It has always been thought that the peach tree, its spring flowering and abundant harvest are the privilege of the southernmost regions of the country. Since the middle of the last century, breeders and amateurs are promoting culture in the middle lane. Peach can press apricots in country gardens, because it is more resistant to returnable frosts, and a seedling from a stone inherits maternal qualities. Fifty fans of the Moscow region have been cultivating peach in bush form for more than 10 years.
Peach Tree Description
Garden varieties come from the common peach, shrub or single-stem form. The height of the tree can reach 9 meters, but spreading trees of 3-4 meters are more common. The peach root system is superficial, it is in the fertile layer up to 70 cm. Peaches love heat, light, and abundant watering. Fruit tree for 20 years, starting from the second year after rooting.
Peach tree is a cross-pollinated species. A few near growing varieties will increase the fruiting of each, especially if you create a conveyor of fruits from July to September, collecting specimens of different ripening periods. Sleepiness in peaches is low.
Frost-resistant peach trees can not be called. They lose part of the roots during winter frosts of -25 if they last more than three days. Day roots sustain severe frost 30-35 degrees. A small dormant period awakens a tree during the wintertime rastepel occurring in the winter.
Gentle peach difficult to endure wintering. Krone does not withstand frost -20 without shelter, while fruit buds and last year’s growth are dying. He consoles that the peach tree has a great self-healing ability and within a year the frost-bitten tree will bloom again.
Agricultural peach for each climate zone
Peach trees are grown in climates with a mild climate. In this form a cup-shaped, penetrated by the rays of the sun, the crown of trees located at a distance of at least 3 meters.
For areas with cold winters, bush form and thickened planting are more suitable. Here form the fruit links of the lower shoots. Low branches are easy to cover in the winter, ensuring the safety of fruit buds.
You should buy only seedlings of zoned and recommended varieties of peaches. A good result is obtained by gardeners growing a tree from a peach bone of a local variety.
Caring for peach year-round, and includes techniques to create the conditions for long-term annual fruiting. Therefore, peach farming in the Caucasus and the Moscow region include some operations, but they are performed using different technologies:
- planting dates and varieties,
- the formation of a young and fruiting tree,
- watering and feeding,
- protection from pests and diseases
- preparation for wintering and spring awakening of the tree.
Each of these events is based on practical techniques that help the demanding tree to survive in hostile conditions.
How to grow a fruiting peach tree in the suburbs
Studies conducted by scientists of the Botanical Garden, who studied the experience of gardeners in the suburbs in the cultivation of peaches, allowed us to draw some conclusions:
- Seedlings grown from seeds of local varieties retain maternal qualities if taken from their own peach. Seedlings from stocks are fruitless.
- Own root peaches are more resistant to local conditions.
- It is proposed to form a fruit tree so as to give a bush form, leaving mostly young growth.
- Trees should be planted so that in the middle of winter they can be covered. From the north wind create a screen even in the summer.
- Use seedlings grafted on almonds and plum. Apricot Zhardel for a peach - an unsuccessful stock.
For gardeners, Moscow region fans are recommended to purchase seedlings of zoned varieties from local nurseries. So far there are only 29 varieties, but breeding work continues.
How to care for a peach tree? An example of the right agricultural technology for the middle band is Kostetsky amateur garden. The harvest from each of the 20 peaches in 2011 amounted to 30 kg per tree. Such results he obtained, adapting to the requests of the southerners for 20 years.
Recommendations for those interested in the cultivation of peaches in the Moscow region:
- Planting several varieties of seedlings with a hole distance of 3x4 meters.
- Spring cutting dry, weak, non-bearing branches. After flowering requires thinning, removal of excess ovaries, then the fruits reach 150-200 g of weight.
- Protection - 4 times in spring spraying with 1% blue vitriol against leaf curl, perforated spot.
Fertilizer grower plants all year round. A year later, 3 kg / sq. m of the area of humus in a mixture of superphosphate and potassium salt to the entire area of the garden in autumn. In early spring, fertilize with liquid organics annually. In winter, more than half a bucket of wood ash is poured into each well. In the spring, when the buds swell, 300 g of complex fertilizer is added to the stem, filled with 5-6 buckets of water. After flowering, liquid 10% organic matter is added to the tree trunk in the amount of 3-4 buckets. In August, feeding is repeated with the addition of a superphosphate cup of half a cup.
In autumn, when the foliage falls, each tree gets another 10 buckets of water. Then the ground is mulched with humus. Near the trunk there is always space to prevent diaper rash.
Getting peach seedling from the stone
If you take the seed from the local perennial variety of peach, it will give the seedling resistance to climatic features, size and taste of the mother fruit. How to grow peach bones? You can grow at home in a pot. To do this, you need to hold the bone in the water for 4 days, then remove it, split the bone, and put the nucleolus in a pot.
For spring planting of peaches, it is necessary to carry out an artificial stratification in winter. In a cool place, the bone is stored throughout the winter in wet sand. In the spring, the bone will burst, a seedling will appear, it must be arranged in a tub.
It is possible to lay out the seeds in autumn in well prepared soil at a distance of 10 cm. In the spring they will ascend, by the autumn they will reach a height of 1.5 m, they will give side branches. Then they are seated in the prepared landing pits.
In the fall, young plants are seated without cutting the upper branches, but shorten the roots a little. In the spring, on the contrary, pinch the tops, starting the formation of a tree.
Spring is the most crucial period in peach care
Nature is awakening. It was at this time that the gardener begins to suffer peach protection from pests and diseases, and pruning to form the future harvest.
Care for a peach in the spring is the timely release of branches and roots from the protective cover, so as not to create trunk diaper. At the same time it is necessary to carry out protective measures, carry out feeding in accordance with the schedule. As soon as the flower buds begin to swell, it takes time for the crown to form a crown within 3 weeks. The event is responsible, requiring practical skills and well-sharpened tools. How to properly prune peaches in the spring, watch the video for beginners:
The main objectives of spring pruning:
- rid the tree of fattening branches,
- to release for fruiting shoots the access of the sun's rays,
- remove old branches, on which there are few fruitful shoots.
