Bird cherry Padus racemosa Gilib. (Prunus padus L.)
The generic name of the Latinized Greek name of the tree, possibly cherry-burbeck - Pados, or from the Latin name of the river Po in Italy, racemosus - racemose.
Bird cherry - a real "green pharmacy". All parts of it — leaves, flowers, fruits, and bark — are to a certain extent healing.
A sprig of bird cherry with leaves, dropped for a few minutes in a mug of water of dubious quality, quickly kills the bacteria in it. Such water can be drunk without fear. In addition, it becomes fragrant and tasty.
Bird-cherry is a tree or a large shrub of the Rosaceae family, from 2 to 10 m in height. Mat bark, black-gray, on young branches, cherry-brown with whitish-yellow lentils, inner layer of yellow bark with a characteristic almond smell. The leaves are alternate, oblong-elliptic, thin, short-petiolate, sharp, bare, 6–12 cm long and 2–6 cm wide. White flowers, fragrant, on pedicels, gathered in dense 8–12 cm long fruits. Spherical black drupes with a diameter of 8— 10 mm, sweet, astringent. It blooms from April to June, depending on the location and weather conditions, the fruits ripen in July - September.
Medicinal raw materials are ripe cherry fruit.
Bird cherry grows mainly in the forest zone, along river valleys it penetrates into the forest-steppe and steppe zones, in the north it reaches the northern border of the forest-tundra, in the mountains it can be found up to an altitude of 1500–1800 m above sea level.
It prefers moist, fertile and drained soils with close groundwater storage. Optimal habitats - floodplains of rivers in flat areas, in mountainous areas — the bottoms of valleys of the largest rivers in the low-mountain belt. The most dense bird cherry populations are found in mixed shrubs. Under the canopy of forests and light forests, the bird cherry forms less dense currant plants, usually characterized by a small number of fruit-bearing shoots and yield.
Bird cherry blooms well almost every year, but does not bear fruit every year, as its flowers are damaged by late spring frosts, and the trees themselves are attacked by numerous pests, especially near cities and large villages. In the floodplains of large rivers, due to the later development of vegetation due to floodplain habitat conditions, it suffers less from spring frosts.
Procurement and quality of raw materials
Cherry fruits are harvested during their full maturity (from late July to September) in dry, clear weather. The collected fruits are put in baskets and no later than 3-4 hours after collection, they are delivered to the place of drying.
When collecting the fruits of bird cherry can not cut its axial shoots, and during flowering, break the branches. To rejuvenate the thickets of bird cherry, and, consequently, increase their productivity in dense thickets, it is advisable to conduct thinning. When carrying out land reclamation works in the floodplains of the rivers, high-productive bird cherry trees should be left.
Prunus everywhere introduced to the culture, is bred in gardens and parks. In a culture, he feels well, unpretentious, does not require intensive care. Biological and mechanical methods are recommended for insect control, as well as a high level of farming practices.
Collected brushes with the fruits of bird cherry are dried in ovens or in dryers at a temperature of 40–50 ° C, spreading out a thin layer (1–2 cm) on metal trays or on racks. You can dry the bird cherry in the sun or in attics with good ventilation. Then the brushes fray and separate the fruits on the sieves from the stalks and twigs. An exit of dry raw materials 42 - 45%. Raw materials are packed in bags with a net weight of not more than 5O kg and transported, protecting from moisture. Store in a dry, well-ventilated area, on shelves. Shelf life of raw materials 3 5 years.
Bird cherry raw material consists of spherical or oblong-ovoid stone fruits up to 8 mm in diameter, wrinkled, without stalks, with seeds up to 7 mm in diameter. The smell is absent, taste sweetish, slightly astringent. Humidity is not higher than 14%. No more than 3% of burnt or insect-damaged fruits, 4% of unripe fruits, 2% of other parts of bird cherry, 1% of organic impurities, 0.5% of mineral are allowed in raw materials.
The whole plant contains amygdalin glycoside, which is enzymatically split into benzaldehyde, hydrocyanic acid and glucose. In addition, fruits contain tannins, glycoside prularazine, organic acids (malic, citric), anthocyanins, flavones, vitamin C, sugar (up to 5%). The leaves and bark also contain tannins and the glycoside prularazine, the leaves contain vitamin C (up to 200 mg%), the leaves, flowers, and pits contain bitter almond oil. The main biological active substances of the bird cherry are tannins, which must be contained in the raw material at least 1.7%.
Infusion and decoction of dry cherry fruit have an astringent effect, as well as P-vitamin activity. Juices from freshly picked fruits, flowers, buds, leaves and bark have bactericidal, fungicidal, procytocidal and insecticidal action.
Infusion and decoction of the cherry fruit is used in disorders of the gastrointestinal tract as a binder, replacing the fruits of blueberries.
