the autumn planting is that in the summer period the plant will form arrows. And this does not quite reflect on the amount of the crop. When spring planting arrows will not, and therefore the harvest will be more.
Further care of the plant
Further care for garlic has no difficulty. The most necessary care is watering and fertilizer, and fertilizing should be carried out in a timely manner.
- Watering. Garlic should be watered well by mid-July. Until this period, the plant intensively forms green stems, so moisture is very necessary for it. Watering garlic in the open ground should be made only with warm, settled water. Water after several days of settling becomes softer, which means that the plant will develop better. The amount of moisture can be determined by the tips of the leaves. If they become dry and yellow, then watering should be increased. When the plant forms the sixth leaf, you can gradually reduce the amount of water during watering. In August, the plant is not watered. If during this period the plant receives a large amount of moisture, then the cloves begin to rot and storage will take place poorly. If it is rainy outside, it is necessary to close the landing with plastic wrap.
- Top dressing. Fertilizer is worth making in certain periods of plant growth. Moreover, for a safer fertilizer nutrients contribute only after abundant watering. The first feeding is carried out at the moment when the first leaflets form on the plant. For the first feeding use nitrogenous fertilizers. For example, you can use mullein, humus, chicken manure, grass infusion, and so on. If you plan to use manure, then it is necessary to insist on it or use rotted material. A few weeks after the first feeding, mineral fertilizers should be applied to the soil. For example, you can use wood ash. The third dressing is carried out in the phase of the formation of teeth. This happens in early July. During this period, suitable phosphate-potassium fertilizer.
- Loosening. From constant watering the surface of the earth is compacted and it is periodically necessary to loosen. The root system of garlic runs on the surface, so you can not loosen very much. Ideally, loosening is carried out after each irrigation. Loosening can also prevent overgrowing of the plot with weeds.
To grow large heads, it is necessary in early August to link the greens of the plant. This technique helps to stop feeding green shoots, and thus, all the power of the plant goes to the development and formation of large heads. As well as for a better harvest, experienced gardeners recommend timely update your varieties. You should not wait for a big harvest, if the cloves were planted in the place where potatoes, onions and tomatoes were previously grown. These precursors can infect garlic with various pests and diseases.
With proper planting and care, you can grow a big crop, and this does not require a large plot of land. Moreover, you can plant varietal garlic, which has large sizes and good ability for long-term storage.