It should be remembered, pruning is an operation in which you can weaken the tree. It should be as gentle as possible. Immediately after pruning, it is impossible to close a wet cut with a garden pitch. It is possible to put a protective layer in 3-4 days in order not to get gum treatment.
Only a well-groomed, strong tree can become a decoration of the garden and produce delicious fragrant fruits.
Varieties and varieties of peach
There are 3 types of peach:
Through the efforts of breeders brought many varieties. In terms of ripening, they are divided into early, middle and late. The most common are the following varieties:
- Redhaven. Early, gives large yellow-orange fruits of an oval form with a red barrel, juicy gentle, very tasty pulp. Large bone is separated easily. Frost tolerates poorly.
- "Velvety". It ripens early, but takes root only in the southern regions. Fruits are medium in size, round, yellow with blush. Stone is small, firmly ingrown into the flesh.
- "Early Kuban". Winter-hardy, fruitful, yellow fruits are small, but very tasty. Ripen in July.
- Jaminat. Medium late peach. Fruits are large, elongated, bright yellow with redness, slightly flattened at the sides. Orange flesh is sweet, slightly sour. Stone, easily separated from the pulp. Frost tolerates not very good.
- "Stavropol Pink". Fruits have a light yellow with a pink, velvety surface. The flesh is tender, sweet and sour. Fruit ripening time - the end of August. The variety is frost resistant.
- “Irganai Late”. The surface of the yellow medium-sized fruits, covered with beautiful red spots. Late variety, not very resistant to frost, the fruits ripen in September.
Attention! When choosing a variety, familiarize yourself with its characteristics in order not to purchase a tree that cannot take root in the climatic conditions of your region.
Peach Planting Features
Peach planting should be carefully selected. It will not grow in the lowlands, on the areas blown by the wind. Ideal south side with plenty of sun, with good protection from the wind. Undesirable peach precursors - melons, strawberries, nightshade.
Under the peach seedling prepare a hole of 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.5 m. The graft is left, 50 mm above the ground. The newly planted tree abundantly watered.
When planting in depleted soil, in the spring, a mixture of potassium chloride and superphosphate (50 g each), and 300 g of wood ash and 8 kg of compost or humus should be introduced into the planting pit. In the autumn, humus is poured into the pit, a 20 cm layer of soil is covered on top, and then a sapling is dipped.
How to care and how to fertilize
Care is pruning, watering, combating all sorts of diseases and pests. Peach tolerates drought with endurance, but development and fruiting are inhibited. Therefore, if it has not been raining for a long time, 2 buckets of water are poured under the tree with a temperature of about 25 degrees every 2 weeks. Too generous watering, especially during the ripening of the fruit, can lead to cracking.
When digging the site in spring, nitrogen-containing fertilizers are introduced under the trees for better development and the formation of abundant ovaries. In the fall, mineral fertilizers are not applied, only organic matter and then once every 2 years.
For the winter, it is desirable to protect the trunk circle and the roots from rodents, spreading laparnik around. The trunk of the tree is wrapped with ruberoid or rags.
Council Use this way to protect a young tree in preparation for the winter: dig 2 supports on the sides, put a bag on them, closing the entire seedling. Dust his edges with earth. Make a few holes - the tree needs to breathe.
To get good yields for a long time, pruning is needed. In this case, use several types of this procedure:
- Formative, increasing fruiting and quality of the crop. To form the crown should begin when planting a tree.
- Thinning, giving the opportunity for the development of strong shoots.
- Healing when the diseased or frozen branches are removed in the spring.
- Rejuvenating, used to rejuvenate the peach over the age of 7 years. Stimulates abundant fruiting.
Propagated peach pits, grafting cuttings. For most amateur gardeners, the first method is most appropriate. To get planting material, take the fruits of trees growing in the same area. Saplings grown from pits imported fruit, we do not take root. The peach from which it is planned to take a bone must be ripe and have a perfect look, as in the photo. Then do this:
- A few stones are taken away, they are cleaned of pulp, placed in a container with wet sawdust or sand.
- Clean for the winter in a dark, cold place to undergo the procedure of stratification.
- Bones are planted in spring with the sprouted germ in a pot with peat fertilized with humus.
- Watered moderately. When the root system is formed and the tree itself, the pot is transferred to a sunny place with a temperature of 18-20 degrees.
Less time is taken by another method. In this case, the bone extracted from the fetus is first washed, and then the seeds are split and extracted from it. Place the seed of the day at 3 in warm water, changing it daily for fresh. When the seeds swell, they are planted in pots to a depth of 10 cm, one each. The earth is watered, the container is covered with a transparent material. Ensure that the earth is not moldy, for which the greenhouse is airing every day.
Experienced gardeners propagate a peach by grafting a cutting. Apricot, blackthorn and cherry felt are suitable as a stock. Harvesting cuttings perform in November-December from 1-2-year-old shoots. They overwinter in the cellar or under the shelter on the street. Graft in March by the same methods as other trees.
Diseases, pests and control
Peach enemies are not too many, but they are all caused by fungi and very serious. It is impossible to grow a full-fledged tree without prevention:
- Leaf curl. To combat it and in order to prevent the use of Bordeaux liquid (3% solution). The first time is sprayed in the spring, while there are no buds, the second - after picking the fruits, the third - after the leaves fall. With severe infection using the drug Chorus.
- Monilioz. It appears when the weather is wet during flowering. The flowers turn brown, the ovary falls. Peach sprayed Bordeaux liquid in the spring, when it has no leaves. If a tree is infected with spores in large quantities, then diseased branches and shoots must be cut and destroyed.
Pests that have settled in the bark are destroyed by treatment of the stem with lime with a small amount of copper sulfate.
Growing a peach is not easy; a good result is unlikely without constant attention, but if everything is done correctly, the tree will regularly delight with a bountiful harvest.