Image of bird cherry
Since ancient times, Bird-cherry was a symbol of tenderness, youth, purity and love. The patroness of lovers, Cheryomukha with her delicate aroma protected not only their secrets, but also healed spiritual wounds.
There are many legends telling about the appearance of the Bird Cherry in this world. According to legend, the girl who suffered from unrequited love for a young man became a tree. Her heart is cold, so at the time when the Bird-cherry Blossom blooms, cold nights and days come.
Slavs believed the tree was sacred and protected, courted, protected from evil spirits.
names of bird cherry
Among the people, Bird-cherry had many names: Cheremshina, Throat, Kolokolushka and others.
The tree has received the present name thanks to color of a trunk.
The word "Bird cherry" has its roots in the ancient Russian word "cherma", which means "swarthy."
For the first time the description about this fragrant tree appeared in the Old Russian writing in the XV century.
The Latin name of the Bird Cherry "prunus padus" has Arabic roots and in fact means "Bird-cherry".
HOW IT LOOKS LIKE A BLACK MUCH
The relatives of the Bird cherry are plum and cherry, so the trees are so similar. The similarity is especially noticeable during flowering.
Bird-cherry tree looks like a shrub or a tall lush tree with a dense crown, height from 10 to 18 meters. The thickness of the trunk - up to half a meter.
The green leaves below are dark gray. Fruits are black, shiny, taste sweet and at the same time astringent.
Blooming bird-tree with nothing can not be confused. Its distinct aroma spreads through the forest for many hundreds of meters.
The bark is dark gray and moderately smooth, with pimples.
Bird cherry begins to bear fruit in 4-5 years and can live up to 100 years.
Bird-Cherry Wood has an interesting texture and unusual patterns on different sections of the trunk.
Where does the bird cherry grow
The most common type of tree is the Common Bird Cherry or Bristle Bird. It grows throughout Russia, mainly in the European part, as well as in Siberia and the Far East. Plant species are found in Central and East Asia, Africa and other countries.
Bird cherry prefers moderately moist and rich soil. It grows along the banks of rivers, near watersheds, in scrub thickets, occurs on edges.
There are about 20 species of bird cherry.
When the cherry blossom
This magnificent tree blooms annually in May - June. Black, resembling small cherries, fruits ripen in July or August.
Bird cherry blooms profusely every year with white fragrant tassels with a strong smell, however, fruiting is often interrupted by frosts, diseases and all sorts of pests.
Healing properties of bird cherries
Bird Cherry fruits contain calcium and potassium, phytoncides, vitamins E, P, C, sugars, organic acids, essential oils and tannins. Despite its rich composition, uncontrolled consumption of fruits can lead to unpleasant consequences.
For medicinal purposes, use the bark, leaves and fruits of bird cherry.
Due to its astringent properties, fruits are an excellent way to combat diarrhea and intestinal disorders.
Phytoncides contained in the leaves and the bark of the Bird Cherry, can disinfect the air.
Broths from the bark of the tree have a tonic and sedative effect, and are shown to people with heart disease. Broth is also used to relieve toothache and as a diuretic.
Decoction, compote and jelly from the fruit is an excellent tool in the fight against vitamin deficiency and scurvy.
Due to its bactericidal properties, the juice from the pulp of the fruit copes well with purulent wounds, bruises and cuts.
Pharmacies sell Bird-Cherry fruits, which have astringent and anti-inflammatory effects.
The use of cherry
Flowers and branches of bird cherry are used to fight insects. However, it is not recommended to leave the Bird Cherry in a room for more than 30 minutes.
Heavy and strong wood Cherёflies used in the manufacture of percussion handles. However, due to its flexibility, wood is often used in carpentry to make bent parts. In the old days, hoops, baskets and a sled frame were made of steamed rods.
Wood resists moisture well, so earlier it was used to make a “swath” for squeezing linen.
The strong and dense structure of wood allows to carry out a thin carving.
In modern medicine, Bird-cherry tree is rarely used, since its alkaloids can cause poisoning. All parts of the plant, except fruits, contain phytoncides, which are split into prussic acid.
Bark of the Cheremukha goes for production of natural green or claret paints.
Frayed fruits are used in cooking and added to the flour in the manufacture of traditional Siberian pies. From fruits also cook kissel and compote.
Fruits of bird cherry are contraindicated in pregnant women, as they can affect the condition of the fetus. Pregnant women also can not breathe the scent of flowers cherry.
The use of a large amount of bird flour can cause poisoning, so in cooking it is better to use the fruit with the extracted bone.
Bird cherry bouquets - fragrant and beautiful decorations in the house. At the same time, they can cause real poisoning. In order to get rid of insects and sanitize the room, it’s enough to hold a bouquet of flowers or branches of the cherry tree in the center of the room for half an hour.