How to grow a peach: photo
- How to implement a peach pruning: tips and videos for novice gardeners
- Fig peach: growing and care
- Redhaven Peach - High Yield, Delicious, Large Fruits in Cool Areas
- Kolonovidny peach - sweet exotic on the site without the hassle
The peach is a heat-loving plant, our cottage is located on the south side, and such a plant began quickly. The tree is beautiful when it blooms, large pink flowers, an unforgettable scent. In the third year there were already the first fruits, tasty juicy peaches.
Is it possible to grow a peach tree without a graft but simply cutting the stalk like a black currant? Or you can't get roots on a branch in any way.
Choosing planting material
Quality planting material - the key to success. Turkish or Spanish peaches, no matter how beautiful and tasty they are, are not suitable for planting in our latitudes.
Everyone knows that imported peaches are removed from trees long before biological maturity. This is the right approach, because at the onset of technical ripeness, fruits acquire a delicate flavor, retain useful substances and tolerate transportation over long distances.
But the bones of such fruits do not ripenand therefore it is not worth wasting your time and energy on their germination.
Besides, southern varieties will not survive in our climatebecause accustomed to more comfortable conditions. If the seedlings give seedlings, then the seedlings themselves will die without having received the required amount of sunlight and heat.
To choose peaches for the extraction of seeds you need from zoned varieties, not from the grafted tree
If you already decided to plant a peach, browse the market in search of local fruits. The seller, who has grown his product in his own hands, will be happy to tell you how to care for the seedling in order to achieve fruiting.
Fine, if the neighbor in the cottage will share the harvest. In any case, prepare a few bones. The germination of peach seeds is about 25%, some seedlings will die when grown, so the more seeds you collect, the better.
Be sure to ask what tree peaches are removed from. Do not take fruits from the grafted tree, because the characteristics of the variety when grown are unlikely to match the parent.
Only peaches from the own-rooted tree produce planting material capable of preserving species.
Grow a peach from a stone is easier than ever:
Choosing a grade
Zoned varieties will feel better in a local climate, content with the amount of heat and lighting that nature of a particular region can give them.
Even if you decide to plant the seedlings in the open ground, with proper care they will not be afraid of cold.
When choosing a peach variety, pay attention to the main characteristics.
Winter hardiness If you plan to transplant a seedling into an open ground, choose varieties with good winter hardiness and unpretentiousness to growing conditions.
Selfing Many varieties are self-pollinated. Но если хотите получать щедрый урожай, посадите рядом хотя бы 3-4 персика, которые будут впоследствии плодоносить.
Раннеспелость – для успешного плодоношения летом, рекомендуется сажать сорта раннего созревания (июль-первая половина августа).
The most popular of the early ripe peaches: Early Rivers, Winner, Early Minion. Good winter hardiness in the Amsden and Kiev early varieties, and high yields in the Nectarine white varieties, Krasnodar Nectarine, Redhaven and Nobles.
To extract pits, prepare large, ripe, soft fruits with no signs of damage, rot or mildew. Free the bones from the pulp, rinse thoroughly under running warm water and dry. Pick stones without traces of pests and cracking.
Choose a method of growing
Gardeners use three methods to grow peach trees from a pit.
Stratification, or "cold way." An imitation of cold natural conditions is created so that the seeds are ready for germination and better picked.
During stratification, shells soften, seeds swell, complex organic substances turn into simple ones and are absorbed by the seed germ.
Extraction of seeds. “Fast way”, which consists of splitting the stone and extracting the kernel. After seed extraction from the seedling, seedlings appear much earlier than during stratification.
Warm way. You can sprout bones in pots at room temperature and natural light.
Gardeners for growing peach trees from the stone use three methods: cold - stratification, warm and from extracted seeds
Cold mode, or stratification, at home
For a successful stratification, it is necessary to create wet conditions for the seeds at a low positive temperature and provide air access. For these purposes, suitable compartment for storing vegetables in the refrigerator or basement.
Stratify seeds as follows:
- Prepare a small lidless container filled with wet sand or peat. Use coarse sand, separated from foreign particles and thoroughly washed.
- Place the stones in the sand to a depth of 6-8 cm, place the container in a plastic bag with holes (to get air) and put it in the refrigerator for the winter time.
- Regularly check the container, if necessary, moisten the sand or peat from the spray gun. The main thing is not to overdo it with watering, otherwise the seeds may rot.
- After 3-4 months, the bones will “seep”, and sprouts of future peaches will appear.
- Remove the sprout container from the fridge and plant the seedlings in the pots. Take pots with drainage holes. Use fertile soil from a mixture of leaf earth, peat and humus.
- Place the pots of seedlings in a well-lit area.
- Do not allow abrupt temperature changes. At first, provide the sprouts with a temperature regime of + 10 ° С, putting them on a glazed balcony or veranda.
- A few days later, put the pots with sprouts in the room and maintain the temperature in the room + 18 + 20 ° С. Water moderately when the soil dries.
What is stratification? How to make stratification correctly:
Split and remove seeds
A quick way to grow a bone tree for the impatient. If you do not want to wait until spring emergence of shoots.
Proceed as follows:
- Washed and dried bones split with a knife or hammer. Work with tools carefully, try not to damage the core of the bone.
- Remove the seeds and put in warm water for 2-3 days for swelling. Water replaced daily fresh.
- When you see that the seeds are swollen and increased in size, plant them in separate pots with drainage holes. Select the size of the pot taking into account the fact that the depth of planting is 4-6 cm.
- After planting, water the seeds and cover the pots with glass or plastic wrap. Ventilate the greenhouses every day - remove the film, wipe the condensate and let's “breathe” the pots for a while. Remember, excessive moisture causes mold and mildew, which are detrimental to seeds and seedlings.
- After the sprouts appear, remove the film.
Remove the seeds and put in warm water for 2-3 days to swell, after planting, pour the seeds and cover the pots with glass or plastic wrap
During the peach growth, the root system first grows, and only then the tree itself is formed.
Gardeners who grow peach pits note that the seedling height reaches 0.5 m in 2-3 months.
How to sprout a warm way
With this method, the peach pits are immediately planted in pots with soil mixture in the hope of waiting for the sprouts to appear in a few months.
Planting technology is simple:
- Prepared seeds hold 6-10 days in the refrigerator. This will be a kind of short-term stratification.