Black cherry - interesting facts
In our country there are three rivers with the name "Bird cherry".
The source of aroma in Bird cherry are small glands located on the cuttings.
In the old days, a bouquet of Bird cherry was left in the room to get rid of mice.
Archaeological excavations have shown that the fruits of Bird cherry were used by man in the Stone Age.
The article used the photo: ivanov-vean, TIM-1962, endmade, Tatiana, Woodmen19 (Yandex.Fotki)
A characteristic feature of the bird cherry is its white fluffy flowers. There are no pigments in their petals. Such pure color gives them air. When viewed under the microscope of the cherry petal, you can see a lot of colorless, transparent cells, which are separated by large empty intervals. Thanks to the intercellular space filled with air, the petals reflect the sunlight and therefore appear so white.
Common cherry - a tree or shrub. The photo shows a variety of species. Growth of this plant varies from 2 to 10 meters.
Branches and trunk covered with black and gray matte bark, slightly cracking. The next leaves have an elliptical shape, slightly wrinkled at the bottom, and matte at the top. Usually the bird cherry blossoms in May. Collected in dense brushes (many-flowered and drooping) of snow-white color.
Fruits - pitted, spherical, 7-8 mm in diameter, tasty, sweet, astringent. The bone of the fruit is round-ovate. They ripen in the month of July.
Healing properties, use
All parts of the plant are applicable for healing purposes. Any bird cherry (tree or shrub) incorporates phytoncides that kill various types of microbes, mold, fungi, gadflies, ticks, flies, mosquitoes, etc. These properties of the plant are used even in the treatment of ringworm and trichomoniasis.
The tannins present in the bird cherry have an astringent effect, they are used mainly for gastrointestinal diseases, especially for diarrhea.
The leaves of the plant can be brewed as tea, and drink during the inflammatory processes of the bronchi and lungs. And fresh flowers after ferrying with water vapor (and the distillery itself) are good for eye lotions.
An infusion of bark for a long time used as a diaphoretic with fever, rheumatism and colds.
Cherry fruits are also used for cooking. Good berries cherry, rolled through a meat grinder, as a filling for the pie.
In Russia, bird cherry (a tree or shrub) grows in a temperate zone: in Western and Eastern Siberia, in the European part and in the Far East.
The plant prefers rich, moist soil, with close groundwater storage. Predominantly bird cherry grows along the banks of reservoirs, in forests and groves along the river (in uremas) and in bushes, in glades of forests and on sands.
Cherry picking and harvesting
Intact black, ripe and succulent bird cherry trees, as well as leaves, bark and flowers are collected for healing. To do this, any bird cherry - a tree or shrub. All this is harvested as it ripens (July-September).
Fruits dry in good weather or in an oven, stove, etc., at a temperature of about 50 ° C, with mandatory periodic mixing. Then everything is sifted through a sieve to get rid of garbage. When dried, the black-cherry fruits have a sweet-sour taste.
The bark is dried in ovens, dryers and ovens. Flowers - in the shade in the air. The dried raw materials are stored in bags and boxes in a dry, ventilated room.
Storage time: bark - 5 years, fruits - 2 years, and flowers - 1 year.
Here is such a wonderful bird cherry. This tree or shrub (less often). In any case, its usefulness is indisputable.
Ripened fruits have excellent bactericidal, astringent, vitamin, anti-inflammatory and tonic properties. They lead to the normal functioning of the intestines and stomach.
The leaves are rich in vitamins, act as a binding for diarrhea. The bark has antipyretic, diaphoretic and diuretic effects.
Flowers are used as a wound healing, anti-inflammatory and phytoncidal agent.
Fruits that the bird cherry has (tree or shrub), when taken for food, as noted above, can stop diarrhea.
A reliable and effective tool for this disease is a decoction, prepared as follows. Pour 2 tbsp. spoons of raw materials 2 cups of boiling water, then boil in an enamel bowl for about 15 minutes. Then the solution is cooled, filtered through cheesecloth, wrung out, its volume is brought to the original using the required amount of boiled water. It takes half a glass before meals three times a day. And it is stored no more than 2 days in the refrigerator.
Several medicinal recipes
It doesn't matter if the bird cherry is a tree or a bush. It is important that this plant benefits in solving many health problems. Healers recommend these recipes:
- Broth of bird cherry bark: 200 ml of boiling water is brewed 10 g of bark and boiled for 10 minutes over low heat. Infused for 2 hours and filtered. Used as a diaphoretic by 1 tsp. before eating for colds, fevers, coughs, rheumatism, cystitis and gout.
- Infusion with black cherry fruits: 20 g of fruit is cooked in boiling water (0.5 l), infused for 12 hours in a thermos. It is applied 3 times a day in 100 ml for colitis, diarrhea and gastritis.
- Broth of bird-cherry leaves: brewed in 200 ml of boiled water 20 grams of leaves, boiled for 5 minutes over low heat and filtered. It is used 4 times a day, 50 ml for gastritis, diarrhea, colitis, tuberculosis, bronchitis and coughing.
- Leaves can be applied to bruises and abscesses. Also means rinse the mouth, which is useful for rotting teeth, used for furunculosis.
- Infusion of flowers: brewed 10 grams of flowers in 200 ml of boiled hot water and infused for 10 minutes. The wound and ulcers are washed with filtered solution, and lotions are made.
It should be noted that most of the influence of bird cherry is felt in the spring, during its flowering period.
Common cherry is one of the species of low trees (sometimes shrubs) from the genus of plum family Pink.
It grows in Russia everywhere: in the bush and in the forests. It grows up to the Sea of Okhotsk, in Asia and in Western Europe. Basically, the bird cherry is cultivated as an ornamental plant.
Description of bird cherry
The Latin name of the bird cherry comes from the name of the river Padus, the modern name # 8212 According to. Bird-cherry # 8212 is a deciduous tree or less often a shrub that grows up to 10 meters in height, grows in wild nature along river banks. It grows in central Russia, in the North-West of Russia, in the Caucasus and Siberia. Деревья черемухи хорошо переносят суровые зимы, неприхотливы к почвам произрастания.
Черемуху очень часто можно встретить в садах и парках городов, разводят ее как декоративное растение, очень красиво черемуха цветет весной, ветки деревьев облепленны красивыми белыми соцветиями. Bird-cherry is used and in cooking # 8212 various jams are made for use in winter, jellies are added to juices and wines. Bark, leaves and berries of a bird cherry are widely used in traditional medicine.
Varieties and types of bird cherry
There are several types of bird cherry: Asian, Pennsylvanian, ordinary, virginian and late bird cherry. More common in Russia are two types of bird cherry: virginian bird cherry and common bird cherry.
Black cherry (Padus racemosa) # 8212 distributed throughout the wild in almost the entire territory of Russia, a tree up to 10 meters high, grows in humid places along the banks of rivers and lakes, on the edges of forests where there is a lot of moisture. The bird cherry blossoms in early spring and often its flowering coincides with the spring frosts, because of this, the bird cherry trees do not bear fruit annually. The berries are small with a large bone, sweet-sour taste is very astringent. In fruiting bird cherry in steps at 4-5 years of age.
Bird-cherry virginian (Padus virginiana) # 8212 this bird cherry species is inferior in winter hardiness of bird cherry and is distributed mainly as a cultivated plant. The trees at the virginian cherry tree grow to a height of 5-6 meters, more often it grows in the form of a bush up to 4 meters high. The flowering period comes later than ordinary, so the flowers are not so affected by the spring chill. The berries of a virginian bird cherry are larger than that of an ordinary bird cherry tree, dark red, closer to black color, not so tart to taste. Fruiting begins earlier than usual for 3-4 year.
Useful properties of bird cherry
A large number of various nutrients to be in the berries, leaves and cherry crust. Therefore, it is widely used as a medicinal plant.
Infusions of berries cherries are used as an antiseptic for various inflammatory and infectious processes: they rinse their throats for colds and sore throats, eyes for conjunctivitis, rinse the mouth during various dental infections. Apply infusions for genital infections. Broths are used internally for stomach disorders, because of the presence of a large number of tannins, the bird cherry has a fixing property.
Bark bird cherry has beneficial medicinal properties and its decoctions are used as a hemostatic, sedative, antipyretic, diaphoretic and diuretic.
Of leaves bird cherries prepare infusions that find their use, due to their beneficial properties, for various colds as a tonic, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory agent.
Because of the high content of sugars, vitamin C, malic and citric acid, the berries of the bird cherry are frozen and dried for use in winter.
- About trees and shrubs - Bird cherry
The genus is named for the river Padua, now the river Po.
It has about 20 species, distributed mostly in East Asia and North America.
Deciduous trees with alternate, large leaves with abundant, fragrant flowers in the racemes. They grow on fertile soils of excessive and flowing moisture, along the edges and thickets of shrubs. Shade-tolerant, but prefer open spaces. Hardy Propagated by seeds that are sown in the fall. When spring sowing, stratification of seeds is necessary for 4 months, and in some species up to 7-8 months (ordinary bird cherry, Maak bird cherry, late bird cherry).
The genus is very common in ornamental gardening, the species of which are valued for the lushness of the crown, light foliage, abundant flowering and general decorativeness. Used in group and single plantings, in the form of undergrowth in forest parks, some species - in the alleys plantings.
Bird cherry antipka. Wildly grows in the lower zone of the Caucasus Mountains, the Crimea, Central Asia and the southern part of Western Europe.