- Remove the bones from the refrigerator and soak for 2-3 hours in a growth stimulator.
- Plant the seed to a depth of 6-8 cm in a moist soil mixture.
- Cover the pots with clear polyethylene or glass, ventilate them daily and wipe the condensate.
- Sprout the peaches at room temperature by placing the pots on a brightly lit window sill. Water as needed.
- When the sprouts appear in 3-4 months, remove the film and move the seedlings to a well-lit place without drafts and direct sunlight.
Peach bones are immediately planted in pots with soil mixture, having previously held them in a refrigerator for 6-10 days
Care for young peach sprouts
In order for the seedlings to survive and gain strength, it is necessary to create favorable conditions for them.
The soil. Use loose fertile soil from peat, humus, sand and leafy earth in proportions of 1: 1: 1: 2.
Lighting. Provide good lighting. With a lack of sunlight, use LED fitolampy, which will give the necessary spectrum and accelerate the growth of plants.
Watering. Water regularly. Reduce watering at the time of ripening and during the rest period.
Temperature mode. In winter, provide a temperature of + 2 + 4 ° С, with the onset of spring during flowering + 10 + 15 ° С, and after flowering + 18 + 25 ° С.
Provide the tree a winter period of rest. At this time, watering significantly reduce, refuse additional lighting and ensure the plant temperature + 2 + 4 ° C. Resume normal care after waking up the kidneys.
Top dressing. Starting in March, feed the plants with mineral and organic fertilizers every two weeks. Since September, stop feeding. From organic fertilizers, use a nutritious infusion of humus.
Transfer. Replant the seedling as it grows into a larger pot in early spring (before flowering) or early September.
Crop. When the side shoots begin to grow, and the height of the main trunk is 70 cm, proceed to the formation of the crown.
Fruiting occurs on the side branches of the tree, so you should not allow the seedling to grow up. Spend the main pruning next spring. Annually cut and pinch vigorous shoots.
In order for the seedlings to survive and gain strength, it is necessary to create favorable conditions for them, including a winter dormancy period.
Planting a tree in the open ground at the cottage
At home, a full-fledged peach grow will only get the owners of the winter garden, a cool veranda, glazed loggia or greenhouse.
Under normal apartment conditions, it is impossible to provide the seedling with the necessary temperature regime depending on the season. But if all the conditions can be met, then for the first year young peach will grow to 1.5 m.
Peach transplanting in open ground plan for March next year or the beginning of September. If you plant several seedlings, observe the interval between them in 3-4 meters.
The same distance should be to adult plants, giving a vast shadow, and to the walls of buildings on the site. Place for landing, choose a well-lit, but protected from drafts.
Before planting peach dig a hole about 1 m deep, apply organic fertilizer and dig well. Plant a seedling and tamp the ground. Pistol circles spill with water at room temperature and cover with a layer of mulch or humus.
A plant grown from a stone at home in the first 2-3 years after transplantation into open ground should be given special attention, because it is still poorly adapted to weather conditions.
Transplant peach seedlings in open ground plan for March next year or early September
In winter, wrap a tree with sacking or non-woven material., and insulate the trunk with glass wool. Take care of the root system - so that it does not freeze over, cover the soil of the trunk circle with a thick layer of fallen leaves or spruce leaves.
In conditions of open ground, young trees can be attacked by aphids, shchitovki, spider mites and moths. Of the peach diseases, scab, leaf curl, powdery mildew, fruit rot, claster psoriosis and moniliosis are characteristic.
To protect seedlings, regularly prune dried and cracked shoots and carry out preventive treatment with insecticides.
The process of growing a peach tree from the stone is simple, but takes time and patience. With proper care in 2-3 years fragrant and juicy fruits will appear, and the harvest can be collected within 10-12 years.
The cultivation of peaches is practiced even in the harsh conditions of Siberia, so that in our latitudes we can safely take up the experiment.
How to germinate peach bone:
Hello, dear friends!
Sometimes you want something unusual in your apartment (house). In our time, fortunately, you can do anything, as long as it is fun. So, today anyone can easily grow peach, tangerine, lemon and other citrus trees on their windowsill, which will smell sweet and please their owner with tasty fruits. Of course, there are some basic rules for the care of a house plant, but absolutely everyone will be able to fulfill them.
Worth starting with how grow a peach tree. Some use the most common seed from the fruit, others buy it in the store. The peculiarity is that an extraordinary tree easily tolerates unfavorable temperatures, up to 0 degrees. But it should be noted that you need to know exactly which plant varieties are suitable for indoor conditions, and which are not. Among the suitable species are: Nobles, White Nectarine, Pineapple, Early Rivers and Winner.
The peach tree is a perennial that does not like shade and dark rooms, areas. In this regard, it is best to place it in a warm place, under the sun and preferably on a ventilated area. In order for the peach to blossom and bear fruit, it needs to create favorable conditions, for example, constantly transfer it (seasonally) to warm corners of an apartment. It is known that adult plants are able to endure tougher temperatures, even 10 degrees, but you should not risk the health of your baby. It is very important to water the peach correctly, for example, in summer it requires a large amount of water, in the winter the procedure is limited. It is also practiced to spray the leaves, but this is not necessary, especially during the flowering period.
Do not forget to periodically feed the tree. It is best to do this in the spring. The soil itself should consist of peat, sand, leaves, humus and sod. Then the plant will feel perfect. The main component is drainage, it must be present in the pot. Feeding should be carried out 1-2 times a month, it is best that it consists of a mineral mixture and organic matter.
If the decision is made to propagate the peach, then there can not do without vaccinations on the stocks. In addition, the tree needs regular pruning. This process will not only positively affect the plant, but also serve as a prophylactic agent for many diseases. If the slightest signs of moths or aphids are visible, the peach should immediately be treated with special chemicals that will ensure its further full development.
Try grow a peach tree in your home! See you, friends!
In theory, if everything goes well, then the bone that was planted will sprout at one time. Of course, we must create the conditions that peach loves. In particular, since it is a heat-loving culture, in order to increase the chances it is better to take a seed from local peach varieties growing in your region, such seeds will differ in the necessary cold resistance.