A low tree or shrub with a dense spherical crown, with dark brown bark with a specific smell. The leaves are almost rounded, crenate along the edge, shining above, light green, lighter below with yellowish pubescence, 9 cm long. The flowers are small, white, up to 1.5 cm in diameter, collected in small brushes up to 7 cm in length. Juicy fruits, up to 1 cm in diameter, as they ripen acquire a black color.
It has been used in green construction for a long time to create high hedges, since it has a thick crown and tolerates a haircut well. Drought resistant. Light-requiring It can be used in single and group plantings.
It has garden forms: weeping - with weeping branches; ugly - with a dense spherical yellow-fruit crown - with yellow white-limbed fruits - with variegated fair-leafed leaves - with spotty leaves.
Prunus virgin. It grows mainly along rivers, on rich and wet soils, in the eastern regions of North America.
Tree up to 15 m tall, with a wide, spreading crown of dark brown, finely fissured bark. The leaves are oblong-ovate, when blooming, brown-green, dark green in summer, dense, shiny, pointed, up to 12 cm long. The flowers are white, up to 1.3 cm, in many-flowered, leafy racemes up to 15 cm long. Fruits globose, initially red, when fully ripe dark red, with juicy, edible flesh. Flowering and fruiting annually from 7 years. Gives self-seeding and a lot of root offspring. Flowering continues for two weeks, the fruits ripen at the end of summer, gradually drying, can persist until May of next year, for a long time decorating the plant. The leaves are painted in bright colors in autumn.
In a culture, it often grows as a large shrub up to 6–7 meters high, less often a small tree. The most intensive growth is in the period of 5-15 years. It is less demanding on soils than the bird cherry, but prefers rich, well-hydrated places. Shade-tolerant, but grows better in open areas, resistant to pests and diseases, hardy. Propagated by seeds and root suckers.
Suitable for single and group plantings, creating edges, as undergrowth, in the windows of rarefied plantings. In culture since 1724.
Prunus Maak. It grows in the Primorsky and Khabarovsk Territories, the Amur Region, Korea, and Northeast China. More often than other species used in landscaping.
Tree up to 17 m tall, with a wide pyramidal crown. The trunk is covered with very elegant, reddish-orange or golden-yellow bark, smooth, shiny, peeling paper-like, thin films across the trunk, which somewhat resembles the peeling of a number of species of Far Eastern birch trees. The leaves are shiny, elliptical or oblong, with a drawn top, sharp-toothed, up to 13 cm long. In spring they are light green, in summer they are dark green, in autumn they are intensely yellow or yellowish red. The flowers are white, 0.6 cm in diameter, in erect oblong racemes, odorless. Fruits are small, up to 5 cm in diameter, round, black, very bitter, inedible, serve as a treat for birds and bears, for which they received the name bear berries in their homeland. In the autumn, unlike other species of the genus, together and quickly sheds foliage.
Prefers fertile, fresh soil, wind-resistant. It is very sensitive to shading, even in the penumbra it loses its decorativeness, while with full illumination it preserves the decorative effect to a very old age. Stable in the conditions of the city. It tolerates transplanting, shearing and asphalt. Decorative at any time of the year. It is a little subject to attack of wreckers. Hardy It grows quickly, easily propagated by seeds, in natural conditions gives natural hybrids with Maksimovic cherry. One of the best honey plants in the Far East. And, V. Michurin obtained an intergeneric hybrid between a cherry and Maak-bird cherry - Tserapadus.
It is recommended for single and rykhlogruppovy plantings, to create alleys. Given light-requiring, should be planted at a distance of 5 m from each other. In culture since 1870.
Prunus cherubus. It grows in the Far East, in the southern part of Primorye, in Northeast China, Korea, and Japan.
Tall, spreading tree, up to 25 m tall, with an ovoid crown, brownish or brown-gray, smooth bark, with long-lasting, large lentils. Shoots are bare, yellowish-gray. The leaves are ovate to elliptical, narrowed at the apex at the tip, rounded at the base, with sparse, white hairs when blooming - purple or bronze in summer in the top light green and orange purple or brown in the fall. Bottom leaves are paler, thinly pressed-pubescent along the veins. Along with the leaves, white, sometimes pinkish flowers bloom, up to 3 cm in diameter, collected 2-4 short, the mail is a corymboid raceme up to 5 cm long. Fruits - drupes, to ripen purple, then black, rounded-elliptical, up to 1 cm, inedible.
Heat-loving, sensitive to dryness. Suitable for the southern regions of the European part of Russia. One of the most decorative bird cherry, a very long time introduced into the culture. It is good in single and group plantings, especially her, terry forms - white terry pink terry.
Bird cherry (wrist). An indispensable component of the mixed forests of Europe, Western Siberia and the Far East.
Tree up to 17 m tall or large shrub. The crown is wide, dense, with drooping branches, the bark is smooth, dull, black-gray. Young shoots are green, but quickly turn brown. Elliptical leaves up to 15 cm long, dark green, slightly wrinkled, with sharp-edged edge. White brushes of fragrant flowers appear after blooming leaves. Fruits are black, spherical, shiny, edible drupes.
It grows fast, hardy, moisture-loving, shade-tolerant. Satisfactory tolerates urban conditions. Well resumed shoots from stump and roots. Can be propagated by seeds, cuttings and layering.
The most valuable plant for landscape construction of northern and central Russia. Dense foliage, early flowering and leaf blooming along with strong aroma make it desirable in any park, near the water, on the edges, in single and group plantings.
It has a number of decorative forms: weeping variegated - with yellow and white-pinked rose leaves - with pink flowers as well as yellow-bearing and yellow-green-bearing leaves.
Bird cherry pennsylvania. Originally from North America, where widespread.
It grows in the form of a large shrub or tree up to 12 m tall, with a slender trunk, covered with cherry-red bark, oval, penetrating crown, with thin, shiny, reddish branches. Leaves from ovate to oblong-lanceolate, with apex drawn at the tip and sharp-edged edge, shiny, green, up to 10 cm long, turning red in autumn. The flowers are white, 3-8 in short hands. Abundantly blossoms and bears fruit from 3-4 years. The fruits are small, red, edible drupes up to 0.6 cm in diameter.
Growing fast. Hardy, drought-resistant. Satisfactorily transfers the conditions of the city. The soil is undemanding. It reacts poorly to pruning. Gives abundant root shoots.
Spectacular spring in bloom and autumn - with numerous red fruits and colorful foliage. Recommended for single and group plantings in parkland. In culture since 1773.
Prunus late. Homeland east of North America.
The tree is up to 20 m tall (often bushy in culture), with a broad, spreading crown, smooth dark cherry bark, broadly lanceolate leaves up to 12 cm long, bare, dark green, shiny above and much lighter below. In autumn, the leaves are painted in various shades of yellow and red, the flowers are white, odorless, up to 1 cm in diameter, in cylindrical, leafy brushes at the base, up to 14 cm long. It blooms 2-3 weeks later than the bird cherry, for which it received its specific name. Fruits are black, bitter. It blooms from 5 years.
It grows quickly, tolerates pruning, quite hardy, but less than other species of the genus. It is undemanding to the soil, but it reaches good development only on fresh and rich ones. More drought-resistant than other species of bird cherry.
Decorative foliage and abundant flowering in the fall - fruits and autumn color of leaves. Good for single, group and alley landings. Suitable for the central forest-steppe zone of the European part of Russia. In culture since 1629.
It has a number of decorative forms: pyramidal, with a narrow pyramidal crown, weeping, variegated, with yellow-motley leaves, cartilaginous, with long, shiny leaves, a fern-leaved wolfberry.
Bird cherry Wildly grows in the Far East, South Sakhalin, in northern Japan.
The tree is up to 7 m tall, with a well-developed trunk, dressed in dark gray bark with white large lentils. The crown narrow in youth becomes sprawling with age. Leaves up to 14 cm long, obovate or elliptical, pointed at the apex, heart-shaped at the base, along the edge - densely irregularly serrate. Flowers up to 1 cm, in multicolored racemes up to 15 cm long with 3-5 leaflets at the base. Fruits - drupes spherical, black, fleshy, twice as large as those of the bird cherry.
It is noteworthy as a flowering tree for alleys and parkland. In a culture since the beginning of XX century.
What is bird cherry, which means bird cherry.
- CHERUMUHA: a tree or shrub of the Rosaceae family with white fragrant flowers gathered in brush
A bunch of bird cherry. Bird cherry pie. Love without bird cherry post. without lyrics, without tenderness .
- CHERUMUHA: a tree or shrub of this. Rosaceae with white fragrant flowers, collected in a brush, as well as
black, astringent taste of the berries of this tree
A bunch of bird cherry. Bird cherry pie. Love without bird cherry post. without lyrics, without tenderness .
Bird cherry -. bird cherries, w. A tree with white fragrant flowers and black berries, knitting to taste. Under the canopy of the bird cherry and acacias from the storms, sheltered at last, lives like a true sage. Pushkin. Already the bird cherry incense flows there in the clean air. Baratynsky.
Explanatory Dictionary Ushakov
1) A tree or tall shrub of the Rosaceae family with white fragrant flowers and black edible berries.