Features of growing a peach tree
In general, it is recommended to find out from which tree you got the bone. Stone from the root tree owns approx. 70-80% of the properties of a variety, but if a bone is from a fruit grown on a grafted tree, then the probability is high that the seedling will turn out to be empty. In this case, the grown tree should be planted when the trunk reaches 7-10 mm at the girth of the root collar. The best option is to carry out the budding with a sleeping kidney on a summer day, or inoculate with a germinating bud in the area of the root collar or a little higher by 6-7 cm, this should be done in the spring.
Somewhere a week before planting, the peach seed should be put in a container with water, and water should be changed every day. Just before planting, we gently pick up the bone with a hammer, trying not to damage the seed. Planting time is preferably autumn, so that the seed naturally stratifies. Lay the seed in a hole at a depth of 8 cm, previously loosened the soil well. The place is better to choose in the shade.
First, the root germinates, after rooting the growth of the stem begins. Earth should be maintained in a loosened and moist state. During the summer months, the sapling will stretch by 1.2 - 1.3 meters, the crown will begin to develop, which in the first year should be shaped - cut the leader so that the trunk grows another 60-70 cm and the lateral shoots develop better. In the fall, the lateral branches are selected, which will constitute the skeleton of the crown; Fruits on a peach tree can be seen already in the 3rd year. Also read our article: What peach varieties to grow on your own plot.
During maturation, it is recommended to use gaupsin and trichodermion, as well as insecticides (zolon, insegar, etc.), to protect against aphids, moths, and other insects.
Feedback and Comments
Did you find a mistake in the text? Please select it and press Ctrl + Enter. Thank!
Peach - a fragrant, juicy delicacy, against which few people can resist. Unfortunately, the fruit grows in the southern regions, and it is not always possible to find it on sale. Today we will tell you how you can grow a peach yourself, at home, from a simple seed. However, we warn you at once: in order for such a tree to bear fruit, you will have to make a lot of effort. Doesn't that scare you? Then you can try. In the end, even if the fruit does not work, you will have a beautiful and unusual plant for our latitudes. Moreover, grown independently.
Choosing the right variety
Peaches have a lot of varietal varieties. Each of them differs in its own characteristics, and, choosing which tree you will grow, proceed from its specific features. Hybrids are rejected right away: even if they have a normal, seemingly full, bone, you will never see a sprout out of it. The fact is that hybrid plants do not give procreation.
Peach Seed Requirements:
- They must be sufficiently resistant to cold.
- They should easily tolerate a small amount of sunny color and have time to bear fruit.
- Do not choose store material, as a rule, a full-fledged plant does not work from it. It is best to purchase fruits in special nurseries or directly in the south, in private farms from those you can trust.
- The best varieties for cultivation in central Russia: "White Nectarine", "Early Rivers", "Nobles", "Early Minion", "Winner", "Amsden" and "Nectarine anasny".
There is one more thing that must be considered when choosing a variety of future peach. Carefully read the characteristics of each of the applicants and decide which one is best. Pay attention to:
- Growing conditions
- Demanding to soil, feeding, care,
- Tastes (early ones are usually not suitable for blanks, later ones are harder),
- The rate of aging (many later varieties simply do not have time to ripen in a short summer, so they have to be plucked in advance).
In any case, choosing the most suitable grade is the main task at the preparatory stage. In the middle lane, the requirements for the future tree are more serious than in the south, where, in principle, it is quite easy to grow any peach.
When the issue with the choice of a variety is finally resolved, it is necessary to start germinating the seed. It is surprising that such a big and beautiful tree can be obtained only from ordinary seed, but this is what we are going to do now.
how to grow tea at home
Secrets of the successful germination of peach pits
Before you land a bone in the ground, you need to properly prepare for the upcoming process. Peaches do not grow particularly fast, they are quite whimsical and capricious. Therefore, even at the stage of preparation for planting will have to tinker with them.
First, harvest ripe, soft fruits. As mentioned above, only varietal will do. Completely cleanse the seed from the pulp, and then proceed to stratification. In fact, this process mimics the winter conditions, prepares the next harvest for germination, hardens it and awakens the spark of life. Технология стратификации применяется только к тем растениям, которым без нее будет довольно сложно (а иногда даже невозможно) адаптироваться в непривычных для произрастания условиях. Для персика средние широты – значительный стресс. Именно поэтому без подготовки обойтись не получится.
So, for the whole winter time we remove the stone in a cold place with sufficient humidity. The seed must be placed in an open container, on wet sand or sawdust. Keep the environment always wet! With a successful stratification by the spring, at the time of disembarkation, the peach bones would crack and sprout. As soon as you see it, move the plant to the pot.
Soil preparation and planting
Soil is essential! It should consist of half of fertile black soil (or humus), half of peat. Carefully dip the bone into it, no more than 3 cm. And wait. The peach first forms the root system, then the plant itself. Therefore, the sprout may not appear as soon as you would like. But do not despair. As soon as the peach gets stronger, it will surely appear outside, and will begin to form into a beautiful strong tree.
Carefully watch the earthy lump, the peach does not like when it is dry. As soon as the soil dries, water it moderately. High humidity is also not allowed. In addition, the peach tree loves the sun very much. In a dark place, it will wither and die. Remember: a healthy peach, which is suitable conditions, grows, though not quickly, but surely.
As a rule, peaches live at home. They are also planted in the ground, but caring for such whimsical "pets" will be much more difficult. Below we will talk about it, but for now - how to grow a fruit tree at home. Peach is a thermophilic and sun-loving culture. With a shortage of sunny days, he needs to create artificial lighting. In winter, the plant is resting. He has a temperature of about 4 degrees. In the spring begins flowering and ripening fruits. For the process to be successful, the tree should be moved to a warmer and most light room with a temperature of 10-15 degrees. After the future fruit began, for the whole summer period, the peach needs an even warmer climate: up to 25 degrees.