Prunus padus (Padus racemosa)
Taxon: family Pink (Rosaceae)
Other names: bird cherry
English: Bird Cherry, Hackberry (Ireland)
Wild cherry - tree or shrub from 2 to 10 m in height. The trunk and branches are covered with matte, black and gray, cracked bark. The leaves are alternate, short-petiolate, elliptical, dull above, somewhat wrinkled below. The bird cherry blossoms in May. The flowers are small, white, collected in thick, many-flowered drooping brush. Bird cherry fruits - spherical black drupes 7–8 mm in diameter, sweet, strongly astringent, rounded ovoid bone. The fruits ripen in July.
In Russia, the bird cherry is common in the temperate zone: in the European part, Western and Eastern Siberia, and in the Far East.
It prefers moist, rich soils with close groundwater storage. The bird cherry grows mainly along the banks of rivers, in the riverine forests (uremas) and scrublands, along forest edges, on sands, through forest glades.
Collecting and harvesting bird cherry
For therapeutic purposes, collect intact ripe, black and juicy fruits of bird cherry, free from impurities, as well as bark, leaves and flowers. The fruits are harvested as they ripen from July to September, the flowers in May, the bark in early spring. In dry clear weather, brushes with fruits are cut off, spread out in a thin layer, dried in air under good weather or in ovens, ovens, and dryers at a temperature of 40-50 ° C, stirring occasionally. Then separated from the stalk, stalks, impurities, sieved through a sieve. Dried black cherries are black or matte, roundly elongated, wrinkled, with a light bone, odorless, sour-sweet taste. The bark is dried and ovens, dryers, ovens. The flowers are dried in the air in the shade. Store the raw bird cherry in boxes, bags, in a dry, well-ventilated area. The shelf life of the fruit - 2 years, flowers - 1 year, bark - 5 years.
Chemical composition of bird cherry
The leaves, flowers, bark and seeds of the bird cherry contain glycosides: amygdalin, prulaaurazin, praiazin. Free prussic acid was also found - in the cortex 0.09%, in the leaves 0.05%. The highest content of amygdalin was found in the bark of the bird cherry - 2%, in seeds - 1.8%.
In the leaves accumulates up to 0.28% ascorbic acid, essential oil.
Fragrant odor due to the presence of glycoside prunazina. Cherry fruits contain malic and citric acids, sugars, astringents and ascorbic acid, flavonoids.
Bird cherry cleans the air, because its fruits, flowers, bark, buds and especially the leaves contain benzoic aldehyde, which determines their phytoncidal properties (killing or inhibitory effect on bacteria).
Pharmacological properties of the bird cherry
Mature black cherry fruits have a fixing, astringent bactericidal, vitamin, tonic, anti-inflammatory actions, normalize the function of the intestine, stomach.
Bark of the bird cherry has diaphoretic, febrifugal, diuretic effects.
The leaves of the bird cherry have fixing, vitamin properties.
The flowers of the bird cherry are used as an anti-inflammatory, wound healing, phytoncide agent.
The use of bird cherry in medicine
Благодаря наличию дубильных веществ плоды черёмухи применяются в качестве вяжущего средства при поносах неинфекционной природы и других расстройствах функции желудка и кишечника, а также как вспомогательное средство при инфекционных колитах и поносах.
Лекарственные препараты черёмухи
• Отвар плодов черёмухи готовят следующим образом: 1 ст. l плодов черёмухи заваривают стаканом кипящей воды, кипятят 20 мин, процеживают. Взрослым назначают по 1/2 стакана 2-3 раза в день при поносах и гастритах. Пригорелые ягоды к применению не годятся.
• Decoction of the bird bark: boil 200 ml of boiling water 10 g of bark, boil on low heat for 10 minutes, infuse for 2 hours, then strain. As a diaphore take 1 tsp. 3-4 times a day before meals for fever, cold, cough, cystitis, rheumatism and gout.
• Decoction of bird-cherry leaves: brew 200 ml of boiling water 20 g of leaves, boil at a low heat for 5 minutes, strain. Drink 50 ml 3-4 times a day for diarrhea, gastritis, colitis, hypovitaminosis, for pulmonary tuberculosis, bronchitis, as an antitussive.
• Infusion of the fruits of the bird cherry: brew 500 ml of boiling water 20 g of fruit, leave for 12 hours w thermos. Drink 100 ml 3 times a day with diarrhea, gastritis, colitis.
• Infusion of bird-cherries: brew 200 ml of boiling water with 10 g of flowers, leave for 10 minutes, drain. Wash wounds, ulcers, eyes with inflammation of the mucous membrane, use as lotions.
• The leaves of the bird cherry apply to bruises, abscesses. Used for rinsing the mouth with rotting teeth, furunculosis
• Bird cherry is part of the gastric fees.
• The energy of the bird cherry acts less than that of other trees. Most of all, its influence is felt in spring, during flowering.
Preparations of the bird cherry are taken under the supervision of a physician, in compliance with the reception of the indicated doses and terms of treatment.