Replanting a tree in a large container is recommended either before flowering, or after harvesting. Soil: humus + peat + turf + sand + leaf soil (1: 1: 1: 1: 2 ratio). Feed must be from the beginning of spring until the end of summer, twice a month. Peach needs both organic and mineral fertilizers. In addition, it must be cut annually and pinch unnecessary shoots.
In the middle zone, characterized by a fleeting summer with a small number of hot, sunny days, the plant is grown only in the greenhouse. If you want to do without a special “house”, then for the winter, be sure to wrap wood with sacking, and the stem part with glass wool or other warming materials.
You can grow a peach at home! And it is not as difficult as it seems. But if everything works out, you can surprise your friends and relatives with the juicy, fragrant fruits from the home garden!
how to grow pineapple at home
When is the year to plant a peach tree?
Planting peach depends on the climate of the growing area. The farther north you live, the more rational it will be to plant in the spring or summer, so that the tree takes root and grows. If you live in the south, then it is better to plant trees closer to autumn.
The landing site must be well lit, elevated and protected from the wind. The tree should be located at some distance from other trees (at least about three meters in different directions from the seedling). A tree grows badly in those areas where strawberries, plants of the solanaceous and melon families, alfalfa, and clover grew, because peach diseases can develop with verticilliasis (a fungal disease that manifests itself as the appearance of "scalded" fading leaves that have a yellow color). In order to avoid infection of the sapling with fungal hyphae, it is recommended to plant only 3-4 years after the above cultures.
Features of planting a tree in spring
The main rule of peach planting is to dig the foundation pit correctly and at the right time. The longer the hole is dug before planting, the better the quality of the ground.
The most favorable time for digging a pit is autumn, if you want to plant a tree in spring. In the center of the pit at the bottom they drive in a stake so high that it looks out above the ground.
Next you need to fill the soil with nutrients in a hill in the center of the pit. If the land is fertile, then only mineral fertilizer and ash are added to it. If the land is depleted, then the upper layer of the earth is removed from the pit, manure, humus or compost is added to it from about 4 to 8 kg, also fertilized with wood ash, superphosphate and potassium chloride and mixed thoroughly.
When buying a peach sapling, check with the seller, in what conditions it was grown in order to maximally adapt the tree to your section of soil. Also check the seedling root system. To do this, pinch a piece of bark and check the color of the rhizome: if it is green, then the peach is young. Remember that it is best to buy annual saplings, as they take root well.
After purchasing a seedling, it is necessary to place it on a tubercle in the center of the pit, carefully straighten its roots and cover it with a hole in the soil. After all this, the landing area should be slightly higher than the surface of the rest of the land. It is necessary to trample the soil from the periphery to the center, that is, from the farthest parts of the root to the stem, and pour plenty of water with three or four buckets. After the water has been absorbed and the ground has subsided, it is recommended to tie up the peach seedling to the cola, which was installed after digging the pit. Then you can cover the site with manure up to 10 cm thick, but be careful that it does not come into contact with the trunk itself.
Features planting peach seedling in the fall
If you decided to plant a peach in the fall, then you made the right choice, taking into account the timing of digging the pit. Before you buy a sapling, you must dig a hole 15-20 days before planting. The second feature is that only ash and mineral fertilizer are mixed with the soil. Soil with impurities, as well as in the spring, is piled up in the center of the fossa. The sequence of planting is no different from that in spring. But after the earth dries out, it is necessary to wrap the tree trunk 20-30 cm from the ground, and before cooling, the trunk should be wrapped with sacking, after making holes in it for ventilation on the south side.
Peach tree care in the spring
Observation and grooming procedures for the peach tree begin around April, when the first buds appear. The first procedure is to spray swollen buds from the moth, aphids and other pests. Next, the tree is sprayed for fungal diseases using 3% Bordeaux liquid. During the flowering period, it is absolutely impossible to treat trees with copper-containing agents; therefore, they choose antifungal preparations that replace the Bordeaux liquid. After the tree has flowered, the combined processing of peach trees from various pests and diseases is carried out. But during the spraying of trees, do not forget about such a simple procedure as watering, especially when it is winter without snow, and drought in spring.
Peach tree care in summer
When opal ovary on trees, you need to distribute the number of fruits on the branches to ensure the minimum load on the tree and the largest fruits. Thus, on each branch, the distance between adjacent ovaries should be about 10 cm, and excess ovaries should be removed. Also, the ground around the trunk must be loosened and plucked weeds. In the summer, the peach needs watering, especially when there is no rain, but first wait until the bone hardens to avoid cracking the fruit. In the summer, the tree is also sprayed from various insects. Before picking peaches, it is recommended to make two or three foliar plantings of the tree with potassium fertilizers so that the fruits are sweet. Approximately one month before harvesting, pour peach abundantly, as this will increase their size by a third.
Peach tree care in the fall
To care for fruit trees in the autumn period is no less important than in any other season. It is during this period that flower buds are formed and laid for the next year in the tree. For the development of such buds, it is necessary to provide good moisture, so you should water the peach. After the leaves began to change color, spray the plant Bordeaux liquid, and after dropping all the leaves - diluted copper sulphate. This procedure will ensure the prevention and destruction of fungal diseases. Also, before the onset of cold weather, it is advisable to introduce mineral and organic fertilizers into the soil, they should be enough for the whole winter and before the onset of warming.
Diseases and pests of the peach tree
Peach is characterized by all the main diseases of the stone fruits - leaf curl, fruit rot (moniliosis), powdery mildew, cytosporosis and clostersporosis. In addition, it is sometimes attacked by pests - aphid, the eastern moth, fruit mite, fruit moth, weevil. The gardener needs to react on time and get rid of problems.
The peach tree is a good target for diseases and pests, so you should not sit back, even if the plot grows resistant to many evils variety
Table: Disease-Resistant Peach Varieties
Fruit Rot or moniliosis is a fairly common peach disease caused by a fungus. Mycelium of the fungus is spread by insects, wind or rainwater. Spores more quickly affect fruits that have damage, cracks or wounds from the bites of birds, insects. When moniliose flowers and leaves of the tree dry up, the shoots turn black. On ripening fruits, spores of fungi appear in the form of gray circles, the flesh begins to rot, and later the fruit is mummified.
The following actions should be considered as preventive measures:
- spring pruning of dead branches,
- destruction of the affected fruits and shoots,
- crown thinning
- spring spraying of trees with fungicides.
Gardeners at the first signs of fruit rot resort to the use of medicinal preparations, the affected fruits are removed, and the branch on which they grew is pruned. It is recommended to use “Topsin” or Bordeaux liquid. It is advisable to carry out the first treatment before flowering, then repeat twice more.
Mealy dew - a dangerous fungal disease, which is easy to identify. The first signs of damage appear on the leaves. A white, velvety film appears on the surface, resembling scattered flour in appearance. Soon the infected leaves are folded, as shown in the photo, and showered. Spores are spread by wind or raindrops and settle on fruits that also begin to ache, crack and rot. The thicker the crown of a tree, the more serious the defeat will be.
All shoots with powdery mildew are subject to mandatory pruning and destruction. Spraying of colloidal sulfur, copper sulfate, “Topaz” or “Fundazol” preparations is an effective control measure. To popular methods is to include spraying a tree with a soap-soda solution.
Scab - education on the back side of the leaves of the peach clarified areas of round or oval shape. The scab affects the crust, which cracks, as shown in the photo. At the first sign of the affected leaves are removed and destroyed. All trees are sprayed with preparations “Delan”, “Topsin”. The preventive measures include spring treatment with the drug “DNOC” and autumn spraying with Bordeaux mixture.
Klesterosporiosis - One of the most dangerous fungal diseases of peaches. Most often affected are the fruits that grow in the southern regions of Russia, in Moscow, Tula, Ryazan regions, on the territory of the Krasnodar Territory. Infection overwinters on plant debris, among fallen leaves, wood. In the spring you need to start inspection and pruning of the tree. All diseased branches should be trimmed before the beginning of the sap flow period, and wounds should be treated with lime mortar or iron vitriol.
In the spring, in wet and cool weather, the infection spreads over the area, which leads to the defeat of all parts of the fruit tree. The leaves form small brown-brown spots, as shown in the photo. Gradually, they increase in size, and the affected leaf fades and falls. Spots can merge, they are always surrounded by a characteristic fescue border.
Early spraying of peach with Bordeaux liquid is an effective preventive measure. During the period of growth use drugs “Skor”, “Abiga-Peak”. Treatment with strong poisons should be carried out 3 weeks before harvest. To reduce the likelihood of infestation with a tree, you should prefer planting varieties resistant to fungal infection, namely:
Leaf curl - A particularly dangerous fungal disease, often progresses rapidly during prolonged cool and rainy weather. Peach fruits are rarely affected, but symptoms can be seen on young leaves. A red-pink wavy curl forms on their surface. On the back of the sheet appears a white, brilliant bloom - the fungus mycelium. Affected leaves turn yellow and fall off.
The pathogen has a high winter hardiness and survives even in severe frosts. During the period of intensive spring growth, spores spread throughout the plant, affecting the leaves and buds. Growing spores inhibit the development of the tree. When viewed from the leaves have a rough structure, short and thick, as shown in the photo.
Gardeners recommend that all affected leaves and shoots be urgently removed from the tree and destroyed. In early spring, you need to carry out preventive spraying peach. For this suitable fungicide "DNOC". You can use and biologics, because they are not so harmful. Experienced gardeners use a combination of biological products and the simultaneous addition of a fungicide. In the dosage of 100 grams per 10 liters of water mix:
- Trichodermin is a drug containing antagonist fungus spores; it inhibits the development of peach curl.
- Planriz - a bacterial agent, the overwhelming development of rot, pathological microflora, stimulates the immune system of the plant.
- Pentaphage is a potent fungicide with preventive and curative properties.
During the growing season, you can use the drugs “Delan”, “Scor”, “Copper Oxide”. Before processing it is recommended to carefully read the instructions for each tool, observe the dosage and precautions.
Peach tree description
- The root system is located 20-50cm from the surface. The height of the peach tree on average is 4m, the crown grows in diameter up to 6m.
- The leaves are lanceolate, finely toothed along the edges.
- Pink or red flowers, almost sessile, and open in April. Before the appearance of leaves on a peach from afar reminds sakura.
- Fruits, as a rule, velvety, can be flat, rounded or elongate-elliptical, with a groove. The wrinkled and furrowed bone has a pointed tip.
- Fruiting begins 2-4 g. After planting, and lasts 10-15 years.
- Along with mango and orange, peach is one of delicious fruit with a great delicate aroma.
- Peach is a relative of almond, apricot, shadberry, quince, chokeberry, plum, ashberry, hawthorn, dog rose, cotoneaster, apple, pear and loquat.
Planting time determines the climate of the region of peach cultivation. The south of the region, the more appropriate landing in the fall. In the north, seedlings in open ground are recommended to be planted in spring in order for the tree to take root and grow in spring and summer. In the middle lane, planting is done both in spring and autumn, but it is still better to plant in autumn.
The landing site is chosen sublime, protected, sunny - on the south side plot. Trees, bushes and buildings should not block the seedling from the sun. From other plants peach should grow at least 3m. Do not plant a sapling where the following cultures have previously grown:
There is a big risk that the peach tree will get verticillus after them. Only 3-4 years later on the site you can plant a peach.
Landing in spring . The pit for the seedling is dug in advance. The more time passes from digging up to planting a tree, the better the quality of the soil will be. If you plant in the spring, prepare a hole in the fall, for half a year. The depth of the pit is determined by the size of the root system, usually it is 50-70 cm in diameter and depth. A strong stake is driven in the center of the pit, which should protrude at least 0.5 m above the surface.
If the soil is poor, its top layer is mixed with rotted manure, compost or humus - 5-8 kg. Added 200-300g of wood ash, 50g of superphosphate and potassium chloride. Everything is mixed up. In the fertile soil add ash and mineral fertilizers. Soil with additives is poured into the center of the pit.