Preparations of the bird cherry are contraindicated in pregnancy.
Internal use of the bird cherry as a poisonous plant requires caution.
Bouquets with flowers of the bird cherry flies away, but do not put the bird cherry in his room - his head will hurt.
Use of bird cherry on the farm
Blackberry fruits are used in nutrition. They are consumed fresh, dried, powdered. It is possible to make fillings for blackberry fruits, make jams, kissels, kvasses, etc.
Bird Kvass. Rinse fresh black cherry fruits with cold water, put them in an enamel pan, cover them with sugar, cover with a napkin and keep at room temperature for 12 hours. Then mix everything, pour warm water, add yeast, sugar and leave for 12 hours to ferment. Strain, pour into a three-liter glass jar, leave for 2 days in a room, then store in a cold place.
To make kvass, you need: 600 g of bird cherry fruit, 3 liters of water, 300 g of sugar, 10 g of yeast.
Bird Jam. Fill the fruits with sugar for 12 hours. Then drain the juice, cook on low heat for 20-30 minutes, put the fruit into it and cook until done. Before the end of cooking, you can add citric acid. To make jam you need: 1 kg of bird cherry fruit, 1-1.2 kg of sugar, citric acid to taste.
From dried bird cherries you can grind flour: grind the stonewort in a mortar or grind in a hand mill. You can make flour jelly. To do this, 0.5 cups of flour brew 0.5 liters of boiling water and mix thoroughly. Pour this mass into the pan with 1 liter of boiling water, add 2 tbsp. l honey and 1 tbsp. l (with a slide) of starch diluted in a little water. Kissel bring to a boil and remove from heat.
From cherry flour can also be brewed coffee. To obtain it, grind the flour with sugar, pour hot water and bring to a boil.
Gruel of pounded leaves of the bird cherry kills bacteria and mold spores, 4 pounded buds of bird cherry kill the most resistant mites in 15 minutes, crushed buds of bird cherry, placed in a vessel with a rat, kill it in 20 minutes.
For commercial purposes, the bark of the bird cherry is colored green and reddish brown.
Bird cherry wood is yellowish-brown, softish, elastic, well polished, used for carpentry work.
Choosing a place
For its landing you need to select sufficiently lit placeSince such a plant, planted in the shade, will reach for the light, and the flowers and fruits will grow mainly on its top, which makes it very difficult to gather.
Culture prefers moist rich neutral or slightly acidic soil. The ideal soil for this crop is loamy, but the plant can be grown on sandy or clayey soil.
To ensure cross-pollination at the site should be planted several trees or bushes of bird cherry. You can use different varieties by choosing such that bloom at the same time. Between trees should be left at least 5 m.
For planting bird cherrywhich is best done in spring or autumn, it is necessary to prepare a hole, determining its size by the volume of the root system. At the bottom of the hole you can put dry leaves, humus or peat.
The root system of the seedling must be inspected before planting, remove damaged and shorten too long roots. You also need to put in order and the above-ground part of the seedling: leave no more than three strong shoots, trim the rest.
The prepared seedling should be placed in a hole, filled with void soil, watered abundantly. After this, the root circle can be mulched with sawdust or peat.
In the first month after landing bird cherry need to be watered often, preventing the drying of the soil. In the first year (after the plant grows stronger), watering is carried out only once a month, and an adult tree is watered only during long droughts. After watering, the radical circle should be loosened and weeds removed.
Every year should be pruned plants, removing damaged and dry shoots, as well as forming a crown. Conducting pruning bird cherry regularly, you can adjust its height, not allowing it to grow too high (more than 4 m). In addition, forming a crown, you can grow bird cherry and as a tree, and as a shrub at its discretion.
Fight against diseases and pests
Prunus, as a rule, easily tolerates such diseases as powdery mildew, gray mold, orange spot. The degree of infection is usually small and protective measures are impractical. Pest damage is more dangerous for plants:
- mining moth,
- herbivorous bugs,
- unpaired silkworm,
- ermine bird cherry moth.
To preserve the culture, it is necessary to conduct its processing twice a year: immediately after the leaves appear and after flowering. To carry out these procedures, you can use drugs that are on sale or make a solution yourself from the decoction of solanaceous plants and soap.
Cherry fruits Eat fresh and dried. They are made toppings for buns and pies, jams, kvasses, jellies, tinctures. In addition, cherry flour made from ground dried fruit is used for making tea, added to pastries and baked goods to give them almond flavor.
Bird cherry, as well as its hybrid varieties are perfect as ornamental plants, which each year will be pleased with abundant flowering. The ability to form the crown of the bird cherry, growing it both as a tree and as a shrub allows you to use the culture not only in single plantings, but also in group. And its fruits with useful properties will easily find their application.