Find out how the peach seedlings are adapted to the region where will grow. See if it is a disgusting place where a scion grows together with a stock, or there are nodules. Check the health of the bark and roots - nip off a piece of bark: the wrong side should be green, not brown. Roots should not be over dried or rot. It is better to take root in the open ground annual seedlings.
The seedling is placed on a mound, straighten the roots and covered with earth. Место прививки должно быть на несколько сантиметров выше поверхности грунта. Почва утаптывается от краев к стволу, саженец потом поливается 2-3 ведрами воды, когда она впитается, а земля осядет, дерево подвязывается к колышку, приствольный круг мульчируется слоем навоза в 8-10см. Мульча не должна соприкасаться со стволом.
Посадка осенью . Осенью с почвой смешивается лишь зола и минеральные удобрения.The soil with fertilizers, as in spring, is piled up in a center around a peg. After watering the tree spud to a height of 20-30cm. Before the arrival of cold stem wrapped with sacking, with vents in the south side.
Spring care . Begins from mid-April:
- The tree is processed by swelling buds (from pests).
- Treatment with 3% Bordeaux liquid (from fungus).
- The rose bud is pruned for replacement and processing from the fungus with drugs that replace the Bordeaux liquid, since during active growing season it is impossible to spray the peach with drugs containing copper.
- After flowering, a combined treatment of trees from diseases and pests.
- If there was almost no snow in winter and spring is dry, pour peach in May.
Summer care . When the excess ovary will crumble, distribute the load of the fruits: on the fruit-bearing shoots such number of fruits is left, so that it should be on the ovary at 8-10cm length, the rest of the fruits will be removed. Control the condition of the soil in a circle around the tree - loosen it, remove the weeds. In the summer you need to water the peach tree, especially with the onset of prolonged heat. First, wait until the bone hardens, otherwise the fruits will crack. Treat wood from pests and diseases.
Two or three are recommended before harvesting. foliar top dressing potash fertilizers to increase the amount of sugar in the fruit. The procedure can be combined with the treatment of powdery mildew and pests. Not later than a month before harvesting, the peach is watered, which increases the size of the fruit by a third.
Autumn care . In August and September, the peach lays and forms the color buds, whose winter hardiness depends on the amount of moisture in the ground, because water-charging irrigation is so important at this time.
If the tree often infects the fungus, in October, when the foliage begins to change color, the peach is processed by 3 percent. Bordeaux liquid, and after leaf fall - with a 1% solution of copper sulphate or 7% solution of urea.
In the fall, fertilizers are stuck in the near-ground soil, which should be enough until spring.
The number of waterings during the growing season depends on the weather, on average, early varieties are watered two or three times per season, and later varieties are watered 5-6 times. Over time on a tree leaves 2-5 buckets of water. Watered early in the morning or in the evening. The first watering is done in early June. If the winter was snowless, and spring without rain, it is better to water in late May. The second watering is done in the first half of July, the third - in the first half of August. Try to make the soil moistened to the depth of the roots - 60-70cm.
It is important for three to four weeks before harvesting to make watering, which will allow to increase the mass of fruits. Water quantity per 1 m² circle makes 30-60 l depending on the age of the tree. Then it is impossible to water the tree before harvesting, otherwise the fruits will become watery and not sugary.
Important and podzimny irrigation, saturating the soil moisture and increases winter hardiness. Water consumption - 90-100 liters / 1 m² wheel circle.
Annual soil fertilizer required. The composition and number of dressings depends on the quality of the soil. Poor soils, for example, require annual fertilization with mineral and organic substances; organic fertilizers are introduced into fertile soil once every 2-3 years. When watering is frequent, the amount of fertilizer increases, as the water washes them out simply.
The first spring dressing for dormant buds may be treatment with a 7% urea solution: this measure will provide nitrogen and destroy pathogens and pests that have hibernated in the cracks of the bark and in the upper soil layer. Before processing, make sure that the kidneys are sleeping, otherwise urea will burn them. If the buds have already started to bloom, do not process the leaves, but dig up the soil in tree trunks with simultaneous introduction of 70 g of ammonium nitrate and 50 g of urea per 1 m² of tree trunks under young trees. The older the tree, the more fertilizer is needed per unit area: every two to three years, the dose of fertilizer increases by 15-20g.
In summer, foliar fertilizer is better. Culture responds well to fertilizer of this composition:
- 100-150g water extract superphosphate.
- 30-50g of urea or 50-60g of ammonium nitrate.
- 50-80g ammonium sulphate.
- 50-70g of potassium sulfate or 30-60g of calcium chloride.
- 15g of manganese and 10g of borax dissolved in 10 liters of water.
If the fruits dostpe, exclude borax and nitrogen component from the composition.
For a more intense color and increase the sugar content during fruit ripening, produce foliar dressing with a solution of 30 g of potassium salt or potassium sulfate in 10 liters of water.
Under the digging of the trunk circle in the fall, 50 g of calcium chloride and 40 g of superphosphate per m² are introduced into the soil. Every two to three years in the fall are added to the ground organic fertilizers - compost or humus, but this can replace the cultivation between siderats between rows - oilseed radish, rape, lupine or rapeseed.
The best time for pruning is a period of 2-3 weeks between the beginning of the movement of the juice and flowering. The procedure will transfer the plant more easily from the moment the buds appear before their disclosure - about a week. At this time, the risk of infection with cytosporosis is minimal. After harvesting, sanitary pruning is carried out.
Formation begins with the first year of growth, and complete only four years later. Formative pruning of the crown is needed to adjust the balance between the crown and the roots, helps to maintain the health of the peach, promotes early entry into fruiting and provides convenience during harvest.
Trees of different ages are pruned in different ways. Krona, as a rule, form in the form of a bowl.
The peach loves heat, and therefore takes shelter for the winter: two pegs of the trunk height are driven in near the trunk and wrapped with the trunk sugar bag. You can also make a cardboard box around the trunk, which is wrapped with film. If the winters in your area are not particularly cold, the stem will be curled with earth to a height of 50-60 cm. The pristvolny circle is mulched for the winter with a layer of humus or peat 10-15 cm thick.